Emerson Wireless Security - WirelessHART and Wi

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 2.9 MB
First found Nov 13, 2015

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Emerson Wireless Security
WirelessHART® and Wi-FiTM Security
Wireless security is critical to the successful deployment of both field instrument networks and
plant application solutions. This paper demonstrates Emerson’s capabilities to deploy secure,
reliable and robust wireless solutions for both field instrumentation and plant applications.
Emerson Process Management
November 2014
Revision D
© 2011-2014 Emerson Process Management All rights reserved.
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
Emerson’s Smart Wireless ......................................................................................................... 1
WirelessHART ........................................................................................................................... 2
Wireless Plant Network Overall Topology .................................................................................. 3
Purdue (ISA 95) Model ........................................................................................................... 3
Field Instrumentation Integration ................................................................................................ 5
Wireless Plant Network .......................................................................................................... 9
Plant Operation Applications ...................................................................................................... 9
Wireless Field Data Backhaul ............................................................................................. 9
Mobile Workforce ............................................................................................................... 9
Remote Video Monitoring ..................................................................................................10
Safety Mustering / Location Tracking.................................................................................11
Wireless Control Network Bridge .......................................................................................11
Wireless Plant Network Security ...............................................................................................11
Possible attack vectors..........................................................................................................11
Wireless Defense in Depth ....................................................................................................13
Control Access to the Network ..........................................................................................13
Protect the Network ...........................................................................................................13
Ensure Client Integrity .......................................................................................................14
Wireless Intrusion Prevention System ...............................................................................15
WirelessHART Field Instrument Network Security Features......................................................15
DeltaV Wireless I/O Card ..................................................................................................17
Requirements for wireless security............................................................................................18
Smart Wireless Field Instruments ..........................................................................................18
General .............................................................................................................................18
Jamming ...........................................................................................................................18
Eavesdropping ..................................................................................................................19
Detection ...........................................................................................................................19
Replay (or Delay) Attacks ..................................................................................................19
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page i
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Man in the middle (backdoor) ............................................................................................19
Smart Wireless Network Management ..............................................................................20
Join Key Management .......................................................................................................20
No Frequency Planning Required......................................................................................20
Unauthorized Access Prevention .......................................................................................20
Role-based Security ..........................................................................................................21
Mobile Workforce and Wi-Fi / WLAN 802.11 .........................................................................22
General .............................................................................................................................22
Jamming ...........................................................................................................................22
Rogue Access Points ........................................................................................................23
Site Assessment ...............................................................................................................23
Detection ...........................................................................................................................24
Eavesdropping ..................................................................................................................24
Wireless Network Isolation ................................................................................................24
Manageability / Maintainability ...........................................................................................24
Training .............................................................................................................................24
Support .............................................................................................................................25
Unauthorized Access Prevention .......................................................................................25
Wireless is an Engineered Solution ...................................................................................26
Site Assessment and application consultation ...................................................................26
System architecture and network design and planning ......................................................26
Physical network installation management and system commissioning .............................26
Application Implementation ...............................................................................................26
WIRELESS BRIDGING LINKS ..............................................................................................27
General .............................................................................................................................27
Jamming ...........................................................................................................................27
Detection ...........................................................................................................................27
Eavesdropping ....................................................................................................... 27
APPROVALS ............................................................................................................. 27
Network Architecture .............................................................................................................29
A)
Smart Wireless Gateway .........................................................................................29
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page ii
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
B)
Wireless I/O Card ....................................................................................................29
C)
Wireless DMZ ..........................................................................................................30
D)
Distribution Layer Switch .........................................................................................30
E)
Wireless LAN Controller ..........................................................................................30
F)
Prime Infrastructure .................................................................................................30
G)
Prime Infrastructure with wireless Intrusion Prevention System (wIPS) ...................30
H)
Mobility Services Engine (MSE) ..............................................................................31
I)
DeltaV Firewall ........................................................................................................31
J)
Smart Wireless Gateway OPC Server .....................................................................31
K)
DeltaV OPC Server .................................................................................................31
L)
Mesh Access Point ..................................................................................................31
M)
Video Cameras........................................................................................................31
N)
Video Server ...........................................................................................................32
O)
Video Client .............................................................................................................32
P)
RFID Wi-Fi Asset Tag..............................................................................................32
Q)
Location Server .......................................................................................................32
R)
Location Client.........................................................................................................32
S)
Redundant Bridged Access Points ..........................................................................32
T)
Handheld Devices ...................................................................................................33
U)
Remote Access Service (RAS) ................................................................................33
V)
Terminal Server .......................................................................................................33
W)
RADIUS Server .......................................................................................................33
X)
Enterprise Domain Controller (AAA) ........................................................................33
Y)
Transparent Firewall ................................................................................................33
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................34
Date
November 2010
December 2010
January 2011
November 2011
April 2012
November 2014
Rev
A
B
C.2.1
C.2.2
C.2.3
D
Author
Neil Peterson
Neil Peterson
Neil Peterson
Neil Peterson
Neil Peterson
Alexandre Peixoto
Description
Initial Release
Early Feedback Incorporated
Minor Edits
Minor Edits
Minor Edits
New product release
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page iii
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Introduction
This purpose of this paper is to fully describe Emerson’s Wireless Security Defense in
Depth strategy for both IEC 62591 (WirelessHART®) and Wi-FiTM networks. It describes
Emerson’s Smart Wireless program, the WirelessHART standard, the overall Wireless
Plant Network topology and application solutions including how it securely and
seamlessly integrates Emerson’s Smart Wireless Field Instruments.
The security features for both the WirelessHART field instruments and Wireless Plant
Network solutions are described in full.
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
Emerson began the development of new wireless field instrumentation solutions several
years ago – in partnership with other process industry vendors and customers – which
resulted in the release of the WirelessHART (HART 7) standard and ultimately the
production of a variety of Smart Wireless field instrumentation that fully complied with
the WirelessHART standard.
WirelessHART is encapsulated in the HART 7 standard, so all WirelessHART devices
share the same characteristics and features of wired HART devices – millions of which
are installed throughout the world today. For you, it means that all the software, tools,
and skills that your workforce has today can be used in the commissioning, maintaining,
and integration with today’s process host systems. The devices do not require any type
of Radio Frequency (RF) site survey, and are designed to be easily installed by
following a few short best practices.
The WirelessHART standard is a single purpose standard. It was designed for devices
to take process measurements, communicate those measurements through a mesh
network, and easily integrate the measurement data with your existing process host
system. The key to the design of the devices and the standard was to limit the power
consumed by the devices such that they could be battery powered for 4 to 10 years.
To complement the wireless field instrument solutions, Emerson began offering plant
operation solutions that utilized Wi-Fi technology for applications such as: Mobile
Workforce, Mobile Voice and Video, Remote Video Monitoring, Location Tracking,
Safety Mustering, Field Data Backhaul, and Control Network Bridging. These “Wireless
Plant Network” (WPN) solutions are all based on the IEEE 802.11-2007 family of
standards “Wi-Fi” – which are driven by the IT community.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 1
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
This is an important distinction between these two types of field and plant solutions:
WirelessHART was created by the process industry for field instruments; and Wi-Fi was
created by the IT community to support a wide range of applications and solutions. Both
standards are broadly adopted with proven solutions installed at customer sites
throughout the world.
