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ٞ‫ ثدوو‬abadīya infinite duration, endless
time, eternity
‫ا‬
‫ ث‬a particle introducing direct and indirect
questions; َ‫ ث ― أ‬a - am in alternative
questions; َ‫ث اثا― أ‬ٛ‫ ّو‬sawā’un a ― am no
matter whether - or; ٚ‫ أا‬a-wa particle
indicating or implying doubt: or?
perhaps?(atau/apakah)
‫اىٌووووووه‬ٟ‫صٖووووووهاـوووووو‬َٚ‫ث‬
(tašukku) you wouldn't doubt it, would
you? do you perhaps doubt it? or do you
doubt it? ٨َ‫ ث‬alā and ‫ ثَِوج‬a-mā intensifying
interjections introducing sentences: verily,
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., ‫ث‬ٌٚ‫اـوجٔر‬٨َ‫( ث‬fanẓurū) oh, do look! why, look! ٗ‫ثَِووجاثٔوو‬
(innahū) why, he is ... !
1
‫ آدو‬ābid wild, untamed
‫ آدووور‬ābida pl. ‫ثدووو‬ٚ‫ ث‬awābid2 unusual
thing, prodigious event │ ‫ج‬١ٔ‫ثدوواثٌوو‬ٚ‫ ث‬a. addunyā the Wonders of the World
‫ ِؤدوووووو‬mu'abbad eternal, endless,
everlasting │‫( ّوووووؾٓاِؤدوووووو‬sijn) life
imprisonment
1
‫ ثدووٌر‬ibra pl. ٌ‫ ثدوو‬ibar needle, pln;
indicator (of an instrument); shot,
injection (med.);sting, prick │ ‫فمٕووٗاثدووٌر‬
ḥaqanahu ibratan to give s.o. an injection;
ٝ‫ ثدوٌراثٌٌثعو‬i. ar-rā‘ī geranium (bot.); ‫ثدوٌرا‬
‫ز‬١‫ْوو‬١ٟ‫( ِؽٕج‬magnāṯīsīya) magnetic needle;
‫دٌر‬٨‫ ٕؽًاث‬šug1 al-i. needlework
‫ آح‬āb2 August = Agustus (month; Syr., Leb.,
Jord., Ir.)
2
‫ ثح‬see ٛ‫ثد‬
3
ٌ‫ ثدوو‬abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to
pollinate ( ٘ a palm tree)
‫ ثح‬abba u to long, yearn, (ٗ‫ٕوو‬ٟٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫ إٌوو‬ilā
waṯanihi for one's homeland)
ٌ‫ ِتذ‬mi'bar needlecase; pack needle
4
2
ٟ‫( ثدجص‬It. abate) abātī abbot (Chr.)
‫ز‬١‫ٖو‬٠ٌ‫ ثد‬abrašīya and ‫ز‬١‫ٕوو‬ٌٚ‫ ثد‬abrūšīya pl. -āt
diocese, bishoprie (Chr.); parish (Chr.)
‫خ‬١‫ ثد‬look up alphabetically
‫ ثدجٌز‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
‫جاثدش‬٠ see ٛ‫ثد‬
‫ ثدؾو‬abjad alphabet
ٞ‫ ثدؾوو‬abjadī alphabetic(al); ‫جس‬٠‫ ثدؾوو‬elementary
facts, simple truths │‫ووز‬٠‫دؾو‬٨‫ؾاث‬ٌٚ‫اثٌقوو‬the
letters of the alphabet
‫ ثدوو‬abada (‫ه‬ٛ‫ ثدو‬ubūd) to stay, linger (‫ ح‬at a
place); ― i u to roam in a state of
wildness, run wild, be shy, shy away, run
away (animal, game) II to make lasting or
permanent, perpetuate, eternize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V
to be perpetuated, become lasting or
permanentl; to return to a state of wildness
‫ ثدوو‬abad pl. ‫ آدوجه‬ābād endless, eternal
duration, eternity; ‫ ثدوووث‬abadan always,
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the
future), not at all, on no account; (alone,
without negation) never! not at all! By no
means! │ ‫دووو‬٤‫اث‬ٝ‫دوووىاإٌوو‬٤‫اث‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬and ٌ٘‫أدووواثٌووو‬
abada d-dahri forever; ٓ٠‫دوو‬٢‫ ثدوواث‬abada labadīn and ٓ٠‫دووو‬٢‫اثدووواث‬ٝ‫ إٌوو‬ilā abadi l-a.
forever and ever
ٞ‫ ثدو‬abadi everlasting, eternal, endless
ٞ‫دو‬٨‫ ث‬al-abadī eternity
ً‫ آدج‬ābār see ٌ‫دت‬
ِ١ٌِ‫ ثد‬abramīs, ِ١ِ‫ ثدٌث‬bream (zool.)
َ٠ٌ‫ ثد‬pure gold 1
ُْ٠ٌ‫ ثد‬ibrīsam, ibrīsim silk
‫ك‬٠ٌ‫ ثد‬ibrīq pl. ‫ك‬٠ً‫ ثدج‬abārīq2 pitcher, jug
ً٠ٌ‫ ثد‬abril April
َْ‫ ثد‬abzan pl. ٍْ‫ ثدج‬abāzin2 washbowl
ُ٠َ‫ ثد‬ibzīm pl. ٍَ‫ ثدج‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp
ٜ‫ ثدو‬ubḍ pl. ٛ‫ آدوج‬ābāḍ and ٜ‫ ِوبد‬ma’biḍ pl.
ٜ‫ ِووو د‬ma’ābiḍ2 hollow of the knee,
popliteal space
٠‫ ثد‬V to take or carry under one's arm ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to put one's arm ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ around s.o., around
s.th.), hold in one's arm ( ٘, ٖ s.th.)
٠‫ ثد‬ibṯ pl. ٟ‫ آدج‬ābāṯ m. and f. armpit
‫ ثدوك‬abaqa i (‫ ثدوجق‬ibāq) to escape, run away (a
slave from his master)
‫ ثدك‬abaq a kind of hemp
‫ آدوووك‬ābiq pl. ‫ ثدوووجق‬ubbāq runaway,
escaped; a fugitive
1
ً‫ ثد‬ibil (coll.) camel
2
‫ ثدجٌز‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
َ١ٍ‫ ثد‬iblīz alluvial deposits (of the Nile)
disdain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.): to deny ( ‫ا٘و‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. s.th.)
│ ٗ‫فعٍوو‬٠‫اأْا‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫( ثدوو‬illā an yaf’alahū) he
insisted on doing it; ْ‫اأ‬٨‫ا اإ‬ٝ‫ ثدو‬God willed
that ... V to refuse, decline
ِ١ٍ‫ ثد‬iblīs pl. ‫ ثدجٌْز‬abālisa devil, Satan
1
ٓ‫ ثدوو‬II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (ٖ a
deceased person), deliver a funeral oration
(ٖ in praise of s.o.)
‫ ثدوج‬ibā’, ‫ ثدووج ر‬ibā’a rejection; dislike,
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride
‫ ثدٕز‬ubna passive pederasty
ٟ‫ ثدوو‬abīy disdainful, scornful: proud,
lofty, lofty-minded
ْ‫ ثدوج‬ibbān time: ْ‫ ثدوج‬ibbāna during, ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ْ‫ ثدج‬at the time of, during
ٓ١‫ صوووبد‬ta’bīn commemoration (of a
deceased person) │ٓ١‫ ففٍووزاصووبد‬ḥaflat at-t.
commemorative celebration (in honor of a
deceased person)
ْٛ‫ ِووووبد‬ma’būn catamite;
mollycoddle, sissy; scoundrel
2
weakling,
‫وخ‬١‫ ثد‬abīb the eleventh month of the Coptic
calendar 2
ًٞٛ‫م‬١‫ ثد‬abīqūrī Epicurean
ًٞٛ‫م‬١‫ ثد‬abīqūriya Epicureanism
1
ٓ‫ ثد‬see ٓ‫د‬
‫ ثصووٌػ‬utrujj and ‫ ثصوؤٌؼ‬utrunj citron (Citrus
medica; bot.)
ُٕٛ‫ ثد‬abnūs ebony
ٗ‫ ثد‬abaha and abiha a (abh) to pay attention (‫ي‬,
also ‫ ح‬to), heed (‫ي‬, also ‫ ح‬s.th.), take
notice (‫ي‬, also ‫ ح‬of) │ٗ‫ؤدوووٗاٌووو‬٠‫ا‬٨‫ثِوووٌا‬
(yu'bahu) an insignificant, unimportant
matter V to display proud, haughty
manners; to turn away, keep one's
distance, remain aloof (ٓ‫ عوو‬from), look
down (ٓ‫ عو‬upon), think o.s. far above (ٓ‫عو‬
s.o. or s.th.)
‫ووووووز‬ٙ‫ثد‬
ubbaha
splendor,
ostentation, pageantry; pride
‫ آح‬ābin pl. ‫ ثدووووجر‬ubāh reserved,
standoffish; unwilling, reluctant, grudging
pomp,
‫ ثح‬ab pl. ‫ آدج‬aba' father (also eccl.): ancestor,
forefather: ‫ج اثدش‬٠ yā abati O my father!
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫د‬٨‫ ث‬al-abawān the parents, father and
mother; ‫ٔج‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abūnā reverend father, form of
address and title of a priest (Chr). │‫ثدجاعٓاؽو‬
aban ‘an jaddin handed down from father
to son, as s.th. inherited from forefathers;
ٓ‫ اّع‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū su’n marabou; ٌَٕٛ‫ اث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū nnaum poppy; ‫ي‬ٌٛٙ‫ اث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū l-haul the
Sphinx; ْ‫مرج‬١ٌ‫ اث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū l-yaqẓān rooster,
cock
‫ر‬ٛ‫ ثد‬ubūwa fatherhood, paternity
ٞٛ‫ ثد‬abawī paternal, fatherly
‫ش‬١ٔٛ‫ ثد‬ebonite
ٗ‫و‬١ٔٛ‫( ثد‬Fr. abonné) abūneh pl. -āt subscription;
subscription card (e.g., for public
conveyances, a concert season, etc.)
ٝ‫ ثدوو‬abā a ( ‫ ثدووج‬ibā’, ‫ ثدووج ر‬ibā’a) to refuse,
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn,
ٟ‫( آصٖؾ‬Turk. ateşçi) ātešgī fireman, stoker
ُ‫ ِبص‬ma’tam pl. ُ‫ ِ ص‬ma’ātim2 obsequies, funeral
ceremony
1
ْ‫ ثصوج‬atān pl. ٓ‫ آصو‬ātun, ٓ‫ ثصو‬utun, utn female
donkey, she-ass
2
ْٛ‫ ثصو‬atūn, attūn pl. ٓ‫ ثصو‬utun, ٓ‫ ثصوجص‬atātīn2 kiln,
furnace, oven
‫ر‬ٚ‫ ثصج‬itāwa pl. ٜٚ‫ ثصج‬atāwā duty, tax, tribute
ِ١‫د‬ٛ‫( ثص‬Fr.) otobīs autobus, bus
ٟ‫ى‬١‫ِجص‬ٛ‫( ثص‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
ً‫وو‬١‫ِذ‬ٛ‫ ثص‬boyl lIٝ‫ثٌووو‬d ً‫وو‬١‫د‬ِٛٛ‫( ثص‬Fr.) otomobīl
automobile
ٝ‫ ثصو‬atā i (ْ‫وج‬١‫ ثص‬ityān, ٝ‫ ثصو‬aty, ‫ ِبصوجر‬to come (ٖ or
ٌٝ‫ ث‬to; ٍٝ‫ ع‬over s.o.), arrive ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at); ‫ح‬
ٝ‫ ثصوو‬to bring, bring forward, produce,
advance, accomplish or achieve s.th.; ‫اٖا‬ٝ‫ثص‬
‫ ح‬to bring, give or offer s.o. s.th.; to do,
perform ( ‫ ٘و‬a deed), carry out, execute ( ‫٘و‬
e.g., movements); to commit, perpetrate
( ‫ ٘و‬a sin, a. crime); to mention (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.);
to finish off (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th., also s.o.); to finish,
complete, carry through, dispose, settle,
wind up, conclude, terminate, bring to a
close (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.); to destroy, annihilate,
eradicate, wipe out (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬s.th.); to
eliminate, carry away, sweep away (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.), do away (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬with); to use up,
exhaust (also a subject), present
exhaustively, in great detail (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.),
elaborate (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on s.th.) │ٟ‫ووبص‬٠‫ اوّووجا‬as
follows; ٌٖ‫اآموووو‬ٝ‫اعٍوووو‬ٝ‫( ثصوووو‬ākhirihī) to
complete, finish s.th.; to spend or use up
the last of s.th.; ِ‫وجد‬١ٌ‫ث‬ٚ‫وٌا‬ٞ‫م‬٤‫اث‬ٝ‫اعٍو‬ٝ‫ ثصو‬to
destroy everything, wreak havoc;‫ا ا‬ٝ‫ثصوو‬
‫وج‬ٙ‫ثد‬ٛ‫ساِوٓاثد‬ٛ١‫ ثٌذ‬s.th. in the right way, knock
on the right door;‫اِوٓالذوًا‬ٝ‫وؤص‬٠ yu’ta min
qibali is undermined, weakened, ruined by
III to offer furnish, give, afford (‫ ح‬to s.o.
s.th.), provide, supply (‫ ح‬s.o. with); to be
propitious, be favorable (ٖ for s.o.), favor
(ٖ s.o.); to turn out well (. for s.o.), be in
favor (ٖ of); to suit, befit, become (ٖ s.o.),
be appropriate (ٖ for s.o.); to agree (ٖ with‫ا‬
s.o.; food) │ ٟ‫( ثصووجٖاوووًإوو‬kullu šai’in)
everything was in his favor, turned out
well for him, came his way IV to bring ( ‫٘و‬
s.o. s.th.); to give ( ٘ s.o. s.th.); to grant ( ‫٘و‬
ٖ to s.o. s.th.), bestow ( ‫ ٘و‬upon s.o. s.th.)
│‫اثٌَوووجر‬ٝ‫( آصوو‬zakāta) to give alms V to
originate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result
(ٓ‫ عو‬from); to end (ٓ‫ عو‬with), result (ٓ‫عو‬
in); to get (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to), arrive (ٌٝ‫ ث‬at); to be easy
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be
attainable, go well, progress; to go about
s.th. (ٝ‫ )ـو‬gently, cautiously X to ask to
come, induce to come (ٖ s.o.)
ٝ‫ ِبص‬ma’tan pl. ‫ ِو س‬ma’ātin place where
s.th. comes from; place at which one
arrives; access; pl. ‫ ِو س‬place of origin;
origin, source, provenance; place where
one has been or to which one has come;
place where s.th. starts, where s.th. ends
‫ آس‬ātin coming, next; following │
ٟ‫صو‬٢‫ اث‬ٛ‫ّوذ‬٤‫( ث‬usbū‘) the coming week, next
week; ٟ‫ص‬٢‫ وج‬as follows
‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ِووو‬mu’ātin, muwātin favorable,
propitious, opportune, convenient, suitable
‫ ثط‬aṯṯa u I a (‫ ثعجعوز‬aṯāṯa) to be luxuriant, grow
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up,
prepare ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to furnish ( ‫ ٘ووو‬an
apartment) V to be or become rich,
wealthy, to prosper; to be furnished
‫ ثعوجط‬aṯāṯ furniture, furnishings (of an
apartment, of a room)
‫ظ‬١‫ صبع‬ta’ṯīṯ furnishing
‫ ثط‬aṯṯ, ‫ ثعوجط‬aṯīṯ abundant, luxuriant,
profusely growing (hair, plants)
ٌ‫ ثعو‬aṯara u i (aṯr, ‫ ثعوجًر‬aṯāra) to transmit, pass
along, report, relate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٓ‫ عو‬from, or
based on the authority of, s.o.) II to affect,
influence (ٟ‫ ـو‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., s.th.), act (ٟ‫ ـو‬or
ٝ‫ عٍوو‬upon), produce an effect, make an
impression, have influence (ٟ‫ ـو‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬on);
to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (ٝ‫ ٘و اعٍو‬s.th.
to), like ( ٘ s.th.) more (ٍٝ‫ ع‬than); to have a
predilection, a liking ( ‫ ٘و‬for), like ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
be fond ( ‫ ٘و‬of); to choose, deem wise or
advisable (ْ‫ ث‬to do s.th.); to adore ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th.) │ٌ١‫( آعووٌأفْووٗادووجٌن‬nafsahū bi-lkair) to wish o.s. well, hope for the best
for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced;
to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to
be moved, be touched (‫ ح‬or ‫ ي‬by, also ٓ‫;)ِو‬
to be excited, be stimulated; to be affected
(‫ ح‬by, said of materials, e.g., iron by acid);
to be induced (phys.); to follow in s.o.‘s (ٖ)
tracks, follow s.o.‘s example, emulate (ٖ
s.o.); to pursue, follow up ( ‫ ٘و‬a question, a
problem); to perceive, feel ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) X to
claim a monopoly; to possess alone, with
the exclusion of others, monopolize (‫ح‬
s.th.); to appropriate (‫ ح‬s.th.), take
exclusive possession (‫ ح‬of); to preoccupy
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), engross ( ‫ ٘و‬the attention) │‫ثّوضبعٌا‬
ٗ‫ اد‬the Lord has taken him unto Himself
ٌ‫ ثع‬aṯar pl. ً‫ آعوج‬āṯār track, trace, vestige;
sign, mark; touch; impression, effect,
action, influence (ٟ‫ ـوووو‬on); tradition
(relating the deeds and utterances of
Mohammed and his Companions); work
(of art, esp. of literature); ancient
monument; ً‫ آعوووج‬antiquities; remnants,
vestiges; (religious) relics │ً‫عوج‬٢‫‗ عٍوُاث‬ilm
al-a. archeology; ً‫عوووج‬٢‫ هثًاث‬museum of
antiquities; ٗ‫اثعووٌاٌووو‬٨ (aṯara) ineffective,
ineffectnal; ٟ‫( دوووووبعٌاًؽعووووو‬raj‘ī) with
retroactive force (jur.); ٓ١‫ووذـاثعووٌثادعووواعوو‬ٙ‫ث‬
aṣbaḥa aṯaran ba‘da ‘ainin to be
destroyed, be wiped out, leave nothing but
memory behind; ٓ١‫( ثعجهٖاثعٌثادعوواعو‬a‘adahū)
to destroy s.th. completely ; ٌٖ‫اثع‬ٍٝ‫ع‬, ٌٖ‫اثعو‬ٟ‫ـ‬
(also fī iṯrihī) on his (its) track, at his
heels, after him; immediately afterwards,
presently, thereupon; ;'11 j. immediately
afterwards, presently
ٌ‫ ثعو‬iṯra (prep.) immediately after, right
after
ٌٞ‫ ثعو‬aṯarī archeologic(a1); archeologist
(also ًٞ‫ آعوج‬āṯārī); old, ancient, antique │‫ا‬
ٌٞ‫ عوجٌُاثعو‬archeologist; ‫وز‬٠ٌ‫( ٌؽوزاثع‬luga) dead
language
ٌ‫ ثع‬aṯir egoistic, selfish
‫ ثعٌر‬aṯara selfishness, egoism
ٌ١‫ ثع‬aṯīr favored, preferred (‫ عٕوو‬by s.o.),
in favor (‫ عٕوو‬with s.o.); select, exquisite,
noble; see also alphabetically
‫ ثعووجًر‬aṯāra remainder, remnant; faint
trace, vestige
‫ ِوبعٌر‬ma’ṯara, ma’ṯura pl. ٌ‫ ِو ع‬ma’āṯir
exploit, feat, glorious deed
ً‫و‬١‫ ثع‬atīl and ً‫ ِؤعو‬mu’attal deep-rooted;
of noble origin, highborn
ُ‫ ثعو‬atima a (itm, atam, ُ‫ ِوبع‬ma’tam) to sin, err,
slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain
o.s. hold back
ُ‫ ثعووو‬itm pl. َ‫ آعوووج‬ātām sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
2
ُ‫ ِوووبع‬ma’tam pl. ُ‫ ِووو ع‬sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
ٌ١‫ صووبع‬ta’ṯīr action, effect, influence,
impression (ٟ‫ـوو‬, ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on); effectiveness,
efficacy; induction (phys.)
ُ١‫ صبع‬sin, offense, misdeed, crime
ُ‫ آعو‬ātim pl. ‫ ثعّوز‬atama and ُ١‫ ثعو‬atīm pl.
‫ ثعّوج‬atmā’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;
sinner
ٌٞ١‫ صووبع‬ta’ṯīrī produced by induction,
inductive, inductional, induced (phys.)
ً‫غوووووج‬٠‫ إ‬īṯār preference;
predilection; love, affection
altruism;
‫ ثعّو‬itmid antimony
ٌ١‫ ثع‬atīr ether
ٌ‫ صوبع‬ta’aṯṯur being influenced; agitation,
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity;
(pl. -āt) feeling, sensation, perception │‫ا‬
ٌ‫ااثٌضووبع‬٠ٌ‫ ّوو‬easily impressed, impressible,
sensitive
‫ٕج‬١‫ ثع‬atīnā Athens
ٌٞ‫ صوووووبع‬ta’aṯṯurī:
ٌٞ‫ثٌّوووووي٘خاثٌضوووووبع‬
(madhab)the impressionistic movement
‫ ثػ‬ajja u i (‫ؼ‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajīj) to burn, blaze, flame (fire)
II to light, kindle, start ( ٘ a fire) V = I
‫ج‬١‫د‬ٛ١‫ ثع‬atyūbiyā Ethiopia
ٟ‫د‬ٛ‫وو‬١‫ ثع‬atyūbī Ethiopian; (pl.-ūn) an
Ethiopian │‫ز‬١‫د‬ٛ١‫ع‬٨‫هاث‬٩‫اثٌذ‬Ethiopia
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ صبع‬ta’atturīya impressionism
‫ ِج اثؽجػ‬mā’ ujāj bitter, salty water
ً‫ ثّضتغج‬isti’tār arrogation of a monopoly;
monopolization;
presumption,
presumptuousness; exclusive power
ًٛ‫ ِوبع‬ma’tūr transmitted, handed down
│ًٛ‫ياِوبع‬ٛ‫(الو‬qaul) and ‫ًر‬ٛ‫( وٍّوزاِوبع‬kalima)
proverb
ٌ‫ ِووؤع‬mu’attir affecting, acting upon;
effective; impressive; moving, touching,
pathetic; (pl. -āt) influencing factor,
influence
2
ٌ١‫ أع‬look up alphabetically
‫ووز‬١‫ أعف‬utfīya pl. ‫ أعووجؾ‬atāfin trivet, tripod (in
&ncient times: &ny one of the three
stones supporting a cooking pot near the
fire) │ٟ‫عوجـ‬٤‫ اعجٌغوزاث‬that which rounds out a
number, caps s.th., puts the lid on s.th., the
crowning touch
ً‫ ثعوو‬atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to
become rich V to be consolidated, be
strengthened; to become rich
ً‫ ثعوو‬atl pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثعوو‬utūl (coll.; n. un. pl.
atalat) tamarisk (bot.)
‫ ثؽجػ‬ajjāj burning, blazing, hot
‫ِضووووبؽؼ‬
flaming
muta’ajjij
burning,
blazing,
‫ز‬١‫ ثؽذ‬ajabīya horologium (Copt.-Chr.)
2
ٌ‫ أؽوو‬ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense,
remunerate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.) II to let for rent, let
out, hire out, rent, lease ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); (with
nafsahū) to hire s.o. out IV to let for rent,
let out, hire out, rent, lease ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), take a lease, ( ‫ ٘و‬on); to hire, engage,
take on (ٖ s.o.), engage the services (ٖ of
s.o.) X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a
lease ( ٘.th.), take a lease ( ٘ on); to charter
( ‫ ٘و‬a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (ٖ
s.o.), engage the service (ٖ of s.o.)
ٌ‫ ثؽوو‬ajr pl. ًٛ‫ ثؽوو‬ujūr wages, pay,
honorarium, recompense, emolument,
remuneration; price, rate, fee │ ٌ‫ًاثٌْوف‬ٛ‫ثؽو‬
u. as-safar fares
‫ ثؽوٌر‬ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate,
fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage │‫ا‬
‫ووو‬٠ٌ‫ ثؽووٌراثٌذ‬postage; ً‫ ثؽووٌراثٌٕموو‬u. an-naql
ً‫ آؽوو‬ājil delayed, protracted; deferred;
later, future (as opposed to ً‫ا│)عجؽ‬ٚ‫اث‬٩‫اعوجؽ‬
٩‫’آؽو‬ājilan au ājilan, ٗ‫اآؽٍو‬ٚ‫اعجؽٍوٗاث‬ٟ‫ ـو‬sooner
or later, now or later on; ً‫ؽو‬٢‫ث‬ٚ‫اثٌعجؽوًا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
now and in the future
‫ؽٍ وز‬٢‫ ث‬al-ājila the life to come, the
hereafter
ً‫ ِؤؽو‬mu’ajjal delayed, late, postponed,
deferred; fixed in time, deadlined
transport charges, freight(age), carriage,
cartage
ٌ‫وو‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajīr pl. ‫ ثؽووٌث‬ujarā’ hireling;
workman, laborer, day laborer; employee
‫ وٌر‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajīra working woman, factory
girl, female laborer; woman employee
ٌ١‫ صوبؽ‬ta’jīr letting, leasing, hiring out,
letting on lease; lease│‫ٌا‬١‫ اثٌضوووبؽ‬ٌٚ‫اِٖووو‬
‫عجًر‬٦‫ث‬ٚ (i‘āra) Lend-Lease Act
ً‫ؾوج‬٠‫ ث‬ījār pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing,
hiring out, letting on lease│ً‫ؾ وج‬٠٧ٌ‫ ا‬for
rent, to let
‫ ثؽوجًر‬ijāra pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing,
hiring out, letting on lease
ً‫ ثّضتؾج‬isti’jār rent, lease, tenure
ًٛ‫ ِووبؽ‬ma’jūr paid, salaried, on the
payroll, gainfully employed; employee;
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed
ٌ‫ ِؤؽ‬mu’ajjir pl. -ūn landlord, lessor
ٌ‫ ِْووضبؽ‬musta’jir leaseholder, lessee,
tenant; employer 5
2
ٌ‫ آؽ‬ājurr (n. un. ‫ )ر‬baked brick
ٟ‫ ثؽَثؽ‬see َ‫ؽ‬
‫ ثؽَثمجٔز‬see َ‫ؽ‬
ٗ‫ ثؽج‬ijjāṣ pear
ً‫ ثؽو‬ajala a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger II to
delay, postpone, put off, defer, adjourn (‫٘ ا‬
ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬s.th. till) V to be postponed, be
deferred, be adjourned (ٌ‫ ِوؤؽ‬till, to) X to
request postponement ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.); to seek
to delay ( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ ثؽ‬ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all means!
ً‫ؽ‬٤ li-ajli or ً‫ ِٓاثؽ‬min ajli because of,
on account of, for the sake of; for │‫ؽًا‬٤‫ا‬
ْ‫أ‬in order that, that, so that; ‫ِٓ اأؽً ا٘يث‬
therefore, for that reason, on this account
ً‫ ثؽو‬ajal pl. ‫ آؽوجي‬ājāl appointed time,
date, deadline; instant of death; respite,
delay│ً‫ؽو‬٤‫ دج‬on credit (com.); ً‫ؽو‬٤‫ٌاث‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ل‬
short-term, short-time; short-lived: ‫اأؽوًا‬ٌٝ‫إ‬
ّٝ‫ووووٌاِْوووو‬١‫( ؼ‬gairi musammā) for an
indefinite period, sine die, until further
notice
ً‫وووو‬١‫ صبؽ‬ta’jīl delay, postponement,
adjournment,
deferment,
respite;
appointment of a time or date
‫ ثؽّز‬ajama, coll. ُ‫ ثؽو‬ajam pl. -āt, ُ‫ ثؽو‬ujum, َ‫آؽوج‬
ājām thicket, jungle, forest: reeds,
canebrake
‫وز‬١ّ‫ ثؽ‬ajamiya malaria│‫وز‬١ّ‫ؽ‬٤‫ووزاث‬ٝٛ‫ ادع‬ba‘ūḍat
al-a. anopheles
ٓ‫ آؽ‬ājin brackish (water)
‫ ثؽٕور‬ajanda notebook
‫ ثؿ‬aḥḥa u (aḥḥ) to cough
‫ ثفوو‬II to make into one, unite, unify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
VIII ‫ ثصقو‬see ‫فو‬ٚ
‫ ثفوو‬aḥad, f. ٜ‫ ثفوو‬one: somebody, someone,
anybody, anyone (esp. in negative
sentences and questions); ‫فووو‬٤‫ ث‬the One
(God); Sunday│ُ٘‫ ثفو‬aḥaduhum every one
of them; ‫فوو‬٤‫َاث‬ٛ‫و‬٠ yaum al-a. Sunday;‫اأفووا‬
‫ ثٌْعؿا‬a. as-sa‘af Palm Sunday;‫ٌرا‬ٕٚ‫اأفواثٌع‬
a. al-‘anṣara Whitsunday; ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ٌو‬٤‫ آفوواث‬āḥād
al-ulūf a few thousand (2-9000; as
distinguished from ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ٌو‬٤‫ عٖوٌثساث‬and ‫ِتوجسا‬
‫ؾ‬ٌٛ٤‫)ث‬
ٞ‫ ثفو‬aḥadī dominical, Sunday (adj.)
‫ز‬٠‫ ثفو‬aḥadīya unity, oneness
‫فو‬٢‫ ث‬al-āḥād the units (math.)
1
ٓ‫ اثف‬aḥina a (aḥan) to bate (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.)
‫ ثفٕوز‬iḥna pl. ٓ‫ ثفو‬iḥan old feud, deep-rooted
hatred
2
ٓ١‫ اثف‬see ‫ؿ‬ٚ‫اث‬
‫ ثك‬see ٛ‫اثم‬
‫ ثمش‬see ٛ‫اثم‬
‫ ثموي‬aḳaḍa u (aḳḍ) to take (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from or‫ا‬
out of): to take ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) along: to get,
receive, obtain (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from); to take
up, seize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to grab (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.),
take hold of (‫)ح‬: to perceive, notice (ٖ s.o.,
said of the eye); to gather, understand,
infer, deduce (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from), read ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) between the lines (ٓ‫ ِو‬of); to grip,
captivate, thrill, spellbind (‫ ح‬s.o.); to take
up, acquire, make one's own (‫ ح‬s.th., e.g.,
a method); to keep, adhere (‫ ح‬to),
observe, take over, adopt, embrace,
follow, copy, imitate (‫ ح‬s.th.); to accept
(‫ ح‬s.th.); to take, lead (ٝ‫ ح ثٌو‬s.o. to); to
admonish, urge, drive (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. to do s.th.);
to enjoin, impose (‫ ٖ ح‬on s.o. s.th.); to take
away (ٖ ٝ‫ عٍو‬from s.o. s.th.), strip, deprive
(ٖ ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o. of), cut off, bar (ٖ ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o. from);
to reproach, hlame (ٖ ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. for); to hold
against s.o. (ٝ‫ )عٍو‬that ... (ْ‫)ث‬, fix the blame
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on s.o., ْ‫ ث‬for the fact that); to
obligate (‫ ح‬ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o. to); to learn (ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ٓ‫عو‬
from s.o., ٘ s.th.), acquire knowledge (ٝ‫عٍو‬
or ٓ‫ ع‬from s.o.), ٗ‫'( أموياثٌعٍوُاعٕو‬ilm) to study
under s.o.; to begin, start (ٟ‫ ـو‬or ‫ ح‬with
s.th. or s.th., with foll. imperf.: to do s.th.),
prepare, set out, be about (ٟ‫ ـو‬or ‫ ح‬to do
s.th.) │ٗ‫ضووو‬ٙ‫( اأموووياأد‬uhbatahū) to make
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; ‫أمويا‬
‫ْا‬٩‫( ِبمووياـوو‬ma’ḳad) to adopt the same
course as s.o. else, follow s.o.‘s example; ‫ا‬
‫ أميإِٗاِبمويث‬to seize s.o., take possession of
s.o. (a sensation, or the like); ٖ‫أمووياِؾووٌث‬
(majrāhu) to take its course; ٗ‫أمووياِؾٍْوو‬
(majlisahū) to take one's seat, sit down;
ًٖ‫( أموياموي‬ḥidrahū) to be on one's guard;
ٕٝ‫( أمويٖادجٌقْو‬ḥusnā) to be friendly, be nice
to s.o.; ٌٖٟ‫( أمويادنوج‬bi-ḳāṯirihī) to show o.s.
complaisant toward s.o., try to please s.o.;
ٗ‫( أمويادئذو‬bi-danbihi) to punish s.o. for his
offense; ٗ‫وو‬٠‫( أمووياًأ‬ra'yahū) to ask s.o.‘s
opinion, consult s.o.; ٗ١ٍ‫اع‬ٞ‫( أمياثٌٌأ‬uḳida rra'yu) the matter was put to a vote; ‫أمويا‬
‫( دبّوذجح‬bi-asbābi) to embrace, adopt s.th.,
e.g., ‫وز‬١‫د‬ًٚ٤‫وجًراث‬ٞ‫( أمويادبّوذجحاثٌق‬ḥaḍāra) to
adopt European culture; ‫( أميادجٌٖور‬šidda) to
deal with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough
time; ٗ‫مو‬٠ٌٟ‫وٗا‬١ٍ‫ أموياع‬to obstruct s.o.‘s way,
hinder s.o. from moving on; ٗ‫اعجصم‬ٍٝ‫ أمياع‬to
shoulder s.th., take s.th. upon o.s.; ‫أمياثٌعوورا‬
‫‘( ي‬udda) to prepare, set out, get ready to
do s.th.; ‫ووث‬ٙ‫وٗاع‬١ٍ‫‘( أموياع‬ahdan) to put s.o.
under
an
obligation,
impose
a
commitment on s.o.; ‫ٓةاؼووٌر‬١‫ايفوو‬ٝ‫أمووياعٍوو‬
uḳida ‘alā (ḥīni) girratin to be taken by
surprise, be caught unawares; ‫أموويادجٌّمجدٍووز‬
(muqābala) to repay like for like; ‫بمويا‬٠‫ ا‬ٟٕ
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ثٌمٍو‬s.th. which captivates the heart, a
fascinating, thrilling thing; ٌ‫أموووئجاثٌّ ووو‬
(maṯarū) we got caught in the rain; ‫أمويا‬
ٌٖ‫و‬ٙ‫( دٕج‬bi-nāṣirihi) to help s.o., stand by
s.o., take care of s.o., look after s.o.; ‫أمويا‬
ٗ‫( ٔفْو‬nafasahū) to draw breath; ‫ووٗا‬١ٍ‫أموياع‬
ٗ‫ أٔفجّو‬to take s.o.‘s breath away; َٛ‫أموياثٌٕو‬
(naum) sleep overwhelmed him; ٖ‫ووو‬١‫أمووياد‬
(bi-yadihī) to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to
lay under a spell, enchant, bewitch (ٖ s.o.)
III to censure, blame (‫ح‬, ٝ‫ ٖ عٍوو‬s.o. for
s.th.); to punish (‫ح‬, ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. for); to hold
s.th. (ٝ‫ )عٍو‬against s.o. (ٖ), resent (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.
ٖ, in s.o.)│ٟٔ‫اصؤثموي‬٨‫ ا‬lā tu’āḳidnī pardon
me! forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII
‫ ثصنوي‬ittaḳada to take (ٖ s.th.); to take on,
assume ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to take up, occupy ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to pass, adopt ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., a resolution);
to take, single out, have in mind ( ‫٘و ٘و‬, ٖ ٖ
s.o. or s.th. as); to make use ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.),
use ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to imitate, affect ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g.,
s.o.‘s manner of speaking); to make (ٓ‫٘و ِو‬
s.th. out of s.o. or s.th.)│٩‫( اثصنويإوى‬šaklan)
to take on a form or shape; ‫لفووج‬ِٛ‫ثصنوويا‬
(mauqifan) to take an attitude, assume a
position; ‫ٍِوووز‬٨‫ٌاث‬١‫ ثصنوووياثٌضووووثد‬to take the
necessary measures; ‫( ثصنويالوٌثًث‬qarāran) to
pass or adopt a resolution; ‫وور‬٠‫ثلااثٌؾو‬ٌّٛ‫ثصنياث‬
to take up new positions (troops)
‫ أموي‬aḳd acceptance, reception; seizure;
taking out, taking away, removal, etc.│‫اأميا‬
‫ا‬ٞ‫ثٌوٌأ‬a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; ‫ًها‬ٚ‫( أمويا‬waradd) discussion, debate,
dispute,
argument; ‫اًهث‬٨ٚ‫مذوًاأمويثا‬٠‫ا‬٨‫ ا‬ٟ‫( ٕو‬yaqbalu)
an indisputable matter; ‫ع ووج‬ٚ‫( أموويا‬wa‘aṯā’) give-and-take; traffic, trade;
dealings,
relations
(esp.
business,
commercial); discussion, debate; fight,
battle
‫ أمير‬uḳda spell, charm
‫ي‬١‫ أم‬aḳīd prisoner of war
‫ير‬١‫ أم‬aḳīda booty, spoils
‫ أموووجىا‬aḳḳād captivating, fascinating,
thrilling
‫ ِبمووي‬ma’ḳad pl. ‫ ِ موويا‬ma’āḳid2 place
from which one takes s.th., source; O wall
socket, outlet (el.); adoption, borrowing,
loan; manner of acting, mode of
procedure, approach; pl. ‫ ِ مووويا‬source
references, bibliography (in booke);
reprehensible points, faults, flaws, defects,
shortcomings│‫لووٌح‬٤‫ اثٌّبمووياث‬the simplest,
easiest approach; ‫خاثٌّبموي‬٠ٌ‫ ل‬easy to handle
or to use; see wao aḳada (middle of
paragraph)
‫ا ِؤثمووير‬mu’āḳada objection, exception;
censure, blame│ !‫اِؤثمووير‬٨ ‫(ا‬mu’āḳadata)
pardon me! no offense, I hope!
‫ أمووي‬ma’ḳūd taken, seized; taken by
surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; taken
(‫ ح‬with), fascinated (‫ ح‬by); ٗ‫ىادو‬ٛ‫ا ِوبم‬in
force, valid
‫ىثس‬ٛ‫ ِوووبم‬ma’ḳūdāt receipts, takings,
returns (com.)
ٌ‫ ثم و‬II to delay, put off, defer, postpone,
adjourn ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to hinder, impede,
obstruct, hold up (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), slow
down, retard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to draw out, delay
(ٓ‫ ع‬s.th. beyond its appointed time); to put
back ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.), shelve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
set back ( ‫ ٘و‬a watch, a clock); to suspend,
discharge, dismiss, remove (ٖ s.o. from an
office) V to be late; to be delayed, fall or
lag behind (ٓ‫)عو‬, tarry, linger, hesitate; to
default (ٓ‫ عوو‬on), be behindhand, be in
arrears (ٓ‫ عو‬with), be behind (ٓ‫ عو‬in); to
hesitate (ٓ‫ عو‬with); to be suspended (from
service), be discharged, be dismissed│‫اٌوُا‬
ْ‫ضووبمٌادعووواىٌووهاِووٓاث‬٠ after that, he did not
hesitate long before he …, presently, he ...
ٌ‫ آمو‬āḳir pl. -ūn, -āt, ٌ‫ثمو‬ٚ‫ ث‬awaḳir2 last,
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close,
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); ‫ا‬
ٌ‫مو‬٢‫ ث‬and ‫موٌر‬٢‫ ث‬the hereafter│ ‫موٌر‬٢‫ثٌووثًاث‬
the abode in the hereafter, the everlasting
abode; ٌٖ‫اآمو‬ٝ‫اثٌو‬ilā ākīirihī and so forth, et
cetera; ٌ‫ِوو‬٤‫ آمووٌاث‬āḳir l-amri eventually,
finally, in the end, after all; ٌ٘‫ آموٌاثٌوو‬āḳir
d-dahri forever; ْ‫ آمووٌاثٌَِووج‬a. az-zamān
time at which the Day of Judgment is to
be expected, the end of the world; ٌٖ‫عوٓاآمو‬
to the last, down to the grass roots,
entirely, completely, e.g., ٌٖ‫هِوووٌاعوووٓاآمووو‬
(dummira) to be completely destroyed, be
wiped off the map; ٌٖ‫ ِوٓاآمو‬from behind,
from the rear; ٌ‫ ِجاٌٗاآم‬endless, infinite; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ٌ‫مو‬٢‫ آموٌاث‬after all, last of all; ٌٙ‫ثموٌاثٌٖو‬ٚ‫ ث‬a.
aš-šahr the end of the month, the last ten
days of the month; ‫ِاآموٌث‬١‫ٌو‬ٚ‫وٌثا‬١‫ ثم‬last but
not least
‫مٌر‬٢‫ ث‬al-āḳira the hereafter
ٌ‫ آمو‬āḳar 2, f. ٌٜ‫ ثمو‬uḳrā, pl. comm. ٌ‫ثمو‬
uḳar 2 (and ٌْٚ‫ آمووو‬āḳarūn or ‫وووجس‬٠ٌ‫ثم‬
respectively) another, one more, ٌ‫مو‬٢‫ ث‬the
other│ٌٜ‫( اٌِراثم‬marratan) once more; ‫ا‬ٟ٘
ٌٜ‫مو‬٤‫ث‬, ٌ‫مو‬٢‫اث‬ٛ‫ ٘و‬he also, she also, he in
turn, she in turn, ٌ‫مو‬٢‫ ثٔوجاث‬I also; ‫ثْاوجٔوشا‬
ٌٜ‫مو‬٤‫( ث‬in kānat) otherwise; ٌ‫اآمو‬ٝ‫ِوٓاآْاثٌو‬
from time to time; ‫ا‬ٌٜ‫اثمو‬ٝ‫( ِوٓاّوٕزاثٌو‬sana)
from year to year; ٌٜ‫ثموو‬ٚ‫ٓاـضووٌرا‬١‫( دوو‬fatra)
once in a while, from time to time;
ٌٜ‫ٔوووز―ثمووو‬ٚ‫( آ‬awinatan) sometimes -sometimes, at times -- at times
ٌٜ‫م‬٤‫ ث‬al-uḳrā the hereafter
ٌٞٚ‫ ثمو‬uḳrawī of or relating to the life to
come or the hereafter
ٌ‫ووو‬١‫ ثم‬aḳīr last; latest; rearmost; the
second of two; ‫وٌث‬١‫ ثم‬eventually, finally, in
the end, after all, at last; recently, the
other day; ٌ‫و‬١‫م‬٨‫ي―ث‬ٚ٤‫ اث‬the former—the
latter│‫ِاآمٌث‬١ٌٚ‫ٌثا‬١‫اثم‬last but not least
ً‫ ِتنوج‬mi’ḳār palm which retains its fruit
into the winter
ٌ١‫صووووووبم‬
ta’ḳīr
delay,
deferment,
postponement; obstruction, retardation;
putting back, temporary shelving
ٌ‫صووبم‬.f ta’aḳḳar delay, lag, retardation;
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness,
tardiness;
backwardness,
underdevelopment (of a country)
ٌ‫ ِوؤم‬mu’aḳḳar rear part, tail, end; atern
(of a ship); remainder, balance (of a sum,
to be paid later); ‫ ِوووؤمٌث‬mu’aḳḳaran
recently, lately, the other day; at last,
finally, eventually
‫ ِوؤمٌر‬mu’aḳḳara rear, rear guard (of an
army); rear positions or lines (mil.); stern
(of a ship)
ٌ‫ ِضوووبم‬muta’aḳḳir delayed, belated, late;
occurring later (ٓ‫ عوووو‬than); behind,
behindhand
in
arrears;
backward,
underdeveloped; lagging, staying behind;
defaulter; ٌْٚ‫ ثٌّضووبم‬the later, or modern,
authors, writers, or the like (as opposed to
ِْٛ‫ ثٌّضووبمٌثسا ;)ثٌّضموو‬arrears, balance of a
ُum remaining due after previous
payment│‫( اثٌذٍوووووثْاثٌّضووووبمٌر‬buldān) the
underdeveloped countries
ٟٛ‫ ثم ذ‬uḳṯubūṯ octopus
ٛ‫ ثمو‬III to fraternize, associate as brothers (ٖ
with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a
brother or friend VI to fraternize,
associate as brothers
‫ ثك‬aḳ pl. ٛ‫ ثمو‬iḳwa, ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثمو‬iḳwān brother;
fellow man, neighbor; friend; pl. ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ثم و‬
specif., brethren or members of an order;
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫مووو‬٦‫ ث‬religious brotherhood of the
Wahabi sect, militant in character,
established by Ibn Sa‗ūd in 1910│ٟ‫وجاأمو‬٠‫ا‬
my dear friend! ‫اعمووووز‬ٛ‫ ثموووو‬aḳū tiqa
trustworthy, reliable; ‫ك‬١‫ ثكإووووم‬brother
through both father and mother, brothergerman
‫هح‬٤‫ ث‬and ‫هح‬٤‫ُاث‬٠‫ عوو‬ill-mannered, ill-bred,
impolite, uncivil; ِٟ‫هحاثٌعوووج‬٤‫‘( ث‬āmmī)
popular literature; ‫هحا‬٤‫ ًؽوجياث‬literati, men
of letters; ‫هثح‬٢‫وزاث‬١ٍ‫ و‬kullīyat al-ā. (= faculté
des lettres) college of arts; ‫ آهثح‬rules, rules
of conduct, e.g., ‫ن‬ٍٛ‫ آهثحاثٌْووو‬rules of
decorum, etiquette; ‫هثح‬٢‫ ث‬decency, morals
ٟ‫اثهدوو‬adabī moral, ethic(al); literary│‫ا‬
ٟ‫ثؽوووخاثهدووو‬ٚ moral obligation; ‫وووج‬٠‫ِجه‬ٚ‫وووجا‬١‫ثهد‬
adabiyan wa-māddīyan morally and
physically; ‫ وز‬١‫هد‬٤‫( ثٌفٍْووفزاث‬falsafa) ethics,
moral science
‫ ثموش‬uḳt pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ثمو‬aḳawāt sister; (gram.)
cognate; counterpart│‫ووج‬ٙ‫ اثمض‬the other (of
two), its mate, its counterpart (after a fem.
noun)
‫جس‬١‫ ثهد‬adabīyāt lliterature, belles-lettres
‫ ثهدنجٔووز‬adabḳāna pl. -āt toilet, water
closet
ٞٛ‫ م‬ḳuwaiy little brother
ٞٛ‫ ثم‬aḳawi brotherly, fraternal
‫ووخ‬٠‫ ثه‬adīb pl. ‫ ثهدووج‬udabā’ cultured,
refined, educated; well.bred, wellmannered, civil, urbane; a. man of culture
and refined tastes; man of letters, writer,
author
‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ اثم‬aḳawīya brotherhood (as a
religious association)
‫ ثموووج‬iḳā’, ‫ر‬ٛ‫ ثمووو‬uḳūwa brotherhood,
brotherliness, fraternity
‫ذز‬٠‫ ثه‬adība authoress, writer
‫ر‬ٚ‫ ثموووج‬iḳāwa fraternization, fraternity,
brotherliness
‫ ِبهدوز‬ma’duba pl. ‫ ِو هح‬ma’ādib banquet,
formal dinner
‫ ص ك‬ta’āḳin fraternization
‫ووووخ‬٠‫ صبه‬ta’dīb education; discipline;
punishment, chastisement; disciplinary
punishment│‫ووووخ‬٠‫ ِؾٍووووِاثٌضبه‬majlis at-t.
disciplinary board
ًٛ‫ ثم‬aḳūr barn, stable
‫ ثه‬adda u i to befall, afflict (ٖ a.o.)
‫ ثِوٌاثه‬amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible
thing
‫ ثهح‬aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, wellmannered, cultured, urbane, have refined
tastes; ― adaba i (adb) to invite (to a
party or banquet, ٖ s.o.), entertain (ٖ s.o.)│‫ا‬
‫( ثهحاِبهدوز‬ma'duba) to arrange a banquet,
give a formal dinner II to refine, educate (ٖ
s.o.); to discipline, punish, ehastise (ٖ s.o.)
