Towards Zero Waste

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First found Jul 4, 2016

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Biological
Processing
of
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Organic discards
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Shibu K. Nair
Programme Director (Zero Waste)
Thanal
India
1
Zero
Waste
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‘Zero waste is a logical
Secondplanning
level approach
principles of
ThirdIncorporating
level
effective human and material
Fourth
level
resource
utilization to avoid the
Fifthconversion
level of discards into
waste – an inefficient form – in
a manner that revitalizes the
local economy.’
2
of Zero
Waste
Click to Components
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Second
 Cleanlevel
Production
 Extended
Third
level Producer Responsibility
 Resource Recovery
Fourth
level
 Building Capacity
 Building
Fifth
level Relations
 Participation
 Policy
3
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Ethics
Zero
Waste
Fifth level
Policies
4
Why Zero
Waste?
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•Ensure
conservation
and social justice
•Ensure
increased efficiency and
Second
level
Economic
Third
level opportunities for Growth
•Combat Climate Change –
Fourth
level
Zero
Waste for Zero Warming
Fifth level
5
Understanding
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style
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Discards
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Solid
Liquid
Fifth level
Bio
degradable
Non
Biodegradable
Gray Water
Black water
6
Understanding
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style
Biodegradable
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Second level
Plant Debris
Grass level
cuttings
Third
Leaves
Fourth
levelwith
Parts
of plants
High silica
Putrescibles
Vegetable
Food
Putrescibles
Raw Meat, Fish
Cooked Meat, Fish,
Dead animals
Wormi
Composting
Aerobic
Composting
Biogas
Fifth level
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Bio Degradable
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Second level
Third level
On site
Offsite
Fourth level
Fifth level
Aerobic Digestion
Composting
Vermi composting
Anaerobic Digestion
Biogas Plants
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Composting
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Phase - 1
Phase - 2
Mesophilic
Thermophilic
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Bacteria
Second level
Decomposes simple
elements
in level
bio
Third
degradable discards
Fourth level
Fifth level
Temp: 20 ~ 30
Decomposes complex
elements (Proteins,
Fats, Carbo Hydrates –
Cellulose, Hemi
cellulose)
Phase - 3
Mesophilic Bacteria
Decomposes the rest
of the materials
Cools down the
compost
Kills germs
Temp: 50 ~ 60
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What title
We style
can Do?
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• Material
policy
Second
level
• Source
Segregation and Disposal
• Resource
Third
level Recovery and exchange
• Participation
Fourth level
Fifth level
• Segregation at Source
• Proximity Principle – Bio degradable
• Green, Green, Green
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
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Vermi Composting
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Phase - 1
Phase - 2
Mesophilic
Worms
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text
Second level
Decomposes simple
elements
in level
bio
Third
degradable discards
Fourth
level
Primary
fermentation
Temp: 20 ~ 30
Fifth level
styles
Eats semi decomposed
materials. Digestion
happens inside the
worms
Phase - 3
Vermi Cast
Excreta of worms will
come out tea dust.
Eisenia foetida
Red wigglers
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Care to be taken in Composting and Vermi Composting
Nature of
Waste
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Any bio to
degradable
can be composted.
good to avoid
wood, coconut shells. Use saw dust, rice husk to maintain carbon –
nitrogen ratio and to help aeration
particles
and speed
of composting inversely related.
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Size of waste
particles
smaller the particle size, faster the composting. Limit the maximum size
to 5 cm.
Second level
Humidity
High humidity will lead to stinking and low humidity will stop
composting. Maintain 40% -55% humidity
Third level
Aeration
To avoid stinking of compost ensure good aeration. use dry leaves, saw
dust, rice husk etc to breath more air into compost to speed up the
composting.
Fourth level
Fifth level
To avail the micro organisms which will boos the composting process,
Micro
organisms
sprinkle the compost with fresh cow dung diluted in water. Alternately
spoiled curd, curries etc can be used.
Temperature
Vermi compost needs temperature between 20 – 30. Windrow
composting may have temperature up to 60
Consistency
Be consistent in terms of frequency and quantity of discards fed to a
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composting facility. never do shock loading
Care to be taken in Composting and Vermi Composting
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Maintenance
Take out compost at regular intervals. Prevent scavenging animals,
birds, ants entering the compost facility
Second level
Leachate
There will be leachates coming out of the compost. They are rich in
micro organisms which can be utilized in farming. It should be
collected for using or it should be treated using a soak pit.
Third level
Fourth
Chemicals level
Toxic chemicals, salt, oil etc in large quantity etc should not enter
the compost. It may kill micro organisms and will lead to stinking of
compost
Fifth level
Mosquito
control
Water logging near composting may lead to breeding of mosquitoes.
Avoid such circumstances and spray lemon grass oil / neem oil
diluted in water around the composting facility.
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What
is AD?
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Anaerobic
is a process
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styles in which microorganisms
break down biodegradable material in the absence of
Second
level
oxygen.
Third
level digestion is a renewable energy source
Anaerobic
because the process produces methane and carbon
Fourth
level
dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production. Also,
nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used
Fifththe
level
as fertiliser.
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Anaerobic Digestion Process
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Carbo
hydrates
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Second level
Carbonic
Acid
Hydrogen
Third level
Fats
Fatty
Acids
Alocohol
Acetic acid
Fourth level
Fifth level
Proteins
Amino
Acids
Hydrolysis
Methane
Hydrogen
Carbon
di oxide
Carbon di oxide
Carbon
dioxide
Ammonia
Acidogenesis
Acetogenesis
Methanogenesis
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Anaerobic
Digestion
Process
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Compostion of Biogas
Gas
Fifth level
%
Methane
50-75
Carbon di oxide
25-50
Nitrogen
0-10
Hydrogen
0-1
Hydrogen
Sulphide
0-3
Oxygen
0-2
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Calorific Value
5735 K Cal / m3
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Liquid
Waste Management
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Gray Water
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Onsite
Offsite
Sedimentation
Filtration
Biological Treatment
Soak pit
Sedimentation
Filtration
Transportation
Biological Treatment
Artificial Wetland system
Fifth level
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Liquid Waste Management
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Black Water
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Onsite
Offsite
Fifth level
Septic Tanks
Sedimentation
Filtration
Biological Treatment
Soak pit
Septic Tanks
Transportation
Sedimentation / Filtration
Biological Treatment
Artificial Wetland system
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Soak Pit
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•Click
A Soak
knowntext
as astyles
soakaway or leach pit, is a
to Pit,
editalso
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covered, porous-walled chamber that allows water to
Second
level
slowly soak
into the ground. Pre-settled effluent from a
Collection and Storage/Treatment or (Semi-) Centralized
Third
level
Treatment technology is discharged to the underground
chamber
from where it infiltrates into the surrounding soil.
Fourth
level
Fifth level
1meter X 1meter X 1meter pit.
Bottom – filled with large rock pieces
Middle – filled with gravel and small rocks
Top – filled with fine sand
Water inlet should have minimum filter to
avoid solids going into the pit.
22
Build
Zero Waste
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
www.thanal.co.in
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Zero waste provides for infinite and creative ideas rooted
on ecology. Exploring them challenge creativity and
when creativity emerges, waste disappear to zero.
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From mere resource management to life style, culture,
building level
relationships and linking everyone to this earth
Second
and its life supporting systems.
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
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Thank you
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Second level
Third level
Thanal
H-3 Jawahar Nagar, Kawdiar P.O. Thiruvananthapuram
Fourth level
Kerala, India 695 003
Fifth level
Tel – +91 471-27 27 150 / +91 98 951 820 67
E-mail – [email protected]
www.thanal.co.in
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