WirelessHART
WirelessHART is a wireless mesh network communications protocol for process
automation applications. It adds wireless capabilities to the HART protocol while
maintaining compatibility with existing HART devices, commands and tools.
Each WirelessHART network includes three main elements:
•
•
•
Wireless field devices connected to process or plant equipment.
Gateways that enable communication between these devices and host
applications connected to a high-speed backbone or other existing plant
communications network.
A network manager responsible for configuring the network, scheduling
communications between devices, managing message routes and monitoring
network health. The network manager can be integrated into the gateway, host
application or process automation controller.
The network uses the IEEE 802.15.4 radio operating at 2.4 GHz. The radios employ
direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technology and channel hopping for
communication security and reliability, as well as time division multiple access (TDMA)
to ensure latency-controlled communications between devices on the network.
Each device in the mesh network can serve as a router for messages from other
devices. This extends the range of the network and provides redundant communication
routes to increase reliability to 99.9%.
Like wired HART, WirelessHART supports the full range of process monitoring and
control applications, including:
•
•
•
•
Equipment and process monitoring
Environmental monitoring, energy management, regulatory compliance
Asset management, predictive maintenance, advanced diagnostics
Closed loop control (when appropriate)
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 2
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Wireless technology will complement rather than replace wired instrumentation, and
plants will often have both operating side by side. Virtually every process automation
requirement is supported by one or more of the wired HART products available today.
WirelessHART simply adds another way to communicate with HART devices.1
Wireless Plant Network Overall Topology
Purdue (ISA 95) Model
While the WirelessHART field instruments are only found at level 0, the wireless plant
network must accommodate every other level of the Purdue (ISA95) network model.
See accompanying network diagrams. It would be cost prohibitive to install a separate
wireless network for each network level, so each wireless network level is virtualized
within the shared wireless hardware. Each secure virtual network is fully isolated in
software from the other networks on the common wireless hardware.
Additionally, the wireless plant network supports “Differentiated Services” to establish a
bandwidth allotment and priority for each of the virtual networks that must share the
bandwidth. This allows the field instrument data (which actually requires very little
bandwidth) to be communicated within the WPN at the highest priority.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 3
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Figure 1: Wireless Plant Network Architecture
Each of the wireless network devices: PDAs, laptops, RFID tags, or field instrument
wireless gateways, has its traffic routed from the device to one of plant network Mesh
Access Points. From there the communication travels back through the mesh network
until it reaches the Root Access Point. The communication passes directly to the
Managed Switch where the virtual LANs are split in the different physical LANs. The
communication is finally routed through a Firewall at each network level that serves as
“belt and suspenders” to ensure only traffic meant for each network level is routed
through. Finally, the communication is routed to the appropriate final network device.
In the case of the wireless instruments, the data is communicated to the Smart Wireless
Gateway, and then routed as described above to a DeltaV controller (version 10.3 or
later), a Modbus TCP/IP device, an OPC Server, or AMS Suite.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 4
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Video device communications are routed to the Digital Video Recording Server – which
can be located at Network Levels 3 or 4. The video camera devices are typically hardwired into the Mesh Access Points. The video cameras have Authentication certificates
installed on them to ensure only authorized cameras are installed on the network.
Mobile devices can communicate to any (Purdue model) network level (e.g. 2 through
4), but to only one SSID assigned subnet at a time (in order to prevent cross-over
communications). The user of the network device signs on (authenticates) to the SSID
where the handheld application will be communicating. There are different legitimate
ways of authenticating the user and granting them access to a specific wireless virtual
LAN – typically this is done through a RADIUS server which both authenticates and
authorizes the user through Active Directory. The user signs on to the Operating
System of the device, and using those same credentials requests access to the
particular SSID to exchange information with applications residing on the wired network.
Example Level 3 server applications which the client device would be communicating
with would be:
• Terminal Servers – for remote desktop applications
• DeltaV Remote Access Servers – for devices with DeltaV installed
• Historians
• OPC Servers
• AMS Suite
At Level 4 examples of those server applications would be:
• ERP
• Oil Movements & Blending applications
• Terminal Management Systems
• Other custom or proprietary applications
Field Instrumentation Integration
The Emerson wireless field instrumentation components integrate with the host control
system through the Smart Wireless Gateway in one of six ways:
• Native DeltaV node as of version 10.3
• OPC Server connection
• Modbus TCP/IP connection
• AMS HART TCP/IP
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 5
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
•
•
•
HART Port
Ethernet/IP connection
Modbus Serial connection
The first six Ethernet methods can all be extended through the WPN seamlessly
provided the host system supports the corresponding protocol. Modbus Serial is
supported by nearly all legacy control systems, but typically requires a wired
connection.
Smart Wireless Field Network Integration
The wireless field network consists of several WirelessHART devices communicating in
a self-organizing mesh network to a Smart Wireless Gateway. For host systems that do
not support WirelessHART native integration, there are three different methods to
directly connect to the Smart Wireless Gateway: Modbus Serial, Modbus TCP/IP,
Ethernet/IP and OPC DA. These methods offer plenty of flexibility to implement a Smart
Wireless Field Network solution depending on the process needs.
Figure 2: Example of connecting via multi-drop with a Modbus Serial card
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 6
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
The example pictured above shows one of three ways to wire a Smart Wireless
Gateway to a Control System and integrate the device data.
For many installations, it may not be convenient to pull a wire to the gateway if it is
located far from the main process. In that case, the gateway can be connected back to
central control room via a wireless plant network, or the Smart Wireless Gateway
1552WU can be used which acts as a Mesh Access Point for the Wi-Fi network and
WirelessHART Gateway hence providing a more straightforward and economical
manner to deploy pervasive sensing.
For all host systems that support Modbus TCP/IP or OPC, there are two supported
methods to integrate the Smart Wireless Field Network through the Smart Wireless
Plant Network as shown in the figures 3 and 4 below.
Figure 3: Wireless integration of the Smart Wireless Field Network via OPC DA
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 7
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Figure 4: Wireless integration of the Smart Wireless Field Network through a Modbus TCP/IP interface
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 8
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Wireless Plant Network
All of Emerson Wireless Plant Network application solutions are delivered as turnkey
solutions and include a number of services detailed in the previous section as part of
the response and include:
• Site Assessment and Consultancy
• Network System Design
• System Deployment
• Training
• After Project Support
Emerson’s Wireless Plant Network is built with the following Cisco® network
components (see figure 9):
• 1550 Series Access Points
• Wireless LAN (WLAN) controllers
• Prime Infrastructure (optional)
• Mobility Services Engine (MSE) with wireless Intrusion Prevention System
(wIPS) (optional)
• Managed Switch
• Firewalls
Plant Operation Applications
Wireless Field Data Backhaul
For those Wireless Field Networks (e.g. tank farm) that are located far away from the
central control room, the Wireless Plant Network provides a reliable, scalable and costeffective wireless mesh backhaul for the wireless field data to communicate with any
host control system. The field data can be prioritized using the mesh network’s Class of
Service features to ensure minimal latency. With the Wireless Plant Network, the
remote wireless instrument data can be integrated into process control systems
economically and quickly.