IV to invite as a guest (ٖ s.o.) V to receive
a fine education; to be well-bred, welleducated, cultured, have refined tastes; to
show o.s. polite, courteous, civil, urbane;
to educate o.s., refine one‘s tastes (‫ ح‬by,
through); to let o.s. be guided (‫ ح‬by)│‫ا‬
ٗ‫( صبهحادبهد‬bi-adabihi) to follow s.o.‘s moral
example
‫ ثهح‬adab pl. ‫ آهثح‬ādab culture,
refinement; good breeding, good manners,
social
graces,
decorum,
decency,
propriety,
seemliness;
humanity,
humaneness; the humanities; belleslettres│‫هح‬٤‫وشاث‬١‫ د‬toilet, water closet; ‫وًا‬١ٍ‫ل‬
ٟ‫ذ‬٠‫ صوووبه‬ta'dībī disciplinary; punitive,
retaliatory│‫وووووووووووووووووووز‬١‫ذ‬٠‫زاصبه‬١‫ووووووووووووووووووو‬ٞ‫(ال‬qaḍīya)
disciplinary action
‫ صوووبهح‬ta’addub good breeding, good
manners,
civility,
politeness,
courteousness, tact
‫ آهح‬ādib host
‫ ِوؤهح‬mu’addib pl. -ūn educator; teacher
in a Koranic school (Tun.); ― mu'addab
well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane
‫ ثهًر‬udra scrotal hernia
‫ ثهًٔوز‬adirna2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in NW
Turkey)
‫وه‬١‫جص‬٠‫ه‬٨‫( ث‬Fr. adriatique) al-adriyātīk and ‫دقوٌا‬
‫ه‬١‫جص‬٠‫ه‬٨‫ ث‬baḥr al-a. the Adriatic Sea
1
َ‫ اثه‬adama i (adm) to take some additional
food ( ‫ ٘و‬with the bread), enrich ( ‫ ٘و‬the
bread) with some extra food or condiment
َ‫ثهث‬
2
idām anything eaten with
shortening, fatty ingredient
bread;
duty),
realization,
effectuation,
accomplishment (of a task); rendition,
reading (e.g., of a musical composition);
fulfillment; payment│ ‫هث‬٤‫ افْوٓاث‬ḥusn al-a.
good rendition (of a work of art, of a
musical composition)
َ‫ ثه‬adam, adama skin
ُ‫وو‬٠‫ ثه‬adīm skin; surface; tanned skin,
leather│ًٛ٤‫ُاث‬٠‫ ثه‬a. al-arḍ the surface of
the earth
‫ووز‬٠‫ صبه‬ta’diya rendering (of a service);
pursuit, performance, execution, discharge
(of a duty), realization effectuation;
accomplishment (of a task); fulfillment;
payment
َ‫ ثهث‬addām tanner
3
َ‫ آه‬ādam2 Adam│َ‫ ثدٓاآه‬human being
ٟ‫ آهِووو‬ādamī human; humane; poor,
inferior, meager; (pl. -ūn, (َ‫ثه‬ٚ‫ ث‬awadim2)
human being
‫ووز‬١ِ‫ آه‬ādamīya humaneness, humanity;
humanism
‫ ثهثر‬adāh pl. ‫ثس‬ٚ‫ ثه‬adawāt tool; instrument;
utensil, implement, device, appliance;
apparatus; (gram.) particle│ُ‫ اثهثراثٌقىو‬a. alḥukm machinery of government; ‫ثهثرا‬
‫وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ ثٌضع‬definite article (gram.); ‫وز‬٠‫ي‬١‫ثهثراثٌضٕف‬
(tanfīdīya) executive agency; pl. materials,
equipment, gear, ‫وز‬١‫ثسافٌد‬ٚ‫( ثه‬ḥarbīya) war
material; ‫وز‬١ٟ‫ج‬١ ‫ساثف‬ٚ‫ث‬ٚ‫( ثه‬iḥtiyāṯīya) standby equipment (techn.); ‫وووووز‬١ٌَِٕ‫ثسا‬ٚ‫ثه‬
(manzilīya) household utensils, household
effects
ٜ‫ ِووووؤه‬mu’addan assignment, task,
function; sense, meaning, signification,
import, underlying idea
‫ ثى‬id 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and)
then; ‫ إىاىثن‬id dāka (also written ‫ )إىثن‬then,
at that time, at the same time, in doing so;
2. (conj.; temp. and caus.) as, when; since,
as, the more so as, because; ْ‫ ثىاث‬id anna
since, as, in view of the fact that; for,
because
1
‫ اثىث‬1. (introducing a nominal clause the
subject of which may he expressed by ‫ح‬
with foll. genit.) and then, and all of a
sudden; (with noun in nominative case or
with ‫ )ح‬there was … and all of a sudden
there was …; 2. (conj.) when; if,
whenever; whether, if (introducing
indirect questions); ‫ ثىثاِوج‬when, whenever;
‫اثىث‬٨‫( ث‬illā) unless if not; except when
2
‫ )ثىْ( اثىث‬idan then, therefore, in that case,
hence, consequently
ْٚ‫ه‬٤‫ ث‬al-adōn (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr. ... (Isr.)
ٜ‫ ثه‬II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer,
channel ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ ‫ ح‬s.o., s.th., ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), see that
s.o. or s.th. ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ or ‫ )ح‬gets to (ٝ‫ ;)ثٌو‬to
bring about, cause, effect, produce (ٝ‫ثٌوو‬
s.th.); to lead, contribute, be conducive
(ٝ‫ ثٌووو‬to a result); to amount, come
practically (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to); to tend (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to), aim (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
at); to carry out, execute, discharge ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to perform ( ‫ ٘و‬a ritual, etc.); to do
(ٗ‫ثؽذوو‬ٚ wājibahū one‘s duty); to fulfill
(‫فووز‬١‫ظ‬ٚ a function, ‫ ًّووجٌز‬a mission); to
accomplish (‫ز‬٠ًِٛ‫ ِب‬a task); to take (‫ٕوج‬١ّ٠ an
oath; ‫ ثِضقجٔووج‬an examination); to render
(‫ موِز‬ḳidmatan a service, ‫ ي‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.o.; ‫٘و‬
e.g., a meaning, a musical composition,
etc.)│ٜ‫( ثه‬salām) to greet, salute V to
lead, be conducive, contribute (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to
results); to be carried out, be performed,
be accomplished; to 10 arrive (ٝ‫ إٌو‬at), be
lead (ٝ‫ إٌو‬to) X to demand, claim ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬from
s.o. s.th.)
‫ ثهث‬adā’ pl. -āt (as verbal noun of II)
rendering (of a service); pursuit,
performance, execution, discharge (of a
ً‫ آىث‬ādār2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.)
1
ْ‫ ثى‬adina a to listen (ٝ‫ إٌو‬to s.o..); to allow,
permit (ٟ‫ ي ـو‬s.o. s.th.); to hear, learn (‫ ح‬of
s.th.), be informed (‫ ح‬about) II to call (‫ح‬
to), esp. to call to prayer (‫ر‬٩‫و‬ٌٚ‫ ;)دج‬to crow
(rooster) IV to announce, make known (‫ح‬
s.th., ‫ ٖ اح‬to s.o. s.th.), inform, notify (ٖ
s.o.); to call to prayer; to call upon s.o. (ٖ),
urge, admonish, exhort (ٖ s.o..) to do s.th.
(‫ ;)ح‬to herald (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
foreshadow (‫ ح‬s.th.); to be on the verge
(ْ‫ ث‬of doing s.th..)│ٟٛ‫ثي( اآىْادجٌْووم‬ٌَٚ‫)دووج‬
(zawāl) to show signs of the imminent
downfall (end); ‫وجؾ‬ٚ‫وًادجٔض‬١ٌٍ‫( آىْاث‬lailu bintiṣāf) it was close to midnight V to
herald, announce (‫ ح‬s.th.) X to ask
permission (ٟ‫ ـ‬to do s.th., rarely ‫ ;)ح‬to ask
permission to enter (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.'s house), have
o.s. announced (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.); to take leave
(ِٓ of s.o.), say good-by (ِٓ to)
ْ‫ ثى‬idn permission, authorization; ‫دوجىْا‬
if God choose, God willing; (pl. ْٚ‫ ثى‬udūn,
‫ٔوجس‬ٚ‫ ثى‬udūnāt) (postal) order│‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ اثىْاثٌذ‬pl.
‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ٔوجساثٌذ‬ٚ‫ ثى‬postal money order; ٗ‫ّوض‬ٛ‫ثىْاثٌذ‬
do.
ِٝ‫ آًث‬ārāmī Aramaean; Aramaic
‫ ثًح‬ariba a (arab) to be skillful, proficient (‫ح‬
in s.th.); -- araba i to tighten ( ‫ ٘و‬a knot) III
to try to outwit (ٖ s.o.)
‫ ثًح‬arab pl. ‫ آًثح‬ārāb wish (ٟ‫ ـو‬for),
desire, need (ٟ‫ ـو‬of s.th.); purpose. aim,
goal, end
ْ‫ ثى‬udun, udn pl. ْ‫ آىث‬ādan ear; handle
(of a cup)│ٝ ‫ّووو‬ٌٛ‫ىْاث‬٨‫وووجحاث‬ٙ‫( اثٌض‬wusṯā)
middle-ear infection, otitis media (med.)
‫ ثًح‬irb pl. ‫ آًثح‬ārāb limb│‫َِلوٗاثًدوجاثًدوج‬
(mazzaqahū) to tear s.th. to pieces or to
shreds
ْ‫ ثىث‬adān call to prayer
‫ ثًدوووووز‬irba skill,
cleverness, smartness
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ ثى‬udaina little ear; ear lobe
‫ ِبىٔ وز‬ma’dana, ‫ ِتئ وز‬midana pl. ْ‫ِ و ى‬
ma’ādin2 minaret
‫ ثًدز‬urba pl. ‫ ثًح‬urab knot, bow
‫ وخ‬٠ً‫ ث‬arīb skillful, resourceful, clever,
intelligent
ْ‫ووويث‬٠‫ ث‬idān declaration, proclamation,
announcement (‫ ح‬of s.th..)│‫ووج ا‬ٙ‫ وئجادجٔض‬٠‫اث‬
‫ظ‬٠‫ ثٌقوو‬indicating that the conversation is
(was) ended
ْٚ‫ ِووبى‬ma’dūun authorized; slave with
limited legal rights (Isl. Law); = ‫ْا‬ٚ‫ِوبى‬
ٟ‫( ٕووٌع‬šar‘ī) official authorized by the
cadi to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law)
‫وز‬١ٔٚ‫ ِبى‬ma’dūnīya leave, furlough (mil.
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.)
ْ‫ ِوؤى‬mu’addin muezzin, announcer of
the hour of prayer
2
ْ‫ ثى‬idan see ‫ثىث‬
ٜ‫ ثى‬adiya a to suffer damage, be harmed IV to
hs.rm, hurt, wrong (ٖ s.o.); to molest,
annoy, irritate, trouble (ٖ s.o.)│ٞ‫وؤى‬٠‫ا‬٨ lā
yu’dī innocuous, harmless, inoffensive V
to suffer damage, be wronged; to feel
offended, be hurt
ٜ‫ ثى‬adan, ‫ ثىثر‬adāh, ‫وز‬٠‫ ثى‬adīya damage,
harm;
injury;
trouble,
annoyance,
grievance, wrong, offense, insult
‫وز‬٠‫ ثىث‬idāya damage, harm, harmfulness,
noxiousness
‫ووويث‬٠‫ ث‬īdā’ harm, damage, prejudice;
offense,. hurt; grievance, nuisance
‫ ِوؤى‬mu’din hurtful, harmful, injurious,
detrimental,
prejudicial;
annoying,
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting,
offensive, insulting
ٟ‫مو‬١‫ ثًثص‬arātīqī and ٟ‫ىو‬١‫ ثًثص‬pl. ‫ ثًثصموز‬arātiqa a
heretic (Chr.)
resourcefulness,
‫ ِووبًح‬ma’rab pl. ‫ ِو ًح‬ma’ārib2 wish,
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim,
goal, end
ً‫و‬١‫ ثًد‬arbīl Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city in N
Iraq)
ٍٞ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثًص‬artuwaāzī artesian (well)
1
‫ ثًط‬II to sow dissension (ٓ١‫ د‬between, among)
2
‫ ثًط‬irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of
inheritance)
ٟ‫ىوْوو‬ٛ‫ ثًع‬urtūduksī orthodox; ‫ز‬١‫ىوْوو‬ٛ‫ًع‬٨‫ ث‬the
Orthodox Church
ٟ‫ىوْو‬ٛ‫ًع‬٨‫َاث‬ٌٚ‫ ثٌو‬ar=rūm al-urtūduksī the
Greek Orthodox Church
‫ ثًػ‬arija a (araj, ‫ؼ‬٠ً‫ ث‬arīj) to be fragrant V do.
‫ ثًػ‬araj fragrance, sweet smell
‫ ثًػ‬arij fragrant, sweet-smelling
‫ؼ‬٠ً‫ ث‬arīj fragrance, sweet smell
‫ ثًؽـ‬II ta’arjaḥa to rock, swing
‫ ِضبًؽـ‬muta'arjiḥ fluctuating
ٓ١‫ًؽٕض‬٨‫ ث‬al-arjantīn Argentina
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثًؽ‬urjuwān purple
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثًؽ‬urjuwānī purple(-colored)
ٍٛ‫ ثًؽو‬popular spelling (eg.) of ٍٛ‫’ لوٌٖاؽو‬aragōz
(q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy show)
‫ ثًك‬II to date ( ‫ ٘و‬a letter, and the like, ‫ ح‬with a
date); to write the history of s.th. ( ٘)
‫ل‬٠ً‫ صوج‬ta'rīḳ dating (of a letter, etc.); ta'rīḳ
pl. ‫ل‬٠ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ صوو‬tawārīḳ2 date; time; history;
chronicle, annals│‫ووجر‬١‫لاثٌق‬٠ً‫ اصووج‬t. al-ḥayāh
biography; curriculum vitae; َ‫لاعوووج‬٠ً‫صوووج‬
(‘āmm) world history; ‫ل‬٠ً‫ عٍّووج اثٌضووج‬the
historians
ٟ‫ن‬٠ً‫ صج‬tārīḳī historic(al)
‫ ِووؤًك‬mu'arriḳ pl. -ūn historiographer,
historian, chronicler, annalist; -- mu’arraḳ
dated
the ground, ground (adj.);
underground, subterranean
earthly;
ٟ‫و‬ٕٛ‫ا‬ًٟٝ‫ ث‬arḍī šaukī artichoke
ًٛ‫ ث‬araḍ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬termite;
woodworm
‫ز‬١ًٝ‫ ث‬arḍīya pl. -āt floor; ground (also, e.g., of
a printed fabric, of a painting); ground
floor, first floor (tun.); storage, warehouse
charges
ً١‫ ثًمذ‬arḳabīl archipelago
ٌَٚ‫ووو‬ًٝ‫ ث‬arḍurum2 Erzurum (city in NE
Turkey)
ٓ‫( ثًمو‬άρχων) pl. ‫ ثًثمٕووز‬arāḳina archon, pl.
notables (Chr.-Copt.)
‫ووز‬ًٟ‫( ث‬also ‫ووز‬ًٟٚ‫ )ث‬urṯa pl. ًٟ‫ ث‬uraṯ (ًٟٚ‫)ث‬
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.)
‫ ثًهح‬irdabb (now usually pronounced
ardabb)pl. ‫ ثًثهح‬arādib2 ardeb, a dry
measure (Eg.; = 1981)
‫ ثًهدز‬irdabba cesspool
ْ‫ًه‬٨‫ ث‬al-urdunn Jordan (river and country)
ٟ‫ ثًهٔو‬urdunni Jordanian│‫وزا‬١ٔ‫ًه‬٨‫اثٌٍّّىوزاث‬
‫ز‬١ّ‫جٕو‬ٌٙ‫ ث‬al-mamlaka al-u. al-hāšimīya the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official
designation)
ٍ‫ث‬ٚ‫( ثًه‬Fr. ardoise) arduwāz slate
1
2
ًٍ‫ اث‬arz (n. un. ‫ )ر‬cedar
ًٍ‫ اث‬aruzz rice
ًُ‫ ث‬arasa i (ars) to till the land
ِ٠ً‫ ث‬irrīs and arīs peasant, farmer
ٟٟ‫ ثًّضمٌث‬aristuqrāṯī aristocratic; ristocrat
‫مز‬ًٟ‫ ث‬arṯaqa pl. -āt heresy (Chr.)
‫ا‬٠ً‫ صج‬see ‫ا‬٠ً
ٓ‫ ثًؼ‬urgun pl. ٓ‫ ثًثؼ‬aragin2 organ (mus. instr.)
‫ي‬ًٚ‫ ث‬urgūl, argūl a wind instrument (related to
the clarinet, consisting of two pipes of
unequal length)
‫ ثًق‬ariqa a to find no sleep II to make
sleepless (ٖ s.o.), prevent s.o. (ٖ) from
sleeping
‫ ثًق‬araq sleeplessness, insomnia
‫ىز‬٠ً‫ ث‬arika pl. ‫ ثًثةه‬arā’ik2 couch, sofa; throne
‫ٍوز‬١‫ ثًو‬argīla pl. ً‫و‬١‫ ثًثو‬arāgīl2 (syr.) water pipe,
narghile
ٞ‫ ثًٌٕو‬irlandī Irish
1
‫ز‬١ٟ‫ ثًّضمٌث‬aristuqrāṯīya aristocracy
ًَ‫ ث‬urram molar teeth│ًَ٨‫افووووٌقاث‬
(ḥarraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger)
ٛ ًّ‫ ث‬arisṯū Aristotle
ًٓ‫ ث‬arš indemnity, amercement, fine, penalty;
blood money (for the shedding of blood;
Isl. Law)
ِ‫د‬ٛ‫اثدْم‬ًٟٕ‫( ث‬Gr. ὰρχιεπίσϰοπος) archbishop
‫ق‬ٚ‫و‬١‫( ثًٕووو‬Fr. archiduc) archduke, ‫لز‬ٚ‫و‬١‫ثًٕووو‬
archduchess
ًٛ‫ ث‬arḍ f., pl. ٛ‫ ثًث‬arāḍīn, ْٛ‫و‬ٝ‫ ثًث‬arāḍūn
earth; land, country, region, area; terrain,
ground, soil│ٍٝ‫اثٌْوووف‬ًٛ٨‫( اث‬suflā) the
nether world; ‫اثٌّموّووز‬ًٛ٨‫( ث‬muqaddasa)
the Holy Land, Palestine
ٟ‫و‬ًٝ‫ ث‬arḍī terrestrial, of the earth; soil-,
land- (in compounds); situated on or near
ًَ‫ اث‬arama i to bite
‫ِوز‬ًٚ‫ ث‬arūma, urūma root, origin; stump
of a tree
ٌَ‫ ِت‬mi'ram root (of a tooth)
2
َ‫اآًث‬ārām (= َ‫ )ثًث‬pl. of ُ‫ ًةوو‬ri'm) white
antelopes
ًِٓ٨‫ ث‬al-arman the Armenians
ًِٟٕ‫ ث‬armanī Armenian (adj. and n.)
‫ج‬١ٕ١ًِ‫ ث‬armēniyā Armenia
ٟٚ‫ًٔج‬٨‫ ث‬al-arnāwuṯ the Albanians
ٟٟٚ‫ ثًٔج‬arnāwuṯī Albanian
‫ ثًٔوووخ‬arnab f., pl. ‫ ثًثٔوووخ‬arānib2 hare;
rabbit│ٞ‫( ثًٔخإ٘و‬hindī) guinea pig
‫ ثًٔذز‬arnaba female hare, doe│‫ٔوؿ‬٨‫اثًٔذزاث‬
a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, muzzle (of
an animal)
‫ ثٍق‬azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do.
‫ ِوبٍق‬ma'ziq pl. ‫ ِو ٍق‬ma’āziq2 narrow
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottleneck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical
situation, also ‫( ِبٍقافٌػ‬ḥarij)
‫ووه‬١ًٔ‫( ث‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ووه‬١ٔ‫ ثًث‬arānīk2
pattern, model; form, blank
‫دج‬ًٚ‫ ث‬urubbā Europe
‫ ثٍي‬azl pl. ‫آٍثي‬
āzāl eternity (without
beginning), sempiternity
ٟ‫د‬ًٚ‫ ث‬urubbī European (adj. and n.)
1
ًٜ‫ ث‬ary honey
ٌٍٟ‫ ث‬azali eternal, sempiternal
2
ًٜ‫ آ‬ārī Aryan
‫ز‬١ٌٍ‫ ث‬azalīya sempiternity, eternity
ٍَ‫ ث‬V to be or become critical, come to a head
(situation, relations)
‫ز‬٠ً‫ آ‬ārīya Aryanism
‫قج‬٠ً‫ ث‬arīḥā Jericho
‫ ثٍِز‬azma pl. azamāt emergency; crisis│‫ا‬
‫ز‬٠ً‫ٍث‬ٚ‫( ثٍِزاا‬wizāriya) cabinet crisis
ٍ‫ ث‬azza u i (َ‫و‬٠ٍ‫ ث‬aziz) to simmer; to hum, buzz;
to whiz, hiss; to fizzle; to wheeze
ٍَ‫ صب‬ta'azzum: ‫ صوبٍَاثٌقجٌوز‬t. al-hāla critical
development, aggravation of the situation
َ‫ووووو‬٠ٍ‫ ث‬azīz hum(ming), buzz(ing);
whizzing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets)
1
‫ اثٍح‬azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water)
2
‫ ِتَثح‬mi'zāb pl. ‫خ‬٠ٍ ِ ma'āzīb and ‫َثح‬١ِ
mīzāb pl. ‫ووخ‬٠ٍ‫ج‬١ِ mayāzīb2 drain; gutter,
eaves trough
2
ٍَٚ‫ ِب‬ma'zūm victim of a crisis
ٌ‫و‬١ٍِ‫ ث‬izmīr2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea-port
in W Turkey)
ً١ٍِ‫ ث‬izmīl pl. ً١ِ‫ ثٍث‬azāmīl 2 chisel
‫س‬ٍٚ‫( ث‬Engl.) azōt azote, nitrogen
‫ ثٍح‬izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man
ٟ‫ص‬ٍٚ‫ ث‬azōtī nitrogenous
‫ٍده‬٨‫ ث‬al-uzbak the Uzbeks
ًٍ‫ ث‬azara i (azr) to surround ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to
clothe (ٖ s.o. with an ً‫ ثٍث‬izār q.v.); to
cover, wrap up (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
strengthen, brace (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to help
(ٖ s.o.); to support, back up, strengthen (ٖ
s.o.) V and VIII to put on an izār (see
below), wrap s.o. in an izār VI to help
each other; to rally, unite, join forces
ًٍ‫ ث‬azr strength│ًٍٖ‫ إواث‬šadda azrahū or ‫ٕوآِا‬
ًٍٖ‫( ث‬min azrihi) to help, support,
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; šadda azruhū
to be energetic, vigorous, lusty,
courageous
ً‫ ثٍث‬izār m. and f., pl. ًٍ‫ ث‬uzur
loincloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering,
cover
ًَ‫ ِتو‬mi’zar pl. ًٍ ‫ ِو‬ma’āzīr2 apron;
wrapper, covering, cover
‫ِووووؤثًٍر‬
mu’āzara
assistance, backing
support,
aid,
ًٍ ‫ ص‬ta’āzur mutual assistance
‫ ثٍؾ‬azila a (awaf, ‫ؾ‬ٍٚ‫ ث‬uzūf) to come,
approach, draw near (a time)
ٍٜ‫ ث‬III to be opposite s.th. (ٖ), face (ٖ s.o., ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
‫ ثٍث‬izā’a (prep.) opposite, face to face
with, facing; in front of; in the face of
(e.g., of a situation); as compared with;
‫ دوجٍث‬bi-izā’i opposite, face to face with,
facing; in front of; ‫اثٍث‬ٝ‫‘ عٍو‬alā izā’i in the
face of (e.g., of a situation)
1
ُ‫ آ‬ās myrtle
2
ُ‫ آ‬pl. -āt ace (playing card)
3
ُ‫ آ‬II to found, establish, set up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), lay
the foundation ( ‫ ٘و‬for) V to be founded, be
established, he set up
ُ‫ ث‬foundation, basis; exponent of a
power (math.)
ُ‫ ث‬asās pl. ِ‫ ثّو‬usus foundation (also,
of a building), fundament, groundwork,
ground, basis; keynote. Tonic (mus.)│‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ُ‫( ثّوج‬with foll. genit.) on the basis of, on
the strength of, on account of, according
to; ‫وووقز‬ٌٚ‫اثّوووجُاٌوووٗاِوووٓاث‬٨ (asāsa, ṣiḥḥa)
completely unfounded (news, rumor)
ٟ‫ ثّجّووووو‬asāsī fundamental, basic;
elementary; essential; principal, chief,
main│‫ه‬ٛ‫فؾووووٌاثّوووو‬
foundation stone
‫جس‬١‫ثّجّووووووو‬
principles
(ḥajar)
asāsīyāt
ٌٟٛ‫ ثّضجٔذ‬istanbūlī of Istanbul
cornerstone,
fundamentals,
‫ّوضجٔز‬٢‫ ث‬al-āsitāna, ‫ّوضجٔز‬٨‫ ث‬al-astāna, al-istāna
Constantinople, Istanbul
‫ ثّضذٌق‬istabraq brocade
ِ١‫ صبّوووو‬ta'sīs founding, foundation,
establishment, setting up, institution;
grounding, laying of the substructure
(arch.); pl. -āt facilities, utilities;
institutions
ِ١‫ صبّووو‬ta'sīsī founding; foundational,
fundamental│ٟ‫ْووووووو‬١ّ‫اِؾٍوووووووِاصب‬
(majlis)
constituent assembly
ِّ‫ ِؤ‬mu'assis founder
‫ ِؤّْووز‬mu’assasa pl. -āt foundation,
establishment; firm (com.); institution;
organization
ْ‫ّذج‬٨‫ ث‬al-asbān, al-isbān the Spaniards
ٟٔ‫ ثّذج‬isbānī Spanish; (pl. -ūn) Spaniard
ٟ‫ؾ‬١‫ ثّضٌثص‬istrātījī strategic
ٌٟ‫ ثّضٌث‬usturālī Australian
‫ج‬١ٌ‫ ثّضٌث‬usturālīyā Australia
ٟٕ١ٌٌ‫ ثّوض‬istarlīnī sterling│ٟٕ١ٌٌ‫ووٗاثّوض‬١ٕ‫ اؽ‬pound
sterling; ٟٕ١ٌٌ‫ّوووض‬٨‫ ِٕ موووزاث‬minṯaqat al-i.
sterling area
‫ ثّضّجًر‬see ٌِ‫اث‬
‫دز‬ٛ‫( ثّض‬It. stoppa) tow, oakum; cotton waste
ٛ٠‫ه‬ٛ‫( ثّوض‬It.-Engl. studio) istūdiyō pl. ‫٘جس‬ٛ٠‫ه‬ٛ‫ثّوض‬
istūdiyōhāt studio; atelier
ٌُٛٙ‫و‬ٛ‫ ثّض‬istokholm Stockholm
‫ج‬١ٔٛ‫( ثّض‬Engl.) istōniyā Estonia
‫ ثّذجٔل‬isbānaḳ spinach
‫ش‬١‫جص‬١‫ ثّض‬I istiyātīt steatite, soapstone (min.)
‫ج‬١ٔ‫ ثّذج‬isbāniyā Spain
‫ػ‬ّٛ‫ ث‬look up alphabetically
‫ ثّوذوثػ‬isbidāj and ‫وثػ‬١‫ ثّووذ‬isbīdāj white lead,
ceruse
‫ ثّوو‬X to display the courage of a lion (ٝ‫عٍو‬
against)
ٛ‫( ثّذٌص‬It. spirito) isbirto alcohol
‫ ثّوو‬asad pl. ‫ ثّوو‬usud, usd, ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ثّو‬usūd, ‫ آّوجه‬āsād
lion; Leo (astron.)│‫ّوووو‬٨‫ اهث اث‬leontiasis
(med.)
‫ ز‬١ٍ‫ ثّذ‬isbalīṯa epaulet
‫ ثّش‬see 1‫ّش‬
1
ٟ‫ى‬١‫ ثّضجص‬istātīkī static (el.)
‫( ثّضجه‬Fr. stade) istād stadium
‫ ثّوضجى‬ustād pl. ‫ ثّوجصير‬asātida master; teacher;
professor (academic title); form of address
to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists,
officials, writers and poets); ledger
(com.)│ُ‫عروووو‬٤‫ّووووضجىاث‬٨‫( اث‬a‘ẓam) Grand
Master (of a lodge); ٌ‫وذو‬٤‫ّوضجىاث‬٨‫ ث‬title of the
Rector of Al Azhar University; ٟ‫ثّوضجىاوٌّو‬
(kursī; Eg.) and ٟ‫( ثّووضجىادىٌّوو‬Syr.) full
professor; ٟ‫اوٌّوو‬٩‫( ثّووضجىادوو‬Syr.) associate
professor; ‫( ثّضجىاِضفٌغ‬mutafarrig;Eg.) parttime professor (holding an office outside
the university); ‫( ثّوووضجىاِْوووجعو‬musā‘id)
assistant professor (Eg.; Syr.); ٌ‫ثّووضجىاٍثةوو‬
(Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; ‫اثٌؾووي‬ٟ‫ثّجصيراـ‬
(jadal) they are masters of disputation
‫ز‬٠‫ثّوووووووووضجى‬
ustādīya
professorship, professorate
mastership;
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثّضجٔذ‬istanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople
ٌ‫ ثّو‬asara i (asr) to bind, fetter, shackle,
chain (ٖ s.o.); to capture, take prisoner (ٖ
s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold
spellbound (ٖ s.o.), absorb, arrest ( ‫ ٘و‬the
attention) X to surrender, give s.o. up as
prisoner
ٌ‫ ثّو‬asr (leather) strap, thong; capture;
captivity│ٌ‫ّوو‬٨‫ٕوووراث‬
šiddat al-a. vigor,
energy
‫ ثّوٌر‬usra pl. ٌ‫ثّوو‬
usar, -āt family;
dynasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; -- asirra
see ٌ٠ٌّ
ٌٖ‫ دجّووو‬bi-asrihī entirely, completely,
altogether, ٌُ٘‫ثادجّو‬ٚ ‫ ؽوج‬all of them came,
they came one and all
ً‫ ثّوج‬isār (leather) strap, thong; captivity;
captivation, enthrallment│ًٖ‫اثّوج‬ٟ‫لوااـو‬ٚ‫ ا‬to
be subjected to s.th., fall into the clutches
of s.th.
ٌ١‫ ثّو‬asīr pl. ‫ ثّوٌث‬usarā2, ٌٜ‫ ثّو‬asrā,
ًٜ‫ ثّوج‬asārā prisoner, captive, prisoner of
war
bad! ‫ّ وؿ‬٩ٌ‫ووجا‬٠ٚ wa-yā lal-asafi (or only
‫ّوؿ‬٩ٌ) unfortunately; ‫ّوؿ‬٨‫ ِوااث‬and ‫دىوًاثّوؿ‬
bi-kulli asafin do.
‫ٌر‬١‫ ثّو‬asīra pl. -āt female prisoner, slave
girl
‫ ثّوؿ‬asifa and ‫ؿ‬١‫ ثّو‬asīf regretful, sorry,
sad, grieved, distressed
ٌ‫آّوووووو‬
āsir
winning,
fascinating; captor
captivating,
ًٛ‫ ِبّووو‬ma’sūr captivated, fascinated,
enthralled (‫ ح‬by)
2
‫ ثٌّر‬asirra see ٌ٠ٌّ
3
‫ًر‬ّٛ‫ ِب‬look up alphabetically
ً١‫ ثّوٌثة‬isrā’īl2 Israel│ً١‫اثّوٌثة‬ٛ‫ ادٕوو‬banū i. the
Israelites; ‫ز‬١ٍ١‫ٌوزاثّوٌثة‬ٚ‫ ه‬daulat i. the State of
Israel
ٍٟ١‫ ثّوووٌثة‬isrā’īlī Israelitish; Israelite;
Israeli (adj, and n.); ‫جس‬١ٍ١‫ ثٌّثة‬Judaica
ً١‫ ثّووٌثـ‬isrāfīl 2 Israfil, the angel who will
sound the trumpet on the day of
Resurrection
‫ ثٌّح‬usrub lead (metal)
‫ صبّؿ‬ta'assuf regret
‫ آّوؿ‬āsif regretful, sorry, sad│‫وٌا‬١‫اصٌوضوٗاؼ‬
‫( آّوؿ‬gaira āsifin) I left him without regret,
I was only too glad to leave him
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ؾاع‬ٛ‫ ِبّو‬ma’sūf ‘alaihi mourned (esp.
of a dead person, = the late lamented)
‫ ِؤّؿ‬mu’sif distressing, sad, regrettable
‫ ِضبّووؿ‬muta’assif sad, sorry, regretful;
!‫ ِضبّؿ‬sorry!
‫ ثّووفجٔجك‬isfānāk and ‫ ثّووفجٔل‬isfānaḳ spinach│‫ا‬
ٟ‫ِو‬ًٚ‫( ثّوفجٔجكا‬rūmī) garden orach (Atriplex
hortensis, bot.)
‫ ثّفٍش‬asfalt asphalt
‫ ثّفٕؼ‬isfanj,isfunj sponge
ٟ‫ ثّفٕؾ‬isfanjī spongy; porous
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثّ جٔذ‬isṯanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople
ْ‫ ثّفٕوث‬isfindān maple (bot.)
ً‫ ثّ ذ‬isṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn
‫وثػ‬١‫ ثّف‬isfīdāj; white lead, ceruse
‫( ثّ ذز‬It. stoppa) usṯubba tow, oakum
ٓ١‫ ثّف‬isfīn pl. ٓ١‫ ثّجـ‬asāfīn2 wedge
‫ح‬٨ٌ ّ‫ ث‬asṯurlāb astrolabe
ِ‫ ثّ م‬isṯaqīs pl. -āt element
‫ثٔجس‬ٛ ‫ ثّ و‬usṯuwāna pl. -āt column (arch.);
cylinder (math.; of an engine);
phonograph record; -- pl. ٓ١ٟ‫ ثّوج‬asāṯīn2
high-ranking, prominent personalities;
stars, celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g.,
of art: ٓ‫ٓاثٌف‬١ٟ‫ ثّج‬a. al-fann)
ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ ّ‫ ث‬usṯuwānī cylindric(al)
‫ًر‬ٛ ‫ ثّو‬usṯūra pl. ٌ١ٟ‫ ثّوج‬asāṯīr legend, fable,
tale, myth, saga
ًٞٛ ّ‫ ث‬usṯūrī fabulous, mythical, legendary
2
ٟٟٛ‫ ثّومٌد‬isqarbūṯī: ٟٟٛ‫اثّومٌد‬ٌٛ‫( ِو‬maraḍ)
scurvy (med.)
‫ ثّ ومؿ‬usquf pl. ‫ ثّ وجلفز‬asāqifa, ‫ ثّ وجلؿ‬asāqif2
bishop│‫ّجلفز‬٨‫ِاث‬١‫ اًة‬archbishop
ٟ‫ ثّمف‬usqufī Episcopal
‫ز‬١‫ ثّمف‬usqufīya episcopate, bishopric
ٌّٞ‫ ثّم‬usqumrī, isqumrī mackerel (zool.)
ً١‫ ثّوم‬isqīl an Oriental variety of sea onion
(Scilla)
ٔ‫( ثّىض‬Engl.) isketš sketch
‫ ثّىضٍٕوث‬iskotlandā Scotland
‫ي‬ٛ ّ‫ ث‬usṯūl pl. ً١ٟ‫ ثّج‬asāṯīl fleet; squadron
ٞ‫ ثّىضٍٕو‬iskotlandī Scottish, Scotch
□ ٝ ‫ ثّ و‬usṯā (colloq. for ‫ )ثّ وضجى‬pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ ‫ثّ و‬
usṯawāt master; foreman, overseer; also
form of address to those in lower callings,
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc.
‫ ثّووووىٍز‬iskila pl. ً‫ ثّووووجو‬asākil2
commercial center (in the East)
‫ ثّؿ‬asifa a (asaf) to regret (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ي‬s.th.), feel
sorry (ٍٝ‫ ع‬for), be sad (ٍٝ‫ ع‬about) V do
‫ٔز‬ًٚ‫ ثّووىٕو‬iskandarūna2 Iskenderon (formerly
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey)
‫ ثّ وؿ‬asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret│‫ثا‬ٚ‫ا‬
!ٖ‫ ثّوفج‬wā asafāh! Oh, what a pity! it's too
‫ز‬٠ً‫ّوىٕو‬٨‫ ث‬al-iskandarīya Alexandria (city in N
Egypt)
seaport,
‫ ثّىٍّز‬iskamla stool, footstool
‫ج‬١‫ٕجـ‬٠‫ ثّىٕو‬iskandināfīya Scandinavia
ًّ‫ ث‬II to sharpen, point, taper ( ٘ s.th.)
ًّ‫ ث‬asal (coll.) rush (bot.)
‫ ثّوٍز‬asaIa pl. -āt thorn, spike, prong;
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of the
tongue
‫ثّوووووجر‬ِٛ muwāsāh
(for
mu’āsāh)
consolation; charity; beneficence
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ أّو‬iswār, uswār pl. ًٚ‫ أّووج‬asāwir2, ‫ًر‬ٚ‫أّووج‬
asāwira bracelet, bangle
ْ‫ث‬ّٛ‫ أ‬aswān Aswan (city in S Egypt)
‫ػ‬ّٛ‫ ث‬asūj Sweden
‫ز‬١ٍ‫ّوو‬٨‫ؾاث‬ٌٚ‫ ثٌقوو‬al-ḥurūf al-asalīya the
letters ٍ, ُ and ٗ
ّٝ‫ ث‬see ّٛ‫ث‬
ً١ّ‫ ث‬asīl smooth│ً١‫( اموواثّو‬ḳadd) smooth
cheek
‫ج‬١‫ آّ و‬āsiyā Asia│ ٌٜ‫ووؽ‬ٌٚ‫جاث‬١‫( آّ و‬ṣugrā) Asia
Minor
‫ ثّجٌز‬asāla eliptic, oval form
ًّ‫ ِؤ‬mu’assal pointed, tapered
ٌٟٛ‫ِذ‬٩‫( ثّ و‬variant of ٌٟٛ‫ )ثّ وضجٔذ‬islāmbūlī of
Istanbul
ٖ‫ٔو‬٩ّ‫ ث‬islandā Iceland
ُّ‫ ث‬see 1ُّ
ٟٔٛ‫ ثّّجٔؾ‬asmanjūnī sky-blue, azure, cerulean
ٟ‫ؽ‬ّٛ‫ ث‬asūjī Swedish
ٞٛ١‫ آّو‬āsiyawī Asiatic, Asian (adj. and
n.)
ٟٛ١ّ‫ ث‬asyūt2 Asyūt (city in central Egypt)
‫ ثٕوخ‬V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley (a
crowd)
‫ ثٕووجدز‬ušāba pl. ‫ ثٕ وجةخ‬ašā’ib2 mixed,
motley crowd
ٌّّٖ‫ ث‬asmara Asmara (capital of Eritrea)
‫ز‬١ٍ١‫ ثٕذذ‬išbīliya2 Seville (city in SW Spain)
‫ ثّّٕش‬asmant, ismant cement
ٓ١‫ ثٕذ‬išbīn pl. ٓ١‫ ثٕجد‬see ٓ‫ٕذ‬
ٟ‫ ثّّٕض‬asmantī cement (adj.)
ٓ‫ ثّو‬asana i u and asina a to become brackish
(water)
ّٓ‫ آ‬āsin brackish
(ّٛ‫ ث‬and ّٝ‫ ثّوج )ث‬asā u (asw,‫ اثّوج‬asan) to nurse,
treat ( ‫ ٘ و‬a wound); to make peace (ٓ١‫دوو‬
between, among); -- ٝ‫ ثّو‬asiya (ٝ‫ثّو‬, ‫ثّووج‬
asan) to be sad, grieved, distressed II to
console, comfort (ٖ s.o.); to nurse (ٖ a
patient) III to share (one‘s worldly
possessions, ٖ with s.o.), be charitable (ٖ to
s.o.); to assist, support (ٖ s.o.); to console,
comfort (ٖ s.o.); to treat, cure ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.,
medically) V to be consoled, find solace
VI to share the worldly possessions; to
assist one another, give mutual assistance
ّٝ‫ ث‬asan grief, sorrow, distress
‫ر‬ٛ‫ ثّووو‬uswa, iswa example, model,
pattern│‫راح‬ٛ‫ ثّو‬uswatan bi following the
model or pattern of; along the lines of; in
the same manner as, just as, like
‫ ِبّوجر‬ma’sāh pl. ُ ‫ ِو‬ma’āsin trogedy,
drama
‫ز‬١ّ‫ صب‬ta’siya consolation, comfort
ٌ‫ ثٕو‬ašara u (ašr) to sow ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- i to file,
sharpen with a file ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to mark,
indicate, state, enter, record ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
grant a visa; to provide with a visa (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.)
ٌ‫ ثٕوووو‬ašar
exuberance;
impertinence
liveliness, high spirits,
wildness;
insolence,
ٌ‫ ثٕو‬ašir lively, sprightly, in high spirits,
exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent,
arrogant
ً‫ ِتٖج‬minšār pl. ٌ١ٕ‫ث‬ِٛ mawāšīr2 saw
ٌ١‫ صبٕووو‬ta’šīr issuance of an official
endorsement; official endorsement; visa
‫ٌر‬١‫ صبٕو‬ta’šīra pl. -āt visa│‫ًا‬ٌٚ‫ٌراِو‬١‫اصبٕو‬t.
murūr or ٍ‫ج‬١‫ٌراثؽض‬١ٕ‫ صب‬transit visa
ٌ‫ ِؤٕوو‬mu’aššir indicator, needle (of a
measuring instrument)
ٌ‫ ِؤٕو‬mu’aššar jagged, serrated; marked,
designated (‫ ح‬by, with)
ٝ‫ ثٕف‬išfā pl. ‫ ثٕجؾ‬ašāfin awl, punch
ْ‫ ثٕٕج‬ušnān potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; bot.)
‫ ثٕٕز‬ušna moss
ًٕٛ‫ ث‬ašūr Assyria
ًٕٞٛ‫ ث‬ašūrī Assyrian (adj. and n.)
ٌٟٛ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ث‬uṣūlī in accordance with the
rules, conforming to prevailing principles;
traditional, usual; legist
٘١ٙ‫ ث‬aṣīṣ pl. ٘ٙ‫ ث‬uṣūṣ flowerpot
‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬II to close, shut (a door, etc.)
ً١‫وو‬ٙ‫ ث‬pl. ٩‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬uṣalā’2 of pure, noble
origin; original, authentic, genuine; pure;
proper, actual; firm, solid; sound,
reasonable,
sensible;
of
strong,
unswerving character; steadfast; deeprooted; native, indigenous│ً١‫وو‬ٙ٤‫ووًاث‬ٙ٤‫اث‬
the actual reason; ٞ‫ًاثٌووٌأ‬١‫ و‬ٙ‫ ث‬of sound,
unerring judgment
ٌ‫ و‬ٙ‫ ث‬iṣr pl. ً‫ وج‬ٙ‫ آ‬āṣār covenant, compact,
contract; load, encumbrance, burden; sin;
pl. ً‫ج‬ٙ‫ آ‬bonds, ties
‫وٌر‬ٙ‫ آ‬āṣira pl. ٌ‫و‬ٙ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬awāṣir2 bond, tie (fig.
e.g., ٨ٛ‫ وٌاثٌوو‬ٙ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬a. al-walā’i bonds of
friendship); obligation, commitment
ً‫ ذ‬ٙ‫ ث‬iṣṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn
2
ْ‫ج‬ٙ‫ف‬ٙ‫ ث‬iṣfahān Isfahan (city in W central Iran)
ً١‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬pl. ‫وجي‬ٙ‫ آ‬āṣāl, ً‫وجة‬ٙ‫ ث‬aṣā’il2 time before
sunset, late afternoon
ً‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬aṣula u (‫وجٌز‬ٙ‫ ث‬aṣala) to be or become
firmly rooted; to be firmly established; to
be of noble origin II to found ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
give s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬a firm foundation, establish
the foundation or origin of ( ‫ )٘و‬V to be or
become firmly rooted, deep-rooted,
ingrained; to take root, be or become
firmly established; to derive one's origin
(ٓ‫ ِو‬from) X to uproot, root out, extirpate,
exterminate, annihilate ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
remove ( ‫ ٘ووو‬an organ by a surgical
operation)│ٗ‫وووووًإوووووبـض‬ٙ‫(اثّضب‬ša’fatahū) to
eradicate s.th., eliminate s.th. radically
ً‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬root; trunk (of a tree); origin,
source; cause, reason; descent, lineage,
stock (esp., one of a noble character);
foundation, fundament, basis; the origins!
(e.g., of s book); pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ث‬principles,
fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g.,
of a science); rules; basic rules, principles,
axioms; real estate, landed property; assets
(fin.); -- ٩‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬aṣlan originally, primarily;
(with neg.) by no means, not at all, not in
the least│ًٙ٤‫اث‬ٟ‫ ـ‬originally, at first; ‫يا‬ٛٙ‫ث‬
ٗ‫ ثٌفمو‬u. al-fiqh the 4 foundations of Islamic
jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, Sunna, qiyās
(analogy) and ijmā‘ (consensus); ‫يا‬ٛ‫ و‬ٙ‫ث‬
َٛ‫و‬ٚ‫م‬ٚ assets and liabilities; ‫وجعفز‬ِٞ‫يا‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ث‬
(muḍā‘afa) double-entry bookkeeping;
‫ي‬ٛ‫وووو‬ٙ٤‫( فْووووخاث‬ḥasaba) properly, in
conformity with regulations
ٍٟ‫و‬ٙ‫ ث‬original, primary, primal, initial;
genuine,
authentic,
pure;
basic,
fundamental, principel, chief, main│‫اثٌوغّٓا‬
ٍٟ‫وو‬ٙ٤‫( ث‬taman) cost price; ‫ز‬١ٍ‫وو‬ٙ٤‫ووجساث‬ٙ‫ثٌؾ‬
(jihāt) the cardinal points (of the
compass); ٍٟ‫ووو‬ٙ‫‘( عووووهاث‬adad) cardinal
number; ٍٟٙ‫اث‬ٛٞ‫‘( ع‬uḍw) regular member
‫وووجٌز‬ٙ‫ ث‬aṣāla firmness, steadfastness,
strength of character; nobility of descent,
purity of origin; aṣālatan immediately,
directly, personally│ٞ‫وجٌزاثٌوٌأ‬ٙ‫ اث‬a. ar-ra’y
clarity and firmness of judgment;
judiciousness;
ٗ‫وووووووووجٌزاعوووووووووٓأفْووووووووو‬ٙ٨‫دج‬
spontaneously, of one's own accord, in
one's own name, personally, privately (as
opposed to ٌٖ‫وو‬١‫جدووزاعووٓاؼ‬١ٌٕ‫جدووز ;)دج‬١ٔٚ‫ووجيا‬ٙ‫ث‬
aṣālatan wa-niyābatan directly and
indirectly
‫ٍز‬١ٙ‫ صب‬ta’ṣīla pedigree, genealeogy
ًٙ‫ صب‬ta’aṣṣu1 deep-rootedness
‫وووووووووجي‬ٚ‫ثّضت‬
isti’ṣāl
extermination,
(radical)
removal by surgery
extirpation,
elimination;
ً‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ِضب‬muta’aṣṣil deep-rooted, deepseated; chronic (illness)
٠١ٟ‫ ث‬aṯīṯ the mooning bray of a camel
1
ٌ‫و‬ٟ‫ ث‬aṯara i u (aṯr) and II to bend, curve ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
ً‫وج‬ٟ‫ ث‬iṯār pl. -āt, ٌ‫و‬ٟ‫اث‬uṯur frame (also, of
eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop (of a
barrel, etc.)
‫جًر‬ٟ‫ ث‬iṯāra rim, felly (of a wheel)
ًٞ‫ج‬ٟ‫ ث‬iṯārī framelike, hoop-shaped
2
‫ز‬٠ٌٟ‫ ث‬see ٌٜٟ
‫ٌؼٍز‬ٟ‫ ث‬uṯrugulla a variety of pigeon
ٌْٟٚ‫ ث‬aṯrūn = ٌْٚ ٔ
‫وه‬١‫ٔض‬٩ٟ٨‫ث‬, ‫وه‬١ ٔ٩ٟ٨‫ ث‬al-aṯlantīk, al-aṯlanṯīq the
Atlantic
ٟ‫ى‬١ ٔ٩ٟ‫ ث‬aṯlanṯīqī and ٟ ٔ٩ٟ‫ ث‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic
ِ‫ٍوو‬ٟ‫ ث‬aṯlas2 satin; (pl. ٌِ‫ووج‬ٟ‫ ث‬aṯālis2 atlas,
volume of geographical maps
ٍْٟٟ‫ ث‬aṯlasī Atlantic
ٟ‫ٍٕ ووو‬ٟ‫ ث‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic│ٟ‫ٍٕ وووو‬ٟ٨‫اثٌقٍوووؿاث‬the
Atlantic Pact
َٟٛ‫ ث‬aṯūm sea turtle
‫ ثؼوج‬agā, ‫ آؼوج‬āgā pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ثؼو‬agawāt aga, lord,
master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain
‫ك‬٠ٌ‫ؼ‬٨‫ ث‬al-igrīq, ‫ؼجًلز‬٨‫ ث‬al-agāriqa the Greeks
ٟ‫م‬٠ٌ‫ ثؼ‬igrīqī Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.)
ِ ْ‫ ثؼ‬agustus August (month)
‫ ثؾا‬V to grumble, mutter in complaint (ٓ‫ِوو‬
about)
‫ ثؾا‬uff dirt (in the ears or under the
nails), earwax, cerumen
‫ا‬
‫ثؾ‬
uff interj. expressing anger or
displeasure
‫ ثـووووؿ‬afaf
grumble
displeasure;
grumbling,
‫ـٌٔؼ‬٨‫ ث‬al-ifranj the Franks, the Europeans│‫ها‬٩‫اد‬
‫ـٌٔؼ‬٨‫ ث‬Europe
ٟ‫ ثـٌٔؾ‬ifranjī European
ٟ‫ ثـٌْٔوو‬ifransī French; ‫ز‬١‫ـٌْٔوو‬٨‫ ث‬the French
language; ْٛ١ٌْٔ‫ـ‬٨‫ ث‬the French
َ‫و‬٠ٌ‫ ثـ‬ifrīz pl. َ٠ً‫ ثـوج‬afārīz2 frieze; edge; curb;
sidewalk│‫وووووَاثٌّق وووووز‬٠ٌ‫ ثـ‬i. al-maḥaṯṯa
platform (of a railroad station); ٠‫وَاثٌقوجة‬٠ٌ‫ثـ‬
molding (arch.)
‫موج‬٠ٌ‫ ثـ‬afrīqā f. and ‫وج‬١‫م‬٠ٌ‫ ثـ‬ifrīqiyā, now usually
pronounced afrīqiyā f. Africa│‫وووجا‬١‫م‬٠ٌ‫اثـ‬
‫ز‬١ٌ‫( ثٌّٖج‬šamālīya) North Africa
ٟ‫موو‬٠ٌ‫ ثـ‬ifrīqī, now usually pronounced
afrīqī African; (pl. -ūn, ‫ اثـجًلوز‬afāriqa) an
African
faraway countries, remote regions;
provinces, interior of the country (as
distinguished from the capital)│ًٛ٤‫اآـوجقاث‬
a. al-arḍ the remotest parts of the earth;
‫ه‬٩‫ آـجقاثٌذ‬a. al-bilād the outlying portions of
the country; ‫ـوووجق‬٢‫ ٕووويثىاث‬šuddad al-a.
foreigners, travelers
ٟ‫ ثـم‬ufqī horizontal
ٟ‫ آـجل‬āfāqī coming from a distant country
or region
‫ ثـوجق‬affāq wandering, roving, roaming;
tramp, vagabond
‫ ثـوه‬afaka i (afk) and afika a (ifk, afk, afak,‫ن‬ٛ‫اثـو‬
ufūk) to lie, tell a lie
‫ ثـوه‬ifk and ‫ىوز‬١‫ ثـ‬afīka pl. ‫ ثـجةوه‬afā’ik2 lie,
untruth, falsehood
‫ ثـجن‬affak liar, lying
ً‫ ثـ‬afala u i (‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثـ‬ufūl) to go down, set (stars)
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثـ‬ufūl setting (of stars)
ً‫ آـ‬āfil transitory, passing
ْٟٛ٩‫ ثـ‬aflāṯūn2 Plato
ٓ‫ ثـ‬afan stupidity
ٓ١‫ ثـ‬afīn and ْٛ‫ ِبـ‬ma’fūn stupid, foolish,
fatuous; fool
ٞ‫ ثـٕوو‬afandī pl. -īya gentleman (when referring
to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes
and the tarboosh); (after the name) a title
of respect (eg.); !َ‫ ثـٕوو‬afandim! Sir! (eg.)
afandim? (I beg your) pardon? What did
you say? 20
ٛ‫ووجص‬ٛ‫( ثـ‬It. avvocato) avokātō advocate, lawyer,
attorney│ِٟٛ‫اثٌعّو‬ٛ‫ووجص‬ٛ‫ـ‬٨‫ ث‬representative of
the attorney general (= Fr. avocat général)
ْٛ١‫ ثـ‬afyūn opium│ْٛ١‫ـ‬٨‫ؿاث‬ًٚ al-a. laudanum
ٓ٠ٌ‫ آـ‬āfirīn bravo! well done!
‫ ثلوز‬uqqa pl. -āt oka, a weight, in Eg. = 1.24s
kg, in Syr. = 1.2s2 kg
ٓ١‫ ثـْووٕض‬ifsantīn, ifsintīn wormwood, absinthe
(Artemisia absinthium; bot.)
‫ ِؤلش‬see ‫لش‬ٚ
ٓ١ٖ‫ ثـ‬ifšīn pl. ٓ١ٕ‫ ثـج‬afāšīn2 litany (Chr.)
ْ‫ـؽج‬٨‫ ث‬al-afgān the Afghans; Afghanistan
ْ‫ ثـؽجْٔضج‬afgānistān Afghanistan
ٟٔ‫ ثـؽج‬afgānī Afghan (adj. and n.)
‫ ثـوك‬ufq, ufuq pl. ‫ آـوجق‬āfāq horizon; range of
vision, field of vision; pl. distant lands,
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثلق‬uqhūwān pl. ٝ‫ ثلجف‬aqāḥī daisy
ٓ٠‫ ثلٌدجى‬aqrabādīn composite medicament│‫اعٍُا‬
ٓ٠‫لٌدوووووجى‬٨‫‘ ث‬ilm al-a. pharmaceutics,
pharmacology
ٟٕ٠‫ ثلٌدجى‬aqrabādīnī pharmaceutic(al)
٠١‫ ثل‬aqīṯ cottage cheese
‫و‬١ٍ‫ ثل‬iqlīd look up alphabetically
ُ‫ ثلٍو‬aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt,
adjust II ta'aqlama to acclimatize (o.s.)
2
ُ١‫ ثلٍو‬iqlīm pl. ُ١ٌ‫ ثلوج‬aqiilim climate; area,
region; province, district; administrative
district (Eg.; = ‫ووز‬٠ٌ٠‫ُ ;)ِو‬١ٌ‫ل وج‬٨‫ ث‬country,
provinces (as distinguished from the city)
ٟ‫ّ و‬١ٍ‫ ثل‬iqlīmī climatic; regional, local;
territorial│‫وز‬١ّ١ٍ‫ل‬٨‫وجٖاث‬١ٌّ‫( ث‬miyāh) territorial
waters
‫و‬١ٍ‫ ثل‬iqlīd pl. ‫و‬١ٌ‫ ثلج‬aqālīd2 key
ُ‫و‬١ٍ‫ ثل‬iqlīdis Euclid
َٛ‫ ثلٕو‬uqnūm pl. ُ١ٔ‫ ثلوج‬aqānīm2 hypostasis, divine
person within the Trinity (Chr.);
constitutive element
‫ٔز‬ٛ‫( ثل‬Gr. είκών) iqūna icon (Chr.)
‫ز‬١ّٛٔ‫ج‬١‫ ثل‬uqyanūsiya Oceania
ٜ‫ ثوجه‬akkādī Akkadian
‫ز‬١ّ٠‫ ثوجه‬akādīmīya academy
ٌ‫د‬ٛ‫ ثوض‬okctober October
‫ ثووو‬II to assure ( ‫ ي ٘و‬s.o. of, ْ‫ ث‬that); to give
assurance ( ٘ ‫ ي‬s.o. of); to confirm ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.
a view) V to be or become convinced,
convince o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.); to reassure o.s.,
make sure (ٓ‫ ِو‬of s.th.); to be sure (ٓ‫ ِو‬of);
to be urgent, imperative, requisite
‫وووووو‬١‫ صبو‬ta'kīd pl. -āt assurance;
confirmation; emphasis; ‫ووووو‬١‫ دجٌضبو‬most
certainly! of course!
‫ صبوو‬ta’akkud assurance, reassurance
‫ووو‬١‫ أو‬akīd certain, sure; firm (resolve);
definite (desire); urgent, imperative
(need); ‫وث‬١‫ أو‬akīdan certainly! surely!
‫ ِؤو وو‬mu’akkad certain, definite, sure;
confirmed
‫ ِضبوو‬muta'akkid convinced (ِٓ of)
1
ٌ‫ اثو‬akara i (akr) to plow, till, cultivate ( ‫ ٘و‬the
land)
ً‫ ثوج‬akkār pl. -ūn, ‫ ثوٌر‬akara plowman
2
‫ اثوٌر‬ukra pl. ٌ‫ ثو‬ukar ball (for playing)
‫ّج‬٠َ‫ ثو‬ekzēmā eczema (med.)
ِ‫ ثٕعزاثو‬aši‘‘at iks X-rays
‫ ثوْضٌث‬extra
ٓ١‫ ثوْؾ‬oksižēn oxygen
ٌ١ْ‫ ثو‬iksīr elixir
‫ ثوؿ‬akuff see ‫وؿ‬
ً‫ ثو‬akala u (akl, ً‫ ِبو‬ma‘kal) to eat ( ٘ s.th.); to
eat up, consume, swallow, devour, destroy
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to eat, gnaw ( ‫ ٘و‬at), 21 eat away,
corrode, erode ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to spend
unlawfully ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.). enrich o.s. feather
one's nest ( ‫ ٘و‬with)│‫ٕووٌح‬ٚ‫ووٗاثٌوووٌ٘ا‬١ٍ‫اثووًاع‬
(dahru, šariba) to be old and worn out, be
timeworn; ‫( ثووًاثٌٌدوج‬ribā) to take usurious
interest; ‫وٓاصؤووًاثٌىضوؿ‬٠‫عٍوُاِوٓاث‬٠ ya‘lamu min
aina tu’kalu l-katif he knows how to
tackle the matter properly; ٖ‫ثوٍوووٗاؽٍوووو‬
(jٖlduhū) his skin itched; ٓ‫ووق‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٟ‫ثوووًاـوو‬
(ṣaḥn) to eat off a plate; ٗ‫( ثووًافمو‬ḥaqqahū)
to encroach upon s.o.‘s right II and IV to
give s.o. (ٖ) s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬to eat, feed ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o.
s.th.) III to eat, dine (ٖ with s.o.) V to be
devoured, be consumed; to be eaten away,
corrode, undergo corrosion; to become
old, worn, timeworn, full of cracks; to be
destroyed by corrosion VI = V
ً‫ ثو‬akl food; meal, repast; fodder, feed│‫ا‬
ً‫و‬٨‫ؼٌـزاث‬gurfat al-a. dining room; (eg.) ‫ثوًا‬
ٌ‫ ثٌذقو‬a. al-baḥr land washed away by the
sea or the Nile (as opposed to ٌ‫ٌؿاثٌذق‬ٟ)
ً‫ ثوو‬ukul, ukl food; fruit│ٗ‫اثوٍو‬ٝ‫ اآصو‬to bear
fruit
‫ ثوٍوز‬akla pl. akalāt meal, repast; -- ukla
bite, morsel
○ ‫ ثوجي‬ukāl prurigo, itch eruption (med.)
‫ ثووجي‬akkāl, ً‫و‬١‫ ثو‬akīl, ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثوو‬akūl voracious,
gluttonous; hearty eater, gourmand,
glutton
ً‫ ِبو‬ma’kal pl. ً‫ ِ و‬ma’ākil2 food, eats
ً‫ صبو و‬ta’akkul wear; corrosion; erosion
(geol.)
ً‫ ص وو‬ta’ākul wear; corrosion; erosion
(geol.)
ً‫ ثةضى‬i’tikāl erosion (geol.)
ً‫ آو‬ākil eater
‫ آوٍز‬ākila gangrenous sore
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِوبو‬ma’kūl eatable, edible; pl. ‫س‬٨ٛ‫ ِوبو‬food,
foodstuffs, eatables, edibles
ً‫ ِؤثو‬mu’ākil table companion
ً‫ ِضبو و‬muta’akkil and ً‫ ِض و و‬muta’ākil
corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full of
cracks; rusty, rust-eaten
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;
who, which, that│ٝ‫ثٌض و‬ٚ‫ووجا‬١‫ دعووواثٌٍض‬ba‘da llutayyā wa-llatī after lengthy discussions,
after much ado
ٌُٚ١ٍ‫ ثو‬iklīrūs clergy (Chr.)
‫ز‬١ٌّٚ١ٍ‫ ثو‬iklīrūsīya clericalism
ٟ‫ٌو‬١ٍ‫ ثو‬iklīrikī cleric(al)
ٟ‫ى‬١ٕ١ٍ‫ ثو‬iklīnīkī clinical
ُ‫( ثٌوَث‬Fr. Alsace) alzās2 Alsace (region of NE
France)
ٌِ‫ ث‬II to belittle, disparage (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.)
2
‫ ثوّوز‬akama pl. -āt, َ‫ ثووج‬ikām, ُ‫ ثوو‬ukum, َ‫آووج‬
ākām (coll. ُ‫ ثووو‬akam) hill; reef; heap,
pile│‫ًث ٘وووووووج‬ٚ‫وّوووووووزاِوووووووجا‬٨‫ًث اث‬ٚ
(warā’a)
something's fishy! there is more to it than
meets the eye
‫ ثي‬ill pact, covenant; blood relationship,
consanguinity
1
٨‫ اث‬a-lā and ‫ ثِج‬a-mā see│a
2
٨‫اث‬alā see 1ٌٛ‫ث‬
3
٨‫ اث‬allā (= ٨‫ ثْا‬an lā) lest, that ... not, in order
that ... not, so as not to
4
٨‫ اث‬illā (=‫ ثْاي‬in lā) unless if not; except, save;
(after negation:) only, but, not until│ْ‫اث‬٨‫ث‬
illā anna except that ..., yet, however,
nevertheless (also introducing main
clauses); ‫اثىث‬٨‫ ث‬illā idā unless, if not; except
when; ٨‫ث‬ٚ wa-illā (and if not =) otherwise,
orelae; ٛ‫٘ووو‬ٚ‫ا‬٨‫ ث‬illā wa-huwa (with a
preceding negation) unless he ..., except
that he ... ; ْ‫اث‬٨‫اث‬ٟ‫ِوجا٘و‬ٚ wa-mā hiya illā an
(with following verb in perf.) it was not
long until ... ; presently, forthwith; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ِوجا٘و‬ٚ
ٝ‫افضو‬...‫اثْا‬٨‫ ث‬wa-ma hiya illā an ... ḥattā no
sooner had he ... than .... e.g..... ‫اأْا‬٨‫اث‬ٟ‫ـّجا٘و‬
ً‫اـعو‬ٝ‫( ُ٘افض‬hamma) he had no sooner made
his plan than he carried it out
‫ّىج‬٨‫ ث‬alaska Alaska
ٜ٨‫ ث‬alay and ٜ٨‫ آ‬ālay pl. -āt regiment 22
1
2
‫ اثٌوخ‬alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forces, rally
II to incite (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. against) V to rally,
band together, plot, conspire (ٍٝ‫ ع‬against)
‫ٌخ‬٨‫ اؽذجياث‬jibal al-alb the Alps
ْ‫ٌذج‬٨‫ ث‬al-albān the Albanians
‫ج‬١ٔ‫ ثٌذج‬albāniyā Albania
‫ ثٌول‬abbreviation of ٌٖ‫اآمو‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬ilā āḳirihī and so
on, etc.
ٜ‫ ثٌوي‬alladī f. ٝ‫ ثٌضو‬allatī, pl. m. ٓ٠‫ ثٌوي‬alladīna f.
ٝ‫ص و‬٩ٌ‫ ث‬allātī, ٝ‫ثص‬ٛ‫ ثٌٍوو‬allawātī, ٝ‫ة و‬٩ٌ‫ ث‬allā’ī
‫ ثٌ وؿ‬alf pl. ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ثٌ و‬ulūf, ‫ؾ‬٨‫ آ‬ālāf thousand;
millennium│‫ؾاِؤٌوؿ‬ٌٛ‫( ث‬mu’allafa) or ‫ؾا‬٨‫آ‬
‫ ِؤٌفووز‬thousands and thousands; ‫عٖووٌثسا‬
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ٌو‬٨‫ ث‬ašarāt al-u. tens of thousands; ‫ِو سا‬
‫ؾ‬ٌٛ٨‫ ث‬mi’āt al-u. hundreds of thousands
ٝ‫ ثٌفووو‬alfī: ٝ‫وووواثٌفووو‬١‫‘( ع‬īd) millennial
celebration, millenary
2
‫ ثٌؿ‬alif name of the letter│ٗ‫جةو‬٠‫ا‬ٝ‫ ِوٓاثٌفوٗاثٌو‬from
beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫عوٌؾاثٌفوٗا‬٠
ٖ ‫وج‬٠ٚ (wa-yā’ahū) he knows it from A to Z;
‫ ثٌؿادج‬ABC
3
‫ اثٌوؿ‬alifa a (alf) to be acquainted, familiar,
conversant ( ‫ ٘ووو‬with s.th.); to be on
intimate terms (ٖ with s.o.); to be or get
accustomed, used, habituated ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to
like ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be fond of ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to become
tame II to accustom, habituate ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o. to
s.th.); to tame, domesticate ( ‫ ٘و‬an animal);
to form ( ‫ ٘ووو‬e,g., a committee, a
government); to unite, join, combine, put
together (ٓ١‫ دو‬different things); to compile,
compose, write ( ‫ ٘وو‬a book) V to be
composed, be made up, consist (ٓ‫ ِو‬of); to
be united, be combined VI to be attuned to
each other, be in tune, be in harmony; to
harmonize (‫ ِوا‬with) VIII to be united, be
linked, be connected; to be on familiar,
intimate terms (‫ ح‬with); to form a.
coalition (pol.); to fit, ُuit (‫ ِوا‬s.th.), go
well, agree, harmonize (‫ ِوا‬with); to be
well-ordered, neat, tidy X to seek the
intimacy, court the friendship (ٖ of s.o.)
‫ ثٌ وؿ‬ilf pl. ‫ؾ‬٨‫ ث‬ullāf intimate; close
friend, intimate, confidant; lover
‫ثٌووووووؿ‬
ulfa
familiarity,
intimacy;
friendship, love, affection; union, concord,
harmony, congeniality
‫وووؿ‬١ٌ‫ ث‬alīf familiar, intimate; tame,
domesticated (animal); friendly, amicable,
genial; (pl. ‫ةوؿ‬٨‫ ث‬alā’if2) intimate, close
friend, associate, companion
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ثٌووو‬alūf familiar, intimate; tame,
domesticated (animal); attached, devoted,
faithful
ٌُ‫ صب‬ta’allum sensation of pain, pain, ache
ٌُ‫ ِوووؤ‬mu’allim aching, painful; sad,
grievous, distressing
‫ ِبٌؿ‬ma'laf object of familiarity
‫ؿ‬١ٌ‫ صوووب‬ta’līf formation (e.g., of a
government);
union,
junction,
combination (ٓ١‫ دووو‬of separate things);
literary work; composition, compilation,
writing (of a book, of an article); (pl. ‫ؿ‬١ٌ ‫صو‬
ta’ālīf2, ‫ؿ‬١ٌ‫ث‬ٛ‫ )ص‬work, book, publication
ٌُ‫ ِضوب‬muta’allim aching, painful; in pain,
suffering, deeply afflicted; tormented
2
ُ‫ ثٌّووج‬almās (al sometimes interpreted as
definite article) diamond
ْ‫ٌّج‬٨‫ ث‬al-almān the Germans
‫ صوووو ٌؿ‬ta’āluf harmony; familiarity,
intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship,
camaraderie
ٟٔ‫ ثٌّ وج‬almānī German; (pl. -ūn, ْ‫ثٌّ وج‬
almān) a German
‫ؾ‬٩‫ ثةوووووض‬I’tilāf concord, harmony;
agreement (‫ ِووا‬with); union; coalition,
entente (pol.)
‫ووز‬١ٔ‫ ثٌّج‬almānīya German character or
characteristics, Germanity
ٟ‫ـووووووو‬٩‫ثةض‬
I’tilāfī
coalition(in
compounds)│‫ز‬١‫ـ‬٩‫ٍثًراثةض‬ٚ‫ ا‬coalition cabinet
ٗ‫ ثٌو‬II to deify (ٖ s.o.), make a god of s.o. (ٖ) V
to become a deity, a godhead; to deify o.s.
‫ ثٌوؿ‬ma’lūf familiar, accustomed; usual,
customary; custom, usage 23
ٗ‫ثٌ و‬, ٖ٨‫ ث‬ilāh pl. ‫ وز‬ٌٙ‫ آ‬āliha god, deity,
godhead
‫ج‬١ٔ‫ ثٌّج‬almāniyā Germany
‫٘ز‬٨‫ ث‬ilaha pl. -āt goddess
‫ ِؤٌوؿ‬mu’allif pl. -ūn author, writer; -mu’allaf composed, consisting, made up
(ٓ‫ ِو‬of); written, compiled; (pl. -āt) book,
publication; see also 1‫ ثٌؿ‬alf
ٟ‫ووو‬ٌٙ‫ث‬, ٟ‫٘ووو‬٨‫ ث‬ilāhī divine, of God;
theological;
‫ووووووووجس‬١٘٨٨‫ث‬
al-ilāhīyāt
theological, spiritual concerns ‫وجس‬١٘٨٨‫عٍوُاث‬
‘i1m al-i. theology
‫ ِض ٌؿ‬muta’ālif harmonious
‫ ثٌك‬alaqa i, (alq) to shine, radiate, flash, glitter,
glisten V and VIII do.
allāh Allah, God (as the One and Only)│‫هللا‬
‫ هًن‬li-llāh darruka exclamation of
admiration and praise, see ً‫ه‬
‫ ثٌك‬alaq brightness, brilliance
ُ‫و‬ٌٍٙ‫ ث‬allāhumma O God!│٨‫وُاث‬ٌٍٙ‫( اث‬illā)
unless, were it not that, except that, or at
best (after a negative statement); ‫وُاثىث‬ٌٍٙ‫ث‬
(idā) at least if or when; if only; ُ‫وُأعو‬ٌٍٙ‫ث‬
(na‘am) by God, yes! Most certainly!
‫ق‬٨‫ ث‬allāq bright, shining, brilliant,
radiant; glittering, flashing, sparkling
‫ صبٌك‬ta’alluq glow, radiance, effulgence
‫ ِضوبٌك‬mula’alliq bright, shining, brilliant,
radiant
‫ز‬١ٌ٘ٛ‫ ث‬ulūhīya divine power, divinity
ٌٟٔٚ‫ ثٌىض‬elektrōnī electronic│ٌٟٔٚ‫‗( عمًاثٌىض‬aql)
electronic computer
2
َ٨‫ اث‬ilā-mā see ٌٝ‫ث‬
ٗ١ٌ‫ صب‬ta’līh deification, apotheosis
ٌٗ‫ آ‬ālih (pagan) god
ُ‫ ثٌو‬alima a (alam) to be in pain, feel pain; to
suffer (y from s.th.) II and IV to cause
pain or suffering (ٖ to s.o.), pain, ache,
hurt (ٖ s.o.) V = I; to complain
ُ‫ ثٌووو‬alam pl. َ٨‫ آ‬ālām pain, ache,
suffering, agony│‫ز‬١ٔ‫َأفْوووج‬٨‫( آ‬nafsānīya)
mental agony; َ٨٢‫ اث‬ٛ‫ ثّوووذ‬usbū‘ al-a.
Passion Week (Chr.)
ُ١‫ ثٌ و‬alīm aching, sore; sad, grievous,
painful, excruciating; hurting
‫ز‬ٌٙ‫ آ‬āliha pl. -āt goddess
ٌٟٙ‫ آ‬ālihī divine
ٌٗ‫ ِضب‬muta’allih divine, heavenly
‫س‬ٛ٘٩ٌ‫ ث‬etc., see ‫س‬ٛ٘٨
1
‫ة‬ٛ‫ يآٌو‬٨‫ ث‬alā u to neglect or fail to do, not to do
(ٟ‫ ـ‬s.th.), desist, refrain (ٟ‫ ـ‬from s.th.)│‫ا‬٨‫ا‬
ٟ‫وووثاـوو‬ٙ‫اؽ‬ٌٛ‫ووب‬٠(jahdan) he will go to any
length, he spares no effort, goes out of his
ḥibr cuttlefish squid; ٓ‫ ثَاثٌقْو‬u. al-ḥasan
(magr.) nightingale; ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثَاثٌنٍوو‬u. al-ḳulūl
river mussel (zool.); ْ‫ ثَاهًِووج‬u. durmān
Omdurman (city in central Sudan,
opposite Khartoum); ُ‫ ثَاثٌووٌث‬u. ar-ra's
skull,
brain;
cerebral
membrane,
meninges; ٓ١‫ثًدعوو‬ٚ‫ ثَاثًدووواا‬u. arba‘ waarba‘īn centipede; ‫ ثَإوٍّز‬u. šamla(ta) this
world, the worldly pleasures; ٓ١‫ دوجَاثٌعو‬bi-u.
l-‘ain or ٗ‫ٕو‬١‫ دوجَاع‬with one‘s own eyes; ‫ثَا‬
ْ‫ ثٌمووٌآ‬and ْ‫ ثَاثٌمووٌآ‬the first sura of the
Koran; ٌٜ‫ ثَاثٌمو‬u. al-qura Mecca; ‫ثَاثٌىضوجح‬
also: the original text of the Book from
which Koranic revelation derives; the
uncontested portions of the Koran; ٟٓٛ‫ثَاثٌو‬
u. al-waṯan capital, metropolis; ‫ووجسا‬ِٙ‫ث‬
‫ثهط‬ٛ‫ ثٌقو‬the most important events; ‫وجسا‬ِٙ‫ث‬
‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ ثٌقو‬matrix (typ.); ً‫وجساثٌّْوجة‬ِٙ‫ ث‬the main
problems; ً‫جساثٌّْجة‬ِٙ‫ ث‬the principal virtues
way for IV to swear│ْ‫أفْووٗاث‬ٝ‫اعٍوو‬ٝ‫ آٌوو‬he
promised himself that he ...
٩٠‫ ث‬īlā’ oath
1
ٌٛ‫( آ‬Fr. hallo) hello!
‫وووج‬١ٌِٕٛ‫ ث‬alūminyā
aluminum 24
and َٛ‫ووو‬١ٌِٕٛ‫ث‬
aluminyom
l
ٝ‫ ثٌو‬ilā (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; till,
until; ْ‫اث‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬conj.) until│ٌٖ‫اآمو‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬āḳirihī)
and so forth, et cetera; ‫اىٌووه‬ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬besides,
moreover, furthermore, in addition to that;
‫اؼوو‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬till tomorrow! ‫ ثٌٍموج‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬liqā’) goodby! َ٨‫ ث‬ilāma (= ‫اِوج‬ٝ‫ )ثٌو‬up to where! how
far! ٝ‫اِضو‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬till when! how long! ٟ‫وهاعٕو‬١ٌ‫ث‬
(‘annī) get away from me! away with you!
‫اؽجٔوخاىٌوه‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬jānibi d.) besides, moreover,
in addition to that; ْ‫اث‬ٝ‫ ٘وويثاثٌوو‬moreover,
furthermore; ‫وٌاىٌوه‬١‫اؼ‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬gair d.) and the
like; ٗ‫و‬١ٌ‫ِوجاث‬ٚ and‫ا‬the like, et cetera; ‫وٗا‬١ٌ‫ِوٓاث‬ٚ
‫ُة‬ٙ١‫( يثٌو‬wa-man) and other people like that;
‫وه‬١ٌ‫( ث‬addressing the reader) now here you
have ... ; here is (are) ... ; following is
(are) ..., e.g., ‫اثٌموجًااِوج‬ٌٝ‫ث‬ٚ in the following,
the reader will find what ... ; ‫ا‬ٟ‫حاعذٌثٔو‬ٍٛ‫ثّو‬
‫وز‬١‫اثٌعٌد‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬uslūb ‘ibrānī) a style of Hebrew
approximating Arabic; ‫اىثن‬ٝ‫اثٌو‬٨ٚ‫ا٘ويثا‬ٝ‫اثٌو‬٨
neither this way nor that way, belonging
to neither group; ‫وه‬١ٌ‫ِوٌاث‬٨‫ ث‬it‘s up to you,
the decision is yours
2
3
‫ ثِوز‬umma pl. ُ‫ ثِو‬umam nation, people;
generation│‫ثِووووووووزاِقّووووووووو‬
Mohammed's
community, the Mohammedans; ‫ِوووُا‬٨‫ث‬
‫( ثٌّضقور‬muttaḥida) the United Nations
ٟ‫ ثِو‬ummī maternal, motherly; illiterate
uneducated; (pl. -ūn) an illiterate
‫ووز‬١ِ‫ ث‬ummīya ignorance; illiteracy; see
also under 2ِٜٛ‫ث‬
ِّٟ‫ ث‬umamī international
‫ِوز‬ِٛ‫ ث‬umūma motherhood; motherliness,
maternity
٨‫( آ‬pl. of ٌٝ‫ ث‬ilan) benefits, blessings
‫وز‬١ٌ‫ ث‬alya, ilya pl. alayāt fat tail (of a sheep);
buttock
َ‫ ثِوج‬amāma (prep.) in front of; in the
presence of│َ‫ِوج‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬amāmi) to the front,
forward, onward, ahead; ْ‫اث‬٨‫ىوٓاث‬٠‫( ٌوُا‬illā
an) he had no other alternative but to ... ;
ٗ‫لوؿاثِجِو‬ٚ (waqafa) to oppose, resist, stop,
check s.th.
‫جىر‬١ٌ‫ ث‬iliyāda Iliad
1
َ‫ ث‬am or? (introducing the second member of
an alternative question)
2
‫ ثِز‬ama pl. ‫ ثِوج‬imā’, ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ثِو‬amawāt bondmaid,
slave girl
3
ِٝ‫ ثِوووج‬amāmī front, fore-, anterior,
forward, foremost│‫ووووز‬١ِ‫( ٔم ووووزاثِج‬nuqṯa)
outpost 25
َ‫ ث‬amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair ( ‫٘و‬
to a place), go to see (ٖ s.o.); -- (‫ثِجِووز‬
imāma) to lead the way, lead by one‘s
example (ٖ s.i.); to lead (ٖ s.o.) in prayer; -(‫ِوز‬ِٛ‫ ث‬umūma) to be or become a mother II
to nationalize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to go, betake o.s.
repair ( ‫ ٘و‬to a place), go to see (ٖ s.o.) VIII
to follow the example (‫ ح‬of s.o.)
َ‫ ث‬umm pl. ‫ووجس‬ِٙ‫ ث‬ummahāt mother; source,
origin; basis, foundation; original, original
version (of a book); the gist, essence of
s.th.; pl. ‫وجس‬ِٙ‫ ث‬matrix (typ.)│ٌ‫ اثَاثٌقذو‬u. al-
َ‫ ثِوج‬imām pl. ‫ ثةّوز‬a’imma imam, prayer
leader; leader; master; plumb line
‫ ثِجِوز‬imāma imamah, function or office
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading
position; precedence
ُ١ِ‫ صب‬ta’mīm pl. -āt nationalization
1
‫ ثِج‬a-mā see│a
2
‫ ثِوج‬ammā (with foll . ‫ ؾ‬fa) as to, as for, as far
as... is concerned; but; yet, however, on
the other hand│‫( ثِوجادعوو‬ba‘du) (a formular
phrase linking introduction and actual
subject of a book or letter, approx.:) now
then …, now to our topic: ...
3
‫ ثِوج‬immā if; ‫ثِوج‬ٚ‫ا‬--‫ ثِوجا‬be it -- or, either – or
(also ٚ‫اث‬--‫)ثِجا‬
ًٟٛ‫ ثِذٌث‬imbrāṯūr emperor
ًٟٞٛ‫ ثِذٌث‬imbrāṯūrī imperialist(ic)
‫وووووووز‬٠ًٟٛ‫ثِذٌث‬
imbrātūrīya
imperium; imperialism
empire,
ٌ١‫ ثِذ‬ambīr pl. ٌ١‫ ثِجد‬amābīr2 ampere (el.)
‫ك‬١‫ ثِذ‬imbiq = ‫ك‬١‫ثٔذ‬
‫ ثِوش‬amt crookedness, curvedness, curvation,
curvature; weakness
‫ ثِوووو‬amad pl. ‫ آِوووجه‬āmād end, terminus,
extremity; period, stretch or span of time,
time; distance│‫وو‬١‫ ِٕوياثِووادع‬for a long time
(past); ‫ِووو‬٨‫ٌاث‬١‫وو‬ٚ‫ ل‬short-dated; of short
duration, short-lived; short-term
ٌ‫ ثِو‬amara u (amr) to order, command, bid,
instruct (ٖ s.i. ‫ ح‬to do s.th.), commission,
charge, entrust (ٖ s.o. ‫ ح‬with s.th. or to do
s.th.); -- amara, amura u (‫ ثِوجًر‬imāra) to
become an emir II to invest with authority,
make an emir (ٖ s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬over) III to ask
s.o. 's (ٖ) advice, consult (ٖ s.o.) V to come
to power; to set o.s. up as lord and master;
to behave like an emir; to assume an
imperious attitude; to be imperious,
domineering VI to take counsel, deliberate
together, confer, consult with each other;
to plot, conspire (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬against) VIII to
deliberate, take counsel) (‫ ح‬about); to
conspire, plot, hatch a plot (‫ ح‬against
s.o.)│ٌِٖ‫ اثةضٌّادج‬to carry out s.o.‘s orders
ٌ‫ ثِ و‬amr 1. pl. ٌ‫ثِوو‬ٚ‫ ث‬awāmir2 order,
command, instruction (‫ ح‬to do s.th.);
ordinance, decree; power, authority;
(gram.) imperative│‫‘( اثِوٌاعوجي‬ālin) royal
decree (formerly, Eg.); ٟ‫‘( ثِووٌاعٍوو‬alīy)
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, Tun.);
ٟٔٛٔ‫ ثٌِالج‬ordinance having the force of law
(Tun.); ٟ‫و‬ٌٕٙ‫ث‬ٚ‫ِوٌا‬٨‫( ث‬wa-nnahy) pl. ‫ثِوٌا‬ٚ٨‫ث‬
ٟ٘‫ث‬ٛ‫ثٌٕوو‬ٚ (lit.: command and interdiction,
i.e.) sovereign power; full power(s),
supreme authority; ‫وووو‬٠ًٛ‫( ثِوووٌاص‬delivery)
order (com.); ‫ صقوشاثِوٌن‬at your disposal, at
your service. -- 2. pl. ًٛ‫ ثِو‬umūr matter,
affair,
concern,
business│‫ثلووووووا‬ٚ‫ثِووووووٌا‬
(accomplished) fact; ‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ ثِوٌاِعوو‬common
knowledge; ٌ‫ِ و‬٨‫ياث‬ٚ‫اث‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬at first, in the
beginning; ‫ِوٌاِوج‬٨ (amrin) for some reason
or other; ‫ٌِاوويٌه‬٨‫ِاث‬١ٌ‫ ث‬isn't it so? ‫ِوٌا‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ثِوجا‬
‫( ووويٌه‬ammā wa-l-amru) things being as
they are, there will, no doubt, ...; ‫ىوٓا‬٠‫ّوجا‬ِٙ
ٌ‫( ِوٓاثِو‬min amrin) whatever may happen;
however things may be; ٓ٠ٌ‫ٓاثِو‬١‫ادو‬ٛ٘ he has
two possibilities (or alternatives); ٜ‫ٌِاثٌوي‬٨‫ث‬
which (introducing a relative clause the
antecedent of which is another clause);
ٌٖ‫اثِو‬ٝ‫و‬ٞ‫ ل‬qudiya amruhu it's all over with
him; in the latter and similar phrases, ٌٖ‫ثِو‬
is a frequent paraphrase of "he"
ٌِ‫ ث‬immar simple-minded, stupid
‫ ثِ وٌر‬imra power, influence, authority,
command│ٗ‫ ثٌِص‬under his command
‫ ثِوجًر‬amāra pl. -āt, ٌ‫ ثِوجة‬amā’ir2 sign,
token, indication, symptom, mark,
characteristic 26
‫ ثِوجًر‬imāra position or rank of an emir;
princely bearing or manners; principality,
emirate; authority, power│ٌ‫ ثِوجًراثٌذقو‬i. albaḥr office or jurisdiction of an admiral,
admiralty; ْ‫( ثِوجًثساّوجفًاعّوج‬i. s. ‘ummān)
Trucial Oman
ٌ‫و‬١ِ‫ ث‬amīr pl. ‫ ثِوٌث‬umarā’ commander;
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling
house;
tribal
chief│ٜ٨‫ووووووٌاث‬١ِ‫(اث‬alay)
commander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.;
approx.: colonel; as a naval rank, approx.:
captain); ‫ِوٌث‬٨‫ٌاث‬١ِ‫ ث‬approx.: major general
(Tun.); ً‫ووٌاثٌذقووج‬١ِ‫( ث‬Eg. 1939) approx.:
admiral, ً‫ٌاثٌِث اثٌذقج‬١‫( وذ‬Eg. 1939) approx.:
fleet admiral; ٌ‫وٌاثٌذقو‬١ِ‫ ث‬a. al-baḥr admiral
(when referring to a non-Arab officer of
this rank; Eg. 1939 approx.: vice-admiral);
‫وذووٌا‬٨‫ووٌاثٌذقووٌاث‬١ِ‫ ث‬or ُ‫عروو‬٨‫ووٌاثٌذقووجًاث‬١ِ‫ ث‬fleet
admiral (when referring to a non-Arab
officer of this rank); ‫ث‬ٛ‫وٌاثٌٍو‬١ِ‫ ث‬a. al-liwā’
(Ir., since 1933) brigadier; ‫ث اثٌعْوز‬ٛ‫ٌاٌو‬١ِ‫ ث‬a.
l. al-‘assa commandant of the Bey's
palace guard (formerly, Tun.); ٓ١ِٕ‫وٌاثٌّوؤ‬١ِ‫ث‬
a. al-mu‘minīn Commander of the
Faithful, Caliph
‫ٌر‬١ِ‫ ث‬amīr pl. -āt princess
ٌٞ‫ووو‬١ِ‫ ث‬amīrī (and □ ٌٞ‫ووو‬١ِ
mīrī)
goverment(a1),
state-owned,
state,
public│ٌٞ‫و‬١ِ‫اث‬ًٛ‫( اث‬arḍ) government land
(Syr.); ‫ز‬٠ٌ١ِ٨‫ ثٌّ ذعزاث‬government press
ً‫ ثِ وج‬ammār constantly urging, always
demanding (‫ ح‬to do s.th.); inciting,
instigating│ ٛ‫ِ وجًرادجٌْوو‬٨‫( اثٌووٕفِاث‬nafs, sū’)
the baser self (of man) that incites to evil
‫ ثِوٌن‬II ta’amraka to become Americanized,
adopt the American way of life, imitate
the Americans
ًِٛ‫ صووووب‬ta’mūr soul, mind, spirit;
pericardium
(anat.)│ًِٛ‫وووووووووجحاثٌضوووووووووب‬ٙ‫ثٌض‬
pericarditis (med.)
ٌٌِِ‫ ث‬amarillis amaryllis (bot.)
‫ ِ وؤثٌِر‬mu’āmara pl. -āt deliberation,
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy
ٌِ‫صووووووووب‬
ta’ammur
imperiousness,
domineeringness; imperious deportment,
overbearing manners
ٌِ ‫ صو‬ta’āmur joint consultation, counsel,
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy
ً‫ ثةضّوووج‬i’timār deliberation, counsel,
conference; plot, conspiracy
‫ ثّوووضتّجًر‬isti’māra (frequently written
‫ )ثّضّجًر‬form, blank
ٌ‫ آِووو‬āmir commander; lord, master;
orderer, purchaser, customer, client│‫ِوٌا‬٢‫اث‬
ٝ٘‫ ثٌٕووووج‬absolute master, vested with
unlimited authority
ًِٛ‫ ِووب‬ma’mūr commissioned, charged;
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp.,
one in executive capacity; the head of a
markaz and qism (Eg.)│ ِ١ٌٛ‫ًاثٌذووو‬ِٛ‫ِوووب‬
commissioner of police; ‫ًاثٌضفٍْوووز‬ِٛ‫ِوووب‬
(taflīsa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.);
ًِٛ‫ ِوووب‬m. al-ḥaraka traffic manager
(railroad); ‫ز‬١‫وووف‬ٚ‫ًاثٌض‬ِٛ‫ ِوووب‬m. al-taṣfīya
receiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.)
‫ووووز‬٠ًِٛ‫ ِب‬ma’mūrīya pl. -āt order,
instruction; errand; task, assignment,
mission; commission; commissioner's
office, administrative branch of a
government agency, e.g., ‫ز‬١‫ووجة‬ٞ‫ووزال‬٠ًِٛ‫ِب‬
(qaḍā’īya) judicial commission charged
with jurisdiction in outlying communities
(Eg.)
ٌِْٚ ‫ِضوووو‬
plotters
muta‘āmirūn,
conspirators,
ْٛ‫ِؤصّوووووو‬
mu’tamirūn
conspirators,
plotters; members of a congress,
convention, or conference, conferees
ٌّ‫ ِوووؤص‬mu’tamar pl. -āt conference;
convention, congress│‫ووٍـ‬ٌٚ‫ ِووؤصٌّاث‬m. aṣṣulḥ peace conference
‫ صبٌِن‬ta’amruk Americanization
‫ىوج‬٠ٌِ‫ ث‬amrīkā (formerly, also ‫موج‬٠ٌِ‫ )ث‬America│‫ا‬
‫ز‬١‫د‬ٕٛ‫ىجاثٌؾ‬٠ٌِ‫( ث‬janūbīya) South America 27
ٟ‫ى و‬٠ٌِ‫ ث‬amrīkī American; (pl. -ūn) an
American
ْ‫ىج‬٠ٌِ٨‫ ث‬al-amrīkān the Americans
ٟٔ‫ىوج‬٠ٌِ‫ ث‬amrīkānī American; (pl. -ūn) an
American
ِ‫ ثِو‬amsu (but acc. ‫ ثِْوج‬amsan) the day past,
yesterday; the immediate past, recent
time; -- amsi (adv.) yesterday; recently,
lately, not long ago│ِِ٨‫ ادوووج‬bi-l-amsi
yesterday; not long ago; ‫ي‬ٚ٨‫ ثِووِاث‬a. lawwal two days ago, the day before
yesterday
‫ز‬١‫ ثِْووو‬umsīya pl. -āt, ٝ‫ ثِجّووو‬amāsīy
evening
َ‫ ثِْضٌهث‬amstirdām Amsterdam
ٌ١‫ ثِٖو‬amšīr the sixth month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ ثِووا‬imma‘ and ‫ ثِعووز‬imma‘a characterless
person; opportunist, timeserver
ً‫ ثِو‬amala u (amal) to hope ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬for),
entertain hopes ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬of) II to hope; to
expect (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. of s.o.); to raise hope. (ٖ
in s.o.), hold out hope. (ٖ for s.o.), give (ٖ
s.o.) reason to hope or expect│‫ووٌث‬١‫اثٍِوٗام‬
(ḳairan) to let s.o. hope for the best V to
look attentively ( ‫٘ووو‬, ٟ‫ ـووو‬at), regard,
contemplate ( ‫٘و‬, ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.); to meditate; to
consider, think over, ponder ( ‫٘و‬, ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.),
reflect ( ٘, ٟ‫ ـ‬on)
ً‫ ثِو‬amal pl. ‫ آِوجي‬āmāl hope, expectation
(ٟ‫ ـو‬of s.th., also ‫ اثِوًاووجىح│)ح‬fallacious
hope
ًِ‫ ِب‬ma’mal pl. ًِ ِ ma’amil2 hope
ً‫ صبِوو‬ta’ammul pl. -āt consideration;
contemplation; pl. ‫س‬٩ِ‫ صب‬meditations
ًِ‫ آ‬āmil hopeful
ًِ‫ ِؤ‬mu’ammil hopeful
‫ي‬ِٛ‫ ِب‬ma’mūl hoped for, expected
ً‫ِضبِوووووو‬
muta’ammil
contemplative,
meditative, reflective; pensive, wistful,
musing
āt) s.th. deposited in trust, a deposit, trust,
charge; secretariat│‫ق‬ٚ‫وووٕو‬ٌٚ‫ ثِجٔوووزاث‬a. aṣṣundūq treasury department; ‫ثِجٔوووزاعجِوووز‬
(‘āmma) secretariat general; ‫ِجٔوجس‬٨‫ِقوَْاث‬
maḳzan al-a. baggage checkroom
ٓ‫ ثِ و‬amuna u (‫ ثِجٔووز‬amāna) to be faithful,
reliable, trustworthy; -- amina a (amn, ْ‫ثِوج‬
amān) to be safe, feel safe (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ‫ ٘و‬from)
II to reassure (ٖ s.o.), set s.o.‘s (ٖ) mind at
rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard,
guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm,
corroborate (ٝ‫عٍو‬, ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to insure (‫ووا‬ٝ
‫ك‬٠ٌ‫ ثٌق‬against fire); to entrust (ٖ to s.o., ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.); to say "amen" (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.th.) IV to
believe (‫ ح‬in) VIII to trust (ٖ s.o.), have
confidence, have faith (ٖ in); to entrust
(ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. with, to s.o s.th.) X = VIII; to
ask for protection, for a promise of
security, for indemnity (ٖ s.o.)
ِٓ‫ ِب‬ma’man place of safety, safe place
‫ٓا‬١ِ‫ صووووب‬ta’mīn securing, protection;
assurance; safeguarding; reassurance;
ensuring; guaranty, warranty; security,
surety; insurance│ٟ‫ٓاثؽضّووجع‬١ِ‫( اصووب‬ijtimā’ī)
social security; ‫وك‬٠ٌ‫وواثٌق‬ٝ‫ٓا‬١ِ‫( صوب‬ḍidda) fire
insurance; ‫وووجر‬١‫اثٌق‬ٝ‫ٓاعٍووو‬١ِ‫( صوووب‬ḥayāh) life
insurance
ْ‫ّج‬٠‫ ث‬iman faith, belief (‫ ح‬in)
ْ‫ ثةضّج‬I’timān trust, confidence; credit
ْ‫ ثّضتّج‬isti’mān trust, confidence
ٓ‫ ثِوووو‬amn safety; peace, security,
protection│َ‫ِوٓاثٌعوج‬٨‫‘( ث‬āmm) public safety;
ِٓ٨‫ ًؽجياث‬the police
ْ‫ثِوووج‬
amān security, safety; peace;
shelter, protection; clemency, quarter
(mil.);
safeguarding,
assurance
of
protection; indemnity, immunity from
punishment│ ‫اثِووووجْا‬ٟ‫( ـوووو‬a valedictory
phrase) in God's protection!
ٓ١‫ ثِ و‬amīn pl. ‫ ثِٕ وج‬umanā’2 reliable,
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright,
honest;
safe,
secure;
authorized
representative or agent; trustee; guarantor
(ٝ‫ عٍووو‬of); chief, head; superintendent,
curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;
chamberlain; master of a guild (Tun.);
(mil.) approx.: quartermaster-sergeant (Eg.
1939)│‫ي‬ٚ٨‫ٓاث‬١‫ِووووووو‬٨‫اث‬
(awwal)
Lord
Chamberlain (formerly, at the Eg. Court);
‫ِٕوووج‬٨‫وووٌاث‬١‫ وذ‬approx.: Chief Master of
Ceremonies (ibid.); َْ‫ٓاثٌّنووو‬١‫ ثِووو‬a. almaḳzan warehouse superintendent; stock
clerk; ‫ٌوزا‬ٚ‫ٓاّوٌاثٌو‬١‫ ثِو‬a. sirr ad-daula and
ٌ‫ٓاثٌْو‬١‫ ثِو‬a. as-sirr permanent secretary of
state (Sy,.); ‫ق‬ٚ‫وٕو‬ٌٚ‫ٓاث‬١‫ ثِو‬a. aṣ-ṣundūq and
‫ٓاثٌّووجي‬١‫ ثِوو‬treasurer; cashier; ‫ووّز‬ٙ‫ٓاثٌعج‬١‫ثِوو‬
mayor (esp. Ir.); ‫ٓاعوجَا‬١‫‘( ثِو‬āmm) secretary
general; ‫ٓاثٌّىضوخ‬١ِ‫ ث‬a. al-maktab (formerly)
a subaltern rank in the Eg. navy (1939) 28
ٓ١ِ‫ آ‬āmīn amen!
‫ ثِجٔوز‬amāna reliability, trustworthiness;
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty;
integrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; (pl. -
ِٓ‫ آ‬āmin peaceful
ِْٛ‫ ِب‬ma’mūn reliable, trustworthy
ٗ١ٍ‫ ِؤِٓاع‬mu’amman ‘alaihi insured
ِٓ‫ ِؤ‬mu’min believing, faithful; believer
ّٓ‫ ِوؤص‬mu’taman entrusted (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬with);
confidant; sequestrator (jur.)
ُٛ‫ذ‬١ِٕ‫ ث‬omnibus omnibus, bus
1
ٜٛ‫ ثِووو‬amawī of or like a bondmaid or
handmaid
2
ِٞٛ‫ ث‬umawī Ommiad (adj.)
‫ز‬١ِ‫اث‬ٕٛ‫ د‬banū umayya the Ommiads
‫ذج‬١ِ‫ ث‬amībā amoebae
‫ٌثي‬١ِ‫ ث‬amīrāl admiral
‫ٌوج‬١ِ‫ث‬, ٗ‫ٌو‬١ِ‫ ث‬amērikā, amērika America
‫ز‬١ٌ‫ٌث‬١ِ‫ ث‬amīrālīya admiralty
1
ْ‫ ث‬an (conj.) that; -- in 1. (conj.) if; ْ‫ث‬ٚ wa-in
although, even though, even if; ْ‫ث‬ٚ – ْ‫ ث‬be
it -- or (be it); ٨‫ ث‬illā (= ٨‫ )ثْا‬look up
alphabetically 2. (particle) not, esp. in the
phrase ٨‫اث‬ٛ‫ ثْا٘و‬in huwa illā (f. ٨‫اث‬ٟ‫ )ثْا٘و‬it
is nothing but, it is no more than
2
ْ‫ ث‬anna (conj.) that; ٗ‫ دّجاثٔو‬bi-mā annahū since
he (it), because he (it); ٗ‫اثٔو‬ٝ‫‘ عٍو‬alā annahū
while he (it), whereas he (it); introducing
a main clause: however, yet; ٗ‫ىٌهاثٔو‬ٚ that is
to say, namely, to wit; -- innā
(intensifying particle introducing a
nominal clause) verily, truly (in most
cases not translated in English)
‫ ثّٔوج‬innamā but, but then; yet, however; rather,
on the contrary
3
ْ‫ ث‬anna i (ٓ١‫ ثٔو‬anīn, ْ‫ صبٔوج‬ta’nān) to groan,
moan (ِٓ at)
‫ ثٔوز‬anna pl. -āt moan, groan│‫آ٘وجس‬ٚ‫اثٔوجسا‬
wails and laments
ٓ١‫ ثٔو‬anīn plaintive sound, wail; groan,
moan(ing)
‫ ثٔج‬ana I
ٝ‫ ثٔغوو‬untā pl. ‫ ثٔووجط‬ināt, ٝ‫ ثٔووجع‬anātā
feminine; female; a female (of animals);
ْ‫ج‬١‫ٔغ‬٨‫ ث‬al-untayān the testicles
ٜٛ‫ ثٔغو‬untawī womanly, female, women's
(in compounds); effeminate, womanish
‫عز‬ٛٔ‫ ث‬unūta femininity, womanliness
‫وظ‬١ٔ‫ صب‬ta’nīt the feminine, feminine form
(gram.)
‫ ِؤٔظ‬mu’annat (gram.) feminine (adj.)
ٟٔ‫ ثٔج‬anānī egotistic; egoistic(al), selfish
‫ج‬١‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ‫د‬ٌٚ‫ ثٔغ‬antrōbōlōjiyā anthropology
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ ثٔج‬anānīya egoism, selfishness
ٗ‫ ثٔؾج‬injās (syr.) pear
ًٝ‫ٔج‬٨‫ ث‬al-anāḍul Anatolia
‫( ثٔؾٍضٌث‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā England
ُ‫ ثٔجٔج‬anānas pineapple
َ١ٍ‫ٔؾ‬٨‫ ث‬al-ingəlīz the English
‫ ثٔوخ‬II to blame, censure, reprehend, upbraid (ٖ
s.o.)
َٜ١ٍ‫ ثٔؾ‬ingəlīzī English; Englishman
ً١‫ ثٔؾ‬injil pl. ً١‫ ثٔجؽ‬anajīl2 gospel
‫خ‬١ٔ‫ صب‬ta’nīb blame, censure, rebuke
ٍٝ١‫ ثٔؾ‬injīlī evangelical; evangelist
‫ثٔذووووج‬
‫ز‬١ٍ١‫ ثٔؾ‬injīlīya evangelical creed
(pronounced ambā) Abba, a high
ecclesiastic title of the Coptic Church,
preceding the names of metropolitans,
bishops, patriarchs, and saints (< Άββα)
2
ً‫ ثٔذووج‬anbār pl. ٌ‫ ثٔووجد‬anābir , ٌ١‫ ثٔووجد‬anābīr
warehouse, storehouse, storeroom 29
2
ٟ‫( ثٔذجٕوو‬Turk. onbaşı) onbašī a mil. rank:
corporal (formerly, Eg.); ٟ‫ووووًاثٔذجٕوووو‬١‫و‬ٚ
approx.: private first class (Eg.)