Mobile Workforce
Mobile Workforce applications allow field operators and maintenance workers to do a
better job by having the information they need available to them where and when they
need it.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 9
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Applications for handhelds are generally designed to work one of two ways:
•
As a web-enabled client-server application where the main application is running
on a server in your wired network and the user connects to it via browser on the
handheld. This may be a web-based application that you already have in place.
•
A terminal server is installed on the network and the client connects via remote
desktop to an individual Windows session that hosts all the software applications
the mobile worker needs access to, as in the case of a DeltaV distributed control
system.
With the implementation of a wireless plant network, the mobile worker can roam
through the plant, but use the Wi-Fi network to stay connected to the process.
Typical examples of connection might be:
•
The DeltaV Remote Client, which allows a person to have access to all the
capabilities of the DeltaV process automation system on a PDA or laptop. This
would give the mobile operator or maintenance person visibility to the alarms and
alerts and the ability to monitor the process while they are making their rounds.
•
AMS Suite Remote Client provides the mobile user all of the capability of the
AMS Suite package, including diagnostics and Audit Trail, which could be very
helpful for troubleshooting a device.
Additionally, with a wireless network connection, the mobile user could access a
Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) package or tap into plant
drawings or documentation, which could translate into a better, faster, and safer fix
compared to doing the work without this information being immediately available.
The Mobile Workforce has an increasing number of client devices to choose from, with
a wide variety of form factors and capabilities. Project-specific requirements would
determine which handheld device fits the application being implemented.
Remote Video Monitoring
Video surveillance is becoming an indispensable part of process plant safety, security,
and operations. Using wireless technology, mission-critical video feeds can now be
delivered to the control room, office buildings and other areas in the plant in a highly
flexible way that is not possible with a wired solution. Emerson’s Smart Wireless
Solution for Wireless Video provides a cost-effective and fast approach for process
plant security surveillance and operation monitoring. The solution uses high data
throughput Mesh Wi-Fi technology to transfer video data.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 10
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Safety Mustering / Location Tracking
Wireless technology can track people and assets within a plant which can have many
benefits including heightened safety – knowing quickly and accurately who is and isn’t
accounted for in an emergency. It also provides better visibility of your human and
capital resources, so that you can use your people and equipment more efficiently or be
more responsive when needed. It can also be used to address security issues
influenced by the movement of people and assets.
Harsh environments such as refineries and petro-chemical plants require technology
that can protect personnel. Providing full visibility to people's locations in case of an
emergency is extremely crucial to a safe evacuation or any required rapid reaction to an
urgent situation. For example, when the eyewash station is turned on, there is a need to
know who is using the eyewash station and who is nearby that can provide help.
Wireless Control Network Bridge
In some situations, a DeltaV distributed control system needs to be managed remotely;
for example, when a highway or water channel separates the control room from the
controller, or when an I/O unit needs to be installed in a tank farm or remote site.
Installing fiber-optic cable is expensive. Instead, DeltaV units can be connected using
wireless technology securely and cost effectively.
As part of Emerson’s Smart Wireless offering, Emerson supports DeltaV distributed
control systems that have wireless bridges on the area control network. Emerson will
work with you to design, install, and perform a FAT/SAT on a wireless control network
bridge through an Emerson service contract.
Wireless Plant Network Security
Possible attack vectors
With no physical barrier surrounding a Wireless Plant Network’s transmissions over the
air; it becomes absolutely necessary to have a wireless Defense in Depth strategy to
protect the network against unauthorized access. The following are brief descriptions of
some the possible attack vectors.
Rogue Access Points: an unsanctioned Access Point that is connected to the wired
network and offers up local wireless service to (un)sanctioned clients. These Access
Points (APs) can be ‘open’ or have security employed (to both limit the (un)sanctioned
users allowed to connect and help stay off administrators’ radars). Rogue APs may offer
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 11
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
service to either sanctioned or unsanctioned clients. The rogue AP may be maliciously
attached to the network or a rogue AP may be attached by a legitimate employee trying
to improve wireless coverage around their cubicle. In this later case, wireless
connectivity may be allowed at the facility, but an employee attached a potentially
unsecure AP to the network in an attempt to provide "better" wireless signal coverage
around his or her cubicle. In the latter case as well, sanctioned clients could connect to
the employee installed rogue AP.
Ad-hoc Wireless Bridges: a subset of the 802.11 protocol allows peer-to-peer
connectivity, called ad-hoc networking. The main threat these networks pose is the
possibility that machines connected to the wired network may be configured to also
participate in such an ad-hoc connection, and the link between the two networks could
then be bridged, thereby allowing unsanctioned wireless access to the wired network
resources.
Man in the middle (Evil Twin, Honeypot AP, etc.) Attacks: there are many types of
these attacks, but all are based in the same exploit. An intruder inserts himself in
between a legitimate client and the resources that client is attempting to access. This
can be done between the client and the legitimate infrastructure, or by getting the client
to connect to a rogue access point imitating the legitimate network. The specific exploit
used will change over time as new protocol weaknesses are discovered and left
unpatched.
Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks: there are several ways for interlopers to prevent
legitimate clients from accessing the wireless network by sending failure messages or
fake requests that cause the AP’s resources to be consumed by the bad
communications and not have sufficient bandwidth to serve a legitimate client that
wants to connect and communicate.
Jamming (also considered DoS): it is possible to cause radio interference on
frequencies within the wireless spectrum by aiming a wireless transmitter at a particular
area and disrupting communications with “noise.”
Reconnaissance and Cracking: many active and passive reconnaissance tools exist
to give both administrators and attackers information on network configuration and
topology. “Cracking” tools take that a step further and can decipher wireless traffic,
either on-the-fly or offline.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 12
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Wireless Defense in Depth
There are three key areas to a Wireless Defense in Depth model:
1. Control access to the wireless network
2. Protect the wireless network infrastructure
3. Ensure the client integrity.
Most wireless network solutions only take the first step of controlling access to the
network which is not sufficient to prevent a breach in the network. Even with all the tools
Emerson provides, internal security policy enforcement and periodic log auditing are
required to monitor for attackers attempting to breach the network.
Control Access to the Network
Controlling access to the network requires every user or device to authenticate with a
centralized network domain authority. Emerson’s solution utilizes an Authentication,
Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) server with the RADIUS authentication protocol to
coordinate access to the wireless network resources with the existing IT security
infrastructure. This allows for centralized control of user’s access to the wireless
network and can control the user’s authorization to access resources on the wired
networks. Emerson’s solution uses enterprise WPA2 with Extensible Authentication
Protocols to authenticate users.
Device certificates can be installed on all approved mobile devices and access to the
Wi-Fi network can be restricted to only devices with an approved certificates.