‫ح‬ٛ‫ثٔذ‬, ‫دز‬ٛ‫ ثٔذ‬see ‫ٔخ‬
‫ك‬١‫ ثٔذ‬inbīq alembic
‫ ثٔش‬an-ta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); pl.
m. ُ‫ ثٔوض‬antum, f. ٓ‫ ثٔوض‬antunna you (2nd
pers. pl. and polite form of address); dual
‫ ثٔضّج‬antumā both of you
‫ ثٔضيث‬anta-dā it‘s you!
‫ىنجٔز‬١‫ ثٔض‬antīkḳāna museum
‫ىووز‬١‫ ثٔض‬antīka pl. -āt (eg.) old, old-fashioned,
outmoded
ّْٛ‫ ثٔض‬antimūn antimony
‫ ثٔوظ‬anuta u (‫عووز‬ٛٔ‫ ث‬unūta) to be or become
feminine,
womanly,
womanish,
effeminate II to make feminine; to
effeminate, make effeminate; to put into
the feminine form (gram.) V to become
feminine (also gram.)
ٌِ‫ٔو‬٨‫ ث‬al-andalus Spain
‫ج‬١ْ١ٔٚ‫ ثٔو‬indūnīsiyā Indonesia
ِ‫ ثٔووو‬anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be
companionable, sociable, nice, friendly,
genial; ٗ‫ ثٔوِادو‬to like s.o.‘s company, like
to be together with s.o.; to be or get on
intimate terms (‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with s.o.); to be
used, accustomed, habituated (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to); to
perceive, notice, find ( ‫ ٘و‬a quality, ٟ‫ـو‬, ٓ‫ِو‬
in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, recognize
( ٘ s.th., ٟ‫ ـ‬in, at)│ٗ‫غو‬٠‫(اثِٔاٌقو‬li-ḥadītihī) to
like to listen to s.o. II to put at ease; to
tame III to be friendly, nice (ٖ to s.o.); to
entertain, amuse (ٖ s.o.) IV to keep s.o. (ٖ)
company; to entertain, delight, amuse (ٖ
s.o.); to perceive, discern, make out (with
the eyes; ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to sense ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
find, see, notice, observe, e.g., ‫وز‬٠‫ٗاثٌىفج‬١‫آِٔاـ‬
he saw that be was duly qualified, that he
was a capable man V to become incarnate
(Son of God) X to be sociable,
companionable; to get on familiar terms,
become intimate; to become tame; to be
friendly, nice, kind (ٖ to s.o.); to
accommodate o.s., accustom o.s., settle
down; to be familiar, familiarize o.s.,
acquaint o.s. (‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with); to inform
o.s., gather information (‫ ح‬ahout); to take
into consideration, take into account,
bring into play (‫ ح‬s.th.), draw upon s.th.
(‫ ;)ح‬to listen (‫ ي‬to s.th.), heed (‫ ح‬an
opinion)
to resume, renew, recommence ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
(jur.) to appeal ( ٘ a sentence)
ِ‫ثٔوووووو‬
uns
sociability;
intimacy,
familiarity, friendly atmosphere
‫ ثٔؿ‬anf pl. ‫ آٔوجؾ‬ānāf, ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ثٔو‬unūf nose; spur (of a
mountain); pride│ٗ‫ اًؼوُاثٔفو‬ragma anfihi in
defiance of him, to spite him; ٗ‫وْووٌاثٔف و‬
(anfahū) to humiliate s.o., to put s.o.'s
nose out of joint; ‫ٔووؿ‬٨‫ ٕووجِـاث‬stuck-up,
haughty, proud
ٝ‫ ثْٔو‬unsī: ٝ‫( وعوخاثْٔو‬ka‘b) talus, inner
anklebone (anat.)
ِ‫ ثٔو‬ins (coll.) man, mankind, human
race
ْٟٔ‫ ث‬insī human; human being
ُ‫ ٔج‬nās (coll.) and ُ‫ ثٔج‬unās people
‫س‬ّٛ‫ ٔج‬nāsūt mankind, humanity 30
ٝ‫ ثٔجّو‬anāsīy (pl.) people, human beings,
humans
ِ١‫ ثٔو‬anīs close, intimate; close friend;
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite,
courteous
ْ‫ ثْٔووج‬insan man, human being│‫اثْٔووجْا‬
ٓ١‫ ثٌع‬i. al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
‫ ثْٔجٔز‬insāna woman
ٝٔ‫ثْٔووووووج‬
insānī
human;
humanitarian, philanthropist
humane;
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ ثْٔوج‬insānīya humanity, humaneness;
politeness, civility; mankind, the human
race
‫ ِؤثْٔ وز‬mu’ānasa intimacy, familiarity,
friendliness,
geniality,
cordiality;
sociability; conviviality
ُ‫ٕوووج‬٠‫ ث‬īnās exhilaration; friendliness,
geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordiality;
sociability
ِٔ‫ صب‬ta’annus incarnation (Chr.)
ُ‫ ثةضٕج‬I’tinās social life, sociability
‫ آْٔوز‬ānisa pl. -āt, ِ‫ثٔو‬ٚ‫ ث‬awānis2 young
lady, miss
ُٛٔ‫ ِب‬ma’nūs familiar, accustomed
ِٔ‫ ِْضب‬musta’nis tame
ٔٔ‫( ث‬Engl.) inš inch
‫ؽز‬ٖٛٔ‫( ث‬It. acciuga) anšūga (eg.) anchovy
‫وز‬١‫ ثٔ جو‬anṯākiya2 Antioch (ancient city in Syria;
now Antakya, in S Turkey)
ٝ‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ ٔ‫ ث‬onṯōlōjī ontologic(al) (philos.)
‫ ثٔوؿ‬anifa a (anaf) to disdain, scorn (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th., ْ‫ث‬
to do s.th.); to reject haughtily ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) X
ٝ‫ ثٔف‬anfī nasal
‫ ثٔفوز‬anafa pride; rejection; disdain (ٓ‫ ِو‬of
s.th.)
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ثٔوو‬anūf proud, haughty, stuck-up,
supercilious, disdainful
‫ثّووووووووضتٕجؾ‬
isti’nāf
fresh
start,
recommencement, renewal, resumption,
reopening (also, of a legal case); appeal
(jur.)│‫( الوووَاثّووضتٕجـج‬qaddama) to appeal,
make an appeal (jur.)
ٝ‫ ثّووضتٕجـ‬isti’nāfī of appeal, appellate;
‫ج‬١‫ ثّضتٕجـ‬isti’nāfīyan by appeal
‫ آٔووؿ‬ānif preceding, above│ٌ‫اآٔووؿاثٌوويو‬
(dikr) preceding, above, above-mentioned;
‫ آٔفوووج‬ānifan previously, above, in the
foregoing
‫ ِؤصٕوووؿ‬mu’tanaf primordial, virginal
state; beginning
ٌُ‫( ثٔفو‬Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in N
Belgium)
‫َٔث‬ٍٛ‫ ثٔف‬influwanzā influenza, grippe
‫ ثٔوك‬aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce,
comely, pretty; to be happy (‫ ح‬about), be
delighted (‫ ح‬by) IV to please (ٖ s.o.)│‫ؤٔموٗا‬٠
ٟ‫( ثٌٖو‬šai‘u) he likes the thing V to apply
o.s. eagerly and meticulously (ٝ‫ ـو‬to); to be
meticulous, fastidious, finical; to be chic,
elegant
‫ ثٔجلز‬anāqa elegance
‫ وك‬١ٔ‫ ث‬anīq neat, trim, spruce, comely,
pretty; elegant, chic
‫ق‬ٛ‫ ثٔو‬anūq Egyptian vulture (Neophron
perenopterus)│‫ق‬ٛ‫ٔوو‬٨‫اث‬ٜ١‫ اثعووَاِووٓادوو‬a‘azz2
min baiḍi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs of a
vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than hens‘
teeth (proverbially for s.th. rare)
‫ صبٔك‬ta’annuq elegance 31
‫ ِؤٔوووك‬mu’anniq, ‫ٔوووك‬ِٛ mūniq pretty,
comely, winsome, nice, pleasing
‫ ِضبٔك‬muta’anniq chic, elegant
direction); how? wherever; however│‫ا‬ٝٔ‫ث‬ٚ‫ا‬
...‫ا‬٨‫( ٌٗاث‬allā) and why shouldn't he ... ?
ْْٛ١ٔ‫ ث‬anīsūn, ْْٛ١ٔ‫ آ‬aniseed
ٌٖ‫ ثٔم‬anqara Ankara
ِ١ٍ‫ ثٔم‬anqalīs eel
‫وج‬١ّ١ٔ‫ ث‬anīmiyā anemia│○ ‫غوز‬١‫وجامذ‬١ّ١ٔ‫ ث‬pernicious
anemia (med.)
‫ آٔه‬ānuk lead (metal)
ٖ‫ آ‬āhi! ‫ آ٘ج‬āhan! (interj.) oh!
ًٜ‫ ثٔىٖج‬inkišārī pl. -īya Janizary
‫ ث٘وخ‬II to prepare, make ready, equip (‫٘و ي‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th. for) V to be ready, be prepared;
to prepare o.s., get ready; to equip s.o., be
equipped (‫ ي‬for)
‫ثٔىٍضٌث‬, ‫( ثٔىٍضوٌر‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā, ingiltera
England
ْْٛ‫ّى‬ٍٛ‫ ثٔى‬al-anglosaksūn the Anglo-Saxons
‫ز‬١ٔٛ‫ّىْووو‬ٍٛ‫ ثٔى‬al-anglosaksūnīya AngloSaxondom
َ١ٍ‫ٔى‬٨‫ ث‬al-inglīz the Engliah
َٜ١ٍ‫ ثٔى‬inglīzī English; Englishman
ِ١ٍ‫ ثٔى‬ankalīs eel
َ‫ٔج‬٨‫ ث‬al-anām and َ‫ٔج‬٢‫( ث‬coll.) mankind, the
human race
‫ىػ‬ّٛٔ‫ ث‬unmūdaj model, pattern; type, example;
sample, specimen
ّْٛٔ‫ ث‬anamūn anemone (bot.)
1
ٝ‫ ثٔو‬anā i to mature, become ripe; to draw
near, approach, come (esp. time)│ْ‫اٌوٗاث‬ٝٔ‫اث‬
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative
statements: ْ‫ووب‬٠‫ ثٌووُا‬a-lam ya'ni? isn't it
about time ...? V to act slowly, proceed
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient X
to take one's time, hesitate (ٝ‫ ـو‬in, with); to
wait
ٝ‫ ثٔو‬anan pl. ‫ آٔووج‬ānā’ (span of) time,
period│ً١ٌٍ‫اآٔج اث‬ٝ‫(اـ‬laili) all night long; ‫آٔج ا‬
ً‫وج‬ٌٕٙ‫وٌثؾاث‬ٟ‫ث‬ٚ‫وًا‬١ٌٍ‫ ث‬ānā’a l-laili wa-aṯrāfa nnahār by day and by night
‫ ثٔ وجر‬anāh deliberateness; perseverance,
patience│‫ٔووووجر‬٨‫ياث‬ٛ‫وووو‬ٟ‫ ا‬ṯūl al-a. longsuffering, great patience; ‫ٔوجر‬٨‫وًاث‬٠ٟٛ longsuffering (adj.)
‫ ثٔج‬inā’ pl. ‫وز‬١ٔ‫ آ‬āniya,ْ‫ث‬ٚ‫اث‬awānin2 vessel,
container, receptacle│ َ‫ووزاثٌ عووج‬١ٔ‫ آ‬a.. aṯṯa‘ām table utensils, dishes; mess kit
ْ‫ صب‬ta’annin slowness, deliberateness
ْ‫ ِضووووب‬muta’annin
deliberate
2
slow,
unhurried,
ٝ‫ اثٔو‬annā (interrog. part.) where ... from? why
is it that ... ? why? Where? (place and
‫ ث٘ذووووز‬uhba pl. ‫ ث٘ووووخ‬uhab preparation,
preparedness,
readiness,
alertness;
equipment, outfit, gear│‫ اث٘ذوزاثٌقوٌح‬u. alḥarb military equipment; ً‫وو‬١‫اث٘ذووزاثٌٌف‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
ready to set out; ‫ّووضعوثه‬٨‫اث٘ذووزاث‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬fully
prepared; on the alert (mil.); ٗ‫ أمووياث٘ذضو‬to
make one's preparations, get ready
‫ ث٘جح‬ihāb skin, hide
‫ صب٘وخ‬ta’ahhub preparedness, readiness;
(pl. -āt) preparation
‫ ِضب٘خ‬muta’ahhib ready, prepared
ً‫ ث٘و‬ahala u (‫ي‬ٛ‫ ث٘و‬uhūl) to take a wife, get
married; -- ahila a to be on familiar terms
(‫ ح‬with); -- pas. uhila to be inhabited, be
populated (region, place) II to make fit or
suited, to fit, qualify (‫٘و ي‬, ٖ s.o., s.th. for);
to make possible ( ‫ ي ٘ و‬for s.o. s.th.),
enable ( ‫ ي ٘وو‬s.o. to do s.th.), make
accessible ( ‫ ي ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.); to welcome
(‫ ح‬s.o.) V to be or become fit, suited,
qualified (‫ ي‬for s.th.); to 32 take a wife; to
marry, get married X to deserve merit ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), be worthy ( ٘ of)
ً‫ ث٘و‬ahl pl. –ūn, ‫ ث٘وجي‬ahālin relatives,
folks, family; kin, kinfolk; wife; (with
foll. genit.) people, members, followers,
adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants;
deserving, worthy (‫ ي‬of s.th.); fit, suited,
qualified (‫ ي‬for); pl. ْٛ‫ٍ٘وو‬٤‫ث‬, ٌٝ‫٘ووج‬٤‫ ث‬the
natives, the native population│‫وش‬١‫ اث٘وًاثٌذ‬a.
al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) of the
family; the Prophet's family; ً‫ ث٘وًاثٌووث‬the
people living in the house;‫ اث٘وًاثٌقٌـوز‬a. alḥirfa people of the trade; ‫ ث٘وًاثٌقٍوؿ‬a. alḥilf people pledged by oath, members of a
sworn confederacy; ‫ ث٘وًاثٌنذوٌر‬a. al-ḳibra
people of experience, experts; ‫ث٘وًاثٌْفْو ز‬
a. al-safsata Sophists; ‫ ثً٘اثٌْوٕز‬a. as-sunna
the adherents of the Sunna, the Sunnis; ‫ثً٘ا‬
ٌ‫د‬ٛ‫ثٌوو‬ٚ‫ ثٌّوووًا‬a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the
resident population and the nomads; ‫ث٘وًا‬
‫ؽج٘وز‬ٌٛ‫ ث‬a. al-wajāha people of rank and
high social standing; ‫ا‬٩ٙ‫ّو‬ٚ‫ا‬٩‫ ث٘و‬ahlan wasahlan welcome! ‫ادوووها‬٩‫ ث٘ووو‬ahlan bika
welcome to youl ً‫اهثًٔووجاث٘وو‬ٟ‫ ٌووٗاـوو‬he is a
welcome guest in our house
‫دوٌث‬ٚ‫ ث‬and ‫دوٌث‬ٚ‫( ث‬It. opera) ōpərā opera; opera
house
‫ا‬ٟ‫ ثٍ٘ووو‬ahlī domestic, family (adj.);
native, resident; indigenous; home,
national│‫ا‬ٟ‫ ادٕ وهاثٍ٘ و‬national bank (Eg.);
‫ووزا‬١ٍ٘‫( فووٌحاث‬ḥarb) civil war; ‫ووزا‬١ٍ٘‫ِقىّووزاث‬
(maḥkama) indigenous court (Eg.); ‫وج ا‬ٞ‫ثٌم‬
‫ا‬ٟ‫ٍ٘و‬٤‫( ث‬qaḍā’) jurisdiction of indigenous
courts; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ٍ٘وووو‬٤‫ٔضوووجػاث‬٦‫( ث‬intāj) domestic
production; ‫ا‬ٍٟ٘‫لؿاث‬ٚ (waqf) family wakf
ٟٟ‫لٌث‬ٛ‫ص‬ٚ‫ ث‬oṯūqrāṯī autocratic
‫ووووووز‬١ٍ٘‫ث‬
ahlīya
aptitude,
fitness,
suitableness, competence; qualification │‫ا‬
‫ووز‬١ٔٛٔ‫ووزاثٌمج‬١ٍ٘٤‫ ث‬the civil rights; ‫ووز‬١ٍ٘٤‫وجِووًاث‬
legally competent; ‫وووز‬١ٍ٘٤‫ُاث‬٠‫ عوووو‬legally
incompetent, under tutelage
ً‫ آ٘وو‬ahil and ‫ي‬ٛ٘‫ ِووب‬ma’hūl inhabited,
populated (region, place)
‫س‬٩٘‫ ِوووووؤ‬mu’ahhilāt
abilities, aptitudes
qualifications,
ً٘‫ ِضب‬muta’ahhil married
ً٘‫ ِْوووضب‬musta’hil worthy, deserving,
meriting; entitled
‫ٍؼ‬١‫ ثٍ٘ووو‬ihlīlaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of
Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse
(geom.)
‫ش‬٠ٌ‫د‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr.) ōpərēt operetta
‫س‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr. août) August (month; mağr.)
ِ١‫د‬ٛ‫ص‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr. autobus) otobīs autobus, bus
‫صؾٌثؾ‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr.) otogrāf pl. -āt autograph
ٟ‫ى‬١‫ِجص‬ٛ‫ص‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
ً١‫د‬ِٛٛ‫ص‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr.) otombīl automobile
ً١‫ص‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr.) ōtēl pl. -āt hotel
‫ػ‬ٚ‫ث‬
auj highest point, acme, pinnacle;
culmination, climax; apogee (astron.);
peak (fig.; of power. of fame) 33
‫ آؿ‬āḥ albumen, eggwhite
O ٓ١‫ آف‬āḥīn albumin
(‫ه‬ٚ‫ آه )ث‬āda u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, crook
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to burden, oppress, weigh down
( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.); -- ‫ه‬ٚ‫ ث‬awida a (awad) to bend; to
be bent V to bend; to bow
‫هر‬ٚ‫ ث‬auda burden, load
‫ه‬ٚ‫ ث‬awad: ٖ‫ه‬ٚ‫ الوجَادوج‬to provide for s.o.‘s needs,
stand by s.o. in time of need; ٖ‫ه‬ٚ‫ألووجَاث‬
(awadahū) do.; to support s.o., furnish s.o.
with the means of subsistence
ً‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬uwār heat, blaze; thirst
‫ًدج‬ٚ‫ ث‬urubbā Europe
ٟ‫ًد‬ٚ‫ ث‬urubbī Europesn
ٟ‫ٍؾ‬١ٍ٘‫ ث‬ihlīlajī elliptic(al)
ُ١ًٍٕٚ‫ ث‬ūrušalīm2 Jerusalem
ٚ‫ ث‬au or; (with foll. subj.) unless except that
‫ووز‬ًٟٚ‫ووز =( ث‬ًٟ‫ )ث‬urṯa pl. ًٟ‫ ث‬uraṯ battalion
(formerly, Eg.; mil.)
1
(‫ح‬ٚ‫ آح )ث‬āba u (aub, ‫دوز‬ٚ‫ ث‬auba, ‫وجح‬٠‫ ث‬iyab) to
return; ‫ آح ح‬to catch, contract, suffer,
incur s.th., be in for s.th., be left with, get
one‘s share of
‫ح‬ٚ‫ ِوٓاووًاث‬min kulli aubin from all sides
or directions; ‫ح‬ٛٙٚ‫حا‬ٚ‫( ِٓاوًاث‬ṣaubin) do.
‫دز‬ٚ‫ ث‬auba return
‫ووجح‬٠‫ ث‬iyāb return │‫جدووج‬٠‫ث‬ٚ‫ اى٘جدووجا‬dahāban
wa-iyaban there and back; back and forth,
up and down
‫ ِو ح‬ma’āb place to which one returns;
(used as verbal noun:) return │‫ِو ح‬ٚ‫حا‬ٛ‫اى٘و‬
coming and going
2
‫ آح‬look up alphabetically
ٞٛ‫ًؼ‬ٚ‫ ث‬uruguwāy Uruguay
‫ًوْضٌث‬ٚ‫( ث‬It.) arkestrā orchestra
‫وه‬١ًٔٚ‫( ث‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ووه‬١ٔ‫ ثًث‬arānīk2
sample, specimen; model, pattern; form,
blank
‫دج‬ًٚٚ‫ ث‬urubbā, ‫ﭙث‬ًٚٚ‫ ث‬Europe
ٟ‫د‬ًٚٚ‫ ث‬urubbī Europesn
ٞ‫ث‬ٛ‫ؽ‬ًٚٚ‫ ث‬uruguwāy Uruguay
ٍٚ‫ ث‬II (eg.) to ridicule (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.), make fun of
s.o. (ٍٝ‫)ع‬
ٍٚ‫ ث‬iwazz (col1.; n. un.) goose, geese
ُ‫ آ‬ās myrtle; see also alphabetically
‫ج‬١ٌ‫ّضٌث‬ٚ‫ ث‬usturāliyā Australia
‫ج‬٠ٌ‫ّض‬ٚ‫( ث‬It.) austriyā Austria
ٍّٛٚ‫ ث‬Oslo
ٝ ّٚ‫ ث‬ūsṯā see ٝ ّ‫ث‬
‫ز‬١‫ٕوو‬ٚ‫ ث‬ūšīya pl. ٓ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬awāšin prayer, oration
(Copt.-Chr.)
‫ آـوز‬āfa pl. -āt harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane,
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic
‫ؾ‬ٚ‫ ِؤ‬ma’ūf stricken by an epidemic
‫ي‬ٌٚ‫ـ‬ٚ‫( ث‬Engl.) ovirōl overalls
l
(‫ق‬ٚ‫ آق )ث‬āqa u to bring s.o. (ٝ‫ )عٍو‬bad luck,
cause discomfort or hardship (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to) II to
burden (ٖ s.o.) with s.th. unpleasant,
troublesome or difficult
2
‫لز‬ٚ‫ ث‬see ‫ثلز‬
3
‫موجس‬٠ٚ‫ ث‬uwaiqāt (dimin. of ‫لوجس‬ٚ‫ )ث‬short times;
good times
ِٔ‫ج‬١‫م‬٠ٚ‫ث‬, ُٛٔ‫ج‬١‫م‬٠ٚ‫ث‬
oqiyānus, oqiyānūs ocean
‫وز‬١‫ل‬ٚ‫ ث‬ūqīya pl. -āt ounce, a weight of varying
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g;
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g)
ْٛ٠ٍ‫ووج‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr. occasion) okazyōn clearing sale,
special sale
‫ج‬١ٔ‫وٌث‬ٚ‫ ث‬ukrānīya Ukraine
ٓ١‫وْؾ‬ٚ‫( ث‬Fr. oxygène) oksižēn oxygen
(‫ي‬ٚ‫ آي )ث‬āla u (aul, ‫ ِو ي‬ma’āl) to return, revert
(ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to); to go back, be attributed, be
attributable (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to), spring, derive (ٝ‫ثٌوو‬
from); to lead, conduce, tend (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to),
result eventually (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬in); to come or go
eventually (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.), pass into the hands
of (ٝ‫ │ )ثٌو‬ٝ‫ِوٌاثٌو‬٤‫ آياث‬the long and the short
of it was that ... ; ٝ‫( آيادوٗاثٌّ وجؾاثٌو‬maṯāfu)
he eventually got to the point where ... II
to interpret, explain ( ٘ s.th.)
‫آي‬
āl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;
companions, partisans, people; mirage,
fatamorgana
‫ آٌوووز‬āla pl. -āt instrument, utensil; tool;
apparatus; device, implement, appliance;
machine│ِ‫ساثٌقوو‬٨‫ اآ‬ā. al-ḥiss ‫ا‬sensory‫ا‬
organs; ‫وز‬٠ً‫( اآٌوزادنج‬buḳārīya) steam engine;
ٌ‫ آٌوووزاثٌؾووو‬ā. al-jarr tractor; ‫وووز‬١ّٕٙ‫آٌوووزاؽ‬
(jahannamīya) infernal machine; ‫وزا‬١‫آٌوزافٌد‬
(ḥarbīya) instrument of war; ‫وه‬٠ٌ‫ آٌوزاثٌضق‬34
motor, engine; ‫ آٌووووزافجّووووذز‬calculating
machine; ‫جوووز‬١‫ آٌووزاثٌق‬a. al-ḥiyāka power
loom; ‫وز‬ٟ‫ج‬١‫ آٌوزاثٌن‬sewing machine; ٛ‫و‬٠‫آٌوزاًثه‬
radio; ‫ آٌووزاًثـعووز‬hoisting machine, crane,
derrick; pump; ٓ١‫ آٌووزاثٌضْوون‬and ‫آٌووزاِْوونٕز‬
(musaḳḳina)
heater;
ٌ٠ٛ‫ووووووو‬ٚ‫آٌوووووووزاثٌض‬
(photographic) camera; ‫ آٌوزاثٌ ذجعوز‬printing
press; ً‫ آٌزاثٌؽْو‬a. al-gasl washing machine;
‫ل‬٠ٌ‫ آٌووزاثٌضفوو‬incubator; ‫ّووضمذجي‬٨‫ آٌووزاث‬receiver,
receiving set (radio); ‫( آٌوزاِم وٌر‬muqaṯṯira)
distilling apparatus, still; ‫ آٌوزاثٌىضجدوز‬and ‫آٌوزا‬
‫ وجصذووز‬typewriter; ً‫ آٌووزاٌعووخاثٌمّووج‬a. la‘b alqimār slot machine; ‫ز‬١‫م‬١‫ّو‬ِٛ‫( آٌوزا‬mūsīqīya)
musical instrument; ٗ‫و‬١‫ آٌوزاثٌضٕذ‬alarm; siren
horn (of an automobile); ‫ّج‬ٙ‫( آٌزا‬ṣammā’)
(fig.) tool, creature, puppet
ٝ‫ آٌوووو‬ālī mechanic(al); mechanized;
motorized; instrumental; organic│ ‫ِقوٌثطا‬
ٟ‫( آٌووو‬miḥrat) motor plow; ‫وووز‬١ٌ٢‫ثساث‬ٛ‫ثٌمووو‬
(quwāt) motorized troops; ‫ووووز‬١ٌ‫فٌوووووزاآ‬
(ḥaraka) a mechanical movement
‫ز‬١ٌ‫ آ‬ālīya mechanics
ٝ‫ص‬٨‫ آ‬ālātī pl. ‫وز‬١‫ص‬٨‫ آ‬ālātīya (eg.) musician;
singer
‫ي‬ٚ‫ ث‬awwal2, f. ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫ ث‬ūlā, pl. m. -ūn, ً‫ثةو‬ٚ‫ث‬
awā’il2 first; foremost, most important,
principal, chief, main; first part,
beginning; (with def. article also) earlier,
previous, former; see a1so under ٝ‫ٌ و‬ٚ│‫ا‬
‫ي‬ٚ٨‫ْٔجْاث‬٨‫( ث‬insān) primitive man; ‫ي‬ٚ‫وخاث‬١‫ذ‬ٟ
physician-in-chief; ً‫ثةووو‬ٚ٨‫ث‬, ْٛ‫ٌووو‬ٚ٨‫ ث‬the
forebears, forefathers, ancestors; ٌٙ‫ثةًاثٌٖو‬ٚ‫ث‬
a. aš-šahr the first ten days of a month,
beginning of a month; ‫ياِوٌر‬ٚ٨ li-awwali
marratin or ٌٝٚ٨‫ ٌٌٍّراث‬for the first time; ‫ِٓا‬
ٗ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫ث‬, ٗ‫ثةٍو‬ٚ‫ ِوٓاث‬since its beginnings, from the
very beginning; ٌٖ‫اآموو‬ٝ‫ٌووٗاثٌوو‬ٚ‫( ِووٓاث‬āḳirihī)
from beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫يا‬ٚ‫ث‬
ٌ‫ِووو‬٨‫ ث‬awwala l-amr at first, in the
beginning; ‫ي‬ٚ٨‫ياـوج‬ٚ٨‫ ث‬each time the first
available; ‫ياِووج‬ٚ‫( ث‬awwala) the moment
when, just when; at the very outset of; ‫ثوغٌا‬
‫ي‬ٚ٨‫( ِٓاث‬aḳtara) more than before
٨ٚ‫ ث‬awwalan first, firstly, in the first
place; at first, in the beginning│‫ي‬ٚ‫ادوج‬٨ٚ‫اث‬
and ٨ٚ‫اـوب‬٨ٚ‫ ث‬by and by, gradually, one after
the other, one by one; ‫وٌث‬١‫ثم‬ٚ‫ا‬٨ٚ‫ ث‬and ‫ا‬٨ٚ‫ث‬
‫آمووٌث‬ٚ (āḳiran) first and I~st, altogether;
simply and solely, merely
ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫ ث‬awwalī prime, primary, primordial,
original,
initial,
first;
elemental,
fundamental, basic, principal, chief, main;
elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval│‫ا‬
‫ووز‬١ٌٚ‫( ِوًّووزاث‬madrasa) elementary school,
grade school; ‫ووز‬١ٌٚ‫ثهاث‬ٛ‫( ِوو‬mawādd) raw
materials; ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫‘( عووهاث‬adad) prime number;
‫ز‬١ٌٚ‫ًراث‬ٛ‫( ـجص‬fātūra) pro forma invoice
‫ آٔيثن‬ānadāka that day, at that time, then
ْٚ‫ ث‬aun calmness, serenity, gentleness
ْ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬awān pl. ‫ٔوز‬ٚ‫ آ‬āwina time│ٗ‫ثٔو‬ٚ‫الذوًاث‬
prematurely; ٗ‫ثٔ و‬ٚ‫اث‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬at the right time,
timely, seasonably, ٗ‫ثٔوو‬ٚ‫ووٌاث‬١‫اؼ‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬at the
wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; ‫ٓا‬١‫دو‬
‫ٔوز‬ٚ٢‫ ث‬from time to time; ٌٜ‫مو‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ٔوزا‬ٚ٢‫ٓاث‬١‫دو‬
(uḳrā) and ٌٜ‫أمو‬ٚ‫ٔوزا‬ٚ‫( آ‬āwinatan, uḳrā) at
times, sometimes; ٌٜ‫أمو‬ٚ‫ٔوزا–ا‬ٚ‫ آ‬sometimes
– sometimes, at times – at times; ْ‫ث‬ٚ٨‫ـوجساث‬
(fāta) it is too late; ْ‫ث‬ٚ٨‫( آْاث‬āna) the time
has come, it is time (‫ ي‬for, to do s.th.)
‫وز‬١ٌٚ‫ ث‬awwalīya pl. -āt fundamental truth,
axiom; primary constituent, essential
component, element; precedence; priority
ً٠‫ ث‬ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pl. ً‫جة‬٠‫ ث‬ayā’il2 stag
‫جٌز‬٠‫ ث‬iyāla pl. -āt province; regency
2
‫ٌز‬ٍٛ٠‫ ث‬ailūla title deed (jur.)
ٕٝ‫ٔذج‬ٚ‫ ث‬onbašī corporal, see ٕٝ‫ثٔذج‬
‫ ِ و ي‬ma’āl end; outcome, final issue,
upshot; result, consequence│‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬ٚ‫اثٌقوجيا‬ٟ‫اـو‬
‫ ثٌّ ي‬at present and in the future
ً‫وووو‬٠ٚ‫ صب‬ta’wīl
explanation
pl.
-āt
ْ‫ث‬ٛ٠‫اث‬look up alphabetically
(ٖٚ‫ آٖ )ث‬āha u and II to moan, sigh V to moan,
sigh; to sigh with admiration (‫ ي‬over),
exclaim ―ah!‖
ٖٚ‫ ث‬awwah (interj.) oh!
interpretation,
ٖ‫ آ‬āhi, ٘‫اآ‬āhan, ٖ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬awwāhi oh!
٨ٚ‫ ث‬ulā’i, ‫ٌتووه‬ٚ‫ث‬, ‫ةووه‬٨ٚ‫ ث‬ulā’ika these;
those, pl. of the demonstr. pron. ‫ ىث‬and ‫ىٌه‬
‫ آ٘ز‬āha pl. -āt sigh, moan; pl. ‫ آ٘وجس‬sighs
of admiration; rapturous exclamations
ٝ‫ٌّذوووو‬ٚ‫ ث‬olimbī Olympic│‫ووووز‬١‫ٌّذ‬ٚ٨‫ٌعووووجحاث‬٨‫اث‬the
Olympic games
ٖٚ‫ صووووب‬ta’awwuh moaning. sighing;
admiring exclamation; plaintive sound,
wail
‫جه‬١‫ٌّذ‬ٚ‫ ث‬olimbiyād Olympiad
ٛ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫ ث‬ulū (pl. of ٚ‫ )ى‬owners, possessors, people
(with foll.genit.: of)│ٌ‫ِوو‬٨‫اث‬ٛ‫ٌوو‬ٚ‫اث‬u. l-amr
rulers, powerful leaders; ‫ثٌعموو‬ٚ‫اثٌقًا‬ٌٛٚ‫ ث‬u. lḥall wa-l-'aqd (lit.: masters of solving and
binding) do.; ْ‫اثٌٖوووب‬ٛ‫ٌووو‬ٚ‫ ث‬u. š-ša’n the
responsible people
1
َ‫ث‬ٚ‫ ث‬uwām thirst
2
َٚ‫ ث‬ohm (el.) 35
ُٛ‫ذ‬١ِٕٚ‫ ث‬omnībūs omnibus, bus
1
ْ‫ آ‬ān time; ْ٢‫ ث‬al-āna now│ْ‫اآ‬ٝ‫ اـو‬and ‫اآْا‬ٝ‫ـو‬
‫ثفوو‬ٚ at the same time, simultaneously; ‫ِوٓا‬
ٌ‫اآمو‬ٌٝ‫( آْاث‬āḳara) from time to time; ‫ٓا‬١‫ِوجادو‬
ٌ‫آم‬ٚ‫( آْا‬wa-āḳara) and ْ‫ آٔجادعواآ‬sometimes,
at times, now and then: once in a while; ‫آٔجا‬
‫ ـ ٔوج‬gradually, by and by, little by little; -‫آٔوجا‬
‫ٔووووووز‬ٚ‫آ‬ٚ‫ا‬(āwinatan)
sometimes
-sometimes, at times -- at times; ْ٢‫لذووًاث‬
qabla l-āna before, previously, formerly;
ْ٣‫ ٌو‬li-l-āna and ْ٢‫اث‬ٝ‫ فضو‬ḥattā l-āna until
now, hitherto, so far; ْ٢‫ دعوواث‬ba‘da l-āna
from now on, henceforth, in the future; ‫ِٓا‬
‫جعوث‬ٚ‫ْاـ‬٢‫ ث‬min al-āna fa-ṣā‘idan do.
‫ آٔتي‬āna’idin that day, at that time, then
ٜٚ‫ ث‬awā i to seek refuge, seek shelter (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at a
place); to go (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to bed); to betake o.s.,
repair (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a place); to shelter, house,
put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as a
guest ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) II to shelter, lodge,
put up, accommodate, receive as a guest (ٖ
s.o.) IV to seek shelter (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at a place), to
retire (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a place); to betake o.s., repair
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a place); to shelter, house, put up,
lodge, accommodate (ٖ s.o.)
‫ث‬ٛ‫ووو‬٠‫ ث‬īwā’ accommodation, lodging,
housing, sheltering
ٜٚ‫ ِوب‬ma’wan pl. ٚ ‫ ِو‬ma’āwin place of
refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting
place; dwelling, habitation│ٝ‫ٍوووو‬١ٌ‫ا‬ٜٚ‫اِووووب‬
(lailī) shelter for the night; doss house
ٜٚ‫ ثدووٓاآ‬ibn āwā pl. ٜٚ‫ دٕووجساآ‬banāt a.
jackal
1
‫وز‬٠‫ آ‬āya, coll. ٞ‫ آ‬āy, pl. -āt sign, token, mark;
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model,
exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (ٝ‫ ـوو‬of,
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse,
ُ١‫اثٌويوٌاثٌقىو‬ٞ‫( آ‬āy ad-dikr) the verses of the
Koran; passage (in a book), utterance,
saying, word; ‫وجس‬٠‫( آ‬with foll. genit.) moat
solemn assurances (of love, of gratitude)
2
ٜ‫ ث‬ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit
3
ٜ‫ ث‬ī yes (with foll.
God!)
4
ٚ yes indeed! Yes, by
ٜ‫ ث‬ayy, f. ‫وز‬٠‫ ث‬ayya (with foll. genit. or suffix)
which? what? what kind of? Whoever,
whosoever; any, every, no matter what ... ;
(with neg.) no; ‫ّووج‬٠‫ ث‬ayyumā whatever,
whatsoever│‫ووزاوجٔووش‬٠‫ث‬, ْ‫ووجاوووج‬٠‫ ث‬ayyan kāna,
ayyatan kānat whoever he (or she) is, no
matter who he (or she) is; ْ‫اِوٓاووج‬ٞ‫ ث‬ayyu
man kāna whoever it may be, whosoever;
‫افوجي‬ٞ‫اث‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬ayyi ḥālin) in any case, at any
36 rate, at all events, by all means; ‫ثفوو‬ٚ‫ا‬ٜ‫ث‬
ayyu wāḥidin any one; ْ‫إوب‬ٜ‫ ثْاٌٗإبٔجاث‬inna
lahū ša’nan ayya ša’nin it is of the
greatest importance (lit.: it is of
importance, and of what importance!);
‫ّوووجاثعؾوووجح‬٠‫ ثعؾوووخادوووٗاث‬u‘jiba bihi ayyama
i‘jābin how much he admired him! he
admired him greatly; ‫ّوووجاثلذوووجي‬٠‫وووٗاث‬١ٍ‫ثلذوووًاع‬
aqbala ‘alaihi ayyama iqbālin he showed
the greatest interest in it
‫ووجا‬٠‫ ث‬iyyā with nominal suffix to express the
accusative│ْ‫وجناث‬٠‫ ث‬take care not to ..., be
careful not to ...; ِٓ‫جنا‬٠‫ث‬, ٚ‫وجنا‬٠‫ ث‬beware of ...
! ‫وجن‬٠‫ث‬ٚ (dial. wayyāk), ٖ‫وج‬٠‫ث‬ٚ (wayyāh) with
you, with him
‫جي‬٠ٌ٠‫( ث‬Engl.) ēriyāl aerial, antenna
ِ٠َ٠‫ ث‬īzīs Isis
ِ٠‫ ث‬ayisa a (ُ‫ج‬٠‫ ث‬iyās) to despair (ِٓ of s.th.)
ُ‫ج‬٠‫ ث‬iyās despair
‫ٌٖح‬٠‫( ث‬Fr. écharp,) sash
(ٜ٠‫ )ث‬ٛ‫ آ‬āḍa i to return, revert (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.th.); to
become (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th.)
‫وج‬ٞ٠‫ ث‬aiḍan also, too, as well, likewise,
equally; again; in addition, besides,
moreover
‫ج‬١ٌ‫ ج‬٠‫ ث‬īṯālīyā Italy
ٌٝ‫ ج‬٠‫ ث‬īṯālī Italian; (pl. -ūn) an Italian
‫ٔوز‬ٛ‫م‬٠‫( ث‬Gr. είκών) īqūna and ‫وز‬١ٔٛ‫م‬٠‫ ث‬īqūnīya pl. āt icon (Chr.)
‫ه‬٠‫ ث‬aik (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬thicket, jungle
1
ً٠‫ اث‬and ‫جٌز‬٠‫ ث‬see ‫ي‬ٚ‫ث‬
2
‫ي‬ٍٛ٠‫ اث‬ailūl2 September (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
3
‫ٌز‬ٍٛ٠‫ اث‬ailūla title deed (jur.)
(ُ‫و‬٠‫ آَ )ث‬āma i: ٗ‫ؽضو‬ٍٚ‫( آَاِوٓا‬zaujatihī) to lose
one's wife, become or be a widower, ‫آِوشا‬
‫وج‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٍٚ‫( ِوٓا‬zaujiha) to lose one‘s husband,
become or be a widow
‫ّوز‬٠‫ ث‬aima, َٛ‫و‬٠‫ ث‬uyūm and ُ٠‫ صوب‬ta’ayyum
widowhood
ُ‫و‬٠‫ ث‬ayyim pl. ُ‫وجة‬٠‫ ث‬ayā’im2, ِٝ‫وج‬٠‫ ث‬ayāmā
widower, widow
ً‫ج‬٠‫ ث‬see 2ٌ٠‫ث‬
‫وو‬٠‫ ث‬II to back, support (ٖ, s.o., ‫ ٘و‬a claim, an
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate,
endorse ( ‫ ٘و‬news, a. judgment, etc.) V =
pass. of II
‫وو‬١٠‫ صب‬ta’yīd corroboration, confirmation,
endorsement, backing, support
ٓ١‫ؽ‬ًٚ‫و‬٠‫( ث‬Fr. Hydrogène) idrožēn hydrogen
‫ز‬١ٕ١‫ؽ‬ًٚ‫و‬٠‫( لٕذٍزاث‬qunbula) hydrogen bomb
1
ٌ٠‫ ث‬air pl. ًٛ٠‫ ث‬uyūr penis
2
ً‫ج‬٠‫ ث‬ayyār2 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
ْ‫ٌث‬٠‫ ث‬īrān Iran, Persia
َٛ٠‫ ث‬aiwam2 see َٛ٠
‫ّج‬٠‫ ث‬ayyumā see 4ٞ‫ ث‬ayy
1
(ٓ‫و‬٠‫ آْ )ث‬āna i to come, approach, draw near
(time)│ْ‫ث‬ٚ٨‫( اآْاث‬awān) the time has
come: ْ‫ آْاٌٗاث‬it‘s time for him to ...
ْ‫ آ‬see ْٚ‫ث‬
ٓ‫و‬٠‫ ث‬aina where? (= at or to what place?)│‫اِوٓا‬
ٓ٠‫ ث‬min aina where … from? ٓ‫و‬٠‫اث‬ٌٝ‫ ث‬where?
(= to what place?) ٓ‫وٓأقوٓاِو‬٠‫ ث‬how far we
still are from … worlds separate us from
... (fig.); ‫وووٓا٘ووويثاِوووٓاىثن‬٠‫ ث‬what is this
compared with that! 37
ٝ‫ٌثٔو‬٠‫ ث‬īrānī Iranian, Persian; (pl. -ūn) a Persian,
an Iranian
ٓ٠٨‫ ث‬al-ainu the where; space (philos.)
‫ٌٌٕوث‬٠‫ ث‬irlandā Ireland
ْ‫ج‬٠‫ ث‬ayyāna when? (conj.) when
ٜ‫ٌٌٕو‬٠‫ ث‬irlandī Irish; (pl. -ūn) Irishman
‫ّٕج‬٠‫ ث‬ainamā wherever
2
ٓ٠‫اث‬II to ionize ( ٘ s.th.) V to be ionized (el.)
ْٛ٠‫ ث‬iyōn pl. -āt ion
1
‫ادبدب‬ba’ba’a to say ―papa‖ (child)
ٓ١٠‫ صب‬ta’yīn ionization
2
‫ دؤدوؤ‬bu’bu’ root, source, origin; core, heart,
inmost part; pupil of the eye, also ٓ١‫دؤدوؤاٌعو‬
b. al-‘ain
ٓ٠‫ ِضب‬muta’ayyin ionized
ٗ‫و‬٠‫ ث‬īhi, īha, īhin (interj.) well! now then! All
right!
‫ووج‬ٙ٠‫ ث‬ayyuhā, with fem. also ‫ووج‬ٙ‫ض‬٠‫ ث‬ayyatuhā
(vocative particle) O ... !
‫ح‬ٛ٠‫ ث‬ayyūb2 Job
ْٛ١‫د‬ٛ٠٨‫ ث‬al-ayyūbīyūn the Ayubites
ً‫ دجد‬bābil2 Babel, Babylon
ٍٝ‫ دجد‬bābilī Babylonian
ٗ‫ دجد و‬bābih the second month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ دجد‬bābūj pl. ‫ثدؼ‬ٛ‫ د‬bawābij2 slipper
ًٛ‫ دووجد‬bābūr pl. -āt, ٌ١‫ثد‬ٛ‫ د و‬bawābīr2 (=ًٛ‫ثدوو‬ٚ)
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer
َٛ٠‫ ث‬aiwam2 see َٛ٠
1
ْٛ٠‫اث‬see 2ٓ٠‫ث‬
2
ْ‫ث‬ٛ٠‫ اث‬īwān pl. -āt recess-like sitting room with
a raised floor, usually opening on the main
room or courtyard through an arcade;
estrade
‫ب‬
1
‫ ح‬abbreviation of ‫ دجح‬chapter
1
‫ ح‬bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); with
(indicating
connection,
association,
attendance); with, through, by means of
(designating instrumentality or agency,
also with pass. = by); for (= at the price
of); by (= to the amount of); by
(introducing an oath)│ً‫و‬١ٌٍ‫ دج‬bi-l-lail at (by)
night, ً‫ووووج‬ٌٕٙ‫ دج‬bi-n-nahār during the
daytime, by day; ‫ادٖوٌق‬٨‫ ٕوّج‬šamālan bišarqin northeast; ‫ٔعّووش‬ٚ‫ووجا‬ٙ‫ ـذ‬fa-bihā wani’mat in that case it‘s all right; ْ‫اث‬ٟ‫ِادو‬١ٌ it
is not my intention to ... ; ‫ ٘ويثادويثن‬hādā bidāka now we are even, we are quits; ‫لذوًا‬
‫تووٗادْووجعز‬١‫( ِؾ‬majī’ihī) an hour before his
arrival; ‫― ح‬with‖ frequently gives
causative meaning to a verb, e.g., ‫ا‬ٜ‫و‬ٙٔ
ٟ‫( دٖو‬lit.: to rise with s.t‫ث‬., i.e.) to boost,
further, promote s.th.; ٝ‫ دٍوػادوٗاثٌو‬to cause
s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; for its use as
copula after negations, etc., see grammar;
٩‫ دو‬bi-lā without; ْ‫ دّوجاث‬bi-mā anna in view
of the fact that; since, as, inasmuch as,
because; ٗ١‫ دّجاـ‬bi-mā fīhi including
‫ دج‬bā’ name of the letter ‫ح‬
‫ دجدوج‬bābā pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ دوجد‬bābawāt, ‫ثس‬ٚ‫ دجدوج‬pope; papa,
father, daddy
ٜٛ‫ دجد‬bābawī, ٜٚ‫ دجدج‬papal
‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ دجد‬bābawīya papacy
‫ٔؼ‬ٛ‫ دجد‬bābūnaj camomile (bot.)
ٗ‫ دجصْض‬bati.ta batiste
ٝ‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ‫ دجع‬batōlōjī pathologic(al)
‫ج‬١‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ‫ دجع‬batōlōjiyā pathology
ْ‫ دجىٔؾوج‬bādijān and ْ‫وئؾج‬١‫ د‬baidinjān (coll.; n.
un. ‫ ر‬pl. -āt eggplant, aubergine 38
1
ً‫ دج‬bār pl. -āt bar; taproom
2
ً‫ دب‬ba’ara a to dig a well
ٌ‫ دتو‬bi'r f., pl. ً‫ آدوج‬ābār, ً‫ دتوج‬bi’ār well,
spring
‫ دووؤًر‬bu’ra pl. ً‫ دووؤ‬bu’ar center, seat
(fig.); site; pit; abyss
‫س‬ٕٛ‫( دجًث‬Fr. parachute) bārāšūt parachute
ٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دجًثؼ‬bārāguwāy Paraguay
ٟٔٛ‫ دجًد‬see ٝٔٛ‫دٌد‬
ٗ١‫( دجًو‬Fr.) barkēh parquet, parquetry floor
‫ دجًٔجِؼ‬see ‫دٌٔجِؼ‬
‫ دجًر‬bāra pl. -āt para (coin)
‫ه‬ًٚ‫ دج‬bārūd saltpeter; gunpowder
‫هر‬ًٚ‫ دوج‬bārūda pl. ‫ووو‬٠ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawārīd2 rifle,
carbine
ِ٠ً‫ دج‬bārīs2 Paris
ْٝ٠ً‫ دج‬bārīsī Parisian
ٍ‫ دوج‬bāz pl. ْ‫وَث‬١‫ د‬bīzān and ٍ‫ دوب‬ba’z pl. ٍٚ‫دوؤ‬
bu’ūz, ْ‫ دتَث‬bi’zān falcon
ً‫ دجٍث‬bāzār pl. –āt bazaar
‫ دجٌٍش‬bāzalt basalt
‫دٕو‬ٍٚ‫ دج‬bāzūband bracelet
ُ‫ دوؤ‬ba’usa u (ُ‫ دوب‬ba’s) to be strong, brave,
intrepid; -- ِ‫ دوت‬ba’isa a (ُ‫ دوؤ‬bu’s) to be
miserable, wretched VI to feign misery or
distress VIII to be sad, worried, grieved
ً‫ دووتِاثٌٌؽوو‬bi’sa r-rajulu what an evil
man!
ُ‫ د وب‬ba’s strength, fortitude, courage,
intrepidity (as verbal noun of ُ‫ دوؤ‬ba’usa);
harm, hurt, injury, impairment, detriment,
wrong│ُ‫واثٌذووووووب‬٠‫إووووووو‬courageous,
brave,
intrepid; ُ‫ادوووب‬٨ (ba’sa) there is no
objection to it; unobjectionable; not bad,
rather important, considerable, e.g., ‫وجسا‬١ّ‫و‬
‫ووووووج‬ٙ‫ادووووووبُاد‬٨
(kammīyāt)
considerable
quantities; ُ‫ادووب‬٨ (ba'sa) never mind! it
doesn't matter! it's all right! ْ‫ادووبُاث‬٨ it
doesn't matter that ... ; ُ‫ادووب‬ٜ‫ ث‬ayyu
ba'sin? what does it matter! what of it! ‫ِا‬١ٌ
ٓ‫وٗادوبُاِو‬١ٍ‫( ع‬ba’sun) he will be none the
worse for ... ; ‫ه‬١ٍ‫ادبُاع‬٨ (ba’sa) it won't do
you any harm! don't worry! don't be afraid
ِ‫ دٕووووجسادوووووت‬banātu bi's calamities,
adversities, misfortunes
ِ‫ دوت‬bu’s, ‫ دبّوج‬ba’sā’, ُ‫ دوؤ‬bu’ūs and
ٝ‫ دؤّووو‬bu’sā pl. ُ‫ ثدوووؤ‬ab’us misery,
wretchedness, suffering, distress
ِ١‫ دتو‬ba’īs pl. ‫ دؤّوج‬bu’asā’2 miserable,
wretched
ِ‫ دجة‬bā’is miserable, wretched
ً١‫( دجّض‬Fr.) bastē1 pastel
ًّ‫ دج‬bāsīl bacilli
ٓ‫ دج‬bāš senior, chief (in compounds)
ٔ٠ٚ‫ دجٕوؾج‬bašcāwīš and ٔ٠ٚ‫ دجٕوؾج‬approx.:
master sergeant (formerly, Eg.)
ُ١‫ دجٕقى‬bāšḥakīm physician-in-chief
ٔ٠ٌ‫ دجٕو‬bāšrayyis a naval rank, approx.:
petty officer 3rd class (Eg.)
‫ دجٕىجصخ‬bāškātib chief clerk
ٝ‫ دجّٕفض‬bāšmuftī chief mufti (Tun.)
ٔ‫ دجّٕفض‬bāamšmufattiš chief inspector
ُ‫ٕو‬ّٕٙ‫ دج‬bāšmuhandis chief engineer
‫ دجٕج‬bāšā pl. ‫ثس‬ٕٛ‫ دج‬bāšawāt (‫ثس‬ٚ‫ )دجٕج‬pasha
‫ دجٕوك‬bāšaq, bāšiq pl. ‫ثٕوك‬ٛ‫ د‬bawāšiq2 sparrow
hawk
‫ ثٌذجٕمٌه‬al-bāšqird the Bashkirs
ٌ١‫ دجٕى‬see ٌ١‫دٖى‬
ٗ‫( دج‬Engl.) bāṣ pl. -āt bus, autobus
ْٟٛ‫ دج‬bātūn concrete, béton 39
‫ دجؼز‬bāgā celluloid; tortoise shell
ْ‫ ثٌذجوْضج‬al-bākistān Pakistan
ٝٔ‫ دجوْضج‬bākistānī Pakistani (adj. and n.)
1
‫ دجي‬bāl whale (zool.)
2
‫ دجٌز‬bala pl. -āt bundle, bale
ٛ ٌ‫ دوج‬balṯō pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ ٌ‫ دوج‬balṯowāt, ٟ‫و‬ٟ٩‫ د‬balātī
overcoat; paletot
ٌٛ‫( دج‬It. ballo ball, dance
ٌْٛ‫ دج‬bālūn) balloon
ً‫ج‬١ٌ‫ ؽًَاثٌذج‬juzur al-bāliyār the Balearic Islands
ٗ١ٌ‫( دج‬Fr.) bālēh ballet
‫وج‬١ِ‫ دج‬and ‫وز‬١ِ‫ دج‬bāmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus
esculentus L., bot., a popular vegetable in
Egypt)
ْ‫ دج‬see ْٛ‫د‬
‫ وز‬١ِ‫ًث‬ٛٔ‫ ٕجٕووزادج‬šāša bānōrāmīya (= Fr. écran
panoramique) cinemascope screen
‫ٔوز‬ٚ‫ دؤ‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
calendar
ٜ‫ دج‬bāy, f. ‫وز‬٠‫ دج‬bāya pl. -āt formerly, in Tunisia,
a title after the names of the members of
the Bey's family
ٜ‫ هثًاثٌذوووج‬dār al-bāy (formerly) the
Tunisian government
ٌ‫ دذ‬babr pl. ًٛ‫ دذ‬bubūr tiger
‫ دذؽوووج‬babgā2 (and babbayā’2) pl. ‫ثس‬ٚ‫دذؽوووج‬
babgāwāt parrot
‫ دوش‬batta u i (batt) to cut off, sever ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
complete, finish, achieve, accomplish,
carry out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to fix, settle, determine
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), decide ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ ـو‬on s.th.) II to
adjudge, adjudicate, award ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VII to
be cut off; to be finished, be done; to be
decided│ُٕٙ‫و‬١‫د‬ٚ‫ٕوٗا‬١‫ِوٌاد‬٨‫ لوواثٔذوشاث‬it's all over
between him and them, they are through
with each other
‫ دوش‬batt settlement, decision; ‫ دضوج‬battan
definitely, once and for all
‫ دضووز‬batta pl. -āt adjudication, award;
final decision; ‫ ثٌذضووز‬al-battata and ‫دضووز‬
battatan definitely, positively, decidedly,
esp. with negations: absolutely not,
definitely not
ٝ‫ دض‬battī definite, definitive
‫ز‬١‫ دض‬battiya, bittīya pl. ٝ‫ دضوجص‬batātīy barrel;
tub
‫ دضجصووووج‬batātan decidedly, definitely,
positively, categorically, unquestionably,
absolutely
‫ش‬١‫ صذض‬tabtīt adjudication, award
‫ دوووجس‬bātt definite, definitive│‫ِٕووواادوووجس‬
(man‘) categorical interdiction
1
ٌ‫ دضو‬batara u (batr) to cut off, sever ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to amputate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to mutilate, render
fragmentarily ( ‫ ٘و‬a text) VII to be cut off,
be severed, be amputated
ٌ‫ دضوووو‬batr cutting
separation; amputation
off,
severance,
ٌ‫ ثدضوو‬abtar2 curtailed, docked, clipped,
trimmed;
imperfect,
defective,
incomplete; without offspring
ً‫ دضج‬battār cutting, sharp
ٌ‫ دجص‬bātir cutting, sharp
ًٛ‫ِذضوووووو‬
mabtūr
broken,
abrupt,
unconnected; fragmentary, incomplete
2
2
2
‫ دض وٌث‬bitrā’ , batrā’ Petra (ancient city of
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
SW Jordan)
s.th., e.g., a spirit, an ideology, a
doctrine); to sprinkle ( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. on); to let
s.o. (ٖ, also ‫ )ي‬in on s.th. ( ‫٘و‬, esp. on a
secret); to broadcast, transmit by radio │
ْٛ‫و‬١‫ دوظاثٌع‬to peer around; َ‫ٌؽوج‬٤‫ دوظاث‬to plant,
or lay, mines IV to let (ٖ s.o.) in on a
secret ( ٘) VII to be spread; to be scattered
‫ دووظ‬batta spreading, dissemina.tion,
propagation; grief, sorrow
ٌ‫ دغو‬batara i (batira a) and V to break out with
pimples or pustules (skin)
ٌ‫ دغو‬batr pl. ًٛ‫ دغو‬butūr (n. un. ‫ دغوٌر‬batra
pl. batarāt) pimples, pustules
ٌ‫ دغ‬batir, ٌ١‫ دغ‬batīr pustulate, pimpled
‫ دغوك‬bataqa i u (with ٌ‫و‬ٌٕٙ‫ ث‬an-nahra) to open
flood gates so that the river will overflow
its banks VII to break forth, burst out, well
out, pour out, gush out; to emanate,
proceed, spring (ِٓ or ٓ‫ ع‬from)
‫ ثٔذغوجق‬outpouring, effusion, outpour, outburst;
emanation
‫ دؾوـ‬bajiḥa a (bajaḥ) to rejoice (‫ ح‬at) V to
vaunt, flaunt (‫ ح‬s.th.), boast, brag (‫ ح‬of)
‫ دضٌن‬batrak patriarch
‫ صذؾـ‬tabajjuj bragging, braggery
‫ي‬ٌٚ‫ دض‬batrūl, bitrōl petroleum
‫ ِضذؾـ‬mutabajjij braggart
2
‫ ثدض وا‬abta‘ an assonant intensifier of ‫ثؽّووا‬
ajma‘2 all, altogether, whole, entire
‫ دجصا‬bāti‘ strong; full, whole, entire 40
‫ دضه‬II to cut off ( ٘ s.th.)
1
ً‫ ادضو‬batala i u (batl) and II to cut off, sever ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to make final, close, settle, make
conclusive, clinch ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) V to retire
from the world and devote one's life to
God ( ‫ا‬ٝ‫ ;)ثٌو‬to be pious, chaste and selfdenying; to live in chastity VII to be cut
off, be curtailed, be docked
‫ي‬ٛ‫ دض‬batūl virgin; ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثٌذض‬the Virgin Mary
ٌٟٛ‫ دض‬batūlī virginal
‫ز‬١ٌٛ‫ دض‬batūlīya virginity
ً‫ ِضذضو‬mutabattil an ascetic, a. recluse; a
pious, godly man
2
٨ٛ‫ دض‬batūlā birch tree
‫ دوظ‬batta (batt) to spread, unroll, unfold ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to disseminate, propagate, spread ( ٘
‫ دؾوور‬bajda, bujda root, source. heart, essence,
basis│ٌ‫ِو‬٤‫ دؾووراث‬the heart of the matter,
the actual state of affairs, the true facts; ‫ا‬ٛ٘
‫ج‬ٙ‫( ثدوٓادؾووص‬ibn bujdatihā) he knows the job
from the ground up, he is the right man for
it
ٌ‫ ثدؾ‬abiar2 obese, corpulent
ِ‫ دؾو‬bajasa u i (bajs) and II to open a passage
(for the water), cause (the water) to flow
V and VII to flow freely, pour forth
copiously, gush out
ِ‫ دؾوو‬bajs, ِ١‫ دؾوو‬bajīs flowing freely,
streaming
‫ دؾا‬baja‘ (n. un. ‫ )ر‬pelican
ً‫ دؾو‬II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with
deference (ٖ s.o.), show respect ( ‫ ٘و‬to s.o.);
to give precedence (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬or ٖ to s.o. or
s.th. over) V to be honored, be revered, be
venerated
ً‫ دؾ‬bajal syphilis (ir.)
ً‫وووو‬١‫ صذؾ‬tabjīl veneration,
deference, respect
reverence;
ً‫ ِذؾوووو‬mubajjal
venerable
respected;
revered,
‫ دقجعز‬baḥḥāta eminent scholar
‫ ِذقوظ‬mabḥāt pl. ‫ ِذجفوظ‬mabāḥit subject,
theme, field of investigation or discussion,
object of research; research, study,
examination; investigation
ُ‫ دؾوو‬bajama i (bajm, َٛ‫ دؾوو‬bujūm) to be
speechless, dumfounded
‫ ِذجفغوووز‬mubāḥata pl. -āt negotiation,
parley, conference, talk, discussion
ٓ‫ دؾ‬II to clinch ( ٘ a nail)
‫ دـ‬baḥḥa a (baḥḥ, ‫ دقـ‬baḥaḥ, ‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ دقو‬buḥūḥ, ‫دقوجؿ‬
baḥāḥ, ‫فوز‬ٛ‫ دق‬buḥūḥa, ‫ ادقجفوز‬baḥāḥa) to be
or become hoarse, be raucous, husky,
harsh (voice) II and IV to make hoarse (ٖ
s.o.)
‫ دقز‬buḥḥa hoarseness
‫ دجفووظ‬bāḥit pl. -ūn and ‫ دقووجط‬buḥḥāt
scholar, research worker; examiner,
investigator
ٌ‫ دقغو‬baḥtara to disperse, scatter ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
waste, squander, dissipate ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.) II
tabaḥtara pass. of I
‫ ثدـ‬abaḥḥ2 hoarse
ٌ‫ دقغ‬baḥtara waste, dissipation
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ِذق‬mabḥūḥ hoarse 41
ٌ‫ ِذقغ‬mubaḥtir squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift
‫ دقوذـ‬II tabaḥbaḥa to be prosperous, live in
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.s. have a
good time
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ دقذ‬baḥbūḥ gay, merry
‫فوز‬ٛ‫ دقذ‬buḥbūḥa middle; life of ease and
comfort, prosperity, affluence│‫فووز‬ٛ‫ادقذ‬ٟ‫اـوو‬
amidst
‫ اِذقذـ‬mubaḥbaḥ well-to-do, prosperous;
enjoying an easy, comfortable life
‫ دقوش‬baḥt pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, also
ٌ‫ِوو‬٤‫ دقضووج ;دقووشاث‬baḥan merely, solely,
purely, exclusively, nothing but ...
ٌ‫ دقض‬buḥtur stocky, pudgy, thickset
ٌٞ‫ دقض‬buḥturī stocky, pudgy, thickset
‫ دقوظ‬baḥata a (baḥt) to look, search ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫عو‬
for s.th.), seek ( ‫ ٘ و‬or ٓ‫ عوو‬s.th.); to do
research; to investigate, examine, study,
explore ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ عو‬s.th., less frequently with
ٟ‫ ـو‬or ٝ‫)عٍو‬, look into ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ;)عو‬to discuss
( ‫ ٘و‬a subject, a question) III to discuss (ٖ
with s.o., ٟ‫ ـوو‬a question) VI to have a
discussion, discuss together; to confer,
have a talk (‫ ِا‬with s.o., ٟ‫ ـ‬about)
‫ دقوظ‬baḥt pl. ‫ط‬ٛ‫ دقو‬buḥūt, ‫عوجس‬ٛ‫دق‬, ‫ ثدقوجط‬abḥāt
search (ٓ‫ عوووو‬for), quest (ٓ‫ عوووو‬of);
examination,
study;
research;
investigation, exploration; discussion;
treatise; (pl. ‫ )ثدقوجط‬study, scientific report
(ٟ‫ ـ‬on)
‫ دقجط‬baḥḥāt scholar, research worker
1
ٌ‫ دقو‬baḥira a to be startled, be bewildered
(with fright)
1
ٌ‫ دقو‬II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do.;
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, set
sail, sail, depart (ship); to go downstream,
be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) V to
penetrate deeply, delve (ٟ‫ ـو‬into); to study
thoroughly (ٟ‫ ـ‬a subject) X = V
ٌ‫ دقوو‬baḥr pl. ً‫ دقووج‬biḥār, ًٛ‫دقوو‬, buḥūr, ً‫ثدق وج‬
abḥār, ٌ‫ ثدقو‬abḥur sea; large river; a noble.,
or great, man (whose magnanimity or
knowledge is comparable to the vastness
of the sea); meter (poet.) │ٌ‫ادقو‬ٟ‫ اـو‬in the
course of, during, ٓ١‫ادقٌاّوٕض‬ٟ‫( ـ‬sanatain) in
the course of two years, within two years;
٠‫ّو‬ٛ‫اثٌّض‬ٜ١‫دو‬٤‫( ثٌذقٌاث‬abyaḍ, mutawassiṯ) the
Mediterranean (sometimes shortened to
ٜ١‫دوو‬٤‫ووك ;)ثٌذقووٌاث‬١ ٍ‫ دقووٌاثٌذ‬b. al-balṯīq the
Baltic Sea; ‫ح‬ٛ‫ دقٌاثٌؾٕو‬b. al-janūb the South
Seas; ٌّ‫ف‬٤‫ ثٌذقٌاث‬the Red Sea (also ََ‫دقٌاثٌمٍو‬
b. al-qulzum); ًَ‫ دقووٌاثٌموو‬b. al-ḳazar the
Caspian Sea (also ٟ‫جص‬١‫َ ;)ثٌذقٌاثٌىْذ‬ٌٌٚ‫ دقٌاث‬b.
ar-rūm the Mediterranean; ‫ه‬ٛ‫ّووو‬٤‫ثٌذقوووٌاث‬
(aswad) the Black Sea; ‫ دقوٌاثٌرٍّوجس‬b. aẓẓulumāt the ٘tlantic; ٌٟٛ‫ دقٌا‬b. lūṯ and ‫ثٌذقٌا‬
‫وش‬١ٌّ‫( ث‬mayyit) the Dead Sea; ً‫و‬١ٌٕ‫( دقوٌاث‬eg.)
the Nile
ٓ٠ٌ‫ ثٌذق‬al-baḥrain the Bahrein Islands
ٟ‫ دقٌثٔو‬baḥrānī of the Bahrein Islands;
‫ ثٌذقجًٔوز‬al-baḥārina the inhabitants of the
Bahrein Islands
ٌٞ‫ دقو‬baḥrī sea (adj.), marine; maritime;
nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.)
northern, baḥrīya (with foll. genit.) north
42 of; (pl. -ūn, ‫ )ر‬sailor, seaman,
mariner│ٌ٘‫اِوووج‬ٌٞ‫دقووو‬
approx.: seaman
apprentice (Eg.); ‫وزا‬٠ٌ‫ثساثٌذق‬ٛ‫( ثٌمو‬qūwāt) the
naval forces; ‫وز‬٠ٌ‫( ٔذجصوجسادق‬nabātāt) marine
flora, water plants
ًٛ‫ دن‬baḳūr incense; frankincense│‫ًا‬ٛ‫ادنو‬
ُ٠ٌِ b. maryam cyclamen (bot.)
ٌ‫ ثدن‬abḳar2 suffering from halitosis
‫ ِذنوٌر‬mabḳara pl. ٌ‫ ِذوجم‬mabāḳir2 (also āt) censer; thurible; fumigator
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ دق‬baḥrīya navy
ٌ١‫ صذن‬tabḳīr fumigation
‫ دقٌر‬baḥra pond, pool
ٌ‫ صذن‬tabaḳḳur evaporation, vaporization
ً‫ دقووج‬baḥḥār pl. -ūn, ‫ دقووجًر‬baḥḥāra
seaman, mariner, sailor; pl. ‫ دقجًر‬crew (of a
ship, of an airplane)
2
‫وٌر‬١‫ دق‬buḥaira pl. -āt, ٌ‫ دقوجة‬baḥā’ir lake;
(tun.)'vegetable garden, truck garden
‫ دوجمٌر‬balfira pl. ٌ‫ثم‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawāḳir2 steamer,
steamship
‫نٌر‬٠ٛ‫ د‬buwaiḳira small steamboat
ْ‫ دقووٌث‬buḥrān crisis (of an illness);
climax, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy)
ِ‫ دنو‬baḳasa a (baks) to decrease, diminish,
reduce ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to lessen (e.g., ٗ‫ّضوو‬١‫ل‬
qīmatahū the value of s.th.); to disregard,
neglect, fail to heed ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌ‫ صذقو‬tabaḥḥur deep penetration, delving
(ٟ‫ ـ‬into a subject), thorough study (ٟ‫ ـ‬of)
ِ‫ دنو‬baḳs too little, too low; very low
(price)
ٌ‫ ِضذقوو‬mutabaḥḥir thoroughly familiar
(ٟ‫ ـوو‬with); profound, erudite, searching,
penetrating
ِ‫ دووووجم‬baḳis
unimportant
‫ دقٍك‬baḥlaqa: ٗ١ٕ١‫‘( دقٍكاع‬ainaihi) to stare, gaze
(ٟ‫ ـ‬at)
small,
little,
trifling,
ٔ١ٖ‫ دن‬baḳšīš pl. ٔ١ٕ‫ دنج‬baḳāšīš 2 tip, gratuity
‫ دنوا‬baḳa‘a a (baḳ‘) with ٗ‫ ٔفْو‬: to kill o.s. (with
grief, anger, rage)
1
‫ دلادل‬baḳ baḳ excellent! well done! Bravo!
‫ ثدنك‬abḳaq2 f. ‫ دنمج‬baḳqā’2 one-eyed
2
‫ دول‬baḳḳa u (baḳḳ) to snore; to spout, spurt,
squirt ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to sprinkle, splatter (‫٘و ح‬
s.th. with)
ً‫ دنو‬baḳila a (baḳal), baḳula u (buḳl) to be
niggardly, be stingy (‫ ح‬with s.th., ٓ‫ عو‬or
ٝ‫ عٍو‬with regard to s.o.), scrimp (ٓ‫عو‬, ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o., ‫ ح‬for), stint (‫ ح‬in, ٓ‫ عو‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.),
withhold (ٓ‫عو‬, ٝ‫ عٍو‬from s.o., ‫ ح‬s.th.) VI to
give reluctantly, grudgingly (ٓ‫عوو‬, ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to
s.o., y s.th.)
‫ دنجمز‬baḳḳāḳa nozzle
‫نز‬١‫ دن‬buḳḳēḳa squirt, syringe
‫ ِذنز‬mibaḳḳa nozzle
‫ دنوش‬baḳt luck; a kind of lottery│‫ووًاثٌذنوش‬١ٍ‫ال‬
unIucky; ‫ اثٌذنش‬ّٛ bad luck
‫ش‬١‫ دن‬baḳīt lucky, fortunate
‫س‬ٛ‫ ِذن‬mabḳūt lucky, fortunate
ٌ‫ دنض‬II tabaḳtara to strut, prance
ٌ‫ دن و‬II to vaporize, evaporate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
fumigate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to disinfect ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
perfume with incense, expose to aromatic
smoke ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to evaporate (water); to
volatilize, tum into smoke or haze; to
perfume 0.8., or be perfumed, with incense
ً‫ دنوج‬buḳār pl. -āt, ‫ ثدنوٌر‬abḳira vapor,
fume; steam
ًٞ‫ دنج‬buḳārī steam (adj.), steam-driven
ً‫ دن‬buḳl avarice, cupidity, greed 43
ً‫و‬١‫ دن‬baḳīl pl. ٩‫ دنو‬avaricious, greedy;
miser, skinflint
‫ ِذنٍووز‬mabḳala cause of avarice, that
which arouses avarice or greed
‫ دنٕوك‬buḳnuq pl. ‫ دنوجٔك‬baḳāniq2 kerchief, veil
(to cover the head)
‫ حه‬badda u (budd) to distribute, spread,
disperse II to divide, distribute, spread,
scatter, disperse ( ‫• ٘وو‬.th.); to remove,
eliminate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to waste, squander,
fritter away, dissipate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V pass. of
II; X to be independent, proceed
independently (‫ ح‬in, e.g., in one's opinion,
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, headstrong); to possess alone monopolize ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to take possession ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.o.), seize,
grip, overwhelm, overcome ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.; said
of a feeling, of an impulse); to dispose
arbitrarily, highhandedly (‫ ح‬of s.th.); to
rule
despotically,
tyrannically,
autocratically (‫ ح‬over)
wa-bad’an) ٗ‫ادوةوو‬ٝ‫هٖاعٍوو‬ٛ‫‘( عوو‬audahū ‘alā
bad’ihī) or ‫ادوو‬ٌٝ‫هثاث‬ٛ‫( ع‬ilā bad’in) he did it
all over again, he began anew
‫ دوو‬budd way out, escape│‫ىوٓادوواِوٓا‬٠‫اثىثاٌوُا‬
ْ‫( ث‬buddun) if it is inevitable that ... ; ‫ادوو‬٨
(budda) definitely, certainly, inevitably,
without fail; by all means; ٓ‫ادوواِوو‬٨ it is
necessary,
inescapable,
unavoidable,
inevitable, ٗ‫ادوواٌوٗإِو‬٨ he simply must do it,
he can't get around it; ‫ ِوٓاووًادوو‬min kulli
buddin in any case, at any rate
‫ دووث ر‬badā’a beginning, start; first step,
first instance│ ‫ ادوووث رادووو‬badā’ata bad’in
right at the outset, at the very beginning
‫ دوووأر‬bad’a, ‫تووز‬٠‫ دو‬badī’a, ‫ووز‬٠‫ دوث‬bidāya
beginning, start│ٌ‫ِووو‬٤‫وووزاث‬٠‫ادوث‬ٟ‫ ـووو‬in the
beginning, at first
ٟ‫ دوثة‬budā’ī primitive
‫ ِذووووأ‬mabda' pl. ‫ِذوووجها‬
mabādi’2
beginning, start, starting point; basis,
foundation; principle; invention; pl.
principles, convictions (of a person);
ideology;
rudiments.
fundamental
concepts, elements│‫اوضخاثٌّذوجها‬kutub al-m.
elementary books 44
‫و‬٠‫ ثدجه‬abādīd 2 (pl.) scattered
‫وووووو‬٠‫ صذو‬tabdīd scattering, dispersal,
dispersion; removal, elimination; waste,
dissipation
ٟ‫ِذووووووة‬
mabda’ī
original,
initial;
fundamental, basic; ‫ج‬١‫ ِذووووة‬mabda’īyan
originally; in principle
‫ ثّووووضذوثه‬istibdād arbitrariness, highhandedness;
despotism;
autocracy;
absolutism
ٟ‫ ثدضووثة‬ibtidā’ī beginning, start; novitiate
(Chr.)│ٓ‫ اثدضووووث اِووو‬ibtidā’an min from,
beginning ... , as of (with foll. date)
ٞ‫ ثّوضذوثه‬istibdādī arbitrary, highhanded,
autocratic, despotic; ‫جس‬٠‫ ثّوضذوثه‬istibdādīyāt
arbitrary acts
ٟ‫ ثدضوووووثة‬ibtidā’ī initial; preparatory,
elementary, primary; of first instance
(jur.); original, primitive│‫وووز‬١‫ِقىّوووزاثدضوثة‬
(maḥkama) court of first instance; ‫ُا‬١‫ثٌضعٍو‬
ٝ‫دضووثة‬٨‫ ث‬elementary education; ‫وز‬١‫ِوًّوزاثدضوثة‬
(madrasa) lower grades of a high school,
approx.: junior high school (as
distinguished from ‫وووز‬٠ٛٔ‫وووز ;)عج‬١‫جهراثدضوثة‬ٙ‫ٕووو‬
(šahāda) approx.: junior high school
graduation certificate
‫ ِذوووووه‬mubaddid scatterer, disperser;
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift
‫ ِْووضذو‬mustabidd arbitrary, highhanded,
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; autocrat,
tyrant, despot│ٗ‫ووو‬٠‫ِْوووضذوادٌأ‬
(bira’yihī)
opinionated, obstinate, headstrong
‫ دووأ‬bada’a a (‫ دووأ‬bad’) to begin, start (‫ ح‬or ٟ‫ـو‬
with s.th., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; ٖ with s.o.; with foll.
imperf.: to do s.th. or doing s.th.
respectively); to set in, begin, start, arise,
spring up, crop up II to put ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫عٍو‬
before s.th. else), give precedence or
priority ( ‫ ٘و‬to s.th., ٝ‫ عٍو‬over s.th. else) III
to begin, start (‫ ح‬s.th., ٖ with regard to
s.o.), make the first step, take the initiative
or lead (‫ ح‬in s.th., ٖ toward s.o.) e.g., ‫دوجهأٖا‬
َ٩‫( دوجٌى‬kalām) to accost s.o., speak first to
s.o. IV to do or produce first ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.).
bring out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. new)│‫وو‬١‫ع‬٠‫ِوجا‬ٚ‫ذوواا‬٠‫اِوجا‬mā
yubdi’u wa-mā yu‘īd he can't think of a
blessed thing to say; ‫وو‬١‫ع‬٠ٚ‫ذوواا‬٠ he says or
does everything conceivable VIII to begin,
start (‫ ح‬with s.th.)
‫ دوو‬bad’ beginning, start│ ‫ ِٕوياثٌذوو‬from
the (very) beginning; ‫دوو ث‬ٚ‫هثا‬ٛ‫‘( ـعٍٗاع‬audan
‫ دوجها‬bādi’ beginning, starting│ٌ‫ِو‬٤‫ادوجهااث‬
badi'a l-amr and ٌ‫ِوو‬٤‫ادووجهااث‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬in the
beginning, at first; ٞ‫ادوجهااثٌوٌأ‬ٟ‫ ـ‬right away,
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly;
‫ادوو‬ٞ‫ دوجهااى‬badi’a dī bad’in above all, first
of all, in the first place, primarily; ‫ثٌذوجهاا‬
ٌٖ‫ ىووو‬al-badi’u dikruhu (the person or
thing) mentioned at the outset, the firstmentioned
‫ ِذضوووا‬mubtadi’ beginning; beginner;
novice (Chr.)
‫ ِذضووأ‬mubtada' beginning, start; (gram.)
subject of 8 nominal clause
1
ً‫ دووو‬badara u to come unexpectedly, by
surprise; to escape (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.o.; e.g., words in
excitement) III to come to s.o.‘s (ٖ) mind,
occur to s.o. (t) all of a sudden, strike s.o.
(idea, notion); to embark, enter (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬upon
s.th.) or set out (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to do s.th.) without
delay; to rush, hurry (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to s.o., to a
place); to hurry up (", with s.th.), ٝ‫دوجهًاثٌو‬
with foll. verbal noun: to do s.th.
promptly, without delay, hasten to do
s.th.; to fall upon s.o (ٖ) with (‫)ح‬, accost,
assail, surprise (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. with s.th.; e.g.,
١‫َاؼٍو‬٩‫ دوجهًٖادىو‬to snap rudely at s.o.); to
react, respond (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.th.)│ ‫اثٔؾوجٍا‬ٝ‫دوجهًاثٌو‬
‫عوو‬ٌٛ‫( ث‬injāzi l-wa‘d) to set out to fulfill a
promise VI ٓ٘‫اثٌوي‬ٝ‫( صذوجهًاثٌو‬dihn) to suggest
itself strongly, be obvious; to appear at
first glance as if (ْ‫اأْ ;)أ‬ٟ‫اىٕ٘وو‬ٝ‫صذووجهًاثٌوو‬
(dihnī) it occurred to me all of a sudden
that ... ; ُ‫ووو‬ٙ‫اثٌف‬ٝ‫( صذوووجهًاثٌووو‬fahm) to be
immediately understood VIII to hurry,
rush, hasten ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to get ahead of s.o. (ٖ),
anticipate, forestall (ٖ s.o.)│٩‫ثدضووووً٘جالوووجة‬
before she could say a word he exclaimed
...
ً‫ دو‬badr, pl. ًٚ‫ دو‬budūr full moon
‫ دووًر‬badra pl. badarāt, ً‫ دووث‬bidār huge
amount of money (formerly = 10,000
dirhams)│‫ثي‬ٛ‫ِو‬٤‫ دووًثساث‬enormous sums of
money
ً‫ دوث‬badārī hurry! quick!
‫ ِذجهًر‬mubādara undertaking, enterprise
‫ دوجهًر‬bādira pl. ً‫ثه‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawadir2 herald,
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first
indication, sign; unforeseen act; stirring,
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); blunder,
mistake; ً‫ثه‬ٛ‫ دو‬stirrings, impulses│ٌ‫و‬١‫دوجهًرام‬
b. ḳairin a good, or generous, impulse
2
ً‫و‬١‫ اد‬baidar pl. ً‫جه‬١‫ د‬bayādir 2 threshing floor
ًَٚ‫ دووو‬and ًْٚ‫( دووو‬Turk. bodrum) badrūm,
badrūn pl. -āt basement
‫ دووو‬bada‘a a (bad‘) to introduce, originate,
start, do for the first time ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be the
first to do s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to devise, contrive,
invent ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to accuse of heresy (ٖ
s.o.) IV = I; to create ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to achieve
unique, excellent results (ٟ‫ ـوو‬in); to be
amazing, outstanding (ٟ‫ ـو‬in s.th.) VIII to
invent, contrive, devise, think up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
X to regard as novel, as unprecedented ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
‫دووووووو‬
bad‗
innovation,
novelty;
creation│‫هث‬ٛ‫عووو‬ٚ‫ دووووعجا‬bad‘an wa-‘audan
repeatedly 45
‫ دوو‬bid‘ pl. ‫ ثدووث‬abdā‘ innovator; new,
original; unprecedented, novel│ ‫ادووو‬٨ lā
bid‘a no wonder! ْ‫ادوو اث‬٨ lā bid‘a an no
wonder that ... ; ٓ‫ دوو اِو‬s.th. else than;
unlike, different from
‫ دوعووز‬bid‘a pl. ‫ دووو‬bida‘ innovation.
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pl.
creations (of fashion, of art)│ ‫ اث٘وًاثٌذوو‬ahl
al-b. heretics
‫ا‬٠‫ دوووو‬badi', ‫ دوووو‬bud‘ unprecedented,
marvelous,
wonderful,
amazing,
admirable, singular, unique; creator│‫اعٍوُا‬
‫ا‬٠‫‘ ثٌذووو‬ilm al-b. the art or science of
metaphors and (in general) of good style
‫عوووز‬٠‫ دو‬badī‘a pl. ‫ دووووثةا‬badā’i‘2 an
astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a
wonder; original creation
ٟ‫ع‬٠‫ دو‬badī‘ī rhetorical
‫ ثدووووو‬abda‘2 more amazing, more
exceptional; of even greater originality
‫ ثدووث‬ibdā‘ creation, fashioning, shaping;
a marvelous, unique achievement;
uniqueness,
singularity,
originality;
creative ability
O ٟ‫ ثدوثع‬ibdā‘ī romantic (lit.)
O ‫ز‬١‫ ثدوثع‬ibdā‘īya romanticism (lit.)
‫ ِذووووو‬mubdi‘ producing, creating;
creative; creator; exceptional, unique,
outstanding (in an achievement, esp. of an
artist)
‫ ِذضو‬mubtadi‘ innovator; creator; heretic
‫وق‬١‫ د‬look up alphabetically
‫ دوووي‬badala u to replace (‫ ٘وو ح‬s.th. by),
exchange (‫ ٘و ح‬s.th. for) II to change, alter
( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. to), convert ( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. into); to
substitute ( ‫ ٘و‬for s.th., ‫ ح‬or ٓ‫ ِوو‬s.th.),
exchange, give in exchange ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ‫ ح‬or
ِٓ for); to change ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to exchange
( ٘ ٖ with s.o. s.th.) IV to replace (‫ ٘و ح‬s.th.
by), exchange (‫ ٘و ح‬for s.th. s.th. else); to
compensate ( ‫ ٖ ح ٘و‬s.o. for s.th. with s.th.
else), give s.o. (ٖ)‫ا‬s. th. ( ‫ )٘و‬in exchange
for (‫ )ح‬V to change; to be exchanged VI
to exchange ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., also words, views,
greetings) X to exchange, receive in
exchange, trade, barter (‫ ٘ ح‬and ٘ ‫ ح‬s.th.
for); to replace ( ‫ ح ٘و‬and ‫ ح ٘و‬s.th. by),
substitute (‫ ٘ ح‬and ٘ ‫ ح‬for s.th. s.th. else)
َ‫ دووو‬badal pl. ‫ ثدوووثي‬abdāl substitute,
alternate,
replacement;
equivalent.
compensation, setoff; reimbursement,
recompense, allowance; price. rate;
(gram.) appositional substantive standing
for another substantive│‫وز‬٠‫ دوووياثٌؾٌث‬b. aljirāya allowance for food; ‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ دووياثٌْوف‬b. assafarīya travel allowance; ‫ٕوووضٌثن‬٨‫دووووياث‬
subscription rate; ً‫وووو‬١‫ دوووووياثٌضّغ‬expense
account, expense allowance
‫ دووي‬badala (prep.) inetead of, in place
of, in lieu of
ٓ‫اِو‬٨‫ دوو‬badalan min in place of, instead
of, in lieu of
‫ دوٌوز‬badla pl. badalāt, ‫ دووي‬bidal suit (of
clothes); costume│َ‫دوٌوووزاثٌقّوووج‬
b. alḥammām bathing suit; ‫ز‬١ّ‫( دوٌوزاًّو‬rasmīya)
uniform; ‫ز‬١‫فجص‬٠ٌ‫( دوٌوووزاصٖووو‬tašrīfātīya) fulldreas uniform
‫وووز‬١ٌ‫ دو‬badalīya compensation, smart
money
‫ دوووثي‬badāla (prep.) instead of, ‫دوووثياِووج‬
(conj.) instead of (being, doing, etc.)
2
ً٠‫ دوو‬badīl pl. ٨‫ دوو‬budalā’ substitute,
alternate (ٓ‫ عو‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬for); stand-in, double
(theat.); (f. ‫ )ر‬serving as a replacement or
substitute│‫ٍووز‬٠‫( اِفووٌٍرادو‬mafraza) reserve
detachment (mil.)
‫ دوثي‬baddāl grocer; money-changer
‫ دوثٌوز‬baddāla culvert; pipeline; telephone
exchange, central
□ ‫ ِذجهي‬mabādil2 see ‫دوي‬
ً٠‫ صذو‬tabdīl change, alteration 46
‫ ِذجهٌز‬mubādala pl. -āt exchange│‫سا‬٨‫اِذجه‬
‫وووز‬٠ً‫( صؾج‬tijārīya) commercial exchange,
trade relations
‫ ثدوووووثي‬ibdāl exchange, interchange,
replacement (‫ ح‬by), substitution (‫ ح‬of);
change; phonetic change
‫ صذووووي‬tabaddul change, shift, turn;
transformation; transmutation, conversion
‫ صذوجهي‬tabādul (mutual) exchange│‫اصذوجهيا‬
َ٩‫ ثٌْو‬t. as-salam exchange of greetings,
ٌٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ صذجهياثٌن‬thought transference, telepathy
‫ ثّووضذوثي‬istibdāl exchange, replacement,
substitution
‫ ِذووووي‬mubdil: ‫ثٔجس‬ٛ ‫ّووو‬٨‫ ِذووووياث‬m. alusṯuwānāt automatic record changer
‫ ِضذجهي‬mutabādil mutual, reciprocal
ْ‫ دو‬baduna u and badana u to be fat, corpulent
ْ‫ دووو‬badan pl. ْ‫ ثدوووث‬abdān, ْ‫ ثدووو‬abdun
body, trunk, torso
ٟٔ‫ دوو‬badani bodily, corporal, physical,
somatic
‫ دوثٔز‬badāna corpulence, obesity
ٓ٠‫ دوو‬badīn pl. ْ‫ دوو‬budun stout, corpulent,
fat, obese
‫ٔز‬ٚ‫ دو‬budūna corpulence, obesity
ْ‫ دوجه‬bādin pl. ْ‫ دوو‬budn stout, corpulent,
fat, obese
ٖ‫ دوو‬badaha a to come, descend suddenly
(‫ٖا‬upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (ٖ s.o.);
to surprise (ٖ s.o.) with s.th. (‫ )ح‬III to
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (‫ ٖ ح‬before
s.o. with s.th.) VIII to extemporize,
improvise, do offhand, on the spur of the
moment ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ دوث٘وووووز‬badāha spontaneity, spontaneous
occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way,
naturalness, matter-of-factness; ‫دوث٘وووووز‬
badāhatan and ‫ دجٌذوث٘وووزا‬all by itself,
spontaneously
‫وز‬ٙ٠‫ دو‬badīha s.th. sudden or unexpected;
improvisation;
impulse,
inspiration,
spontaneous
intuition;
intuitive
understanding or insight, empathy,
instinctive grasp, perceptive faculty│‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
‫وز‬١٘‫ ثٌذوث‬all by itself, spontaneously; offhand;
‫ووووزا‬ٙ٠‫ووووٌاثٌذو‬ٝ‫ فج‬quick-witted, quick at
repartee; ‫ٌرا‬ٝ‫زافج‬ٙ٠‫ دو‬presence of mind
ٟٙ٠‫ دوو‬badīhī and ٟ٘‫ دوو‬badahī intuitive,
self-evident, a priori (adj.)
‫ووز‬١ٙ٠‫ دو‬badīhīya pl. -āt an axiom, a
fundamental or self-evident truth; truism,
commonplace, platitude
ٗ‫ دوثةو‬badii'ih' fundamental or selfevident
truths
(ٚ‫ دوووث )دووو‬badā u to appear, show, become
evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to
light; to be obvious; to seem good,
acceptable, proper (‫ ي‬to s.o.) III to shaw,
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare
openly│‫ر‬ٚ‫ادجٌعووث‬ٜ‫‘( دوجه‬adāwa) to show open
hostility IV to disclose, reveal, manifest,
show, display, evince ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.), to
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light,
make visible ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to express, utter,
voice ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)│ٟ‫ووٗاـو‬٠‫اًأ‬ٜ‫( اثدووو‬ra'yahū) to
express one's opinion about; ‫اًؼذووز‬ٜ‫ثدووو‬
(ragbatan) to expreas a wish or desire V =
I, to live in the desert VI to pose as a
Bedouin
ٚ‫ دو‬badw desert; nomads, Bedouins
ٞٚ‫ دو‬badawī Bedouin, nomadic; rural (as
distinguished from urban); a Bedouin
‫وز‬٠ٚ‫ دو‬badawīya pl. -āt Bedouin woman,
Bedouin girl
‫ دوووثر‬badaJl pl. ‫ثس‬ٚ‫ دووو‬badawāt whim,
caprice; ill-humor
‫ دوويث‬badā’ and ‫ دوويث ر‬badā’a obscenity,
ribaldry, foulness (of language); disgust,
loathing, aversion, contempt
‫ ديك‬badaḳa a to be haughty, proud
‫ دووويك‬badaḳ luxury, pomp, splendor;
haughtiness, pride
‫ دوجىك‬bādiḳ pl. ‫ثىك‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawādiḳ2 high, lofty;
proud, haughty
ً‫ دوي‬badara u (badr) to sow, disseminate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., seed, also fig. = to spread) II to
waste, squander, dissipate ( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ دوي‬badr pl. ًٚ‫ دوي‬budūr, ً‫ دويث‬bidār seeds,
seed; seedling; pl. ًٚ‫ دوي‬pips, pits, stones
(of fruit)
‫ دويًر‬badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip,
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ cell
(of a development, and the like)
ً‫ ديث‬bidār seedtime
‫ر‬ٚ‫ دوووث‬badāwa and bidāwa desert life,
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 47
ٌ٠‫ صذوووووي‬tabdīr
dissipation
‫ووث‬١‫ د‬baidā’2 desert, steppe, wilderness,
wild
ً‫ ِذوووي‬mubaddir squanderer, wastrel,
spendthrift
‫ ثدوووث‬ibdā’ expression, manifestation,
declaration
‫ دووجه‬bādin apparent, evident, obvious,
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pl. ‫دووثر‬
budāh Bedouins
‫وز‬٠‫ دجه‬bādiya desert, semidesert, steppe;
peasantry; (pl. ‫ثه‬ٛ‫ دووو‬bawādin) nomads,
Bdouins
‫ز‬٠‫ دوث‬bidāya = ‫دوث ر‬
‫ دوي‬badda u (badd) to get the better of (ٖ), beat,
surpass (s.o.)
‫ دووي‬badd and bādd slovenly, untidy,
shabby, filthy, squalid
‫ دوويثىر‬badāda slovenliness, untidiness,
shabbiness, dirtiness, filth
‫ دويأ‬bada’a a to revile, abuse (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.), rail
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬at s.o.); -- ‫ دويا‬badi’a a, ‫ دوي‬badu’a u
to be obscene, bawdy
‫ دوووويا‬badī’ disgusting, loathsome,
nauseous, foul, dirty, obscene, bawdy,
ribald
waste,
squandering,
‫يق‬١‫ د‬look up alphabetically
‫ دويي‬badala i u (badl) to give or spend freely,
generously ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to sacrifice ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to expend ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to offer, grant ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.)│ٖ‫و‬ٙ‫( اديياؽ‬jahdahū) to take pains; ‫دييا‬
‫هث‬ٛ‫ووووو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬do.; ‫( دووووويياووووووًاِْوووووجعور‬kulla
musā‘adatin) to grant every assistance; ‫دييا‬
ٝ‫ ثٌّْجع‬to make efforts; ‫ ديياثٌ جعوزاي‬to obey
s.o., defer to s.o.; ‫( دويياووًاؼوجي‬kulla gālin)
and ً١‫اّوذ‬ٟ‫٘اـو‬١‫ثٌوٌم‬ٚ‫ا‬ٌٝ‫ دويياثٌؽوج‬to spare no
effort, go to any length, give everything,
pay any price for or in order to; ‫دويياِوج ا‬
ٗ‫وو‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ (mā’a wajhihī) to sacrifice one's
honor; (ْ٩‫ ع وٓاـ و‬or) ْ٩‫ْاـوو‬ٚ‫ دووييأفْووٗاه‬to
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; ٗ‫ّوع‬ٚ‫( دييا‬wus‘ahū) to
do one‘s utmost, do one‘s best V to fritter
away one‘s fortune, be over-generous; to
prostitute o.s. (woman); to display
common, vulgar manners VIII to wear out
in common service, make trite, vulgar,
commonplace, to hackney ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
abuse ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to express o.s. in a vulgar
manner, use vulgar language; ٗ‫ ثدضوييأفْو‬to
degrade o.s. demean o.s., sacrifice one's
dignity
‫ دوويي‬badl giving, spending; sacrifice,
surrender, abandonment; expenditure;
offering, granting
ًٌ‫ ِذووو‬mubarrir pl. -āt justification;
excuse│ٌٗ‫اِذًٌا‬٨ (mubarrira) unjustifiable
2
‫ ديٌز‬badla suit (of clothes)
‫ ِذيي‬mibdal pl. ‫ ِذجىي‬mabādil2 slipper; pl.
‫ ِذوجىي‬casual clothing worn around home│
ٌٗ‫اِذجى‬ٟ‫ْاـ‬٩‫ ـ‬so-and-so in his private life
ٌٜ‫ دو‬barrī terrestrial, land (adj.); wild (of
plants and animals)│‫ووووز‬١‫ووووزاِجة‬٠ٌ‫جًراد‬١‫اّوووو‬
(sayyāra, mā’īya) amphibious vehicle
‫ ثدضووويثي‬ibtidāl triteners, commonness,
commonplaceness; banality; debasement,
degradation
‫ووز‬٠ٌ‫د‬ā barrīya pl. ًٜ‫ دووٌث‬barāarīy open
country, steppe, desert; see also 1‫ادٌأ‬
‫ دجىي‬bādil spender 48
ٝ‫ دٌثٔوو‬barrānī outside, outer, exterior,
external; foreign, alien
‫ ِضذيي‬mutabaddil vulgar, common
‫ ِذضويي‬mubtadal trite, hackneyed, banal,
common, vulgar; everyday, commonplace
(adj.)
2
ٌ‫ ادو‬barra (1st pers. perf. barirtu, barartu) a I
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; to
be kind (ٖ or ‫ ح‬to s.o.); to be charitable,
beneficent, do good (‫ ح‬to s.o.); to obey (ٖ
s.o., esp. God); to treat with reverence, to
honor (‫ ح‬or ٖ the parents); to be honest,
truthful; to be true, valid (sworn
statement); to keep (‫ ح‬a promise, an oath)
II to warrant, justify, vindicate; to acquit,
absolve, exonerate, exculpate, clear ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th.)│ٗ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫( ادوًٌا‬wajhahū) to justify
o.s. by IV to carry out, fulfill ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., a
promise, an oath) V to justify o.s.; to be
justified
ٌ‫ دو‬birr reverence, piety; righteousness,
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness;
charitable gift
ٌ‫ دو‬barr and ً‫ دوج‬bārr pl. ً‫ ثدوٌث‬abrār and
‫ دوًٌر‬barara reverent, dutiful (‫ ح‬toward),
devoted (‫ ح‬to); pious, godly, upright,
righteous.; kind
‫ ِذووٌر‬mabarra pl. -āt and ً‫ ِذوج‬mabar2
good deed, act of charity, benefaction;
philanthropic organization; charitable
institution, home or hospital set up with
private funds
ٌ٠ٌ‫ صذ‬tabrīr justification, vindication
ً‫ دوج‬bārr reverent, faithful and devoted;
see also under ٌ‫ د‬barr above
ًٌٚ‫ ِذو‬mabrūr (accepted into the grace of
the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a deceased
person)
ٌ‫ ادو‬barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma,
mainland; open country; ‫ دوٌث‬barran out,
outside│‫دقووٌث‬ٚ‫ ادووٌثا‬barran wa-baḥran by
land and sea
ٌ‫ د‬burr wheat
1
‫ ادوٌأ‬bara’a a ( ٌ‫ دو‬bar’) to create ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., said
of God)
ٌ‫ د‬bar’ creation
‫وز‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīya pl. -āt, ‫وج‬٠‫ دٌث‬barāyā creation
(= that which is created); creature; see
also 2ٌ‫اد‬.
ًٜ‫~ ثٌذج‬J~I aI-bari' the Creator (God)
2
‫ ادوٌا‬bari’a a (‫ دوٌث ر‬barā’a) to be or become
free, be cleared (ٓ‫ ِو‬from, esp. from guilt
blame, etc., ٌٝ‫ ث‬toward s.o.); to recover (ٓ‫ِو‬
from an illness) II to free, clear, acquit,
absolve, exculpate (ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ ِووو‬from
suspicion, blame, guilt)│ً‫ادووٌأاّووجفزاثٌٌؽوو‬
(sāḥata r-rajul) he acquitted the man IV
to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate (ٖ
s.o.); to cause to recover, cure, heal (ٖ
s.o.)│ٗ‫( اثدوٌأاىِضو‬dimmatahū) to clear s.o. or
o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or o.s. V to
clear o.s. (ٓ‫ ِوو‬from suspicion, from a
charge), free o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬from responsibility,
etc.), rid o.s. (ٓ‫ ِوو‬of); to declare o.s.
innocent, wash one‘s hands (ٓ‫ ِو‬of); to be
acquitted X to restore to health, cure, heal
(ٖ s.o.); to free o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), rid o.s. (ٓ‫ِو‬
of)
ٌ‫ دووو‬bur’ and burū’ convalescence,
recovery
‫ دوٌا‬barī’ pl. ‫وج‬٠ٌ‫ ثد‬abriyā’2, ‫ دوٌث‬burā’,
birā’ free, exempt (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), devoid (ٓ‫ِو‬
of);
guiltless,
innocent;
guileless,
harmless; healthy, sound 49
‫ دٌث‬barā’ free, exempt (ٓ‫ ِو‬from)│‫اىِضوٗا‬
ِٓ‫( دٌث ا‬dimmatuM) he is innocent of ...
‫ دوووٌث ر‬barā’a being free; disavowal,
withdrawal; innocence, guiltlessness;
naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness; (pl. -āt)
license, diploma, patent│ ‫ادووووٌث راثمضووووٌث‬
patent on an invention; ‫ووووي‬١‫دووووٌث راثٌضٕف‬
exequatur (a written authorization of a
consular officer, issued by the government
to which he is accredited); ‫ دوٌث راثٌغموز‬b. attiqa (Tun.) credentials (dipl.); ‫ادووٌث ر‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
harmless; without guilt, innocent
ِ١‫ دٌد‬look up alphabetically
‫ صذٌةوووووز‬tabri’a freeing,
acquittal,
absolution,
exoneration
ِ١‫ دٌد‬barbīs barbel (zool.)
exemption;
discharge,
‫ ِذووجًأر‬mubāra’a mubarat, divorce by
mutual consent of husband and wife,
either of them waiving all claims by way
of compensation (Isl. Law)
‫ ثدوٌث‬ibrā’ acquittal, absolution, release;
release of a debtor from his liabilities,
remission of debt (Isl. Law)
‫ ثّوضذٌث‬istibrā’: ً‫ ثّوضذٌث اثٌقّو‬ist. al-ḥamal
the ceremony of selecting and purifying
the Host before Mass (Copt.-Chr.)
ٔ١‫ دوٌد‬barbīš (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an
enema, etc.)