All wireless communications between the client device and the wireless network are
encrypted utilizing AES 128-bit encryption preventing unauthorized eavesdropping or
data manipulation of any of the communications.
The system monitors and logs network activity (authorized or illegitimate) allowing
administrators to follow-up on any attempts to breach the network or attempt to access
resources without prior authorization.
Protect the Network
Each of the Mesh APs on the wireless network is installed with a digital certificate that
authenticates it to the wireless controller and allows it to participate in the secure
network. This prevents “rogue” or unauthorized access points from mimicking genuine
access points.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 13
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
All communications (where allowed by law) within the wireless network are encrypted
utilizing AES 128-bit encryption preventing eavesdropping or packet manipulation.
Rogue APs are unable to insert themselves in the middle of the wireless infrastructure
or otherwise compromise the network. Emerson also recommends all wireless networks
that will have wireless user access to be deployed with a Wireless Intrusion Prevention
System – described below.
Ensure Client Integrity
Even the most secure wired or wireless network can fall victim to a virus or worm from
an infected device that connects to it. Emerson wireless solutions include antivirus
software installed on wireless client devices to prevent any primary infection of the
device. Good security practices should be in force that keep anti-virus software up to
date – along with OS security patches. Emerson also strongly recommends that any
device (wired or wireless) that participates in a control solution not have access to email or the Internet as those are the largest sources of infection.
Figure 5: Table of plant wireless attacks vs. mitigating defenses
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 14
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Wireless Intrusion Prevention System
Lastly, Emerson can deploy a Wireless Intrusion Prevention System that monitors the
communications on the wireless plant network. Communications on the network are
scanned for unusual patterns and can alert an administrator if suspicious activity is
detected. Additionally, the Access Points scan the airwaves for rogue clients and
Access Points and alerts an administrator if any are found. The wIPS can also be
configured to actively attack any rogue access points found within wireless range in
order to prevent users from accidentally connecting to one. For jamming, counter
measures exist to triangulate the source location in order to shut down the jamming
signal and minimize downtime. A Wireless Intrusion Prevention System continually
monitors the RF airwaves and communication traffic and will identify and protect the
network against the attacks shown in figure 5 above.
WirelessHART Field Instrument Network Security Features
Cyber-security measures built into version 4 and later of Emerson’s Smart Wireless
Gateway have been certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
to meet the requirements of Federal Information Processing Standard 197 (FIPS197), and by Wurldtech for Achilles Level 1 Certification -- giving customers even
greater confidence that their wireless networks are safe and secure.
The WirelessHART field network inherent security features for the Smart Wireless
Gateway, the DeltaV Wireless I/O card and Field Link, and devices from any vendor are
nearly identical. They include:
•
•
•
•
•
AES-128 encryption (NIST/IEEE compliant) for all communications within the
device mesh network and the gateway
Individual device session keys to ensure end-to-end message authenticity, data
integrity, receipt validation, and secrecy (non-eavesdropping by other devices in
the mesh network) through data encryption
Hop-by-hop CRC and MIC calculations to also ensure message authentication
and verification as to source and receiver of communications
Devices must have a “join key” pre-configured on the device. This can either be
a common join key per WFN, or optionally an individual join key per device.
“White listing” (ACL) – If individual join keys are used, devices are explicitly given
permission to join the network via the gateway/network manager via an ACL
entry which also includes their globally unique HART address. White listing is not
supported in the WIOC for DeltaV version 11.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 15
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
All of these security features combine to produce an extremely robust communications
system yet remains easy to use/manage. While the WirelessHART standard fully
encrypts field communication and ensures only authenticated devices can communicate
on the network, this is not entirely sufficient to secure the device network solution. It
also requires the connectivity from the field network gateway device to the host system
to be secured.
The connectivity from Emerson’s Smart Wireless Gateway to the host system is
secured by:
•
•
•
•
An internal firewall which is easily configured to permit only the protocols and
ports required for the field solution to be enabled for communication.
Ethernet-based protocols (Modbus, OPC, Ethernet/IP, AMS, HART Port, https)
all support SSL-protected communications.
The gateway’s internal bi-directional firewall is implemented with the default to
“reject all,” with user-defined protocols and ports opened utilizing a SetupSecurity-Protocols screen.
The firewall does not require active management.
Figure 6: Table of field wireless attacks vs. mitigating defenses
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 16
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
To protect against intruders attempting to break into the plant network via the Ethernet
connection between the Gateway and the plant – particularly when the gateway is not in
a secured location – a firewall can be installed on the plant side of the wire in a secure
location.
Figure 7: Transparent firewall installed between
Gateway and host system
Figure 8: DeltaV Firewall between the WIOC and
DeltaV system
DeltaV Wireless I/O Card
In addition to the Smart Wireless Gateway, Emerson also has a DeltaV redundant
Wireless I/O Card (WIOC) and Rosemount Field Link 781 for native integration to
version 11 and later DeltaV systems.
The connectivity from Emerson’s DeltaV WIOC to the DeltaV controller is secured by:
•
•
•
An external DeltaV firewall configured to only permit DeltaV protocols and ports
to be enabled for communication.
The WIOC itself rejects any communications that do not conform to the DeltaV
proprietary protocol.
The WIOC is configured and managed by the DeltaV application software.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 17
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Requirements for wireless security
The following section addresses well known security issues with the technology of the
day. While the issues still exist, the solutions to mitigate these security concerns
continue to evolve.
Smart Wireless Field Instruments
General
Since the Gateway for Emerson’s Smart Wireless field instrument network has an
Ethernet connection in the process area, many customers will want a separate firewall
to be installed where the Gateway connects to the process IP network. It is understood
that the reasoning for this is to prevent potential vulnerabilities between the Gateway
and the process control network. Emerson has addressed this requirement by designing
the Gateway as both a field instrument wireless access point and dedicated firewall in
order to eliminate the management and associated costs of an additional network
device.
The Gateway’s firewall is easy to configure, requires no active management afterwards,
and limits all communications to just those ports required for the chosen protocols by
which the process data is communicated and the Gateway’s configuration is managed.
In order to protect the plant or DCS network from intrusion, Emerson can supply a
separate firewall that limits communications and access to those ports required by the
Gateway and the DCS.
The following sections describe how the Smart Wireless network defends against the
various attack vectors.
Jamming
WirelessHART uses IEEE 802.15.4 radios (2.4 GHz) with channel hopping on top of the
standard Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum. This combination has proven highly
resistant to interference in numerous harsh real-world applications. The WirelessHART
network is a self-forming, self-healing mesh network which allows devices to route their
communications through other devices to the gateway along multiple routes –
increasing the reliability of the communications of the network to over 99.9%.
Emerson has performed numerous coexistence tests which show WirelessHART can
coexist with Wi-Fi without channel blacklisting, without either communication protocol
incurring significant degradation.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 18
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Eavesdropping
Each device has its own session key with the gateway that enables encrypted
communications between each device and the gateway that cannot be deciphered – not
even by other WirelessHART devices that are forwarding the message on behalf of the
originating device.