٠‫ دووٌد‬barbata to splash, paddle, dabble (in
water)
ٝٔٛ‫( دٌدوو‬It. barbone) barbūnī, also ْٛ‫ دٌدوو‬red
mullet (Mullus barbatus; zool.)
ٝ‫ دٌد‬see ‫دٌدز‬
‫ دٌصؽجي‬burtugāl Portugal
ٌٝ‫ دٌصؽج‬burtugālī Portuguese
‫ دٌصمجي‬burtuqāl, ْ‫ ادٌصمج‬burtuqān orange
ٌٝ‫ دٌصموووج‬burtuqālī, ٝٔ‫دٌصموووج‬
orange, orange-colored
ٓ‫ دٌع‬burtun, pl. ٓ‫ دٌثع‬barātin claw, talon
1
‫ ادوٌػ‬V to display, show, play up her charms
(woman); to adorn herself, make herself
pretty (woman)
2
‫ ادوٌػ‬burj pl. ‫ػ‬ٌٚ‫ دو‬burūj, ‫ ثدوٌثػ‬abrāj tower;
castle; sign of the zodiac│َ‫ ادوٌػاثٌقّوج‬b. alḥamām pigeon house, dovecot; ٖ‫وج‬١ٌّ‫ دوٌػاث‬b.
al-miyāh water tower
2
‫ ادجًؽووز‬bārija pl. ‫ثًػ‬ٛ‫ دووو‬bawārij warship,
battleship; barge
1
ُ‫اٌعوخاثٌذٌؽوج‬la‘b al-birjās a kind of equestrian
contest, joust, tournament
2
ِ١‫ اثٌذٌؽ‬al-birjīs Jupiter (astron.)
ٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دٌثؽ‬baraguwāy Paraguay
ً٠ٍ‫ ثٌذٌث‬al-bərāzīl Brazil
ٌٜ١‫( دٌثّوو‬Fr. brasserie) brāseri beer parlor,
taproom
‫ دٌثغ‬Prague
ْ‫( دٌثـج‬Fr. paravent) baravān folding screen
‫ دٌثّ٘ج‬bərahmā Brahma
‫دٌدووز‬
birba and ‫ دٌدووج‬birbā pl. ٝ‫ دٌثدوو‬barābī
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins
doting back to ancient Egypt (eg.);
labyrinth, maze
‫ دٌدل‬barbaḳ pl. ‫ دٌثدل‬barābiḳ2 water pipe, drain,
culvert, sewer pipe
ٌ‫ دٌدو‬barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large
crowd), jabber, mutter, prattle
ٌ‫ ثٌذٌد‬al-barbar the Berbers
ٌٜ‫ دٌدوو‬barbarī Berber (adj.); barbaric,
uncivilized; -- (pl. ‫ دٌثدوووٌر‬barābira) a
Berber; a barbarian
‫ووووووز‬٠ٌ‫دٌد‬
barbarīya
barbar(ian)ism,
barbarity, savagery, cruelty
ٌ‫ ِضذٌد‬mutabarbir barbaric, uncivilized
burtuqānī
ً‫ دٌؽو‬barjal pl. ً‫ دٌثؽو‬barāhil2 compass, (pair
of) dividers 50
‫ دٌؽّووز‬burjuma pl. ُ‫ دووٌثؽ‬barājim2 knuckle,
finger joint
‫ دوٌؿ‬bariḥa a (‫ دوٌثؿ‬barāḥ) to leave ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬a‫ا‬
place, ٌٝ‫ ث‬for), depart ( ٘ from, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬on one‘s
way to); with neg.: to continue to be (=
‫│)ٍثي‬ٟ‫ ِوجادوٌؿاـو‬he is still in ... ; ‫وج‬١ٕ‫ِوجادوٌؿاؼ‬
(ganīyan) he is still rich; ‫( دوٌؿاثٌنفوج‬ḳafā’)
the matter hall come out, has become
generally known; ‫دوٌؿ‬ٚ‫ ؼووثا‬to come and go
II to beset, harass, trouble, molest (‫ ح‬s.o.)
III to leave ( ‫ ٘و‬a place, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬for), depart ( ‫٘و‬
from, ٌٝ‫ ث‬on one's way to)
‫ دوٌثؿ‬departure; cessation, stop; a wide,
empty tract of land, vast expanse, vastness;
‫ دٌثفج‬barāḥan openly and plainly, patently
‫ـ‬٠ً‫ صذوج‬tabārīh2 agonies, torments (e.g., of
longing, of passion)
war; ‫ّزادوجًهر‬١ٕ‫ ؼ‬an easy prey; ‫ٔادوجًه‬١‫‘( عو‬aiš)
an easy life; ‫( فؾووزاد وجًهر‬ḥujja) a weak
argument; ‫( صذػادجًه‬tibg) light, mild tobacco
‫ ِذجًفز‬mubāraḥa departure
‫ دوجًؿ‬bāriḥ (showing the left side. i.e.)
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as
opposed to ‫ ثٌذجًؿ ;)ّجٔـ‬al-bāriḥa yesterday
‫ اثٌذجًفوووز‬al-bāriḥata yesterday│‫ٍوووزا‬١ٌٍ‫اث‬
‫( ثٌذجًفوووز‬lailata) last night; ‫ياثٌذجًفوووز‬ٚ‫ث‬
awwala l-b. the day before yesterday. two
days ago
‫ ِذٌه‬mubarrid cooling, refreshing; pl. -āt
refreshments (beverages, etc.)
‫ ِذٌه‬mubarrad cooled, chilled
2
‫ دٌثه‬barrād fitter (of machinery)
‫ دٌثهر‬birāda fitter's trade or work
‫ دٌثهر‬burāda iron filings
‫ ِذوووووٌؿ‬mubarriḥ, violent, intense,
excruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains)
ٗ‫ ِذٌؿادو‬mubarraḥ bihi stricken. afflicted,
tormented
‫ ِذٌه‬mibrad pl. ‫ ِذجًه‬mabcirid2 file, rasp
3
‫ ادوٌه‬bard coldness, chilliness, coolness;
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh
‫ دوٌه‬barad hail, ‫ دوٌهر‬barada (n. un.)
hailstone
‫ه‬ٌٚ‫ د‬barūd collyrium
‫ه‬ٌٚ‫ دووووو‬burūd coldness, coolness,
chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity
‫هر‬ٌٚ‫ دوووو‬burūda coldness, coolness,
chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity│‫ا‬
َ‫هراثٌو‬ٌٚ‫ د‬b. ad-dam cold-bloodedness
‫ووز‬٠‫ دٌه‬bardīya ague, feverish chill; see
also below
‫ دٌهث‬buradā’ 2 ague, feverish chill
‫ دووووٌثهر‬barrāda
refrigerator, icebox
cold-storage
plant;
‫وووو‬٠ٌ‫ صذ‬tabrīd cooling, chilling; cold
storage,
refrigeration;
alleviation,
mitigation│‫وووو‬٠ٌ‫وووجهاثٌضذ‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāz at-t. coldstorage plant, refrigerator; ‫وووو‬٠ٌ‫ؼٌـوووزاثٌضذ‬
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room
‫ دوجًه‬bārid cold; cool, chilly; easy; weak;
stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce,
blockhead│‫( ثٌقووٌحاثٌذووجًهر‬ḥarb) the cold
‫ دٌه‬burd pl. ‫ ثدٌثه‬abrād garment
‫ دٌهر‬burda Mohammed's outer garment
1
‫ ادوٌه‬barada u to be or become cold; to
cool, cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to
cool, chill ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to soothe. alleviate ( ‫٘و‬
pain); -- baruda to be or become cold II to
make cold ( ٘ s.th.); to refrigerate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to cool, chill ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., also fig.); to soothe,
alleviate ( ‫ ٘و‬pain) V to refresh o.s., cool
o.s. off; to be soothed, be alleviated VIII to
become cold, cool off
‫ دٌه‬barada u to file ( ٘ a piece of metal, etc.)
‫ز‬٠‫ دٌهث‬burdāya curtain, drape 51
4
‫ دٌه‬IV to send by mail, to mail ( ٘ a letter)
‫و‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīd post, mail│ٜٛ‫وواثٌؾو‬٠ٌ‫( ثٌذ‬jawwī)
air mail
ٜ‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīdī postal; messenger, courier;
mailman
5
‫ه‬ًٚ‫ دج‬look up alphabetically
6
ٜ‫ دٌه‬bardī, burdī papyrus (bot.)
‫وز‬٠‫ دٌه‬bardīya pl. -āt papyrus│‫وجس‬٠‫عٍوُاثٌذٌه‬
‘ilm al-b. papyrology
‫ دٌهثق‬bardāq pl. ‫ك‬٠‫ دٌثه‬barādīq2 jug, pitcher
‫ ٌعخاثٌذٌهػ‬la‘b al-b. bridge (game)
‫ دٌهك‬bardaḳa to polish, burnish ( ٘ s.th.)
□ ‫دٌىعز = ادٌهعز‬
ْ‫دٌصمجْ = دٌهلج‬
ٓٛ‫ دٌهل‬bardaqūš (=ٓٛ‫ )ٌِهل‬marjoram
‫ًر‬ٚ‫( دٌه‬Fr. bordure) badūra curbstone, curb
‫ دٌىعوز‬barda‘a pl. ‫ دوٌثى‬barādi‘2 saddle, packsaddle (for donkeys and camels)
ٝ‫ دٌثىعوو‬barādi‘ī maker of donkey saddle,
saddler
ْٚ‫ دوٌى‬birdaun pl. ٓ٠‫ دوٌثى‬barādīn2 work horse
jade, nag
1
ٌٍ‫ د‬baraza u to come out, show, appear, come
into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude,
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to
surpass, excel (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.) II to cause to
come out, bring out, expose, show, set off,
accentuate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to excel, surpass (ٝ‫ـو‬
ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. in), stand out (ٝ‫ ـو‬for), distinguish
o.s. (ٟ‫ ـو‬by) III to meet in combat or duel (ٖ
s.o.); to compete in a contest (ٖ with s.o.)
IV to cause to come out, bring out,
expose, make manifest ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
publish, bring out ( ‫ ٘ و‬a book, etc.); to
present, show ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., an identity card) V
to evacuate the bowels VI to vie, contend
1
‫ دٌٕش‬birišt: ‫ادٌٕش‬ٜ١‫( د‬baiḍ) soft-boiled eggs
‫ٔز‬ٍٛ‫ دٌٕ و‬baršīlōna Barcelona (seaport in NE
Spain)
ُ‫ دٌٕو‬baršama to stare, gaze (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at s.th.); to
rivet ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ دٌّٕز‬baršama riveting
ٌٍٚ‫ دووو‬burūz prominence, projection,
protrusion
َ‫ دٌٕوج‬buršām and ْ‫( دٌٕوج‬n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. -āt
wafer; Host (Chr.)
ٍ‫ دٌث‬birāz excrement, feces; competition,
contest, match (in sports); duel
‫ دٌٕجِز‬buršāma rivet
ٝ‫ دٌٕجِؾ‬buršāmjī riveter
‫ وَر‬٠ٌ‫ د‬buraiza (birēza; eg.) ten-piaster
coin
2
ٌٍ‫ ثدوووو‬abraz more marked,
distinctive; more prominent
‫ز‬١‫ دٌّٕؾ‬buršamjīya riveting
1
more
ٌٗ‫ د‬baraṣ leprosy
ٍ‫ ثدووٌث‬ibrāz bringing out, displaying,
setting off, accentuation; production;
presentation
ٌٍ‫ ِذوو‬mubarriz surpassing (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.),
superior (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.); winner. victor (in
contest)
ًٍ‫ ِذووج‬mubāriz competitor, contender;
combatant, fighter; fencer
2
َ‫و‬٠ٌ‫( د‬Fr. prise) brīz pl. -āt (plug) socket, wallplug, outlet (syr.); ‫وَر‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīza pl. َ‫دٌثةو‬
barā’iz2 do. (eg.)
2
َ٠ٌ‫ ثد‬look up alphabetically
2
ْ‫ دٌٍث‬barazān trumpet
‫ دوٌٍك‬barzaḳ pl. ‫ دوٌثٍك‬barāziḳ interval, gap,
break, partition, bar, obstruction; isthmus
‫ق‬ٌٍٚ‫ د‬burzūq sidewalk
1
َ‫ دٌّج‬birsām pleurisy
2
ُْ٠ٌ‫ ثد‬look up alphabetically
3
ُ١‫ دٌّوووو‬birsīm clover, specif., berseem,
Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum
bot.)
1
ٌٓ‫ د‬burš pl. ٓ‫ ثدٌث‬abrāš mat
ٌٓ‫ ثد‬abraš2 spotted, speckled 52
ٌٗ‫ د‬bariṣa a (baraṣ) to be a leper
ٌٗ‫ دووو‬burṣ wall gecko (Tarentola
mauritanica, zool.)
‫ ِذ وجًٍر‬mubāraza competition, contest,
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing
ًٍ‫ دج‬bāriz protruding, projecting, salient;
raised, embossed, in relief; marked,
distinct,
conspicuous;
prominent
(personality)
ٌٓ‫ د‬look up alphabetically
ٗ‫ ثدوٌث‬abraṣ2 leprous; leper│ٌٗ‫ّووجَاثدو‬
sāmm a. wall gecko
2
‫ز‬ٌٙ‫ د‬burṣa stock exchange
ٌٛ‫ دو‬baraḍa u (ٌٛٚ‫ دو‬burūḍ) to germinate,
sprout (plant)
ٍٛ‫وو‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯūz: ‫ووز‬٠ٌ‫ٍاثٌذق‬ٛ‫وو‬ٌٟ‫ د‬b. a1-baḥrīya
forecastle, crew quarters (on a merchant
vessel)
‫ا‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯa‘a (‫عز‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯa‘a) to gallop
ً‫و‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯala (‫ٍوز‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯala) to bribe (ٖ s.o.) II
tabarṯala to take bribes, be venal
ً١ٌٟ‫ د‬birṯīl pl. ً١ٟ‫ دٌث‬barāṯīl2 bribe
1
ٌُٟ‫ د‬barṯama to rave, talk irrationally
َٛ‫ووو‬ٌٟ‫ د‬burṯūm, barṯūm trunk of an
elephant
2
ْ‫ّوج‬ٌٟ‫ د‬barṯamān pl. -āt (syr. eg.) tall earthen
or glass vessel (for preserves, oil. etc.)
ٌ‫ دو‬bara‘a a to surpass excel (ٖ s.o.); (also
baru‘a u) to distinguish o.s., be skilful,
proficient V to contribute. Give, donate (‫ح‬
s.th.); to undertake (voluntarily, ‫ ح‬s.th.).
volunteer (‫ ح‬or), be prepared, willing (‫ح‬
to do s.th.); to be ready, be on hand (‫ح‬
with)
‫ دٌثعوووووز‬barā‘a skill, proficiency;
efficiency, capability, capacity
‫عوز‬ٌٚ‫ د‬burū‘a superior skill, outstanding
proficiency
‫ ِذٌق‬mabraq glitter, flash│‫وذـ‬ٌٚ‫اِذوٌقاث‬ٝ‫ـ‬
fī m. iṣ-ṣbḥ with the first rays of the
morning sun
ٌ‫ صذوو‬tabarru‘ pl. -āt gift, donation;
contribution
‫ دوجًق‬bāriq: ‫ دوجًق‬b. al-amal glimpse of
hope
ً‫ د وج‬bāri‘ skilled, skillful, proficient,
capable. efficient; brilliant, outstanding
(work of art)
‫ دجًلوز‬bāriqa pl. ‫ثًق‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawāriq2 gleam,
twinkle
ُ‫ دٌع‬bar‘ama to bud, burgeon, sprout
ُ‫ دٌع‬bur‘um pl. ُ‫ دٌثع‬barā‘im2 and َٛ‫دٌع‬
bur‘ūm pl. ُ١‫ دوٌثع‬bard'im' bud, burgeon;
blossom, flower
‫ط‬ٛ‫ دٌؼوو‬burgūt pl. ‫ووظ‬١‫ دٌثؼ‬barāgīt2 f1ea; pl.
‫ووظ‬١‫( دٌثؼ‬syr.) small silver coins│‫طا‬ٛ‫ادٌؼ و‬
ٌ‫ ثٌذق‬b. a1-baḥr shrimp (zool.)
ٔ‫ دٌؼ‬bargaš (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬gnat(s), midge(s)
‫ ِذٌق‬mubriq: ‫ ِذٌقاوجصخ‬teletype
2
‫ اثٌذٌلز‬al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya)
3
‫ك‬٠ٌ‫ اثد‬look up alphabetically
4
‫ اثّضذٌق‬look up alphabetically
ٔ‫ دوٌل‬barqaša (ٔ‫ دوٌل‬barqš) to variegate, paint
or daub with many colors ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
embellish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; ٗ‫ٌو‬ٛ‫ ل‬one‘s speech) II
tabargaša reflex. and pass. of I
ً‫ دٌؼ و‬burgul cooked, parched and crushed
wheat, served together with other food
(eg., syr.)
ٔ‫ دٌل‬birqiš finch
ٔ‫ دوٌل‬barqaša colorful medley, variety,
variegation
ٝ‫( دٌؼ و‬Turk. ٝ‫ًؼ‬ٛ‫ د و‬burğų) burgī pl. ٝ‫دٌثؼوو‬
barāgī screw
ٌ١‫ دٌـ‬birfīr pl. ٌ١‫ دٌثـ‬barāfīr2 purple
‫ـز‬ٌٚ‫ د‬look up alphabetically
1
‫ دوٌق‬baraqa u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash│‫ا‬
‫( دٌلوشاثٌْوّج‬samā’u) there was lightning IV
= I; to emit bolts of lightning (cloud); to
flash up, light up; to brighten (face); to
cable, wire, telegraph (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to)
‫ دوٌق‬barq pl. ‫ق‬ٌٚ‫ دو‬burūq lightning; flash
of lightning; telegraph│‫( ادوٌقامٍوخ‬ḳullab)
lightning without a downpour, used fig.
e.g.. of s.o. given to making promises
without ever living up to them 53
ٝ‫ دٌل و‬barqī telegraphic, telegraph- (in
compounds)
‫ز‬١‫ دٌل‬barqīya pl. -āt telegram, wire, cable
‫ وك‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīq pl. ‫ دٌثة وك‬barā’iq2 glitter,
shine, gloss, luster│ٟٔ‫وكاِعوو‬٠ٌ‫اد‬ٚ‫( ى‬ma‘dinī)
lustered, coated with metallic luster
‫ دوووٌثق‬burāq Alborak, name of the
creature on which Mohammed made his
ascension to the seven heavens (‫)ِعٌثػ‬
‫ دوٌثق‬barrāq shining, lustrous, sparkling,
flashing, glittering, twinkling
ٔ‫ ِذووٌل‬mubarqaš colorful, variegated,
many-colored
‫ دٌلوا‬barqa‘a to veil, drape ( ‫٘و‬, s.o., s.th.) II
tabarqa‘a to put on a veil, veil o.s.
‫ دٌلوا‬burqu‘ pl. ‫ دٌثلوا‬barāqi‘2 veil (worn
by women; long, leaving the eyes
exposed)
‫ق‬ٛ‫ دٌل‬barqūq (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬plum
1
‫ دٌن‬baraka u to kneel down II and IV to make
( ‫ ٘و‬the camel) kneel down II to invoke a
blessing (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ ـو‬on s.th., ‫ ي‬on s.th.) III
to bless (ٝ‫ ـ‬or ٖ s.th., also ‫ ي‬or ٝ‫)عٍو‬, invoke
a blessing on; to give one's blessing ( ‫ ٘و‬to
s.th.), sanction ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to be blessed (‫ح‬
by); to enjoy (‫ ح‬s.th.), find pleasure,
delight (‫ ح‬in); to ask s.o.‘s (‫ )ح‬blessing VI
to be blessed, be praised; ... ‫ صذوجًن‬tabāraka
... God bless …! X to be blessed
‫ دٌوز‬birka pl. ‫ دٌن‬birak pond, small lake;
puddle, pool│‫ ادٌووووزاثٌْوووذجفز‬b. as-sibāḥa
swimming pool
‫ دٌووووووز‬baraka pl. -āt blessing,
benediction│‫الٍوووووووووزاثٌذٌووووووووووز‬qillat
al-b.
misfortune, bad luck
‫ ثدٌن‬abrak2 more blessed
‫وه‬٠ٌ‫ صذ‬tabrīk pl. -āt good wish; blessing,
benediction
‫ ِذجًن‬mubārak blessed, fortunate, lucky
2
ٌَٚ‫ ِذوو‬mabrūm:○ٌَٚ‫( ّووٍهاِذوو‬silk) wire
rope, cable
‫ه‬٠ً‫ ادٌث‬barārīk2 (mor.) barracks
ً‫ دٌوج‬birkār compass, (pair of) divideers
ٌَ‫ ِذو‬mubram firm, strong; irrevocable,
definitely
established;
confirmed,
ratified│ٌَ‫ج اِذ‬ٞ‫( ل‬qaḍā’) inescapable fate;
‫ًراِذٌِز‬ٛٚ‫ د‬irrevocably
2
ْ‫ دٌوج‬burkān pl. ٓ١‫ دٌثو‬barākīn volcano
ٝٔ‫ دٌوج‬burkānī volcanic
ْ‫ دٌٌّج‬barlamān parliament
3
ٝٔ‫ دٌٌّج‬barlamānī parliamentary
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ دٌٌّج‬barlamānīya parliamentarianism
ٝ‫( دٌٌٕض‬It. brillante) brillantī brilliant, diamond
ٓ١ٌٌ‫ د‬barlīn Berlin
1
ٌَ‫ دو‬barima a (baram) to be or become weary,
tired (‫ ح‬of), be fed up, be bored (‫ ح‬with),
find annoying, wearisome (‫ ح‬s.th.) V to
feel annoyed (‫ ح‬by), be displeased (‫ح‬
with); to be fed up (‫ ح‬with), be sick and
tired (‫ح‬of, also ٓ‫ ;)ِوو‬to be impatient,
discontented, dissatisfied; to grieve, be
pained 54
ٌَ‫ دو‬barim weary, tired (‫ ح‬of), disgusted
(‫ ح‬at, with); dissatisfied, discontented
ٌَ‫ صذووو‬tabarrum weariness, boredom,
disgust;
discontent,
dissatisfaction;
uneasiness, discomfort, annoyance
ٌَ‫ ِضذو‬mutabarrim cross, peevish, vexed,
annoyed
2
ٌَ‫ دو‬barama u (barm) to twist, twine ( ‫ ٘و‬a
rope); to shape ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) round and long; to
roll up ( ‫ ٘و‬the sleeves); to settle, establish,
confirm ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV to twist, twine ( ‫ ٘و‬a
rope); to settle, establish, confirm ( ٘ s.th.);
to conclude ( ‫ ٘و‬a pact); to confirm ( ‫ ٘و‬a
judicial judgment); to ratify ( ‫ ٘و‬a treaty, a
bill) VII to be settled, be established, be
confirmed; to be twisted, be twined
‫ دٌِج‬burmā Burma
ٝ‫ دٌِووووجة‬barmā’ī amphibious│‫ووووز‬١‫هدجدووووزادٌِجة‬
(dabbāba) amphibious tank (mil.)
○ ‫ز‬١‫ دٌِجة‬barmā’īya amphibian
‫( دٌِجٕٔوش‬Engl.) barmanant permanent wave│‫ا‬
‫اثٌذجًه‬ٍٝ‫دٌِجٕٔشاع‬cold wave (in hair)
‫ دٌِك‬barmaq pl. ‫ دٌثِوك‬barāmiq2 baluster; spike
(of a wheel)
‫ووجس‬ٌِٙ‫ د‬baramhāt the seventh month of the
Coptic calendar
َ‫ج‬ٙ‫ دٌِٕى‬Birmingham
‫هر‬ٛ‫ دٌِو‬barmūda the eighth month of the Coptic
calendar
ً‫و‬١ٌِ‫ د‬barmīl pl. ً‫و‬١ِ‫ دٌث‬barāmīl2 barrel; keg,
cask; tun
‫ز‬١ٌٔ‫ د‬barnīya pl. ٝٔ‫ دٌث‬barānīy clay vessel
‫ دٌٔوجِؼ‬barnāmaj pl. ‫ دوٌثِؼ‬barāmij2 program,
plan, schedule; roster, list, index;
curriculum
‫ دٌٔؾه‬burunjuk gauze, crepe
1
‫ دٌثِز‬barrāma pl. -āt drilling machine
auger, bit; ○ corkscrew ٌَ‫د‬
○ ‫ز‬١ّ٠ٌ‫ د‬barrīmīya spirochete
َ‫ ثدووٌث‬ibrām settlement, establishment;
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.);
ratification│َ‫دووٌث‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ا‬ٜ‫ ِقىّووزاثٌووٕم‬maḥkamat
an-naqḍ wa-l-i. Court of Cassation (Eg.)
ٌِٔ‫ دو‬burnus pl. ِٔ‫ دوٌث‬barānis2 (also ُٛ‫دٌٔو‬
barnūs, burnūs pl. ِ١ٔ‫ دووووٌث‬baranīs2)
burnoose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble
(of Coptic priests)│َ‫ ادووؤٌِاثٌقّوووج‬b. alḥammām bathrobe
ٝ‫ دٌثْٔووو‬barānisī pl. -īya maker of
burnooses
ُ٠ٌ‫ د‬barīm rope; string, cord, twine
‫ّوز‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barrīma pl. –āt drill, borer, gimlet,
‫ دٌِوووز‬burma pl. ٌَ‫ دووو‬buram, َ‫ دوووٌث‬birām
earthenware pot
2
ِٔ‫ ؽذجياثٌذٌث‬jibāl al-barānis the Pyrenees
ٌِٔ‫ د‬brins prince
‫ْز‬١ٌْٔ‫ د‬brinsēsa princess
٠ٌٔ‫ د‬II tabarnaṯa to wear a hat
‫وووز‬١ ٌٔ‫ د‬burnaiṯa pl. -āt, ٠١ٔ‫ دوووٌث‬barānīt2
(European) hat (men‘s and women‘s);
lamp shade
‫ دٌ٘وز‬burha pl. burahāt, ٌٖ‫ دو‬burah a while, a
time; short time; instant, moment; ‫دٌ٘ووز‬
burllatan a little while│ٓ١‫( ادوٌ٘ض‬after two
moments =) in a short time
going; to break out, lot fly, explode (with
words, esp. in anger or excitement)
ٌٜ‫ د‬baran dust, earth
‫ووز‬٠‫ دٌث‬barrāya, َ٩‫ـوو‬٨‫ووزاث‬٠‫ دٌث‬b. al-aqlām
pencil sharpener
□ ٌُ٘‫ د‬barham (syr.) = ٌُِ٘ marham
ٌّٓ٘‫ دو‬barahman pl. ‫ دٌثّ٘وز‬barāhima Brahman
55
‫ ِذٌثر‬mibrāh pocketknife
‫ ِذ وجًثر‬mubārāh pl. ‫ وجس‬٠ً‫ ِذج‬mubārayāt
contest tournament, match (in games and
sports); competition, rivalry
‫ز‬١ٌّ٘‫ د‬barahmīya Brahmanism
ٌٓ٘‫ د‬barhana to prove, demonstrate (ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ٓ‫عو‬
s.th.)
ٌٓ٘‫ د‬burhān pl. ٓ١٘‫ دٌث‬barāhīn2 proof
‫ دٌٕ٘ز‬barhana proving, demonstration
‫ر‬ٌٚ‫ د‬bawa waste, scrap
ٟ‫صْووضجٔض‬ٌٚ‫ د‬brotostantī Protestant; (pl. -ūn) a
Protestant
‫ز‬١‫صْضجٔض‬ٌٚ‫ د‬brotostantīya Protestantism
ٛ‫صْوض‬ٌٚ‫( د‬It. protesto) brotostō protest (of a bill
of exchange)
ً‫دج‬: ‫وج‬ٙ٠ً‫ُادج‬ٛ‫اثٌمو‬٠‫ ثعو‬a‘ṯi l-qausa bāriyahā
give the bow to him who knows how to
shape it, i.e. always ask an expert
ً‫ ِضذوج‬mutabārin participant in a contest,
contestant, contender; competitor, rival
2
‫وج‬١ٔ‫ ج‬٠ٌ‫ د‬barīṯāniyā, biriṯāniyā Britain, ‫وجا‬١ٔ‫ ج‬٠ٌ‫د‬
ٌٜ‫( ثٌىذ‬uẓmā) Great Britain
ٟٔ‫ ووووج‬٠ٌ‫د‬
Britannic
‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٛ‫ًص‬ٛ‫ د‬brotokōl protocol
ْٛ‫ص‬ٌٚ‫ د‬proton
1
َ‫ؽٌث‬ٛ‫ د‬brogrām program
ٝ‫ؽ‬ٌٚ‫ د‬burūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler
ٌٍٚ‫ د‬barwaza to frame
ٍ‫ث‬ٌٚ‫ د‬barwāz, birwāz pl. َ٠ٚ‫ دٌث‬barāwīz2 frame
‫ج‬١ٌّٚ‫( د‬It. Prussia) burūsiyā Prussia
ٌّٟٚ‫ د‬burūsī Prussian
‫ـوز‬ٌٚ‫ د‬and ‫ﭬ وز‬ٌٚ‫( دو‬It. prova) brōva, brōfa pl.
-āt test. experiment; proof sheet;
rehearsal
2
biriṯānī
British;
َ‫ دو‬bazza u (bazz) to take away, steal, wrest,
snatch ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬from s.o. s.th.). rob, strip ( ‫ٖ ٘و‬
s.o. of s.th.); to defeat, beat, outstrip, excel
(ٖ s.o.), triumph, be victorious (ٖ over)
VIII to take away, steal, pilfer ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
take away, snatch ( ‫ ٘ و‬money, ٓ‫ ِوو‬from
s.o.); to rob, fleece (ٖ s.o.)│ُ‫ثياثٌٕوج‬ٛ‫ثدضوَاثِو‬
to lift money out of people‘s pockets,
relieve people of their money
َ‫ د‬bazza u to bud, burgeon
َ‫ دو‬buzz, bizz pl. ٍ‫ دوَث‬bizāz, ٍ‫ ثدوَث‬abzāz
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast);
teat, female breast 56
َٜ‫ٔووو‬ٌٚ‫ د‬bronzi bronze, bronzy│‫وووٌا‬ٚ‫اثٌع‬
ٌَٜٔٚ‫‘( ثٌذ‬aṣr) the Bronze Age
ٌٜ‫ دو‬barā i (bary) to trim, shape ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), nib
( ‫ ٘و‬a pen), sharpen ( ‫ ٘و‬a pencil); to scratch
off, scrape off ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to exhaust, tire
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (ٖ s.o.),
sap the strength of (ٖ) III to vie, compete (ٖ
with s.o.). try to outstrip (ٖ s.o.) VI to vie,
compete, contend, be rivals; to meet in a
contest, try each other‘s strength (esp. in
games and sports) VII to be trimmed, be
nibbed, be sharpened; to defy, oppose (‫ي‬
s.o.); to undertake, take in hand (‫ ي‬s.th.),
set out to do s.th. (‫)ي‬, enter, embark (‫ي‬
upon); to break forth (ٓ‫ ِوو‬from); to get
barīṯānī,
ٍ‫ ثدضووَث‬ibtizāz theft, robbery; fleecing,
robbing (of s.o.)
ٌَٔٚ‫( د‬Fr.) bronz bronze
1
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ د‬see 1‫ دٌأ‬and 2ٌ‫د‬
3
َ‫ د‬bazz pl. ٍَٚ‫ د‬buzūz linen; cloth, dry goods
‫ دوووَر‬bizza clothing, clothes, attire;
uniform│‫ز‬١ًّّ‫( دَرا‬rasmīya) uniform
ٍ‫ دَث‬bazzāz draper, cloth merchant
‫ دَثٍر‬bizāza cloth trade
ٍٛ‫ دَد‬bazbūz pl. َ١‫ دَثد‬bazābīz2 nozzle, spout
ًَ‫ د‬bazara i (bazr) to sow
ًَ‫ دو‬bizr pl. ًَٚ‫ دو‬buzūr seed(s); pl. ً‫ثدوَث‬
abzār and ٌ٠ٍ‫ ثدج‬abāzīr2 spice
‫ دوًَر‬bizra (n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, pit,
stone (of fruit); germ
ً‫ دَث‬bazzār seedsman
‫ٌر‬٠َ‫ د‬buzaira pl. -āt spore (bot.)
‫ دوَغ‬bazaga u to break forth, come out; to
dawn (day); to rise (sun)
‫غ‬َٚ‫ دو‬buzūg appearance, emergence; rise
(of the sun)
‫ دَق‬bazaqa u (bazq) to spit
‫ دَثلز‬bazzāqa snail; cobra
1
mabāziq2
‫ادوَي‬bazala u (bazl) to split ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to pierce
( ٘ s.th.), make a hole ( ‫ ٘و‬in); to tap,broach
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; a cask); to puncture, tap (ٖ s.o.;
med.); to clear, filter ( ٘ a liquid)
‫ دوَي‬bazl puncture, tapping, paracentesis
(med.)
‫ دَثي‬buzāl bung (of a cask)
‫ ِذووَي‬mibzal pl. ‫ ِذ وجٍي‬mabazil
spigot, tap; cock, faucet
2
2
spile,
‫( ادٌَز‬It. piselli) bizilla and ٨َ‫ د‬green peas
ُ٠َ‫ ثد‬ibzīm pl. ٍَ‫ ثدج‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp
‫س‬َِٛ‫ د‬bizmūt bismuth
ٝ َٔ‫ د‬bizanṯī Byzantine
ٍ‫ دوج‬bāzin pl. ‫ دووَثر‬buzāh, ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawāzin, ْ‫وَث‬١‫د‬
bīzān falcon
ِ‫ د‬bass and ‫ دْز‬bassa pl. ُ‫ دْج‬bassās cat
‫ دْوب‬basa’a a ( ِ‫ دو‬bas’) to treat amicably (‫ح‬
s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiar terms
(‫ ح‬with)
‫ج‬١‫ دْجًثد‬besārābiyā Bessarabia
ُ‫ دْوذج‬basbās, ‫ دْذجّوز‬basbāsa (eg.) mace (bot.);
(magr.) fennel
‫ّ وز‬ٛ‫ دْذ‬basbāsa (eg.) pastry made of
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil
‫ز‬١ٍ١‫( دْض‬Fr.) bastīliya pastilles, lozenges
1
ْٛ‫( ادْوض‬Fr. piston) bistōn, ٓ‫( دْوض‬Engl.) bistan
pl. ٓ‫ دْجص‬basātin2 piston
3
ْٛ‫( ادْووض‬It. bastone) bastūnī spades (suit of
playing cards)
‫ دْنز‬basḳa Easter; Passion Week (Chr.)
ٌ‫ دْو‬basara u (ًٛ‫ دْو‬busūr) to scowl, frown; -basara u (basr) and VIII to begin too
early ( ‫ ٘و‬with), take premature action, be
rash ( ٘ in s.th.)
ٌ‫ دْو‬busr (n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ً‫ دْوج‬bisār unripe
dates
‫ دَثق‬buzāq spit, spittle, saliva
‫ ِذَلوووز‬mibzaqa pl. ‫ِذوووجٍق‬
spittoon, cuspidor
2
ْ‫ دْضج‬bustān pl. ٓ١‫ دْجص‬basātīn2 garden
ٝٔ‫ دْووضج‬bustānī gardener; garden (adj.);
horticultural
‫ دْضٕز‬bastana gardening, horticulture
ًٛ‫ دجّوووو‬bāsūr
hemorrhoids
pl.
ٌ١‫ثّوووو‬ٛ‫د‬
bawāsīr2
٠‫ دْو‬basaṯ u (basṯ) to spread, spread out ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to level, flatten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to enlarge,
expand ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to stretch out, extend ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to unfold, unroll ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to grant,
offer, present ( ٘ s.th.); to submit, state, set
forth, expound, explain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ‫ ي‬or ٝ‫عٍو‬
to s.o.); to flog (ٖ s.o.; Nejd); to please
delight (ٖ s.o.)│ ٗ‫و‬١‫اىًثع‬٠‫( دْو‬dirā‘aihi) to
spread one‘s arms; 57 ‫ووواثٌّْووجعوراي‬٠‫ا‬٠‫دْوو‬
(yada l-musā‘ada) to extend helping hand
to s.o.; ‫اثٌّجةوور‬٠‫ دْو‬to lay the table; -- basuṯa
u (‫ز‬ٟ‫دْووووج‬
basāta) to be simple,
openhearted, frank, candid II to spread,
spread out, extend, expand ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
level, flatten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to simplify, make
simple ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) III to set forth, state,
expound, explain; to be sincere (‫ ٖ ح‬with
s.th. about or in s.th.), confess frankly (‫ٖ ح‬
to s.o. s.th.) V to be spread, be unrolled,
be spread out, be extended; to speak at
great length (ٝ‫ ـو‬about), enlarge (ٝ‫ ـو‬on),
treat exhaustively, expound in detail (ٝ‫ ـو‬a
theme); to be friendly, communicative,
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be
completely at ease│‫ظ‬٠‫اثٌقوو‬ٟ‫اـو‬٠‫ اصذْو‬to talk
freely, without formality VII to spread,
extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, be
delighted, be or become happy
٠‫ دْووووو‬basṯ, extension, spreading,
unrolling,
unfolding;
presentation,
statement,
explanation,
exposition;
cheering,
delighting,
delectation;
amusement; (Eg.) numerator (of a
fraction)│‫وو‬١ٌ‫اث‬٠‫ ادْو‬b. al-yad avarice, greed,
cupidity
‫ دْو ز‬basṯa extension, extent, expanse;
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abilities;
excess, abundance; (pl. -āt) statement,
exposition, presentation; -- (pl. ٟ‫ دْوج‬bisāṯ)
landing (of staircase); estrade, dais,
platform (eg.)
ٟ‫ دْوج‬bisāṯ pl. -āt, ‫ ثدْو ز‬absiṯa, ٠‫ دْو‬busuṯ
carpet, rug│‫اثٌٌفّوووز‬ٟ‫ ادْوووج‬b. ar-raḥma
winding sheet, shroud; ‫ا( ِْبٌز‬ٝٚ or) ‫ٌؿا‬ٟ
‫اثٌذقوظ‬ٟ‫ادْوج‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬mas‘alata, baḥtan) to raise
a question, bring a question on the carpet,
also ‫اثٌّٕجلٖوز‬ٟ‫ادْوج‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬b. il-munāqaša) for
discussion; ٗ‫وو‬١‫ادّوجاـ‬ٟ‫اثٌذْوج‬ٜٛ‫وو‬ٟ to bring the
matter to an end, settle it once and for all
‫ ِٕذْووووك‬munbasiq
towering
‫ ز‬١ْ‫ ثٌذ‬al-basīṯa the earth, the world
٠‫ دْوووووجة‬basā’iṯ2 elements; simple
remedies, medicinal plants; basic facts
‫ز‬ٟ‫ دْج‬basāṯa simplicity, plainness
O ‫ز‬ٟٛ‫ ثدْو‬ubsūṯa pl. ٠١‫ ثدجّو‬abāsīṯ2 rim,
felly (of a wheel)
٠‫ ثدْووو‬absaṯ
extensive
2
simpler; wider, more
٠١ْ‫ صذ‬tabsīṯ simplification
ٟ‫ ثٔذْوووج‬inbisāṯ (n. vic. ‫ )ر‬extensity,
extensiveness,
extension;
expansion,
expanse; joy. delight, happiness, gaiety,
cheerfulness
‫ٍزادجّ ز‬ٞ‫‘ ع‬aḍla bāsiṯa extensor (anat.)
ٟٛ‫ ِذْ و‬mabsūṯ extended, outstretched;
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable;
detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, happy,
gay; feeling well, in good health; (tun.)
well-to-do
٠‫ ِٕذْوو‬munbasiṯ extending, spreading;
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface
‫( دْ ٌِز‬Turk.) basṯurma a kind of jerked,
salted meat (eg.)
ًٛ‫ّف‬ٛ‫ ثٌذ‬al-busfūr the Bosporus
‫ دْوك‬basaqa a (‫ق‬ٛ‫ دْو‬busūq) to be high, tall,
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass (ٖ or ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o.)
‫ دجّك‬bāiq high, tall, lofty, towering
tall,
lofty,
‫ش‬١ٍ‫( دْى‬Fr. bicyclette) biskilēt, baskilēt bicycle
‫س‬ٛ‫( دْى‬It. biscotto) baskūt biscuit
‫ش‬٠ٛ‫ دْى‬baskawīt biscuit
2
ً‫ دْ و‬basula u (‫ دْووجٌز‬basāla) to be brave,
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to
be reckless, defy death 58
‫ دْجٌز‬basāla courage, intrepidity
‫ ثّضذْجي‬istibsāl death defiance
2
٠١‫ دْ و‬basīṯ pl. ‫ دْ و ج‬busaṯā’ simple;
plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, modest,
inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; ٠١‫ ثٌذْو‬name
of a poetical meter; pl. ‫ دْو ج‬simple souls),
ingenuous people│ٓ٠‫وو‬١ٌ‫اث‬٠١‫ دْو‬b. al-yadain
(pl. ٠ْ‫ د‬busuṯ) generous, openhanded
high,
‫ دْووجٌز‬bāsil pl. ٩‫ دْوو‬busalā’2, ً‫ثّوو‬ٛ‫د‬
bawāsil2 brave, fearless, intrepid
ًْ‫ ِْذ‬mustabsil death-defying, heroic
2
‫ادٍْز‬bisilla peace
ُْ‫ د‬basam i (basm), V and VIII to smile
ُْ‫ د‬basma pl. basamāt smile
َ‫ دْج‬bassām smiling
ُ‫ ِذْو‬mabsim, pl. ُ‫ ِذجّو‬mabāsim2 mouth;
mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes,
etc.)
َ‫ ثدضْوج‬ibtisām and (n. vic.) ‫ ثدضْوجِز‬pl. -āt
smile
ًّ‫ دْو‬basmala to utter the invocation ‫دْووُا ا‬
ُ١‫― ثٌووٌفّٓاثٌووٌف‬In the name of God, the
Benificent, the Merciful‖
ًّ‫ دْوو‬basmala utterance of the above
invocation; the invocation itself
‫ٕز‬١ْ‫ د‬busaina kitty
ٝ‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ‫ى‬١ْ‫ د‬psikolōjī psychological(aI)
ٔ‫ دو‬bašša a (bašš, ‫ دٖجٕوز‬bašāša) to display a
friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile;
to be friendly (‫ ي‬to s.o.). give s.o. (‫ )ي‬a
smile
ٓٛ‫ دٖو‬bašūš, baššāš smiling, friendly,
cheerful
‫ دٖجٕز‬bašāša smile; happy mien
ٓ‫ دج‬bāšš smiling, happy; friendly, kind
‫ دٖوش‬bušt (Nejd, Baḥr., Ir.) a kind of cloak, =
‫‘ عذج ر‬abā’a
‫ دٖوضز‬bišta (eg.) woolen cloak worn by
Egyptian peasants
1
ٌ‫ دٖو‬bašar i, bašira a to rejoice, be delighted,
be happy (‫ ح‬at s.th.) II to announce (as
good news; ‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. s.th.); to bring news
(‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. of s.th.); to spread, propagate,
preach (‫ ح‬s.th.; a religion, a doctrine)│‫ا‬
‫(دٖوووٌأفْوووٗاح‬nafsahū) to indulge in the
happy hope that … IV to rejoice (at good
news) X to rejoice, be delighted, be happy
(‫ ح‬at s.th., esp. at good news), welcome,
(‫ ح‬s.th.); to take as good omen (‫ ح‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫ووٌث‬١‫( ثّضذٖوٌادووٗام‬ḳairan) to regard s.th. as
auspicious
ٌٜ‫ دٖووو‬bašarī human; human being;
epidermal,
skin
(adj.)│ٌٜ‫ووووووخادٖوووووو‬١‫ذ‬ٟ‫ا‬
dermatologist
‫ دٖوووٌر‬bašara outer skin, epidermis,
cuticle; skin; complexion
‫ز‬٠ٌٖ‫ د‬bašarīya, mankind, human race
‫ ِذٌٖر‬mibšara pl. ٌ‫ ِذجٕو‬mabāšir2 scraper,
grater
‫ ِذجٕوٌر‬mubāšara pursuit, practice; direct,
physical cause (Isl. Law); mubāšaratan
immediately, directly
ٌٖ‫ د‬bišr joy
ًٛ‫ ِذٖووو‬mabšūr: ‫ًر‬ٛ‫( ؽذٕوووزاِذٖووو‬jubna)
shredded cheese
ٌٖ‫ د‬bušr glad tidings
ٌٜٖ‫ د‬bušrā glad tidings, good news
ٌ‫ ِذجٕو‬mubāšir pl. -ūn direct, immediate;
practitioner, pursuer, operator; director; O
manager (Eg.); court usher (Syr.); (mil.)
approx.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939)│‫ووٌا‬١‫ؼ‬
ٌٕ‫( ِذج‬iṣābāt) directs
2
‫ دٖوجًر‬bišāra pl. -āt, ٌ‫ دٖوجة‬bašā’ir good
news,
glad
tidings;
annunciation,
prophecy; gospel; ٌ‫ دٖوووجة‬good omens,
propitious signs│‫وواثٌذٖووجًر‬١‫‘ اع‬īd al-b. the
Annunciation, the Day of Our Lady (Chr.)
2
ٌ١‫ دٖو‬bašīr pl. ‫ دٖوٌث‬bušarā’ bring.r of
glad tidings, messenger, herald, harbinger,
forerunner, precursor; evangelist (Chr.)
ٌ١‫ صذٖووو‬tabšīr announcement (of glad
tidings); preaching of the Gospel;
evangelization, missionary activity
ٌٖٓٚ‫ د‬bašrūš flamingo
‫ دٖووا‬baši‘a a (‫ دٖووجعز‬bašā‘a) to be ugly,
loathsome II to make ugly, disfigure,
distort ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to disparage, run down ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) X to regard as ugly, find ugly or
repugnant ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ دٖووا‬baši‘ ugly; offensive, disgusting,
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
ٌٞ١ٖ‫ صذ‬tabšīrī missionary
‫ دٖوجعز‬bašā‘a ugly; offensive, disgusting,
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
ٌ١‫ صذجٕو‬tabāšīr2 foretokens, prognostics,
omens, first signs or indications, heralds
(fig.); beginnings, dawn│ٌ‫ٌاثٌفؾو‬١‫ اصذجٕو‬t. alfajr the first shimmer of aurora, the first
glimpse of dawn
ٌ‫ ِذٖووو‬mubaššir pl. -āt announcer,
messenger (of glad tidings); evangelist
(Chr.); preacher; missionary (Chr.)
ٌٖ‫ ِْضذ‬mustabšir happy, cheerful
2
ٌ‫ ادٖو‬bašara u to peel ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to scrape off,
shave off, scratch off ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to grate,
shred ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to touch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be in
direct contact ( ‫ ٘ و‬with s.th.); to have
sexual intercourse (ٖ with s.o.); to attend,
apply o.s. (‫ ح‬or ‫ ح‬to s.th.), take up, take
in hand, pursue, practice, carry out ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., job, a task, etc.) 59
ٌ‫ دٖ و‬bašar man, human being; men,
mankind
‫ دٖجعز‬bašā‘a ugliness
‫ ثدٖا‬abša2 uglier; more repulsive
1
‫ دجٕك‬look up alphabetically
2
ٗ‫( دٖم‬eg.; Turk. baška; invar.) different
‫ دٖه‬VIII to lie, prevaricate
‫ دٖجن‬baššāk liar
‫ ثدضٖجن‬ibtišāk lie, deceit, trickery
1
ًٛ‫ دٖوى‬baškūr pl. ٌ١‫ دٖوجو‬bašākīr2 poker, fire
iron
2
ٌ١‫ دٖى‬balkir pl. ٌ١‫ دٖجو‬bašākīr2 towel
‫( دٍٖز‬It.) bišilla pl. -āt bacillus
ُ‫ دٖو‬bašima a (bašam) to feel nauseated, be
disgusted (ٓ‫ ِو‬by s.th.), be fed up (ٓ‫ ِو‬with)
IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust (ٖ s.o.)
ُٖ‫ د‬bašam surfeit, satiety, loathing, disgust
ً‫ دّٖج‬bašmār (tun.) lacework, trimmings
within sight; ‫وووووٌاح‬ٚ‫ ٌوووووٗاد‬ٝ‫ـووووو‬
knowledgeable, in, h. is familiar with
ٌِٜ‫ دٖوج‬bašāmirī (tun.) laceworker, lacemaker
ٌٜٚ‫ د‬baṣarī optic(al), visual, ocular
‫ دٖوّك‬bašmaq slipper (worn by fuqahā’ and
women)
‫جس‬٠ٌٚ‫ د‬baṣarīyāt optics
‫وجًر‬ٚ‫ اد‬basāra perception, discernment;
perspicacity, acuteness of the mind, sharpwittedness
‫ دٖٕز‬bašna (magr.) sorghum, millet
ِٕ‫ دٖو‬bašan the ninth month of the Coptic
calendar
ٌ١‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣīr pl. ‫وٌث‬ٚ‫ د‬buṣarā’2 endowed
with eyesight; acutely aware (‫ ح‬of),
having insight (‫ ح‬into); possessing
knowledge or understanding (‫ ح‬of),
discerning,
discriminating,
versed,
knowledgeable,
proficient
(‫ح‬
in),
acquainted (‫ ح‬with s.th.);
‫لز‬ٕٛ‫ دٖو‬bašnūqa pl. ‫ك‬١ٔ‫ دٖوج‬bašānīq2 kerchief tied
under the chin (pal.)
ٓ١ٕٖ‫ د‬bašnīn lotus
٘‫ دو‬baṣṣa i (baṣṣ, ٘١‫وو‬ٚ‫ د‬ba ṣ) to glow,
sparkle, glitter, shine; -- (eg.) u to look
‫ٌر‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣīra pl. ٌ‫ وجة‬ٚ‫( د‬keen) insight,
penetration, discernment, understanding,
(power of) mental perception, mental
vision│‫ٌر‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ عوٓاد‬deliberately, knowingly;
ٓ‫ٌراِو‬١‫و‬ٚ‫اد‬ٝ‫ ووجْاعٍو‬to have insight into s.th.,
be informed about s.th.; ‫ٌر‬١‫ووو‬ٚ‫ٔجـوووياثٌذ‬
discerning, clear-sighted, perspicacious,
sharp-witted; ‫ٌر‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ ٔفوجىاثٌذ‬nafād al.-b. sharp
discernment, perspicacity
‫ز‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣṣ embers
٘١‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣīṣ glow, shine; glimpse, ray
(e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining
٘‫وجة‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣā’iṣ lustrous, shining; (eg.)
spy, detective
٘‫وذ‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣbaṣa (‫وز‬ٚ‫ذ‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣbaṣa) to wag (ٗ‫دئذو‬
bi-danabihi its tail); (eg.) to ogle, make
sheep‘s eyes, cast amorous glances
ٌٚ‫ ثد‬abṣar2 more discerning
‫نز‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣḳa see ‫دْنز‬
2
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣura a (baṣar) to look, see; to realize,
understand, comprehend, grasp (‫ ح‬s.th.) II
to make (ٖ s.o.) understand or realize ( ‫٘و‬
or ‫ ح‬s.th.), make (ٖ s.o.) aware ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬of
s.th.); to enlighten 60 ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or ‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. on or
as to s.th.); to tell, inform ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or ‫ ٖ ح‬s.o.
about) IV to see ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to make
out, behold, perceive, discern, notice ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th.), set eyes on ( ‫)ٖ ٘و‬, catch sight of
( ‫٘و‬. ٖ); to recognize ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to
reflect (‫ ح‬on). ponder (‫ ح‬s.th.) V to look
( ‫ ٘و‬at), regard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to reflect (ٝ‫ ـو‬on
s.th.), ponder (ٝ‫ ـوو‬s.th.) X to have the
faculty of visual perception, be able to
see; to be endowed with reason, be
rational, reasonable, intelligent; to reflect
(ٝ‫ ـ‬on s.th.), ponder (ٝ‫ ـ‬s.th.)
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣar pl. ً‫وج‬ٚ‫ ثد‬abṣār vision, eye-sight;
glance, look; insight; sight, discernment,
perception│ٌ‫وووووو‬ٚ‫ٌاثٌذ‬١‫وووووو‬ٚ‫ل‬
shortsighted,
myopic; ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ٌّوـاثٌذ‬lamḥ al-b.glance of the
eye; ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫وٍّوـاثٌذ‬, ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫اٌّوـاثٌذ‬ٟ‫ـو‬, ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ْاٌّوـاثٌذ‬ٚ‫ه‬
(dūna), ٌ‫وو‬ٚ‫اثلووًاٌّووـاثٌذ‬ٟ‫( ـوو‬aqalIa) in the
twinkling of an eye, in a moment, in a
flash. instantly; ٌ‫ووو‬ٚ‫اثٌذ‬ٜ‫اِوووو‬ٝ‫( عٍووو‬madā)
is
‫ٌر‬ٚ‫ صذ‬tabṣira enlightenment; instruction,
information
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ صذ‬tabaṣṣur reflection, consideration;
penetration,
clear-sightedness,
perspicacity
‫ٌر‬ٙ‫ دج‬bāṣira pl. ٌٙ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawāṣir2 eye
2
‫ٌر‬ٚ‫ اثٌذ‬al-baṣra Basra (port in S Iraq)
‫ك‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣaqa u to spit (ٍٝ‫ ع‬on s.o.)
‫ووومز‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣqa (n. vic.) expectoration;
(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva
‫جق‬ٚ‫ د‬buṣaq spit, spittle, saliva
‫مز‬ٚ‫ ِذ‬mibṣaqa spittoon, cuspidor
ً‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣal (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬onion(s); bulb(s)│‫ا‬
ً‫ًاثٌفج‬ٚ‫ د‬b. al-fa’r sea onion (Scilla verna)
ٍٝٚ‫ د‬baṣālī bulbous
‫ٍز‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬buṣaila pl. -āt, ٌ‫ٍزاثٌٖوع‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ د‬b. ašša‘r bulb of the hair (anat.)
ُ‫وو‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣama u (baṣm) to print, imprint ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to stamp ( ٘ s.th.); to make, or leave,
an imprint ( ٘ on)
‫وووّز‬ٚ‫د‬
baṣma pl. baṣamāt imprint,
impression│ُ‫ووّزاثٌنووض‬ٚ‫اد‬b. al-ḳatm stamp
imprint, stamp; ‫جدا‬ٙ٨‫ّزاث‬ٚ‫ د‬fingerprint
‫ر‬ٛٚ‫ د‬baṣwa embers
ٜ‫ د‬baḍḍ tender-skinned
‫وا‬ٞ‫ د‬baḍa‘a a (baḍ‘) to cut, slash or slit open
( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to cut up, carve up, dissect,
anatomize ( s.th.); to amputate (surg.) II to
cut up, carve up, dissect, anatomize III to
sleep (‫ ٘ووج‬with a woman) IV to invest
capital ( ‫ )٘ و‬profitably in a commercial
enterprise V pass. of n; to trade; to shop,
make purchase X to trade 61
‫ا‬ٞ‫ د‬baḍ‘ amputation
to be late (ٓ‫ عو‬for s.th., in meeting s.o.),
keep s.o. (ٓ‫ )عو‬waiting V to be slow, tardy
(ٝ‫ ـو‬in) VI to he slow, leisurely, unhurried;
to go, drive, act or proceed slowly,
leisurely; to he slowgoing, slow-footed,
slow-paced; to slow down X to find slow
( ٘, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to have to wait a long time
(ٖ for s.o.), be kept waiting (ٖ by s.o.)
٠‫ دووو‬buṯ’ slowness, tardiness│ ٠‫ادوووذ‬
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly
‫ د وب‬baṯI’ pl. ‫ د وج‬biṯā’ slow, unhurried;
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced;
tardy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual,
imperceptible│O‫ اثٌضٌهه‬ٝ ‫ اد‬b. at-taraddud
of low frequency (el.)
‫وا‬ٞ‫ د‬biḍ‘ (commonly, with genit. pl. of
f. nouns, ‫وعز‬ٞ‫ د‬with genit. pl. of m. nouns;
in classical Arabic ‫وا‬ٞ‫ د‬with both genders)
some, a few, several
‫ ثد ووب‬abṯa’2 slower│‫ؿ‬ٛ‫اثد وووباِووٓاؼوووٌثحأووو‬
(gurābi nūḥ) tardier than Noah‘s raven,
i.e., slower than a ten years‘ itch
(proverbially of s.o. who ia very tardy)
‫وعز‬ٞ‫ د‬biḍ‘a pl. ‫وجةا‬ٞ‫ د‬baḍā’i‘ piece (of
meat); meat; see also biḍ‘ above
‫ ثد وج‬ibṯā’ slowing down, retardation,
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarrying,
delay; slowness│ ‫ْاثد ج‬ٚ‫ اه‬without delay
‫ا‬ٞ‫ د‬buḍ‘ vulva
‫وجعز‬ٞ‫ د‬biḍā‘a pl. ‫وجةا‬ٞ‫ د‬baḍā’i2 goods,
merchandise, wares, commodities; that
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to
&how, with which he is endowed (also
attributes, qualities)│‫وجعز‬ٞ‫ ال ووجًاثٌذ‬freight
train; ‫وجعز‬ٞ‫ ثمٌػاِجاعٕوٖاِوٓاد‬he said what he
had intended to say
‫وووا‬ٞ‫ ِذ‬mibḍa‘ pl. ‫وووا‬ٝ‫ ِذج‬mabāḍi‘2
dissecting knife, scalpel
‫ؤ‬ٟ‫ صذوج‬tabātu’ slowness; slowing down,
retardation
‫ز‬٠ً‫ د ج‬baṯṯārīya pl. -āt battery (el. and mil.)
‫ج‬ٟ‫ د ج‬baṯāṯā, ‫ج‬ٟ‫ د ج‬baṯāṯā sweet potato, yam
ِٟ‫ د ج‬baṯāṯis potatoes
‫ د جلز‬see ‫د ك‬
٠‫ د ذ‬baṯbaṯa (‫ د ذ ز‬baṯbaṯa) to quack (duck)
‫وووووج‬ٞ‫ ثد‬ibḍā‘ mandate for the
management of affairs (lsl. Law);
partnership in a limited company, capital
investment
‫ د وـ‬baṯaḥa a (baṯḥ) to prostrate, lay low, fell,
throw to the ground, throw down ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th.) V and VII to he prostrated, be
laid low; to lie prostrate, sprawl, stretch
out; to extend, stretch; to lie
‫ووا‬ٞ‫ ِذ‬mubḍi‘ pl. -ūn limited partner
(com.)
‫ ثد وـ‬abṯaḥ2 flat, level; (pl. ‫ـ‬ٟ‫ ثدوج‬abāṯiḥ2)
basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a wadi
‫ووا‬ٞ‫ ِْضذ‬mustabḍi‘ manager, managing
agent (Isl. Law)
‫ د ق وج‬baṯḥā’ pl. ‫ د وجؿ‬biṯāḥ, ‫ثس‬ٚ‫د ق وج‬
baṯḥawāt basin-shaped valley; plain, level
land, flatland, open country; (tun.) public
square
٠‫ د‬baṯṯ (n. un. ‫ )ر‬duck; ‫ د ز‬baṯṯa leather flask│‫ا‬
‫د زاثٌْجقا‬calf (of the leg)
‫ د وؤ‬baṯu’a u ( ٠‫ دو‬buṯ’, ‫ د وج‬biṯā’, ‫ د وج ر‬baṯa’a)
to he slow; to he slowgoing, slow-footed,
slow-paced; to tarry, linger, wait, hesitate
II to retard, slow down, delay, hold up (‫ح‬
ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o. in s.th.) IV to slow down,
decelerate, retard, delay, hold up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to he slow, go or drive slowly, slow down;
‫قز‬١ ‫ د‬baṯīḥa pl. ‫ د جةـ‬baṯā’iḥ wide bed of
a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow and
broad body of water
‫ ِٕ وذ ـ‬munbaṯiḥ prostrate; flat, level;
level land, plain 62
‫ل‬١‫ د و‬biṯṯīḳ, baṯṯīḳ (n. un. ‫ )ر‬melon, watermelon; baṯṯīḳ hub (of a wheel; syr.)
to be inactive. be oat of work II to thwart,
foil, frustrate, make ineffective counteract,
neutralize, nullify, invalidate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
abolish, cancel, annul, suppress ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
IV = II; to talk idly, prattle; to paralyze,
immobilize, hold down, pin down (ٖ the
opponent)
‫ ِذ نز‬mabṯaḳa melon patch
1
ٌ‫ اد و‬baṯira a (baṯar) to be wild, wanton,
reckless; to be proud, vain; to be
discontented ( ٘ with s.th.); to disregard ( ٘
s.th.) IV to make reckless
ً‫ د وو‬buṯl nullity; uselessness, futility.
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth
ٌ‫ د وووو‬baṯar wantonness, cockiness,
arrogance, hubris, pride, vanity
vivants,
‫ د جٌووووز‬biṯāla and baṯāla idleness,
inactivity; free time, time off, holidays,
vacations; unemployment
‫ ثٌذ وووٌث‬al-baṯrā’ Petra (ancient city of
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
SW Jordan)
‫ د وووجي‬baṯṯāl pl. –ūn idle, inactive;
unemployed, out of work
‫ٌر‬ٟ‫ ثدووووج‬abāṯira (pl.)
playboys, epicures
2
bona
ْ٩‫ د و‬buṯlān nullity; uselessness, futility,
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity
‫ د ٌك‬baṯraḳ pl. ‫ د جًك‬baṯāriḳ2 roe (of fish)
ٌُ ‫ د‬buṯrus Peter
‫ ثد ووووجي‬ibṯāl thwarting, frustration,
invalidation; ruin, destruction; abolition,
cancellation
ً١‫ د ٌٕوو‬baṯrašīl and ٓ١‫ د ٌٕوو‬baṯrašīn stole
(Chr.)
ً‫و‬ٟ‫ دج‬bāṯil nugatory, vain, futile; false,
untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless;
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception,
lie, falsehood; ً‫وو‬ٟ‫ دجٌذج‬and ٩ٟ‫ دووج‬bāṯila
falsely; futilely, in vain; pl. ً‫و‬١ٟ‫ ثدج‬abāṯīl2
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle
talk, prattle
‫ك‬٠ٌ ‫ د‬biṯrīq pl. ‫ د جًلوز‬baṯāriqa, ‫ك‬٠ً‫ د وج‬baṯārīq2
patrician; Romaean general; penguin
(zool.)
‫ د ٌن‬baṯrak, ‫وه‬٠ٌ ‫ د‬baṯrīk, ‫وٌن‬٠ٌ ‫ د‬baṯriyark pl.
‫ د جًوووووز‬baṯārika Patriarch (as. an
ecclesiastic title, Chr.)
‫ووز‬١‫ د ٌو‬baṯrakīya, ‫ووز‬١‫ٌو‬٠ٌ ‫ د‬baṯriyarkīya
patriarchate (Chr.)
ٔ‫ د و‬baṯaša i u (baṯš) to attack with violence;
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (‫ ح‬or ٝ‫;)ـو‬
to knock out (ٖ s.o.); to hit, strike (‫ ح‬s.th.).
land with a thud (‫ ح‬on)
ٔ‫ د وووو‬baṯš strength, power, force,
violence; courage, valor, bravery;
oppression, tyranny
‫ د ٖز‬baṯša impact
‫ د جلووز‬biṯāqa pl. –āt, ‫ د ووجةك‬baṯā’iq2 slip (of
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket;
label│‫جًر‬٠ٌَ‫اد جلزاث‬calling card; ‫زا‬١‫و‬ٚ‫د جلزإن‬
(šaḳṣīya) and ‫وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ د جلوزاثٌضع‬identity card;
‫وز‬١‫ثهاثٌؽيثة‬ٌّٛ‫ د جلزاث‬b. al-mawādd al-gidā’īya,
ٓ٠ٛ‫ د جلوزاثٌضّو‬food ration card; ‫وور‬٠‫ د جلوزاثٌّعج‬b.
al-mu‘āyada greeting card
1
ً‫ اد و‬baṯala u (buṯl, ْ٩‫ د و‬buṯlān) to be or
become null, void, invalid, false,
untenable, vain, futile, worthless; to be
abolished, fall into disuse, become
obsolete; to cease, stop, be discontinued;
ً ‫ ِذ‬mubṯil prattler, windbag; liar
ً ‫ ِذ‬mubṯal nugatory, futile, vain
ً ‫ ِضذ‬mutabaṯṯil unemployed
2
ً‫ اد و‬baṯula u (‫ د جٌوز‬baṯāla, ‫ٌوز‬ٛ ‫ د‬buṯūla) to be
brave, be heroic, be a hero
ً‫ د و‬baṯal pl. ‫ ثد وجي‬abṯāl brave, heroic; hero;
champion, pioneer; hero, protagonist (of a
narrative, etc.), lead, star 63 (of a play);
champion (athlet.)│ٌُ‫ اد وًاثٌعوج‬b. Al-‘alam
world champion
‫ د ٍ وز‬baṯala heroine (of a narrative),
female lead, star (of a play); woman
champion (athlet..)
‫ د جٌز‬baṯāla bravery, valor, heroism
‫ٌ وز‬ٛ ‫ د‬buṯūla bravery, valor, heroism;
leading role, starring role (theater, film);
championship (athlet.)│‫وووووز‬١ٌّ‫ٌوووووزاثٌعج‬ٛ ‫اثٌذ‬
(‘ālamīya) and ٌُ‫ٌزاثٌعج‬ٛ ‫ د‬b. al-‘ālam world
championship (athlet.); ‫ٌوز‬ٛ ‫ًاثٌذ‬ٚ‫ ه‬the part
or role of the hero, leading role
‫ د جٌْز‬baṯālisa Ptolemies
ُ ‫ د‬buṯm, buṯūm terebinth (bot.)
1
ٓ ‫ اد‬baṯana u (baṯn, ْٛ‫ د و‬bulan) to he hidden,
concealed, to hide; -- baṯuna u (‫د جٔ وز‬
baṯāna) to be paunchy II to line ( ‫ ٘ و‬a
garment, ‫ ٘و ح‬s.th. with); to cover the
inside (‫ ٘و ح‬of s.th. with), hang, face, fill
(‫ ٘ و ح‬s.th. with) IV to hide, conceal,
harbor ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) V to be lined, have a
lining (garment); to penetrate, delve ( ‫٘و‬
into), become absorbed, engrossed ( ‫ ٘و‬in)
X to penetrate, delve ( ‫ ٘و‬into), become
absorbed, engrossed ( ‫ ٘ و‬in); to try to
fathom ( ٘ s.th.); to fathom ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), get to
the bottom of ( ‫ ;)٘وو‬to have profound
knowledge ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.), know thoroughly,
know inside out ( ٘ s.th.)
ٓ‫ د وو‬baṯn pl. ْٛ‫ د و‬buṯūn, ٓ‫ ثد وو‬abṯun
belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior,
inside, inner portion; depth│َ‫ اد ٓاثٌمو‬b. alqadam sole of the foot; ‫ د وٓاثٌىوؿ‬b. al-kaff
palm of the hand; ٓ ‫ ًلو٘اثٌوذ‬and ‫ًلوو٘ا‬
ْٛ ‫ ثٌذ‬raqṣ al-b. belly dance; ٓ ‫اد‬ٝ‫( ـ‬baṯni)
in, within, in the midst of; ْٛ‫اد و‬ٝ‫ ـو‬inside,
within, in; ‫ثفوووثا‬ٚ‫ٌوووساد ٕووجا‬ٚ (waladat) she
gave birth only once; ٌ‫و‬ٙ‫( د ٕوجاٌر‬li-ẓahrin)
upside down
ٕٝ ‫ د‬baṯnī ventral, abdominal
ٓ ‫ د‬baṯin paunchy
‫ د ٕوووووز‬biṯna
indigestion
gluttony;
overeating,
ْ‫ د وج‬biṯān pl. ‫ ثد ٕوز‬abṯina girth (of a
camel)
‫ د جٔ وز‬biṯāna pl. ٓ‫ د وجة‬baṯā’in2 inside,
inner side; lining (of a garment); retinue,
suite, entourage│‫اد جٔوز‬ٝ‫ اـو‬among, amidst;
within
ٓ١‫ د و‬baṯīn pl. ْ‫ د وج‬biṯān and ْ‫ِذ وج‬
mibṯān, paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout;
gluttonous
ٓ١ ‫ د‬buṯain ventricle (of the heart; anat.)
‫وز‬١ٔ‫ د ج‬baṯṯānīya pl. -āt, ٓ١ٟ‫ د وج‬baṯāṯīn2
cover; blanket; quilt
ٟٓ‫ د وج‬bāṯin pl. ٟٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د و‬bawāṯin2 inner,
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden,
secret; ‫ٕز‬ٟ‫ ثٌذج‬coastal plain of E Oman; ‫ٕوج‬ٟ‫دج‬
bāṯinan inwardly, secretly│‫ٓاثٌىووؿ‬ٟ‫ اد وج‬b.
al-kaff palm of the hand; َ‫ٓاثٌموو‬ٟ‫ دوج‬b. alqadam sole of the foot; ٌ‫ِوو‬٨‫ٓاث‬ٟ‫ادوج‬ٝ‫ ـوو‬at
bottom, after all, really; ٌ‫ِوو‬٨‫ٓاث‬ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د و‬the
factors, circumstances or reasons at the
bottom of s.th.; ًٛ٨‫ٓاث‬ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬b. al-arḍ the
secret depths of the earth
ٟٕٟ‫ دووووج‬bāṯinī internal│ٟٕٟ‫ادووووج‬ٌٛ‫اِوووو‬
(maraḍ) internal disease; ٟٕٟ‫( ثٌ خاثٌذوج‬ṯibb)
internal medicine
‫وز‬١ٕٟ‫ ثٌذج‬al-bāṯinīya name of a school of
thought in Islam, characterized by
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the
revealed texts
ْٛ‫ ِذ و‬mabṯūn affected with a gastric or
intestinal ailment
ٓ ‫ ِذ‬mubaṯṯan lined; filled (‫ ح‬with)
2
ٓ ‫ اد‬II (tun.) to full ( ٘ s.th.)
ْ‫ج‬ٟ‫( دج‬Span. batán) bāṯān fulling mill
‫ز‬١ٟ‫ دج‬bāṯiya pl. ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawāṯin pitcher, jug
‫ د‬baẓẓa u to spout, gush out, well out
ٌ‫ در‬baẓr pl. ًٛ‫ در‬buẓur clitoris (anat.) 64
‫ دعذا‬bu‘bu‘ pl. ‫ دعجدا‬ba‘ābi‘2 bugaboo, bogey
‫ دعوظ‬ba‘ata a (ba‘t) to send, send out, dispatah
(ٝ‫ ح ثٌو‬or ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o. or s.th. to); to forward
(ٝ‫ ح ثٌو‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th. to); to delegate (‫ ح‬or ٖ ٝ‫ثٌو‬
s.o. to); to emit (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘و‬s. th.); to evoke,
arouse, call forth, awaken ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to stir
up, provoke, bring on ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to revive,
resuscitate ( ٘ s.th.); to resurrect (ٖ s.o., ‫ِوٓا‬
‫س‬ٛ‫ ثٌّو‬from death); to incite, induce (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to
s.th.), instigate, (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to cause (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.; e.g., astonishment)│‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ٗاَ٘راثٌنو‬١ٌ‫دعظاث‬
(hazzat al-ḳauf) to scare the wits out of
s.o.; ٟ‫ووجراـوو‬١‫ؿاثٌق‬ًٚ‫( دعووظا‬rūḥa l-ḥayāh) to
breathe life into s.th. or s.o., revive s.th.
VII to be Bent out, be emitted, be
dispatched, be delegated; to be triggered,
be caused, be provoked; to be resurrected
(‫س‬ٛ‫ ِوٓاثٌّو‬from death); to originate (ٓ‫ ِو‬in),
come (ٓ‫ ِوو‬from), be caused (ٓ‫ ِوو‬by); to
emanate (fragrance); to arise, spring,
proceed, develop (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), grow out of
(ٓ‫ ;)ِوو‬to set out to do s.th. (with foll.
imperf.) VIII to send, dispatch (ٖ s.o.)
‫ دعووووظ‬ba‘t sending out, emission,
dispatching, delegation, etc.; resurrection;
pl.
‫ط‬ٛ‫دعوووووووو‬
bu‘ūt
delegations,
deputations│‫ فوَحاثٌذعوظ‬ḥizb al-b. approx.:
Renaissance Party, a political party with
strong socialist tendencies; ‫َاثٌذعوظ‬ٛ٠ Day of
Resurrection (from the dead)
‫ دعغووووز‬ba‘ta pl. ba‘atāt delegation,
deputation, mission; expedition; student
exchange; group of exchange students;
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise│‫ادعغووزا‬
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫‘( عْوى‬askarīya) military mission; ‫دعغوزا‬
‫ز‬١‫ِجّووو‬ٍٛ‫ هد‬diplomatic mission; ‫وووز‬٠ٌ‫دعغوووزاثع‬
(atarīya) archaeological expedition; ‫ِا‬١‫ًةو‬
‫ ثٌذعغز‬ra’īs al-b. chief of mission (dipl.)
‫ط‬ٛ‫ دجع‬bā‘ūt Easter (Chr.)
‫ ِذعووووظ‬mab‘at sending, forwarding,
dispatch; emission; awakening, arousal; -(pl. ‫ ِذجعظ‬mabā‘it2) cause; factor
‫ دجعوظ‬bā‘it pl. ‫ثعوظ‬ٛ‫ د‬bawā‘it2 incentive,
inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause,
occasion
‫ط‬ٛ‫ ِذعووو‬mab‘ūt dispatched, delegated;
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy (in
the Ottoman Empire)
‫ ِٕذعظ‬munba‘at source, point of origin
ٌ‫ دعغو‬ba‘tara (‫ دعغووٌر‬ba‘tara) to scatter, strew
around, fling about ( ٘ s.th.); to disarrange,
throw into disorder ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to squander,
waste, dissipate ( ٘ s.th.) II tabatara pass.
ٌ‫ ِذعغ‬muba‘tar scattered, widespread
‫ دعؼ‬ba‘aja a (ba‘j) to slit open ( ‫ ٘و‬the belly); to
groove, dent, notch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VII to have
indentations or notches; to be bruised,
dented, bumpy; to get battered
‫ ِٕذعؼ‬munba‘ij notched, indented
‫ دعوو‬ba‘uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away, far
off; to keep away, keep one‘s distance (ٓ‫عو‬
from); to go far beyond (ٓ‫)عو‬, exceed by
far (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to be remote, improbable,
unlikely│ٓ‫ دعوادٗاعو‬he kept him away from;
ْ‫ذعووواث‬٠‫ا‬٨ it is not unlikely that ... II to
remove (ٖ s.o.); to banish, exile, expatriate
(ٖ s.o.) III to cause a separation (ٓ١‫دوو‬
between)│ ٟ‫ٓاثٌٖو‬١‫دو‬ٚ‫ْا‬٩‫ٓاـ‬١‫ دجعواد‬to prevent
s.o. from attaining s.th.; ٗ‫ٓاثؽفجٔوو‬١‫دجعوووادوو‬
(ajfānihī) to stare wide-eyed IV to remove
( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to take away ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to
eliminate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), do away with ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to
send away, dismiss (ٖ s.o.); to expatriate,
banish, exile (ٖ s.o.); to exclude, make
unlikely, improbable, impossible ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to go or move far away; to go very far (ٝ‫ـو‬
in or with s.th.) VI to be separated, lie
apart, lie at some distance from one
another; to separate, part company,
become estranged; to move away, go
away, withdraw, depart (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to keep
away, keep one‘s distance (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to
quit, leave, avoid (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to follow in
regular 65
intervals VIII to move or go away; to keep
away, withdraw (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to quit, leave,
avoid (ٓ‫ عووو‬s.th.); to leave out of
consideration, disregard (ٓ‫ عوو‬s.th.) X to
single out, set aside ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to think
remote, farfetched ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to regard as
unlikely ( ٘ s.th.); to disqualify (ٖ s.o.)
distance, long-range; extensive, farreaching; ٌ‫وواثٌٕرو‬١‫ دع‬b. an-naẓar farsighted;
farseeing; ‫ وواثٌّٕووجي‬١‫ دع‬b. al-manāl hardly
attainable, hard to get at; ‫ووث‬١‫ ى٘خادع‬to go far
away, go to distant land.; ‫وو‬١‫ادع‬ٝ‫ ص ٍوااثٌو‬to
look off into the distance
‫وو‬١‫ دع‬bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon
after
‫ دعوو‬bu‘d remoteness, farness; (pl. ‫ثدعووجه‬
ab‘ād) distance; dimension; interval
(mus.)│‫ادعو‬ٍٝ‫ اع‬and ‫اثٌذعو‬ٍٝ‫ ع‬in the distance,
far off; ٌ‫ادعوواِتوزاِضو‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬at a distance of 100
meters; ‫ عوٓادعوو‬and ‫ اِوٓادعوو‬from a distance,
from afar; ‫عوزاثدعوجه‬٩‫اع‬ٚ‫ ى‬three-dimensional;
‫دعوجه‬٨‫وجُاث‬١‫ ل‬qiyās al-a. linear measure; ‫دعووا‬
‫ّووووز‬ٌٙ‫ ث‬b. al-himma high aspirations,
loftiness of purpose; ‫ دعوواثٌٖومز‬b. aš-šiqqa
wide interval, wide gap; ‫ش‬١‫و‬ٌٚ‫ دعوواث‬b. aṣ-ṣīt
renown, fame, celebrity; ‫س‬ٛ‫و‬ٌٚ‫ دعوواث‬b. aṣṣaut do.; ٌ‫ دعوووواثٌٕرووو‬b. an-naẓar far
sightedness, foresight; ‫ دعووث‬bu‘dan li away
with ... !
‫ ثدعووو‬ab‘ad2 pl. ‫ ثدجعووو‬abā‘d2 farther,
remoter, more distant; more extensive;
less likely, more improbable; pl. ‫ثدجعووو‬
abā‘d2 very distant relative│‫دعووو‬٨‫ثٌٖووٌقاث‬
(šarq) the Far East; ‫دعوو‬٨‫ ث‬the absent one
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who is
being criticized or blamed for s.th.; also
when referring to the 1st and 2nd persons)
‫ز‬٠‫ ثدعجه‬ab‘adīya pl. -āt country estate
‫و‬١‫ صذع‬tab‘īd banishment
‫ دعجه‬bi‘ād distance
‫ ِذجعوور‬mubā‘ada sowing of dissension,
estrangement, alienation
‫ دعووو‬ba‘du then, thereupon; afterwards,
later, after that, in the following; still,
yet│‫ّجادعو‬١‫ اـ‬afterwards, later; ‫ ثِجادعو‬see 1‫;ثِج‬
ٌ١‫وؽ‬ٙ‫ادعووا‬ٛ‫ ٘و‬he is only a small boy, be is
still young; ‫بسادعوو‬٠‫( ٌُا‬ya’ti) he hasn‘t come
yet
‫ ثدعوجه‬ib‘ād removal, separation, isolation;
elimination; expatriation, banishment,
deportation
‫ صذجعوووو‬tabā‘ud
estrangement
‫ دعوو‬ba‘da (prep.) after; in addition to,
beside; aside from│...‫ٔووٗا‬ٛ‫( ادعووواو‬kaunihī)
aside from the fact that he is ... ; ‫دعوواىٌوه‬
afterwards, after that, later (on); besides,
moreover; ‫ دعوواىثن‬besides, moreover; ْ‫دعوواث‬
ba‘da an (conj.) after; ‫( ثى‬id), ‫ دعوواِوج‬and ‫ِوٓا‬
‫( دعوواِوج‬ba‘di) do.; ٗ‫( ّوفٗاِوجادعووٖاّوف‬safahun)
the height of stupidity
‫ دعوةوووووي‬ba‘da’idin then, thereafter,
thereupon, after that, afterwards
‫وو‬١‫ دع‬ba‘īd pl. ‫ دعووث‬bu‘adā’, ‫ دعوو‬bu‘ud,
ْ‫ دعووث‬ba‘dān, ‫ دعوجه‬bi‘ād distant, far away,
fur (or from); remote, outlying, out-of-theway; far-reaching, extensive; farfetched,
improbable, unlikely; unusual, strange,
odd, queer; incompatible, inconsistent (ٓ‫عو‬
with)│‫وو‬١‫ اِوٓادع‬from afar, from a distance;
‫وو‬١‫ووادع‬ٙ‫‘( ِٕوياع‬ahd) along time ago; ٌ‫عو‬٨‫وواث‬١‫دع‬
b. al-atar of far-reaching consequence; ‫وا‬١‫دع‬
‫ل‬٠ً‫ ثٌضوج‬remote in time, going way back in
history, ancient; ً‫وواثٌٖوب‬١‫ دع‬b. aš-ša’w highminded, bold; ‫ وواثٌٖوومز‬١‫ دع‬b. aš-šiqqa far
apart; ًٛ‫ووووواثٌؽوووو‬١‫ دع‬b. al-gaur deep;
unfathomable; ٜ‫وواثٌّوو‬١‫ دع‬b. al-madā long-
interdistance;
mutual
‫ ِذعو‬mub‘ad deported; deportee
‫ ِضذجعوووو‬mutabā‘id separate│‫اـضوووٌثسا‬ٟ‫اـووو‬
‫( ِضذجعوور‬fatarāt) in wide intervals; ‫اـضوٌثسا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
َِٓ‫( ِضذجعووووراِوووٓاثٌووو‬zaman) at infrequent
intervals, from time to time
‫ ِْووضذعو‬mustab‘ad improbable, unlikely
66
1
ٌ‫ ادع‬ba‘r, ba‘ar, droppings, dung (of animals)
2
ٌ‫و‬١‫ ادع‬ba‘īr pl. ‫ ثدعوٌر‬ab‘ira, ْ‫ دعوٌث‬bu‘ran, ٌ‫ثدوجع‬
abā‘ir2, ٓ٠ً‫ دعج‬ba‘ārīn2 camel
‫ دعوووَق‬ba‘zaqa (‫ دعَلوووز‬ba‘zaqa) to scatter,
dissipate, squander, waste ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ِذعوَق‬muba'ziq squanderer, spendthrift,
wastrel
ٜ‫ دعو‬II to divide into parts or portions ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
V to be divided, be divisible
‫ا‬ٜ‫ دعو‬ba‘ḍ part, portion; one; some, a
few; a little of, some of│ ‫اثٌعٍّوج‬ٜ‫ ادعو‬b. al‗ulamā’ one (or Borne) of the scholars;
ٜ‫قادعوو‬ٛ‫ُاـوو‬ٙ‫ و‬ٞ‫( ًـعٕووجادع‬rafa‘na) we have
exalted some of them above the others;‫ا‬
‫مووٌا‬٢‫اث‬ٜ‫—ثٌووذع‬ٜ‫ثٌووذع‬some—some, a few
others; ‫وج‬ٞ‫ُادع‬ٙٞ‫ دع‬one another, each other,
mutually, reciprocally; ٜ‫ادعو‬ٝ‫ٗاـ‬ٞ‫ دع‬one in
the other, within one another; ٟ‫اثٌٖو‬ٜ‫دعو‬
ba‘ḍa š-šai’ to some extent, somewhat, a
little, rather; ‫اثٌّّجعٍوز‬ٜ‫( ِجعٍوزادعو‬ba‘ḍa l-m.)
he resembled him somewhat, to some
extent; ٌْ‫الو‬ٜ‫دعو‬ٚ‫( ِٕيالٌْا‬qarn) for the last
hundred years and more
ٛٛ‫ دع‬ba‘ūḍ (n. un. ‫ )ر‬gnats, mosquitoes
ٜ١‫ صذعووووو‬tab‘īḍ
portioning
division,
partition.
‫وز‬ٛ‫ دعى‬bu‘kūka club, society
ً‫ دعو‬ba‘l the god Baal; land or plants thriving
on natural water supply; -- (pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ دعو‬bu‘ū,
‫ٌز‬ٛ‫ دع‬bu‘ūla) lord; husband
‫ دعٍز‬ba'w wife
ٍٝ‫ دع‬ba‘l, unirrigated (land. plants)
‫ دعٍذووه‬ba‘lbakk2 Baalbek (ancient Heliopolis,
village in E Lebanon)
‫ دؽووش‬bagata a (bagt, ‫ دؽضووز‬bagta) to come
unexpectedly, descend unawares (ٖ upon
s.o.) III do.; to surprise (. s.o.) VII to be
taken by surprise; to be taken aback, be
aghast, he nonplused
‫ دؽضووز‬bagta surprising event, surprise;
bagtatan, ‫ادؽضوز‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬bagtatin all of a sudden,
suddenly, surprisingly
‫ ِذجؼضوووووز‬mubāgata sudden arrival,
surprising incident or event, surprise;
sudden attack, raid
‫ دؽجط‬bugāt pl. ْ‫ دؽغج‬bigtan small birds
‫ دؽجهر‬see ‫ؼجهر‬ٛ‫د‬
‫ دؽ ووه‬II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's
weight around, be fresh (properly, to
behave like one from Baghdad)
‫ دؽوثه‬bagdād2 Baghdad
ٜ‫ دؽووثه‬bagdādī pl. -ūn, ‫ دؽوجههر‬bagādida a
native of Baghdad
1
ٔ‫ ادؽ‬bagaša a: ‫( دؽٖوشاثٌْوّج‬samā’u) there was
a light shower
‫ دؽٖز‬bagša light rain shower
2
‫ دؽٖز‬bugša = ‫دمٖز‬
3
‫ دؽجٕوز‬bagāša stuffed pastry made of flour,
eggs and butter
ٜ‫ دؽو‬bagiḍa a, baguḍa u (bugḍ, ‫وز‬ٝ‫ دؽج‬bagāḍa)
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make (ٖ
s.o.) hateful (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to s.o.) III to loathe,
detest, hate (ٖ s.o.) IV to loathe, detest,
hate (ٖ s.o.) VI to hate each other
ٜ‫ دؽوو‬bugḍ, ‫وووز‬ٞ‫ دؽ‬bigḍa and
bagḍā’2 hatred, hate
‫وووج‬ٞ‫دؽ‬
ٜ١‫ دؽو‬bagīḍ, hateful, odious (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.),
loathsome, abominable
ٜ‫ صذجؼ‬tabāguḍ mutual hatred
ٛٛ‫ ِذؽ‬mabgūḍ detested, hateful, odious
ٜ‫ ِوذؽ‬mubgiḍ pl. -ūn hater; -- mubgaḍ
detested, hateful, odious
ً‫ دؽو‬bagl pl. ‫ دؽوجي‬bigāl, ‫ ثدؽوجي‬abgal mule; ‫دؽٍوز‬
bagla pl. bagalāt female mule│‫ادؽجياثٌمٕ وٌر‬
b. al-qanṯara the piers of the bridge
‫ دؽوجي‬baggāl pl. -ūn mule driver, muleteer
67
ٝ‫ دؽو‬bagā i ( ‫ دؽوج‬bugā’) to seek, desire, covet,
seek to attain ( ٘ s.th.), wish for s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬- (bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.)
, to oppress (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.), commit outrage
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬upon); to whore, fornicate VII ٝ‫ٕذؽو‬٠ it
is desirable, necessary; it is proper,
appropriate, seemly, it ought to be, should
be; with ٗ‫ٌو‬: it behooves him, with ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ع‬: he
must, he should, he ought to VIII to seek,
desire ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), aspire ( ‫ ٘و‬to s.th.), strive
( ٘ for)
ٝ‫ دؽووووو‬bagy infringement,
injustice, wrong
outrage,
ٝ‫ دؽووو‬bagīy pl. ‫وووج‬٠‫ دؽج‬bagāyā whore,
prostitute
‫وز‬١‫ دؽ‬bugya object of desire, wish, desire,
bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, for the
purpose of
‫ دؽج‬bigā’ prostitution
‫ دؽوج‬bugā’ wish(ing), desire, endeavor,
effort
ٝ‫ ِذؽ‬mabgan pl. ‫ ِذجغ‬mabāgin brothel
‫ ِذوجغ‬mabāgin coveted things, desiderata,
wishes, desires
‫ ثدضؽوووج‬ibtigā’ desire, wish; ibtigā’a
(prep.) for the purpose of
‫ دوووجغ‬bāgin pl. ‫ دؽوووجر‬bugāh desiring,
coveting, striving; committing outrages,
oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant
ٝ‫ ِذضؽو‬mubtagan aspired goal, aspiration,
desire, endeavor, effort
‫ دفضز‬bafta calico, Indian cotton cloth
‫ه‬١‫ دفض‬biftēk beefsteak
1
2
‫ ادوك‬baqq (n. un. ‫ )ر‬bedbug, chinch│‫ٕوؾٌراثٌذوك‬
elm (bol.)
‫ ادك‬baqqa u (baqq) to give off in abundance
‫ دموووجق‬baqqāq garrulous, loquacious,
chatterbox, prattler
‫ دمذوك‬baqbaqa (‫ دمذموز‬baqbaqa) to gurgle, bubble,
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle
‫ دمذوووجق‬baqbāq garrulous, loquacious,
chatterbox, prattler
‫لز‬ٛ‫ دمذ‬baqbūqa blister (of the skin)
‫ دمؾز‬buqja pl. ‫ دمؼ‬buqaj bundle, pack, package
ِٔٚ‫ دمو‬baqdūnis, baqdūnas parsley
ٌ‫ دمو‬baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open
( ٘ s.th.) IV do.
ٌ‫ دمو‬baqar (coll.) bovines, cattle; n. un.
‫ دمٌر‬baqara pl. -āt cow
ٌٜ‫ دموو‬baqarī bovine, cattle-, cow- (in
compounds)
ً‫ دمج‬baqqār pl. ‫ ر‬cowhand, cowboy
ِ‫ دم‬baqs box, boxwood (bot.)
‫ دمّْجس‬buqsumāt rusk, zwieback; biscuit
‫ دمٖز‬buqša Yemenite copper coin
ٔ١‫ دمٖوو‬baqšīš pl. ٔ١‫ دمجٕ و‬baqāšīš2 present of
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh
‫ دموا‬II to spot, stain, smudge; ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to
become stained, get smudged; to be
spotted, stained
‫ دمعوز‬buq‘a pl. ‫ دموا‬buqa‘, ‫ دموج‬biqā‘ spot,
blot, smudge, stain; place, spot, site, plot.
patch, lot
‫ ثدما‬abqa‘2 spotted, speckled
‫ دجلعوز‬bāqi‘a pl. ‫ثلووا‬ٛ‫ د‬bawāqi‘ sly dog,
shrewd fellow
ً‫ دم‬baqala u (baql) to sprout (plant)
ً‫ دمو‬baql (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ دمو‬buqūl, ‫ثدموجي‬
abqāl herbs, potherbs, greens, herbaceous
plants, specif., legumes│‫وز‬١ٍ‫ٍزاثٌذم‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ اثٌف‬the
Leguminosae; ‫ ثٌذمٍ وزاثٌذووجًهر‬hyacinth bean
(Dolichos lablab L.), ‫( ثٌذمٍوزاثٌقّموج‬ḥamqā’)
purslane (bot.), ‫وووز‬١‫( ثٌذمٍوووزاثٌي٘ذ‬dahabīya)
garden orach (bot.), ‫ؿا‬١ٟ‫دمٍوووووزاثٌن وووووج‬
celandine (bot.), ‫ دمٍوووزاثٌٍّوووه‬b. al-malik
common fumitory (bot.) 68
‫ دموووجي‬baqqāl pl. -ūn ‫ دمجٌوووز‬baqqāla
greengrocer; grocer
‫ دمجٌز‬biqāla the grocery business
‫ر‬ٚ٩‫ دمو‬baqlāwa, ‫ث‬ٚ٩‫ دمو‬a kind of Turkish delight,
pastry made of puff paste with honey and
almonds or pistachios
َ‫ دمج‬baqqām brazilwood
ٟ‫ دموو‬baqiya a ( ‫ دمووج‬baqā’) to remain, stay,
continue to be (ٍٝ‫ ع‬in a state or condition);
to keep up, maintain (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬a state or
condition); to be left behind, be left over;
to last, continue, go on; (with foll. imperf.
or part.) to continue to do s.th., keep doing
s.th.; to become│٩‫فو‬ٟ‫ذوكا‬٠‫( ٌوُا‬yabqa ṯiflan)
he is no longer a child II to leave, leave
over, leave behind ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV to make (ٖ
s.o.) stay; to retain, leave unchanged,
leave as it is, preserve, maintain, keep up
( ٘ s.th.); to leave, leave over, leave behind
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. ٖ s.o.); to leave untouched, save,
spare (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., s.th., e.g., s.o.‘s life) V to
remain, stay, continue to be (ٝ‫ عٍو‬in a state
or condition); to be left, be left over X to
make stay, ask to stay, hold back, detain (ٖ
s.o.); to spare, save, protect (ٖ s.o., ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to preserve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to retain, keep
( ٘ s.th.); to store, put away ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ووز‬١‫ دم‬baqīya pl. ‫ووج‬٠‫ دمج‬baqāyā remainder,
rest; remnant, residue│‫ي‬ٚ‫ووزاثٌووو‬١‫ ادم‬b. adduwal the remaining countries, the rest of
the countries; ‫وز‬١‫وزاثٌذجل‬١‫( ثٌذم‬bāqiya) the last
remnant
‫ دموج‬baqā’ remaining, staying, lingering,
abiding;
continuation,
continuance,
duration; survival, continuation of
existence after life; immortality, eternal
life; existence; permanence│ ‫ هثًاثٌذمووج‬the
hereafter
ٝ‫ ثدمو‬abqā more lasting. more durable.
more permanent; better preserving;
conducive
protecting
to
longer
wear.
better
‫ ثدمووووج‬ibqā’ continuation, retention;
maintenance, conservation, preservation│‫ا‬
ٗ١ٍ‫اِجاوجٔشاع‬ٍٝ‫ ثدمج اثٌقجٌزاع‬maintenance of the
status quo
ٌ‫ دىو‬bikr pl. ً‫ ثدىوج‬abkār first-born, eldest;
firstling: unprecedented, novel, new;
virgin; virginal
ٌٜ‫ دى‬bikrī first-born, first
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ دى‬bikrīya primogeniture
‫ ثّووضذمج‬istibqā’ continuation, retention;
maintenance, conservation, preservation
‫ دىوٌر‬bakra and bakara pl. ٌ‫ دىو‬bakar, -āt
reel; pulley (mech.); spool, coil; winch,
windlass│‫ادىٌر‬٠١‫ ام‬ḳaiṯ b. thread
‫ دوووجق‬bāqin staying; remaining; left;
remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing,
permanent, unending; surviving; living
on; everlasting, eternal (God)│‫وووجسا‬١‫اثٌذجل‬
‫جٌقجس‬ٌٚ‫ ث‬the good works
‫ دىووٌر‬bakra: ُٙ١‫ادىووٌراثدوو‬ٝ‫‘ عٍوو‬alā bakrati
abīhim,‫ُ ا‬ٙ١‫ ع وٓادىووٌراثدوو‬and ُٙ‫ ع وٓادىووٌص‬all
without exception, all of them, all
together; ‫وج‬ٙ‫ٌاعوٓادىٌص‬١٘‫ مٌؽشاثٌؾّج‬the crowd
went forth as one man
‫ ِضذوووك‬mutabaqqin
remainder, rest
‫ دىوٌر‬bukra pl. ٌ‫ دىو‬bukar early morning;
‫ دىوووٌر‬bukratan early in the morning;
tomorrow; on the following day, next day
residue,
remnant,
‫ دوه‬bē (Eg. pronunciation) pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ دىو‬bakawāt,
‫ثس‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahawāt bey (title of courtesy; cf.
‫ه‬١‫)د‬
‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ دى‬bekawīya rank of a bey
ٟ‫ دىو‬bakī’ pl. ‫ دىوج‬bikā’ having or giving little,
sparing (e.g., of words)
ٓ١ّ‫ دىج‬bikāsīn bécassine, snipe (zool.)
‫وووووج‬٠ًٌٛ‫( دىج‬Fr. baccalauréat) bakālōriyā
baccalaureate, bachelor‘s degree
ُٛ٠ًٌٛ‫ دىوووج‬bakālōriyūs bachelor (academic
degree)
ٝ‫( دىذجٕو‬Turk. binbaşı) bimbāšī, bikbāšī major
(mil; formerly, Eg.)
‫ دىش‬to censure, blame (ٖ s.o.)
‫وووش‬١‫ صذى‬tabkīt blame, reproach│‫وووشا‬١‫اصذى‬
ٌ١ٌّٞ‫ ث‬remorse
ٌٜ١‫ دىض‬baktērī bacterial, caused by bacteria
‫ج‬٠ٌ١‫ دىض‬baktēriyā bacteria
ٌ‫ دىو‬bakara u to set out early in the morning,
get up early; to come early (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), be
early (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at) II do.; ٝ‫ دىوٌاـو‬and ‫ دىوٌاح‬with
foll. verbal noun: to do s.th. early,
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be
ahead of s.o. (ٖ), anticipate, forestall (ٖ
s.o.) IV = I; VIII to be the first to take ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), be the first to embark ( ‫ ٘و‬69 on
s.th.); to deflower (‫ ٘وج‬a girl): to invent ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to create, originate, start ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌ‫ دىو‬bakr pl. ٌ‫ ثدىوو‬abkur, ْ‫ دىووٌث‬bukrān
young camel
ٌ‫وووو‬١‫ دى‬bakīr coming
premature; precocious
early;
early,
ًٛ‫ دى‬bakūr and ًٛ‫ دجو‬bākūr coming early;
early, premature; precocious
ًٛ‫ دىووو‬bukūr earliness, prematureness,
premature arrival│‫ه‬ٛ‫اثٌعوو‬ٝ‫اـوو‬ًٜٛ‫‘( ادىوو‬aud)
my early return
‫ دىجًر‬bakāara virginity
‫ دىوجًر‬bakkāra pulley (mech.)│‫ادىوجًراٌِوذوز‬
(murakkaba) set of pulleys, block and
tackle
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ دىووو‬bukūra and ‫وووز‬٠ًٛ‫ دى‬bukūrīya
primogeniture
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ دوووجو‬bakūra pl. ٌ١‫ثو‬ٛ‫ دووو‬bawākīr2
firstlings; first results, first fruits;
beginning, rise, dawn; (with foll. genit.)
initial, early, first; pl. ٌ١‫ثو‬ٛ‫ دو‬first signs or
indications; initial symptoms; heralds,
harbingers (fig.)│ٗ‫ثوو‬ٛ‫ًراثٌف‬ٛ‫ ادوجو‬early fruit;
ٌٗ‫ًراثعّج‬ٛ‫ وجْادجو‬the first thing he did was...
ٌ‫ ثدى‬abkar2 rising earlier
ٌ‫ ِذى‬mibkār precocious
ً‫ ثدضىوج‬ibtikār pl. -āt novelty, innovation;
creation; invention; origination, first
production;
initiative;
creativity,
originality; pl. ‫ ثدضىوجًثس‬specif., creations of
fashion, fashion designs
ٌ‫ دوجو‬bākir early; premature; ‫ دوجوٌث‬bākiran
in the morning; early (adv.)│‫ووذجؿا‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫ـوو‬
ٌ‫( ثٌذجو‬ṣabāḥ) early in the morning; ٌ‫اثٌذوجو‬ٌٝ‫ث‬
till tomorrow
1
ً‫ دو‬bal (also with foll. ٚ wa-) nay, --rather... ;
(and) even; but, however, yet
‫ دوجوٌر‬bākira pl. ٌ‫ثو‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawākir2 firstlings,
first produce, early fruits, early
vegetables; pl. first indications or
symptoms, heralds, harbingers
2
ً‫ د‬balla u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., ٖ s.o.);--balla i to recover (ٌٛ‫ِوٓاِو‬
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make
wet ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٖ s.o.) IV to recover (ٌٛ‫ِوٓاِو‬
from an illness) V and VIII to be
moistened, be wetted; to become wet
ٌ‫ ِذىو‬mubakkir doing early; early;│‫اِذىوٌث‬
mubakkiran early in the morning, early
ً‫ د‬ball moistening, wetting; moisture
ٌ‫ ِذضىووووو‬mubtakir creator; creative;
inventor; -- mubtakar newly created,
novel, new, original; (pl. -āt) creation,
specif., fashion creation, invention│‫حا‬ٛ‫عوو‬
ٌ‫( ِذضىو‬taub) original design, model. dress
creation
ً‫ دووووو‬bill
recuperation
ً‫ دو‬balal moisture, humidity; moistness,
dampness, wetness
‫دىّْجه‬, ٟ‫دىّْج‬, see ‫دمّْجس‬
ً‫ دىو‬II to buckle, buckle up, button up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to fold, cross ( ٘ the arms)
ً١ٍ‫ د‬balīl a moist, cool wind
‫ٍز‬١ٍ‫ د‬balīla (eg.) dish made of stewed
maize and sugar
‫ دىٍز‬bukla pl. ً‫ دى‬bukal, -āt buckle
ٖ٩‫( دى‬It. baccalá) bakalāh codfish
‫ي‬٩‫ ثدووو‬iblāl recovery, convalescence,
recuperation
ُٛ‫ووو‬٠ًٍٛ‫ دى‬bakalōriyūs bachelor (academic
degree)
ً‫ دوووو‬taballul
humidity
ُ‫ دىو‬bakima a to be dumb: -- bakuma u to be
silent, hold one‘s tongue IV to silence (ٖ
s.o.) V to become silent; to become dumb
ُ‫ ثدىو‬abkam2, f. ‫ دىّوج‬bakmā’, pl. ُ‫ دىو‬bukm
dumb 70
convalescence,
‫ دٍز‬billa moisture, humidity│‫ٓا‬١‫اِوجاٍثهاثٌ و‬
‫ دٍووز‬mā zālda ṯ-ṯīna billatan what made
things even worse ...