Detection
Even though devices within the WirelessHART network are transmitting at a much lower
power than 802.11 devices, detection of those communications is still possible. This is
why the WirelessHART security measures utilize many techniques such that all an
unauthorized user would be able to do is detect that some type of wireless
communications were occurring but would not be able to gain access, eavesdrop, or
otherwise disrupt the network.
Replay (or Delay) Attacks
The WirelessHART Gateway manages the security for the device network. After each
device joins the network, it receives the network key and an individual session key for
encrypting all communications between it and the Gateway. There is no need to change
the network or session keys because within each message is a Cryptographic nonce
(number used once) which will essentially never roll over. Use of a nonce combined with
a robust crypto algorithm and sufficient key length ensures that even repetitive
messages will result in unique encrypted message strings.
The Data Link layer nonce consists of the 8 octet source address plus the full 5 octet
ASN (time counter at 10ms increments). At one second sampling the ASN doesn’t roll
over for at least 300 years, i.e. the Data Link nonce will never be reused – thus
preventing replay attacks. Since the nonce includes time, delay attacks are also
thwarted. The Network Link layer nonce used for managing the WirelessHART network
is shared by all the devices. WirelessHART again uses the 8 octet source address plus
a 4 octet counter plus a 1 octet 0 pad. At one second sampling, the nonce will not roll
over for 136 years.
Man in the middle (backdoor)
Devices are protected against Man in the middle attacks by the Data Link layer nonce
and Message Integrity Code calculations which occur on a device hop-by-hop basis.
While the WirelessHART standard fully encrypts field communication and ensures only
authenticated devices can communicate on the network, this is not entirely sufficient to
secure the device network solution. It is also important to note that WirelessHART
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 19
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
intentionally does not implement “IP to the edge”, thus eliminating the risk of numerous
pre-existing attack malware being utilized against the WFN. However, to fully secure
communications end-to-end from the field device to the data consumer, the connectivity
from the field network gateway device to the host system must also be secured.
Smart Wireless Network Management
Securing the network requires a few best practices by the user, but the network does
most of the heavy lifting as described below.
Join Key Management
•
•
•
The Gateway Administrator can configure the Join Key to be a single key for all
devices in the network, or unique per device. A common Join Key is only visible
to the Administrator on the Gateway. Individual Join keys are invisible to
everyone, at all times. Only the Administrator can change the Join Key(s).
The Common (or each individual device) Join Key can be changed in the Smart
Wireless Gateway at any time. This change is securely propagated through the
WirelessHART mesh network – rendering the old Join Key(s) obsolete. When
using a 375 or 475 handheld to configure device Join Keys, this allows for a large
deployment of devices to be completed and afterwards change the Join Key –
protecting the network from a malicious or careless insider.
For tighter security that is easier to use, device technicians can use the AMS
Device Manager application and a HART modem to configure the WirelessHART
devices before they are installed and joined to the WirelessHART network. When
using the AMS Device Manager’s graphical interface, the Join Key is assigned to
the device without the user seeing the hexadecimal representation of the key.
No Frequency Planning Required
There is no frequency planning required for WirelessHART networks. By design, the
protocol utilizes every channel in the 2.4 GHz range by channel hopping during the
course of normal communications. A separate white paper is available from Emerson on
coexistence testing performed between WirelessHART and Wi-Fi devices. As long as
the Wi-Fi devices and WirelessHART instruments are kept one meter apart, there are
no coexistence issues with the network communications.
Unauthorized Access Prevention
The Gateway’s password strength is controlled locally. Factory accounts can no longer
be activated by a local administrator WITHOUT having a factory-supplied firmware
option key. This key is signed and is unique to a specific gateway. The administrator
can then revoke this option later.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 20
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
No location sensing is available at the instrument level at this time. The Gateway’s
internal functions are protected through role-based access control internally on the
gateway. Users must be assigned roles and provided the appropriate passwords based
on their required privileges to have access.
Good processes/procedures for password control for the gateway user interface are
expected and will prevent any tampering with the gateway settings.
Role-based Security
The Gateway has role-based security to enable four levels of access to the features the
end user can configure.
Role
Executive
Operator
Maintenance
User Name
exec
oper
maint
Administrator admin
Web interface access
Read-Only access
Read-Only access
Configure HART device settings
Configure Modbus communications
Configure Modbus register mapping
Configure OPC browse tree
Configure custom trends
Includes all Maintenance privileges
Configure Ethernet network settings
Configure WirelessHART network settings
Set passwords
Set time settings
Set home page options
Configure customer point pages
Restart applications
The DeltaV and AMS software has permission based security to determine the level of
access that a user can have to wireless devices and the WIOC.
Permission “Key” Control system access
Configure or
Commission a WIOC
Device Write
Assign a Wireless Device to a channel
Modify device settings
Operate
Read-Only access
Diagnostics
WIOC switchover to standby device
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 21
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Mobile Workforce and Wi-Fi / WLAN 802.11
General
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Solutions are delivered using Cisco’s Wi-Fi Mesh technology
– which is based on the 802.11-2007 family of standards.
The standardization of Wi-Fi use and commercial availability of equipment is regarded
by Emerson as having tremendous value – by allowing you to choose from a wide
variety of products and applications that easily communicate and integrate for new
applications and solutions.
The concerns raised in this section are correct with respect to the 802.11 standard as
being a security risk because the wireless signals transmitted can be received by any
commercially available 802.11 compliant device.
These risks can be overcome, but they require solutions based on these standards to
exercise multiple mitigating techniques in order to secure them from the many types of
security risks and attacks that are known to have occurred in the public domain.
At a minimum, by authenticating users before allowing them to access the wireless
network, most attackers can be kept off of the network. Additionally, Emerson’s
deployed solution encrypts all wireless data that is transmitted within the Wi-Fi mesh
network and between the Wi-Fi mesh network and all client devices, to prevent
unauthorized users from eavesdropping on any communications or from manipulating
any information transmitted wirelessly.
The following sections describe how the Wireless Plant network defends against the
various attack vectors.
Jamming
Emerson’s wireless plant network solutions are delivered as a controller-based Mesh
Access Point system rather than through a simple set of autonomous Access Points.
Autonomous APs are configured to communicate on a single channel and must be
manually changed by the user if it is discovered that interference is occurring nearby.
There are many advantages to Emerson’s controller-based solution:
1. Mesh APs within the system monitor the airwaves and the signals from the other
Mesh APs and dynamically adjust both their signal strength and the channel they
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 22
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
are communicating on in order minimize interference from both outside the mesh
network and within it.
2. While each Mesh AP is capable of transmitting on a different channel, the client
device is seamlessly handed off from one Mesh AP to another without the user
having to do anything with respect to channel management.
3. When combined with a wireless Intrusion Prevention System, the mesh network
will simultaneously monitor the airwaves for signals that are attempting to jam the
mesh, alert the administrator of the issue, and triangulate on the source of the
jamming signal.
Rogue Access Points
Rogue Access Points (or laptops) are prevented from joining the mesh network
infrastructure though device authentication. Each mesh AP has a unique signed X.509
digital certificate. This digital certificate authenticates the AP to the entire mesh network.
Access Points attempting to join the network or mimic the network are flagged by the
Intrusion Prevention System.
One or more additional Wi-Fi APs are installed within the plant that listen on the
frequencies utilized by the plant. Anomalous communications are flagged for attention
by the wIPS on the Prime Infrastructure.
Site Assessment
As part of Emerson’s Smart Wireless services for Plant Wi-Fi applications, a site
assessment is performed throughout the facility to detect internal RF signals and
potential interference from neighboring areas. The wireless engineer will design the
network such that the mesh AP placement and antenna type will minimize potential
interference. For Field WirelessHART only installations, a site assessment is
unnecessary.
The mesh network uses 802.11b/g/n for the client access and 802.11a/n for wireless
backhaul of the client communications to the wired network. The network deploys the
Class of Service standard which allows several Virtual LANs to be configured to be
available to client devices on a single wireless mesh network. This allows Office Domain
users to share the same physical mesh network as the Process Control Domain users,
but they are completely isolated from one another. This eliminates the concern of
having multiple Wi-Fi networks. There would be only one shared wireless mesh network
in the plant.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 23
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Detection
Emerson recommends that customers always broadcast the SSID. Disabling or hiding
the SSID does not offer any meaningful security and actually hinders roaming. The
SSID is transmitted in probe request and association request frames. These frames are
not encrypted and sent in clear text so the SSID is easily discovered even when not
broadcast.
Eavesdropping
Emerson’s WPN deploys WPA2 (AES 128 bit) security encryption where permitted.
The WPN includes integration with an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
Server utilizing the RADIUS protocol to securely authenticate users with their standard
network credentials which allows for dynamic key management and eliminates it as a
security concern for the user when a resilient EAP method is chosen.
Wireless Network Isolation
The WPN supports many Virtual Wireless LANs which eventually must be connected to
one or more wired networks. This is achieved through a managed switch. While the
managed switch is sufficient to isolate each virtual LAN to communicate ONLY with its
wired network, Emerson supports Firewalls to further ensure traffic is routed properly as
a “belt and suspenders” approach to prevent network crossover.
Emerson supports user configurable addressing to have DHCP turned off and only use
Static IP addressing if desired.
Manageability / Maintainability
Training
Because Emerson’s Wi-Fi solutions are relatively complex when compared with
wireless field instruments, Emerson will work together with you to specify a training
curriculum that meets your specific needs and can include but is not limited to training
on Wireless:
•
•
Network management
o Control of equipment and configuration
o Location and installation specific information
o Management of the shared wireless access for corporate and plant
networks
Security management
o User Access and Authorization
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 24
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
•
o Password management through normal IT control
o Security Risks/Threats
Specific applications delivered as part of the solution
The training is intended to have you be as self-sufficient as desired.
Support
Emerson provides a comprehensive support structure to help you resolve issues in your
day-to-day operations. The WPN support is delivered under a local service agreement.
Those agreements are tailored using the SureService portfolio to your needs and
interests. Service delivery is provided through a combination of Emerson Expert
Technical Support and Local Support. Consistent with DeltaV, WPN customers may
contact the Global Service Center for Expert Technical Support.
A complete Smart Wireless Solution – After Project Support portfolio was developed
covering:
•
•
•
•
•
Expert Technical Support
Emergency On-Site Services
Spares Management Programs
Scheduled On-Site Maintenance – Software updates
Application Support / Life Cycle Management
Unauthorized Access Prevention
Emerson’s solution specifies an AAA server which can be located within the network
and configured to work with your site’s IT security systems to maintain individual user
single sign-on credentials for either or both the office domain and process domain. This
prevents users from having to maintain separate credentials for the wireless, plant, and
corporate networks. IT can manage the wireless network access as it does the wired
network. This is achieved through the use of RADIUS servers that can be located on the
different networks to authenticate users authorized to access that specific network
(plant or office).
The WPN supports granting administrative rights and privileges to specific users and
groups of users in order to limit access to sensitive network configuration management.
The WPN supports WPA2 Enterprise key management in order to eliminate the need to
manage keys per user. Network level certificates (keys) are will protected within the
WPN management software so that only authorized users have access in order to
extend the network or change the keys.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 25
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Wireless user session keys (used to encrypt communications between the client device
and the access point) are renewed each time a client device associates with a mesh
Access Point, so there is no need to manage session key rotation.
Two-factor authentication that is compatible with the Window’s operating system
CryptoAPI can be used for authentication with the device, connecting to the wireless
network, and logging onto applications/servers on the plant and office network.
Wireless is an Engineered Solution
Emerson’s WPN solutions are delivered as a specified turnkey solution that includes:
Site Assessment and application consultation
Emerson wireless engineers will meet with your plant’s wireless stakeholders to develop
an overall plan for your current and long terms needs. Based on the specific application
Emerson is asked to deploy, the Engineers will conduct an RF study at the site and
collect other on-site information used to determine the number and location of the mesh
Access Points.
System architecture and network design and planning
Based on the site survey result and the applications being deployed to meet your
business requirements, engineers design the overall system architecture, including the
network infrastructure, security measures, and the applications. The network design and
planning process creates a detailed network infrastructure that can be reviewed with
your site’s process and IT personnel to ensure all requirements are correctly designed
and planned.
Physical network installation management and system commissioning
Emerson delivers the detailed instructions for the location and how each mesh Access
Point is to be installed in the process plant. Emerson can install the wireless equipment
or you can elect to install with other resources. After the network components are
installed, Emerson will configure network components and commission the entire
network.
Application Implementation
Based on your specified application requirements, engineers design and implement the
applications into the wireless solution and install them onsite.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 26
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
WIRELESS BRIDGING LINKS
General
Emerson’s Wireless Bridging solutions have available all the security features detailed
in the previous section – the most important feature is full encryption of all wireless
communications between the Wi-Fi bridged devices. Emerson recommends these
additional installation guidelines:
•
•
•
•
Install managed switches in the installation in order to enable the wireless
network and the interconnecting wired network to be monitored.
Utilize the 5 GHz band if possible (depends on world area) as the 2.4 GHz band
can be overcrowded.
Monitor the nodes in the path of the wireless communication network with a
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) monitoring application. WhatsUp
Gold is an example of one application that can be used to monitor and
troubleshoot communication issues should they arise.
Configure the SNMP monitoring to periodically check to ensure that the wireless
communications have not degraded over time due to changes in the surrounding
environment.
Jamming
See Jamming in the previous section.
Detection
Networks that are bridged wirelessly are typically configured without client access: i.e.
there is no advertised network access for rogue clients to detect.
Eavesdropping
The bridge solution is fully encrypted utilizing AES private certificates. Access to these
private keys are limited to a specified few individuals.
APPROVALS
If your site has its own specific security requirements for wireless applications, Emerson
can work with you to address all of your security concerns and requirements.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 27
OFFICE BUILDINGS
Access to Guardian
Website
Remote Access
Asset Portal
Enterprise Historian
PI Server
L5
Internet
DMZ
Location / Video
Client
L'3.5'
C
Wireless
DMZ
X
Firewall Management
& Access Service
Remote
Access
Service
G
Distribution
Layer Switch
UV
RADIUS
W
From
Wireless L3
Firewall
Q
J
Virus & Patch Mgt Upstream
Server (LUA, WSUS, & GSUDS)
Prime Infrastructure
with wIPS
H
Location Server
Smart Wireless
Gateway
OPC Server
Firewall
L3
D
Redundant
Wireless LAN
Controller
Plant Network - Generic
Virus and Patch Mgt
Downstream Server
(SEPM & WSUS)
Switching AMS
Client
Critical Data Backup
Application
Doman Controller
N
DMZ
Printer
Printer
CONTROL ROOM
F
Office Network
AMS Device Manager
Server Plus (Zones)
Mobility
Services
Engine
Corporate
AAA
Prime
Infrastructure
R
Internet
Firewall
OD
L4
Location/Video Client
E
Video Server
Firewall
3rd Party Applications
Historian
PI Collector (Site)
L3V
Plant Network - Vendor Specific
Operator
Work Station
Maintenance
Station
Continuous
Historian Server
AMS Server
DeltaV Pro Plus
& Event Chronicle
Redundant OPC
Data Server
NTP Server,
SOA Gateway
Control
Network
for Zone
A A
Control
Network
- Zone
L1
AUXILARY ROOM
O
U
DeltaV Firewall
L2
Redundant
Point-to-Point
Wireless
Control
Network
Extension
Transparent
Firewall
Copper
Ethernet
Cables
DeltaV
S-series
Controllers
Redundant
Wireless I/O
Card
(up to 120)
Redundant
Fiber Optic
B
Redundant
Wireless
I/O
Card
485 Serial
Cable
S
DeltaV
S-series
Controllers
485 Serial
Cable
Ethernet
Cables
Redundant
Wireless Field
Link
Smart
Wireless
Gateway
A
Smart
Wireless
Gateway
Additional wired
connection to bridge
the Wireless Field
Network directly to
the control network.
Application
Server
Cisco 3600 for
monitoring RF
Spectrum
DeltaV Firewall
Plant Wireless
Dual-Band
Root
Access Points
Remote Process Control Network
I
Redundant
Wireless
I/O
Card
Redundant
Wireless
I/O
Card
Redundant
Wireless Field
Link
Redundant
Wireless Field
Link
FIELD
Redundant
Wireless Field
Link
Redundant
Wireless
Bridge
G
L0 - L4 via VLANs
Application Server
includes History
Collection and
buffering
DeltaV
S-series
Controllers
485
Serial Cable
I
Redundant
Wireless
Bridge
Y
L0
Location/Video
Client
Remote Access
Service
K
Wireless
Domain
Plant Wireless
Dual-Band
Mesh
Access Points
AL
L
Wireless
Gateway
1552WU
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
per Redundant Field Link
Remote
Video
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
per Redundant Field Link
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
per Redundant Field Link
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
per Redundant Field Link
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
Up To 100
Wireless Transmitters
per Redundant Field Link
Figure 9: Wireless Network Architecture
P
Location
Tracking
T
Mobile
Workforce
M
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Network Architecture
The following pages briefly identify the components that are part of a Wireless Plant
Network solution as shown in Figure 9. While the applications provided by Emerson all
share the wireless plant infrastructure equipment, their communications are all securely
isolated from one another. All critical components in the Wireless Plant Network solution
can have a redundant partner.
A) Smart Wireless Gateway
Configuration management of the wireless field network is achieved through version 10
or later of either the DeltaV system or AMS Intelligent Device Manager applications. The
Gateway is autosensed when it is plugged into the DeltaV Control Network. Drag and
drop the unassigned Gateway to the Wireless I/O Subsystem and it is automatically
configured with an IP address. Wireless transmitters that are joined to the Gateway’s
network auto populate the database. The user simply has to drag and drop the new
Wireless Transmitter to a channel assignment. From a configuration perspective the
wireless transmitter now looks like any other wired device. I/O from the Gateway can be
assigned to one controller. The Gateway and all its communications are managed
through the DeltaV control system and its associated applications. The 1420 and
1552WU are both Smart Wireless Gateways which can be integrated to DeltaV,
whereas the 1552WU also includes Wi-Fi connectivity.
B) Wireless I/O Card
In version 11 of DeltaV the redundant Wireless I/O Card (WIOC) was introduced and
allows for a fully redundant plug and play solution for DeltaV. The WirelessHART
device network is managed by the WIOC through the radio located within the 781 Field
Link device. The WirelessHART network and security management of the wireless
devices is performed by the WIOC in the same manner as it is for the Smart Wireless
Gateway.
The WIOC is autosensed when it is plugged into the DeltaV Control Network. Drag and
drop the unassigned WIOC to the Wireless I/O Subsystem and it is automatically
configured with an IP address. Wireless transmitters that are joined to the WIOC’s
network auto populate the database. The user simply has to drag and drop the new
Wireless Transmitter to a channel assignment. From a configuration perspective the
wireless transmitter now looks like any other wired device. I/O from the WIOC can be
assigned to up to four controllers. The WIOC and all its communications are managed
through the DeltaV control system and its associated applications.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 29
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
C) Wireless DMZ
The wireless DMZ further isolates the applications on the wireless network from the
plant and corporate networks by isolating the application server communications behind
a firewall on a separate network IP address range and controlling access from all sides.
Security is enforced within the domain, but management of the Wireless DMZ is
possible from different networks.
D) Distribution Layer Switch
This is the managed switch at the center of the wireless and wired communications. The
Virtual LANs of the shared wireless network are configured and connected to each of
the respective wired networks. The components of the Wireless DMZ are all connected
to the wireless network at the switch. This switch has basic firewall capability, but an
additional firewall can be added for better performance if required.
E) Wireless LAN Controller
The controller is the component that automatically and actively manages the Mesh APs
of the Wireless Plant Network. Security of the communications within the network itself
is managed by the controller as well as ensuring only authorized Mesh APs can join the
network. The Wireless LAN Controller is the device that is responsible for network-wide
wireless functions such as security policies, intrusion detection, RF management,
Quality of Service (QoS), and mobility. Communications from Wi-Fi clients pass through
the Wireless LAN Controller in a CAPWAP tunnel – after which they land on the wired
network. Devices that are hardwired into a Mesh AP do not pass through the Wireless
LAN controller – they land on the wired network right at the Root AP.
F) Prime Infrastructure
The Prime Infrastructure is the graphical tool that allows the administrator to easily
configure and manage the entire wireless network by allowing network managers to
design, control, and monitor enterprise wireless networks from a single location,
simplifying operations. It oversees a series of WLAN controllers. This software provides
network management including diagnostics and troubleshooting tools to keep the
network running smooth.
G) Prime Infrastructure with wireless Intrusion Prevention System (wIPS)
The wIPS adds another layer to wireless Defense in Depth protection against potential
wireless attacks. Beyond just controlling access to the network, wIPS protects the
wireless network from attackers, and ensures the integrity of all wireless clients that
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 30
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
access the network. A Cisco 3600-Series Access Point is configured to monitor the RF
Spectrum and communicate anomalies to the Prime Infrastructure with wIPS.
H) Mobility Services Engine (MSE)
The MSE is required for wIPS and for location tracking solutions. It performs all the
mathematics and works in conjunction with the Prime Infrastructure to report anomalies
detected by the wireless network.
I) DeltaV Firewall
A DeltaV firewall is a transparent firewall. I.e. it is configured to have the same subnet
on both sides of the firewall, yet constrain the communications to be between only
DeltaV devices by restricting access to only those ports required by DeltaV to
communicate between the WIOC and the area control network through the Wireless
Plant Network.
J) Smart Wireless Gateway OPC Server
The Gateway can communicate data to OPC clients (e.g. OPC Mirror) through the
Gateway’s OPC Server installed on a PC on the wired network. The Gateway’s OPC
Server application communicates to the Gateway via an SSL secured communication
link. The OPC DA standard versions 2 and 3 are fully supported. The OPC server is
utilized when a native WirelessHART interface on the host DCS does not exist.
K) DeltaV OPC Server
The easiest way to link the Gateway with a DeltaV version 9 or earlier system is through
the DeltaV OPC Server which can be licensed on a DeltaV Application or Base Station.
L) Mesh Access Point
Mesh Access Points provide the connection to roaming Wi-Fi enabled handheld devices
used by the mobile worker, or fixed Wi-Fi resources e.g. video cameras. Additionally,
fixed assets such as the Wireless Field Gateway can have a wired connection to the
Mesh Access Point which provides a wireless backhaul to the Root AP and on to the
wired network – connecting the Gateway to the host control system. The Smart
Wireless Gateway 1552WU is also a Mesh Access Point for the Wi-Fi network.
M) Video Cameras
A large variety of cameras are available for use in a Remote Video Monitoring solution
including: fixed, pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ), wireless, and thermal imaging. Most of the
cameras are wired into the Mesh Access Points for backhaul communications.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 31
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
N) Video Server
All video images are centrally recorded, stored and served to other workstation and
applications from the Digital Video Recording server. Users can remotely view or store
video from a variety of IP cameras, review stored video and snapshots, and click-topoint control of PTZ cameras though an internet browser interface. All video images are
centrally recorded, stored and served to other workstation and applications from the
Digital Video Recording server which can be located within the Wireless DMZ.
O) Video Client
The video client provides a configurable interface to the network cameras. A client of
the Video Server, the Video Client can manage multiple cameras from multiple Video
Servers. The user can define how to use screen real estate in with an unlimited number
of multi-up, multi-function views. From these views users can view live and stored
video, control PTZ cameras, schedule camera tours, and manage alarms.
P) RFID Wi-Fi Asset Tag
The RFID tags communicate their location through the Wi-Fi mesh network. A variety of
tags are available including those that have call buttons to signal an emergency for the
wearer.
Q) Location Server
The Location Server is where all the rules for location alerts are executed, and
configuration of user and asset data is stored.
R) Location Client
This web-based application allows any user to visually see the locations of assets and
personnel on a display map. Specific personnel movements can be tracked in real-time
on the graphical display. Operators have ready access to contact information for field
personnel or physical characteristics of physical assets simply by clicking on the asset’s
onscreen icon.
S) Redundant Bridged Access Points
There are several models of wireless access points available for deployment as a
wireless bridge depending on network needs. There are indoor and outdoor models as
well as Class I, Div 2 or ATEX Zone 2 certified equipment. The radio utilized can be
based on IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n standards following the local regulations and the specific
requirements of the solution.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 32
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
T) Handheld Devices
While Emerson promotes the Panasonic Toughbook CF-19and CF-31, and the
Panasonic Toughpad FZ-G1: ruggedtablet capable of running Emerson’s PlantWeb®
applications with a wireless connection to the process; Emerson also supports other
wireless laptops and PDAs as specified and requested by the user. Emerson can
provide custom program solutions as an engineered solution upon request.
U) Remote Access Service (RAS)
Mobile DeltaV Operate devices connect to the DeltaV Application Server (which hosts
the Remote Access Service) that sits inside the Wireless DMZ. All DeltaV process
information is indirectly routed from the RAS located on the control/plant network,
through the Wireless DMZ to the RAS located inside the Wireless DMZ. This enables an
even greater amount of secure communication isolation.
V) Terminal Server
Alternatively, a Terminal Server solution can be implemented for other legacy control
systems – provided those systems support Microsoft’s or some other vendor’s Terminal
Server solution. Emerson can work with you to determine the viability and requirements
for such a solution.
W)RADIUS Server
This is a RADIUS server that authenticates and authorizes users to access the wireless
network and the specific SSIDs (VLANs). This allows for ease of maintenance of user
access through the configuration of local group policies.
X) Enterprise Domain Controller (AAA)
The RADIUS server is configured to authenticate users with your site’s existing
enterprise Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting server. User credentials are
maintained here rather than local to the Wireless DMZ.
Y) Transparent Firewall
A transparent firewall can be configured to have the same subnet on both sides of the
firewall, yet constrain the communications to be between only certain device IP
addresses and restrict access to only those ports required by DeltaV or AMS to
communicate between the Gateway (or WIOC) and the Area Control Network.
©Emerson Process Management, 2011—2014 All rights reserved.
Page 33
Wireless Security Whitepaper
WirelessHART and Wi-Fi Security
November 2014
Conclusion
Wireless security is critical to the successful deployment of both field instrument
networks and plant application solutions. This paper demonstrates Emerson’s
capabilities to deploy secure, reliable and robust wireless solutions for both field
instrumentation and plant applications.
Emerson is knowledgeable in all of these security technologies and can work with you
to apply them to improve process monitoring, increase workforce productivity, and to
lower operating costs.
Emerson has proven wireless expertise to provide you turnkey solutions for both Smart
Wireless field instrumentation and wireless plant application solutions.
1
HART Communication Foundation, “Why WirelessHART: The Right Standard at the Right Time”,
October 2007
© 2011 - 2014 Emerson Process Management. All rights reserved. The Emerson logo is a trademark and service mark of Emerson
Electric Co.
For Emerson Process Management trademarks and service marks, go to
www.emersonprocess.com/home/news/resources/marks.pdf.
PlantWeb, Rosemount, AMS Suite, and DeltaV are marks of Emerson Process Management. Cisco and Aironet are marks of Cisco
Systems, Inc. WirelessHART is a registered trademark of the HART Communications Foundation. All other marks are the property
of their respective owners.
The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only, and while every effort has been made to ensure their
accuracy, they are not to be construed as warrantees or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or services
described herein or their use or applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which are available on request. We
reserve the right to modify or improve the design or specification of such products at any time without notice. Not all services are
available in all world areas nor for all Emerson Process Management, Process Systems product lines. Please contact our office
nearest you for more information.
Emerson Process Management
1100 W. Louis Henna Blvd., Building One
Round Rock, Texas 78681
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless

Similar documents

×

Report this document