‫ دىٌػ‬bakraj pl. ‫ دىجًػ‬bakārij2 kettle, coffee pot
ُ‫ دى‬bakam dumbness
recovery,
moistness,
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِذٍو‬mablūl, ً‫ ِذٍو‬muballal, ً‫ ِذضو‬mubtall
moist, damp, wet
3
ٝ‫ دٍو‬billī (from Fr. bille): ٝ‫ادٍو‬ٟ‫( وٌّو‬kursī) ball
bearing
٩‫ د‬see 2‫ح‬
‫ثس‬ٛ‫ دى‬and ‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ دى‬see ‫ده‬
ٓ١‫ص‬٩‫د‬, ٓ١‫ص‬٨‫ ﭙ‬blātī., plātīn platinum
ٝ‫ دىو‬bakā i ( ‫ دىوج‬bukā’, ٝ‫ دىو‬bukan) to cry, weep
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬over); to bemoan, lament, bewail (ٖ
s.o.), mourn (ٖ for) II and IV to make (ٖ
s.o.) cry X to move (ٖ s.o.) to tears, make
(ٖ s.o.) cry
‫ػ‬٩‫( د‬Fr. plage) blāž beach
‫ؽٌث‬٩‫ د‬balagrā pellagra
‫ًػ‬٩‫ د‬balāraj stork
‫ه‬١‫ّض‬٩‫( د‬Fr. p1astique) blāstīk plastik
‫ دىوج‬bakkā’ given to weeping frequently,
tearful, lachrymose
ٟ٩‫ د‬see ٠ٍ‫د‬
ٝ‫اثٌّذىوو‬٠‫ فوجة‬ḥā’iṯ al-mabkā the Wailing
Wall (in Jerusalem)
ْ٩‫د‬, ‫ٔز‬٩‫ د‬see ٍٓ‫د‬
‫ووز‬١‫ دجو‬bākiya pl. ‫ثن‬ٛ‫ دوو‬bawākin wailingwoman, hired mourner; (eg.) arch, arcade
‫ دوجن‬bākin pl. ‫ دىوجر‬bukāh weeping, crying;
weeper, wailer, mourner
‫ ِذووه‬mubkin, mubakkin, causing tears,
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable
ٓ١‫ دى‬bikīn Peking
dampness,
‫ن‬٩‫( د‬Engl. plug) spark plug (ir.)
٠‫ دٍذ‬balbaṯa to gurgle
1
ً‫ دٍذ و‬balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble,
confuse (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II tabalbala to feel
uneasy, be anxious; to be or become
confused, get all mixed up
‫ دٍذٍوز‬balbala pl. ً‫دوو‬٩‫ د‬balābil2 anxiety,
uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle,
jumble, chaos
‫ ِضذٍو‬mutaballid besotted, dull, stupid
‫ دٍذجي‬balbāl anxiety, uneasiness, concern
َ١ٍ‫ ثد‬look up alphabetically
ً‫د‬٩‫ د‬balabil2 anxieties, apprehensions
ِ١ٍ‫ ثد‬pl. ‫ ثدجٌْز‬look up alphabetically
ً‫ صذٍذوو‬tabalbul muddle, confusion│‫دٍذووًا‬
‫ٌْوٕز‬٨‫ ث‬t. al-alsina confusion of tongues (at
the tower of Babel)
2
‫ صذٍو‬taballud idiocy, dullness, obtuseness,
apathy
ً‫ دٍذ‬bulbul pl. ً‫د‬٩‫ د‬balabil2 nightingale
‫ دٍوؼ‬balaja u (‫ػ‬ٛ‫ دٍو‬bulūj) to shine; to dawn
(morning, aurora); -- balija a (balaj) to be
happy, be glad (‫ ح‬about), be delighted (‫ح‬
at) IV to shine (sun) V and VII = balaja
ْ‫ دٍْج‬ba1asān balsam, balm; balsam tree; black
older (bot.)
ٍُْ‫ د‬balsam pl. ُّ٩‫ د‬balāsim2 balsam, balm
ٍُْ‫ د‬balsamī balsamic, balmy
‫ دٍٖوؿ‬balšafa to Bolshevize II tabalšafa to be
Bolshevized
‫ دٍٖفز‬balšafa Bolshevization
2
‫ ثدٍوؼ‬ablaj gay, serene, bright, clear, fair,
nice, beautiful
ٝ‫ دٍٖووووف‬bulšifī pl. ‫ٕووووفز‬٩‫ د‬balāšifa
Bolshevist(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist
ٌ‫ػاثٌفؾ‬٩‫ ثٔذ‬inbilāj al-fajr daybreak
‫ىج‬١‫ دٍؾ‬beljīka Belgium
ٝ‫ى‬١‫ دٍؾ‬beljīkī Belgian (adj. and n.)
‫ز‬١‫ دٍٖف‬bulšifīya Bolshevism
ٍْٖٛ‫ د‬balašūn heron (zool.)
1
‫ دٍـ‬balaḥ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬dates (bot.)
‫ دٍوو‬baluda u (‫هر‬٩‫ دو‬balada) to be stupid, idiotic,
dull-witted II to acclimatize, habituate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., to a country or region) V pass. of II;
to become .tupid, be.otted, lapse into a
state of idiocy; to show o.s. from the
stupid side VI to feign stupidity
٘‫ دٍو‬balṣ extortion, blackmail; forcible
imposition of taxes
2
ٗ٩‫ دووو‬ballāṣ pl.
earthenware jar
1
٠ٍ‫ د‬II to pave ( ٘ s.th., with flagstones or tiles)
‫ دٍوو‬balad m. and f., pl. ‫ه‬٩‫ دو‬bilād country;
town, city; place, community, village; ‫ه‬٩‫دو‬
country; ْ‫ دٍووث‬buldān countries│ٔ‫هاثٌقوذ‬٩‫ادو‬
b. al-ḥabaš Ethiopia; ٓ١‫و‬ٌٚ‫هاث‬٩‫ دو‬b. aṣ-ṣīn
China; ‫ٕو‬ٌٙ‫هاث‬٩‫ د‬b. al-hind India
‫ووووز‬ٟ٩‫ د‬balāṯa floor
slabstone; paving stone
‫هر‬٩‫ د‬balāda stupidity, silliness
(eg.)
tile;
flagstone,
٠١ٍ‫ صذ‬tablīṯ paving, tile-laying
٠ٍ‫ ِذ‬muballaṯ paved, tiled
2
ٍٟٛ‫ د‬ballūṯ oak; acorn
3
‫ دٍ ز‬balta pl. -āt, ٠ٍ‫ د‬bulaṯ ax
‫ووووز‬٠‫ دٍو‬baladīya pl. -āt township,
community, rural community; ward,
district (of a city); municipality, municipal
council, local authority
‫وو‬١ٍ‫ د‬balīd and ‫ ثدٍوو‬ablad2 stupid, doltish,
dull-witted, idiotic
٘١‫ٌووو‬٩‫ د‬balālīṣ2
ٟ٩‫ دو‬balāṯ pavement, tiled floor; floor
tiles; palace; pl. ‫ ثدٍ وووز‬abliṯa floor
tiles│ٝ‫اثٌٍّىو‬ٟ٩‫( ثٌوذ‬malakī) the royal court;
ٟ٩‫ فوثهاثٌذ‬ḥidād al-b. court mourning
‫ دٍوور‬balda town, city; place, community,
village; rural community; township
ٜ‫ دٍوو‬baladī native, indigenous, home (as
opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow)
citizen, compatriot, countryman; a native;
communal, municipal│ٜ‫( اِؾٍوِادٍوو‬majlis)
city council, local council
٘‫ دٍو‬balaṣa u (balš) and II to extort wring
forcibly (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬from s.o. s.th.); to blackmail
(ٖ s.o.)
ٝ‫ دٍ ؾو‬balṯajī pl. -īya engineer, sapper,
pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer,
panderer, pimp; sponger, hanger-on,
parasite
4
‫ دٍ ز‬balaṯa balata gum
5
ٛ‫( دٍ و‬Fr. paletot) balṯō pl. –āt, ٝ‫و‬ٟ٩‫ د‬balāṯī
paletot, overcoat
6
ٝ‫ دٍ و‬bulṯī bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish
of the Nile
‫ك‬١ ٍ‫ د‬al-.balṯīq the Baltic countries│‫وك‬١ ٍ‫ادقٌاثٌذ‬
baḥr al-b. the Baltic Sea
‫ظوز‬ٍٛ‫ د‬bālūẓa hand pres.; (eg.) a kind of cream
made of cornstarch, lemon juice and
honey, or the like
‫ دٍ وا‬bala‘a and bali‘a a (bal‘) to swallow,
swallow up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to gulp down ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to put up ( ‫ ٘و‬with s.th.), swallow,
stomach, brook ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)│ٗ‫مو‬٠ً‫( ادٍواا‬rīqahū)
lit.: to swallow one‘s saliva, i.e., to catch
one‘s breath, take a little rest, have a
break; to restrain o.s., hold back (said of
one in a rage) II and IV to make (ٖ s.o.)
swallow ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.)│ٗ‫موو‬٠ً‫( ادٍع وٗا‬rīqahū) to
grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I
‫ دٍعز‬bal‘a large bite, big gulp
‫عوز‬٩‫ د‬ballā‘a, ‫عوز‬ٍٛ‫ د‬ballū‘a pl. –āt, ‫وا‬١ٌ٩‫د‬
ba1ālī‘2 sink, drain
‫ع وز‬ٌٛ‫ دج‬bālū‘a pl. –āt, ‫ وا‬١ٌ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawālī‘2
sewer, sink, drain
ُ‫ دٍعو‬bul‗um pl. ُ‫عو‬٩‫ د‬balā‘im2 and َٛ‫ دٍعو‬bul‘ūm
pl. ُ١‫عو‬٩‫ د‬balā‘īm2 pharynx (anat.); َٛ‫ادٍعو‬
gullet, esophagus (anat.)
1
‫ دٍوػ‬balaga u (‫غ‬ٛ‫ دٍو‬bulūg) to reach (ٖ s.o. ‫٘و‬
s.th.), get ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ to), arrive ( ‫ ٘و‬at); to come,
amount ( ‫ ٘و‬to), be worth ( ‫ ٘و‬so and so
much); to come to s.o.‘s (ٖ) ears; to attain
puberty (boy); to ripen, mature (fruit, or
the like); to come of age; to exhaust, wear
out (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.o.); to act (ٓ‫ ِو‬upon s.o.), have its
effect (ٓ‫ ِو‬on), affect (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.o.); to go far
(ٝ‫ـ‬, ِٓ in s.th.), attain a high degree (ٝ‫ـ‬, ِٓ
of s.th.)│ٝ‫ادٍوػادوٗاثٌو‬to make s.o. or s.th. get
to or arrive at, lead or take s.o. or s.th. to,
get s.o. or s.th. to the point where, ‫دٍوػادوٗا‬
ْ‫( ثٌضوؤٌـاث‬tarannuḥ) he began to reel so
violently that ... ; ‫ٌِاِذٍػاثٌؾوو‬٨‫( دٍػاث‬mablaga
l-jidd) the matter became serious; ‫ًا‬١‫دٍوػاثٌْو‬
ٝ‫ ثٌَدو‬b. s-sailu z-zubā the matter reached a
climax, things came to a head; ‫دٍوػاِذٍووػا‬
‫( ثٌٌؽووجي‬mablaga r-rijāl) to be sexually
mature, attain manhood, come of age; ‫دٍوػا‬
‫( ثٕوووٖا‬ašuddahū) to attain full maturity,
come of age; to reach its climax; ‫ا‬ٝ‫دٍوػاـو‬
‫ اِذٍؽووج‬ٟ‫( ثٌٖوو‬mablagan) to attain a high
degree of s.th.; ‫ا٘وويثاثٌّذٍووػ‬ٟ‫جص‬٠ٌ‫ٓادٍؽووشادوويو‬١‫فوو‬
(ḥīna, dikrayātī, mablaga) when I had
come to this point in my reminiscences; ‫دٍػا‬
‫( ِٕوٗاووًاِذٍوػ‬kulla mablagin) to work havoc
on s.o.; ٖ‫وج‬ٙ‫( دٍوػإِض‬muntahāhū) to reach its
climax, come to a head II to make (ٖ s.o.)
reach or attain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to take bring (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
‫ ٘و‬s.th. to s.o.) see that s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬gets (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
to); to convey, transmit, impart,
communicate, report ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.); to
inform, notify ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o. of s.th.), tell, let
know ( ٘ ٖ s.o. about); to report (ٓ‫ ع‬about),
give an account of (ٓ‫ ;)عو‬to inform (ٓ‫عو‬
against s.o.), report, denounce (ٓ‫ عو‬s.o.)│‫ا‬
‫ دٍ وػاًّووجٌز‬to fulfill a mission, ِٝ٩‫دٍؽووٗاّوو‬
ballighu salāmī give him my best regards!
III to exaggerate (ٝ‫ ـو‬in s.th.); to overdo.
do too long (ٝ‫ ـو‬s.th.); to go to greatest
lengths, do one‘s utmost (ٝ‫ ـوو‬in) IV to
make ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) reach or attain (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
s.th.); to make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) amount (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to),
raise ( ‫ ٘و‬an amount, a salary, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to); to
inform, notify (‫ ح‬or ٓ‫ عو‬s.o. of s.th.), tell,
let know (‫ ح‬or ٓ‫ ٖ عوو‬s.o. about); to
announce, state, disclose ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to
inform (ٓ‫ عو‬against s.o.), report, denounce
(ٓ‫ ع‬s.o.)│‫ِاح‬١ٌٛ‫ ثدٍوػاثٌذو‬to report s.th. to the
police V to content o.s., be content (‫ح‬
with); to eke out an existence; to still
one‘s hunger (‫ ح‬with), eat (‫ ح‬s.th.): to b.
delivered, be transmitted
‫ؼج‬٩‫اد‬٨‫ ّّعجا‬sam‘an lā balāgan! may it be
heard but not fulfilled, i.e. God forbid!
(used at the mention of s.th. unpleasant)
‫ دٍؽووز‬bulga and ‫غ‬٩‫ دوو‬balāg sufficiency,
competency, adequacy (see also 2‫ادٍؽوووز‬
below)
‫غ‬٩‫ دووو‬balāg pl. -āt communication,
information,
message,
report;
announcement,
proclamation;
communiqué; statement; notification (of
the police)│ٌ١‫غاثم‬٩‫ د‬ultimatum
‫ووػ‬١ٍ‫ د‬balīg pl. ‫ دٍؽووج‬bulagā’ eloquent;
intense, lasting, deep, profound (e.g., an
impression); serious, grave (e.g., an
injury)
‫غ‬ٛ‫ دٍو‬bulūg reaching, attainment, arrival
(at); maturity, legal majority
‫ؼووز‬٩‫ د‬balāga eloquence; art, of good
style, art of composition; literature│‫اعٍوُا‬
‫ؼز‬٩‫‘ ثٌذ‬ilm al-b. rhetoric
‫ ثدٍوووػ‬ablag2 intenser, deeper, more
lasting; more serious, graver
‫ ِذٍوػ‬mablag pl. ‫ ِذوجٌػ‬mabālig2 amount,
sum of money; extent, scope, range; (see
also examples under ‫ دٍػ‬I)│ّّٝ‫( اِذٍػاث‬ismī)
nominal par; ‫هع وز‬ٌّٛ‫( ثٌّذ وجٌػاث‬mūda‘a) the
deposits (at a bank); ‫اِوٓاثٌؾووا‬ٌٝٛ‫ٓاِذٍوػالو‬١‫ضذو‬١ٌ
(li-yatabayyana, qaulī, jidd) in order to
find, out to what extent my words were
meant seriously
‫ووووػ‬١ٍ‫ صذ‬tablīg pl. -āt conveyance,
transmission, delivery (ٝ‫ ثٌووو‬to s.o.);
information
(ٓ‫عوووووو‬
about);
report,
notification (ٓ‫ عووو‬of); communication,
announcement,
notice│‫ووووووووػ‬١ٍ‫اوضووووووووجحاثٌضذ‬
credentials
3
ْ٩‫ دوو‬ballān bathhouse attendant; name of a
plant growing near stagnant waters
‫ٔز‬٩‫ د‬ballāna female bathhouse attendant;
lady's maid
‫ز‬١‫ دٍْٕو‬balansiya2 Valencia (region and city in E
Spain)
ٓ١ٍ‫ د‬pl. ٓ١ٌ٩‫ د‬look up alphabetically
ٗ‫ دٍو‬baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded VI to
feign foolishness, pretend to be stupid X
to deem ( ٘ s.o.) stupid or simple-minded
ٗ‫ دٍوو‬balah and ‫٘ وز‬٩‫ د‬balāha stupidity,
foolishness, simple-mindedness; idiocy,
imbecility│‫٘وووووووزاِذىوووووووٌر‬٩‫د‬
(mubakkira)
dementia praecox
‫ ِذجٌؽز‬mubalaga pl. -āt exaggeration
‫غ‬٩‫ ثد‬iblāg conveyance, transmission
2
ٍُ‫ د‬IV to be silent, hold one's tongue
‫ دووووجٌػ‬bālig extensive, far-reaching;
considerable; serious (wound), deep,
profound, violent, vehement (feelings),
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally
major
ٍٗ‫ د‬balha let alone, not to speak of, not to
mention
‫ ِذٍووووػ‬muballig bearer (of news),
messenger; informer, denouncer; detective
‫ج‬١‫جًّو‬ٍٙ‫ د‬bilkarsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
(med.)
‫ دٍؽووز‬bulga, balga pl. -āt, bulag slipper of
yellow leather
‫وز‬١ٍٕٙ‫ د‬bulahniya abundance, wealth, variety (of
earthly possessions)
‫ج‬٠ً‫ دٍؽج‬bulgāriyā Bulgaria
ًٜ‫ دٍؽج‬bugārī Bulgarian (adj. and n.)
ُ‫ دٍؽ‬balgam phlegm; (pl. ُ‫ؼ‬٩‫ د‬balagim2)
expectoration, sputum
ٝ‫ دٍؽّووو‬balgamī phlegmatic; phlegmy,
mucous
‫ دٍؿ‬balafa i (balf) to bluff II do.
‫ دٍؿ‬balf, ‫ دٍفز‬balfa bluff
‫ ثدٍك‬ablaq2 piebald
ِ١‫ دٍمو‬bilqīs2 Muslim name of the Queen of
Sheba
ْ‫ ثٌذٍمج‬al-balqān the Balkans
ٝٔ‫ دٍمج‬balqānī Balkan
‫ دٍموا‬balqa‘ and ‫ دٍمعوز‬balqa‘a pl. ‫لوا‬٩‫ د‬balāqi‘2
wasteland
‫ دٍه‬see ‫ن‬ٍٛ‫د‬
ْٛ‫ دٍى‬balkōn balcony
1
ٍُ‫ د‬balam anchovy
2
ٍُ‫ د‬balam pl. َ٩‫ ثد‬ablām sailing barge (ir.)
ٗ‫ ثدٍوو‬ablah2 stupid, doltish, dull-witted;
idiotic
1
ْ‫ث‬ٍٛٙ‫ د‬see ْ‫ث‬ٍٛٙ‫د‬
2
□ ْٛ‫و‬ٍٙ‫ د‬bulhōn pl. ٓ١‫٘و‬٩‫ د‬balāhīn2 (= ‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٌٙ‫اث‬ٛ‫ثدو‬
eg.) sphinx
(ٍٛ‫ د‬and ٝ‫ )دٍو‬٩‫ دو‬balā u (balw, ٩‫ دو‬balā’) to test,
try, put to the test ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o., • s.tb.); to know
from long experience ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to afltict
( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.); -- ٝ‫ دٍو‬baliya a (ٝ‫ دٍو‬bilan, ٩‫دو‬
balā’) to be or become old, worn, shabby
(clothes); to dwindle away, vanish; to
deteriorate, decline, become decrepit; to
disintegrate (a corpse), decay, rot, spoil III
to care, be concerned (‫ ح‬or ‫٘و‬, ٖ about), be
mindful (‫ ح‬or ‫٘و‬, ٖ of s.o., of s.th.); to pay
attention (‫ ح‬or ٘ to), mind, heed, take into
consideration, take into account (‫ ح‬or ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to take notice (‫ ح‬of)│ٌٝ‫ ِووجاثدووج‬mā
ubālī, ٌٝ‫اثدوج‬٨ I don‘t care! I don‘t mind! it's
all right with me! ٌٝ‫ذوج‬٠‫ا‬٨ (as a relat. clause)
unconcerned, heedless, careless, reckless
IV to try, test, put to the test ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.); to
make experienced, harden, inure (ٖ s.o.;
said of trials, experiences); to work havoc
( ٘ on s.th.); to wear out ( ٘ s.th.) │‫ ا‬٩‫ادو‬ٍٝ‫ثد‬
‫( فْوٕج‬balā’an ḥasanan) to stand the test; to
ًٜٛ‫ دٍو‬ballūrī, billaurī crystalline; crystal
(adj.)
prove o.s. brave (in war) VIII to try,
tempt, put to the test ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.); to afflict (‫ح‬
ٖ s.o. with), visit (‫ ٖ ح‬on s.o. s.th.); pass.
ubtuliya to become or be afflicted (‫ ح‬with,
by), suffer (‫ ح‬from)
‫وز‬٠ًٍٛ‫ د‬ballūrīya, billaurīya pl. -āt lense
(opt.)
ًٛ‫ ِذٍوو‬mubalwar: ‫ًر‬ٛ‫ثووووٗاِذٍوو‬ٛ‫ ـ‬candied
fruits 75
ٝ‫ دٍو‬bilan decline, deterioration; decay,
putrefaction,
decomposition;
worn
condition; wear; shabbiness
ٍٍٛ‫( د‬Fr. blouse) bəlūz, bəlūza pl. –āt blouse
ٟ‫ دٍو‬balīy worn, old, shabby, threadbare;
decrepit,
dilapidated,
decaying,
decomposed, rotten
‫ن‬ٛ‫( دٍو‬Turk. bölük) bulūk pl. -āt company (mil.;
Eg.)│ٓ١‫ناثِووو‬ٛ‫ادٍووو‬b. amīn (mil.) approx.:
quartermaster sergeant (formerly, Eg.)
‫ووز‬١ٍ‫ د‬balīya pl. ‫ووج‬٠٩‫ د‬balāyā trial,
tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress,
misfortune, calamity
ٍْٛ‫ د‬ballūn balloon
٩‫ دوو‬balā’ trial. tribulation, visitation,
affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge,
plague; creditable performance, bravery,
gallantry, heroic action│ٓ‫ افْو‬٩‫( دو‬ḥasan)
favor, blessing, grace (of God); good
performance
ٜٛ‫ دٍو‬balwā trial; tribulation, visitation,
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity;
necessity, need│ٜٛ‫‘( عّشاثٌذٍو‬ammat) it has
become a general necessity
1
ٍٝ‫ اد‬balā yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
2
ٍٝ‫ اد‬baliya etc., see ٍٛ‫د‬
ٖٛ‫جص‬١ٍ‫( د‬It. paglaccio) palyatšō clown, buffoon
ٚ‫جًه‬١ٍ‫( اد‬It. bigliardo) bilyardō billiards
ٗ١ْ١ٍ‫ د‬bilīsēh plissé, pleating
1
ٓ١ٍ‫ اد‬ballīn pl. ٓ١‫ٌو‬٩‫ د‬balālīn2 pallium, liturgical
vestment of a bishop worn over the
chasuble (Chr.); monk's robe (Copt.·Chr.)
2
ْٛ‫و‬١ٍ‫ اد‬balyūn pl. ٓ١‫و‬٠٩‫ د‬balayīn (U.S.) billion,
(G.B.) milliard; (U.S.) trillion, (G.B.)
billion
‫ر‬٨‫ ِذوووج‬mubālāh consideration, regard,
heed,
attention│‫ر‬٨‫اِذوووووووووج‬٨‫ا‬lā-mubālāh
indifference, unconcern, carelessness
ُ‫ د‬bamm lowest string of a musical instrument
٩‫ ثدوض‬ibtilā’ trial, tribulation, affliction,
visitation
ٜ‫ دّذج‬bombāy Bombay
‫ دوجي‬bālin old, worn, worn out; shabby,
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit,
dilapidated; decayed, rotten; obsolete,
antiquated
‫ ِذجي‬mubālin observant, heedful, mindful
(‫ ح‬of)│‫ٌاِذجياح‬١‫اؼ‬heedless of
ٝ‫ ِذضٍووو‬mubtalan (less correctly ً‫ِذضووو‬
mubtalin) afflicted (‫ ح‬with, by), suffering
(‫ ح‬from)
ًٛ‫ دٍووو‬II tabalwara to crystalize; to be
crystalized; to be covered with crystals
ًٛ‫ دٍو‬ballūr, billaur pl. -āt crystal; crystal
glass, flint glass, glass│O ٌٜ‫وون‬ٙ‫ًا‬ٛ‫دٍوو‬
(ṣaḳrī) rock crystal, transparent quartz
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ دٍوو‬billaura (n. un.) pl. -āt crystal;
crystal glass, flint glass, glass; tube
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a
detector; radio); (syr., pronounced
ballōra) negative (phot.)
‫ دّذجغ‬bumbāg, ‫ دّذجؼز‬bumbāga bow tie
‫ز‬١ِ‫ دج‬look up alphabetically
1
ٓ‫ ادو‬V ٝ‫ صذٕو‬to adopt as son (ٖ s.o.); to adopt.
embrace ( ٘ s.th.)
ٓ‫ ثدو‬ibn pl. ‫ ثدٕوج‬abnā’, ْٛ‫ دٕو‬banūn son;
descendant. scion; offspring, son (of a
nation or people)│َ‫ اثدوٓاآه‬pl. َ‫اآه‬ٛ‫( دٕو‬son of
Adam) man, human being; ٜٚ‫ ثدوٓاآ‬ibn āwā
jackal; ‫ ثدووووٓاثٌذٍووووو‬ibn a1-balad local
inhabitant, native; ‫ ثدٕوج اثٌذٍوو‬natives, native
population; ‫ ثدوٓاثٌقوٌح‬ibn al-ḥarb warrior;
soldier; warlike, bellicose; ً١‫ثدووووٓاثٌْووووذ‬
wayfarer, wanderer; ‫ٓاّوٕز‬١‫ ثدوٓامّْو‬50 years
old; ٗ‫ ثدوووٓاّوووجعض‬ibn sā‘atihī temporal,
transient, passing; ٗ‫وٍذ‬ٙ‫ ثدوٓا‬ibn ṣulbihī his
own son; ٌُ‫ ثدوٓاعو‬ibn ‘irs weasel; ‫اِوج ا‬ٛ‫دٕو‬
‫ ثٌْوّج‬banū mā’ as-samā’ the Arsbs; ‫ا‬ٛ‫دٕو‬
‫ؿ‬٠ّٛ Beni Suef (city in Egypt, S of Cairo)
‫ ثدٕ وز‬ibna and ‫ دٕووش‬bint pl. ‫ دٕووجس‬banāt
daughter; ‫ دٕووش‬girl│ُ‫ اثدٕ وزاثٌعوو‬i. al-‘amm
(female) cousin; periphrastically for wife:
‫ ثدٕوزاعّوه‬your wife; ‫ دٕوشاثٌفوه‬b. a1-fikr pl.
ً‫ـىوج‬٨‫ دٕوجساث‬thought, idea; ًٛ٨‫ا دٕوجساث‬b. a1arḍ insects and worms; ِ‫ دٕووجسادووت‬b. bi’s
calamities, afflictions; ٌ٘‫ دٕجساثٌوو‬b. ad-dahr
do.; ٗ‫ دٕوشاثٌٖوف‬b. aš-šafa word; ً‫وو‬ٌٚ‫ دٕوجساث‬b.
aṣ-ṣadr worries, fears, anxieties; ْ‫ًهث‬ٚ‫دٕوجسا‬
b. wardāna earth worms, rainworms
ٝ‫ دٕول‬bunduqī Venetian sequin
‫وز‬١‫ دٕول‬bunduqīya pl. ‫ دٕوجهق‬banādiq2 rifle,
gun│ًٓ‫زا‬١‫ ادٕول‬b. rašš shotgun
‫ز‬١‫ ثٌذٕول‬al.bunduqīya Venice
ٝٔ‫ دٕوولج‬bunduqani pl. -ūn, ‫ دٕجهلوز‬banādiqa
a Venitian
ٟٕ‫ د‬bunaiya my little son
‫ق‬ٚ‫ دٕو‬bundūq pl. ‫ك‬٠‫ دٕجه‬banādīq2 bastard
‫ر‬ٕٛ‫ د‬bunuwwa sonship, filiation
‫ًر‬ٚ‫ دٕووو‬banadōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro)
tomatoes
ٜٕٛ‫ د‬banawi filial
ٓ‫ صوذ‬tabannin adoption (also fig., e.g. of
ideas, principles, etc.)
2
ٓ‫ اد‬bunn coffee beans, coffee
ًٜٚ‫ ثفٌّادٕو‬aḥmar2 banadōrī tomato-red
‫ي‬ٚ‫( دٕو‬Fr. pendule) bandūl pendulum
‫ٌر‬٠‫( دٕوووو‬Span. bandera) bandēra pl. ً‫دٕوووجه‬
banadir2 pennon, flag, banner
ٕٝ‫ د‬bunnī coffee-colored, brown
ْ‫ دٕوج‬banān finger tips│ْ‫وٗادذٕوج‬١ٍ‫ٖوجًاع‬٠‫( ا‬yušāru
lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, i.e., he is
famous man; ‫ ادٕجٔوووه‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٟ‫ ثٔوووجاا‬anā tau‘a
banānika I am at your disposal, I am at
your service
ًٕٛ‫ د‬bannūr (= ًٍٛ‫ د‬ballūr) glass
‫ًر‬ٚ‫ دٕ وجه‬banādōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro)
tomato(es)
ٓ١ٍْٕ‫ د‬benisilīn penicillin
ًُ‫ دٕوج‬banāris2 Banaras or Benares (the Holy
City of the Hindus, in N India)
ٕٝ‫ دٕذج‬see ٕٝ‫دىذج‬
ٌ١َٕ٘‫ د‬banzahīr bezoar, bezoar stone
ٓ٠َٕ‫ د‬banzīn, benzīn gasoline, benzine
ِٕ‫( د‬Engl.) pence
ٗ١ْٕ‫( د‬Fr. pensée) banēh pansy (bot.)
ْٛ١‫ دْٕوووو‬bansiyōn pl.
boarding school
-āt
boardinghouse;
ٌٕٚ‫ د‬binṣir f., pl. ٌٙ‫ دٕج‬banāsir2 ring finger
1
‫ دٕش‬see ٓ‫اد‬
ٛ‫ دٕضو‬bintū napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 20
francs)
‫ دوٕؼ‬II to dope, narcoticize (with banj;ٖ‫ ا‬s.o.); to
anesthetize (. s.o.)
‫ دووٕؼ‬banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger;
bot); an anesthetic, a narcotic
‫ ثٌذٕؾووجح‬al-banjāb the Punjab (region, NW
Indian subcontinent)
٠ٕ‫ د‬bunṯ pl. ٟٕٛ‫ د‬bunūṯ point (stock market)
ْٛ‫ دٕ ٍوو‬banṯalūn (from It. pantaloni) pl. –āt
trousers, pants
ٍٜ‫ دٕؽووج‬bangāzī Bengasi (city in NE Libya,
capital‫ا‬of Cyrenaica)
‫ ثٌذٕؽووجي‬al-bangāl Bengal (region, NE Indian
subcontinent)
‫ دٕفْؼ‬banafsaj (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬violet (bot.)
ٝ‫ دٕفْؾ‬banafsajī violetlike, violetish;
ٌ‫ دٕؾ‬banjar red beet (eg.)
‫ دٕوووو‬band pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫ دٕووو‬bunūd article, clause,
paragraph (of a. la.w, contract, etc.);
banner; large body of troops
violet (adj.)│ٝ‫قاثٌذٕفْوووؾ‬ٛ‫ اـووو‬or ٝ‫ًث اثٌذٕفْوووؾ‬ٚ
ultraviolet
ً‫ دٕوووو‬bandar pl. ً‫ دٕوووجه‬banādir2 seaport;
commercial center; district capital (Eg.);
ً‫ دٕوجه‬see also under ‫ٌر‬٠‫ دٕوو‬below│ُ‫ادٕووًاعذوج‬
‘abbās Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran)
‫ دٕموز‬binaqa and ‫موز‬١ٕ‫ د‬banīqa gore, gusset (of a
shirt or garment)
‫ًر‬ٚ‫ دٕو‬look up alphabetically
2
‫ دٕووق‬bunduq (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ‫ دٕوجهق‬banādiq
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; ‫دٕولوز‬
hazelnut, filbert; bullet
ٔ‫ دٕف‬banfaš, banafš amethyst (min.)
1
‫ ادٕوه‬bunk root, core, heart, best part│ٌ‫ادٕوهاثٌعّو‬
b. al-‘umr the prime of life, the best years
2
‫ دٕه‬bank pl. ‫ن‬ٕٛ‫ د‬bunūk bank, banking house│‫ا‬
‫ؿ‬١ٍ‫ دٕوهاثٌضْو‬credit bank; ٌ١‫ـ‬ٛ‫ دٕوهاثٌضوو‬deposit
bank; َ‫ دٕوهاثٌوو‬b. ad-dam blood bank; ‫ثٌذٕوها‬
ٌٝٚ‫( ثٌو‬daulī) the World Bank
3
‫ ِذٕه‬mubannak stranded
ٓ‫ صذ‬tabannin see 1ٓ‫اد‬
4
‫ ِقٕوهاِذٕوه‬muḥannak mubannak shrewd, sly,
astute
ْ‫ دج‬bānin pl. ‫ دٕجر‬bunāh builder
ٝ‫ ِذٕووو‬mabnīy built, set up. erected;
founded, based, resting (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on); fixed,
established;
indeclinable;
ending
indeclinably (ٍٝ‫ ع‬in; gram.)
‫س‬ٕٛ‫( دٕى‬Engl.) banknōt banknote
‫ر‬ٕٛ‫ د‬and ٜٕٛ‫ د‬see 1ٓ‫د‬
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫( دٕو‬Fr. baignoire) banwār baignoire, theater
box of the lowest tier
2
1
ٛ١ٕ‫( د‬It. bagno) banyō batb, bathtub
ٝ‫ دٕو‬bana i ( ‫ دٕوج‬binā’, ْ‫وج‬١ٕ‫ د‬bunyān) and VIII to
build, erect, construct, set up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
build, establish, rest (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. on); to
consummate the marriage (‫ووج‬ٙ‫ د‬and ‫ووج‬ٙ١ٍ‫ع‬
with a woman); pass. buniya, ubtuniya to
be based, be built, rest (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on)│‫اوٍّوزا‬ٝ‫دٕو‬
ٝ‫( عٍووو‬kalimalan) to give a word an
indeclinable ending in (a certain vowel or
a vowelless consonant; gram.) V see 1ٓ‫اد‬
‫ دٕووووج‬binā’ building, construction,
erection, setting up; structure (also, e.g.,
of an organism), setup, make-up; (pl. ‫وز‬١ٕ‫ثد‬
abniya) building, structure, edifice│‫ثعوجهرا‬
‫ ثٌذٕوج‬i‘ādat al-b. reconstruction; ٌ‫ثٌذٕوج اثٌقو‬
(ḥurr) Freemaaonry; ٝ‫ دٕوج اعٍو‬binā’an ‘alā
according to, in accordance with, on the
basis of, by virtue of, on the strength of;
‫ا٘يث‬ٍٝ‫ دٕج اع‬accordingly, thus
ٝ‫ دٕوووجة‬binā’ī constructional, building
(used
attributively);
architectural;
structural
‫وز‬١ٕ‫ د‬binya, bunya pl. ٝ‫ دٕو‬binan, bunan
structure, setup, make-up; binya build,
frame,
physique,
physical
constitution│‫وووووز‬١ٕ‫ؿاثٌذ‬١‫وووووع‬ٝ of delicate
constitution; ‫ووز‬١ٕ‫ـاثٌذ‬١‫ووق‬ٙ and ‫ووز‬١ٕ‫ُاثٌذ‬١ٍ‫ ّوو‬of
sound constitution, healthy; ‫ز‬١ٕ‫اثٌذ‬ٞٛ‫ ل‬qawīy
al-b. husky, sturdy
‫ دٕووج‬bannā’ pl. -ūn builder; mason;
constructive│ٌ‫(ادٕج اف‬ḥurr) Freemason
‫ووز‬٠‫ دٕج‬bināya pl. -āt building, structure,
edifice
ْ‫وووج‬١ٕ‫ د‬bunyān building, construction,
erection, setting up; building, structure,
edifice; physique, stature
ٝ‫ ِذٕو‬mabnan pl. ْ‫ ِذوج‬mabānin building,
construction,
erection,
setting
up;
building,
structure.
edifice;
form;
foundation, fundament, basis │‫ا‬ٜ‫اثٌوووٌأ‬
ٕٝ‫ثٌّذ‬ٚ (ra’y) content and form
ٝٔ‫( اﭙ‬Engl.) penny
‫وش‬ٙ‫ د‬bahita a, bahuta u and pass. buhita (baht)
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered,
startled,
perplexed,
flabbergasted,
speechless; -- bahita to be or become pale,
fade (color); -- bahata a to astonish,
amaze,
bewilder,
startle,
stagger,
flabbergast (ٖ s.o.); (ْ‫ضوووج‬ٙ‫ د‬buhtān) to
slander, defame (ٖ s.o.) III to come or
descend unexpectedly (ٖ upon s.o.); to
startle, stagger, flabbergast (ٖ s.o.) IV to
surprise, astonish, amaze ( ٘ s.o.) VII = I
‫وش‬ٙ‫ د‬buht and ْ‫ضوج‬ٙ‫ د‬buhtān slander, false
accusation; lie, untruth
‫ضووووز‬ٙ‫ د‬bahta perplexity,
bewilderment, stupefaction
amazement,
‫ دج٘ووش‬bāhit pale, pallid, faded (color);
perplexed, aghast
‫س‬ٛ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِذ‬mabhūt perplexed, astonished,
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast
‫وؼ‬ٙ‫ د‬bahija a to be glad, he bappy (‫ ح‬about),
he delighted (‫ ح‬at); -- bahuja u to be
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden,
delight, make happy (‫ ح‬s.o.) VIII to be
glad, be happy (‫ ح‬about), be delighted (‫ح‬
at)
‫ؾوووز‬ٙ‫ د‬bahja splendor, magnificence,
beauty, resplendence; joy, delight│‫ؾ وزا‬ٙ‫د‬
ً‫ٔرج‬٨‫ ث‬delight of the eyes, welcome sight
‫وووؼ‬ٙ‫ د‬bahij, ‫ؼ‬١‫ووو‬ٙ‫ د‬bahīj magnificent,
splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous;
delightful
‫ؾوز‬ٙ‫ ِذ‬mabhaja a moment of happiness
and joy
‫ ِذوج٘ؼ‬mabāhij joys, delights; pleasures,
amusements, diversions; splendid things;
splendor, pomp, magnificence
‫جػ‬ٙ‫ ثدض‬ibtihāj joy, rejoicing, delight (‫ ح‬at)
‫ؼ‬ٙ‫ ِوووووذ‬mubhij
delightful
pleasant,
charming,
‫ؼ‬ٙ‫ ِذض‬mubtahij happy, glad, delighted
‫ووووي‬ٙ‫ د‬bahdala to insult (ٖ s.o.); to treat
contemptuously, meanly (ٖ s.o.); to expose
(ٖ s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock (ٖ
of s.o.) II tabahdala pass. of I
‫وٌوووز‬ٙ‫ د‬bahdala insult, affront, abuse,
outrage; meanness; triteness, insipidity
‫ووي‬ٙ‫ ِذ‬mubahdal maltreated, oppressed,
miserable
ٌ‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine; to
dazzle, overwhelm (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.o.‘s eyes)│‫ا‬
ً‫وج‬ٚ‫د‬٨‫وٌاث‬ٙ‫ذ‬٠‫ ا‬ٟ‫ٕو‬a dazzling, overwhelming
thing; -- pass. buhira to be out of breath,
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be
smitten with blindness; to. be out of breath
VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, present in
a dazzling light (‫ ح‬s.th.)
ٌٙ‫ د‬bahr deception, dazzlement (‫ ح‬by)
ٌ‫وو‬ٙ‫ د‬buhr difficult respiration, labored
breathing
‫ٌؽوووز‬ٙ‫ د‬bahraja empty show, hollow
pomp
ْ‫ٌؽج‬ٙ‫ د‬bahrajan tinsel, frippery
‫وٌػ‬ٙ‫ ِذ‬mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy,
ornate, ostentatious; trashy, rubbishy,
cheap, inartistic
َ٠ٌٙ‫ د‬bahrīz (eg.) a soup
‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahaza a (bahz) to oppress weigh down (ٖ
s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily ( ‫ ٘و‬on
s.o.) IV do.
٘‫ د وج‬bāhiẓ heavy, oppressive, trying;
excessive,
exorbitant,
enormous;
expensive, costly
‫وك‬ٙ‫ د‬bahaq a kind of lichen (bot.); herpetic
eruption, tetter; vitiligo alba, a mild form
of leprosy (med.)
ً‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahala a (bahl) to curse (ٖ s.o.) V and VI
to curse one another VIII to supplicate,
pray humbly (to God)
ًٙ‫ ثد‬abhal savin (Juniperus sabina; bot.)
‫جي‬ٙ‫ ثدض‬ibtihāl supplication, prayer
ٌ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ د‬bahra (n. vic.) being dazzled,
dazzlement
ً‫ دج٘ و‬bāhil pl. ً‫وو‬ٙ‫ د‬buhl, buhhal free,
independent
‫ووٌر‬ٙ‫ د‬buhra middle, center│...‫ووٌرا‬ٙ‫اد‬ٝ‫اـوو‬
amidst
‫ي‬ٛ‫ٍو‬ٙ‫ د‬buhlūl, bahlūl pl. ً‫و‬١ٌ‫ج‬ٙ‫ د‬bahālīl2 buffoon,
jester, clown, fool
ٌ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ثد‬
abhar2 more brilliant, more
magnificent
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ٍو‬ٙ‫ د‬bahlawān pl. -āt, -īya acrobat, tumbler,
equilibrist, ropedancer, tightrope walker
ٌٙ‫ ثد‬abhar2 aorta (anat.)
ً‫ج‬ٙ‫ د‬bahār pl. -āt spice
ً‫وج‬ٙ‫ ثدض‬ibtihār dazzling display, show (‫ح‬
of s.th.)
ٌ٘‫ دج‬bāhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid
ًٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ ِذ‬mabhūr breathless, out of breath,
panting
‫وٌػ‬ٙ‫ د‬bahraja (‫وٌػ‬ٙ‫ د‬bahraja) to adorn, deck
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive
brightness ( ٘ to); to glamorize ( ٘ s.th.); to
reject as false (ٖ a witness); to fake,
counterfeit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II tabahraja to adorn
o.s., spruce o.s. up, dress up; to be fake
‫وٌػ‬ٙ‫ د‬bahraj false, spurious, fake, sham,
worthless, bad; counterfeit money; tinsel,
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff
ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ٍووو‬ٙ‫ د‬bahlawānī acrobatic│‫فٌووووجسا‬
‫وز‬١ٔ‫ث‬ٍٛٙ‫( د‬ḥarakāt) acrobatics; antics, capers
of a tumbler; ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ٍو‬ٙ‫وٌثْاد‬١ٟ (ṯayarān) aerial
acrobatics, stunt flying
ُ‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬IV to make obscure, dubious, unintelligible
( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.) V and X to be obscure,
ambiguous, unintelligible (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to s.o.)
‫ّز‬ٙ‫ د‬bahma lamb, sheep
ُ١ٙ‫ د‬bahīm pl. ُٙ‫ د‬buhum jet-black
‫ّ وز‬١ٙ‫ د‬bahīma pl. ُ‫ وجة‬ٙ‫ د‬bahā’im beast,
animal, quadruped; pl. livestock, cattle,
(large) domestic animals
ّٝ١ٙ‫ د‬bahīmī animal, bestial, brutish
‫ووز‬١ّ١ٙ‫ د‬bahīmīya brutishness, bestiality,
brutality
َ‫ووووج‬ٙ‫ ثد‬ibhām
ambiguity
obscurity;
vagueness,
َ‫وج‬ٙ‫ ثد‬ibhām pl. ُ١٘‫ ثدوج‬abāhīm2 thumb; big
toe
ُ٘‫ دج‬bāhim big toe
ُٙ‫ ِووذ‬mubham obscure, dark, cryptic,
doubtful, vague, ambiguous│ُٙ‫اعووووهاِوووذ‬
(‘adad) abstract number (math.); O ‫وخا‬ٚ‫ثٌع‬
ُٙ‫‘( ثٌّوذ‬aṣab) the vagus (anat.); ُٙ‫ّوُاثٌّوذ‬٨‫ث‬
(ism) the demonstrative pronoun (gram.)
1
(ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫وج )د‬ٙ‫ د‬bahā u, bahuwa u and ٝ‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahiya a
( ‫ووج‬ٙ‫ د‬bahā’) to be beautiful III to vie,
compete (‫ ٖ ح‬with s.o. in s.th.); to pride
o.s. (‫ ح‬on)ٚ be proud (‫ ح‬of), boast (‫ ح‬of,
‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. of s.th.) VI to compete with one
another; to be proud (‫ ح‬of), pride o.s. (‫ح‬
on)
ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ د‬bahw pl. ‫ووج‬ٙ‫ اثد‬abhā’ hall; parlor,
drawing room, reception hall
ٝ‫وووو‬ٙ‫ د‬bahīy beautiful, magnificent,
splendid; brilliant, radiant, shining
‫ووووج‬ٙ‫ د‬bahā’ beauty,
splendor; brilliancy
magnificence,
ٝ‫وجة‬ٙ‫ د‬bahā’ī Bahai (adj.); (pl. -ūn) an
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai
ٝٙ‫ ثد‬abhā more splendid, more brilliant
‫ ِذج٘ووجر‬mubāhāh and ٖ‫ صذوج‬tabāhin pride,
vainglory, boastfulness
2
‫ثس‬ٛٙ‫ د‬see ‫ده‬
( ٛ‫ دوج )دو‬bā’a u to come again, return; to
come back (‫ ح‬with s.th.), bring back,
yield, bring in (‫ ح‬s.th.)│‫ذوز‬١‫ دوج ادجٌن‬or ً‫دجٌفٖو‬
(ḳaiba, fašal) to fail II to provide
accommodations (‫ ي‬and ٖ for s.o., ‫ ٘و‬at a
place), put up (‫ ي‬or ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬at)│‫أاِىجٔوج‬ٛ‫دو‬
(makānan) to take a place, settle down,
live or stay at a place IV to provide
accommodations (ٖ for s.o., ‫ ٘و‬at a place);
to settle down, reside, live (‫ ح‬at a place) V
to settle down ( ‫ ٘ و‬at a place), occupy
(‫ ٌِوووَث‬markazan a place), hold (‫ِمجِووج‬
maqāman a position)│‫أاِىجٔوج‬ٛ‫( صذو‬makānan)
to gain ground, become generally
accepted; ‫أاثٌعوٌٓا‬ٛ‫‘( صذو‬arš) to ascend the
throne; ‫أاثٌقىوُا‬ٛ‫( صذ‬ḥukm) to come to power,
take over power
‫تووز‬١‫ د‬bī’a pl. -āt (usually pronounced
bai’a) pl. -āt residence, domicile, seat;
situation; surroundings, environment,
milieu; home, habitat
‫ ِذوج ر‬mabā’a place to which s.th. comes;
abode, dwelling, habitation
ٛ‫ صذوو‬tabawwu’: ٌٓ‫ اثٌعوو‬ٛ‫ صذوو‬t. al-‘arš
accession to the throne
‫ح‬ٛ‫ دو‬II to divide into chapters or sections ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to arrange in groups, arrange
systematically, class, classify ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ دووجح‬bāb pl. ‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ثدوو‬abwāb, ْ‫ذووج‬١‫ د‬bībān
door;; gate; opening, gateway; entrance;
chapter, section, column, rubric; group,
class, category; field, domain (fig.)│‫ثٌذوجحا‬
ٌٝ‫ ثٌعوج‬the Sublime Porte; ‫ دوجحاثٌّٕووح‬b. almandab Bab el Mandeb (strait between
SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); ‫ثح‬ٛ‫دو‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
near, imminent; ‫ووث‬٠‫ ـوضـادجدوجاؽو‬to open up a
new way, a new possibility; ‫ ـوضـادوجح‬futiḥa
bāb ... was (were) begun, ... got under
way; ٟ‫( لفًادوجحاثٌٖو‬qafala) to put an end to
s.th., terminate, close s.th.; ً‫و‬ٞ‫( ِٓادجحاثٌف‬b.
il-faḍl) as a favor; ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ‫(اِوٓادوجحاث‬aulā) with
all the more reason, the more so; ‫ا٘ويثا‬ٝ‫ـو‬
‫ ثٌذوجح‬about this matter, about this; ‫ِوٓادوجحا‬
ْ‫ًراث‬ٌٚ‫وو‬ٌٞ‫( ث‬b. iḍ-ḍarūra) it is necessary
that ... ; ‫ووـز‬ٌٚ‫ِاِوٓادوجحاث‬١‫( ٘ويثاٌو‬b. iṣ-ṣudfa)
that‘s no coincidence; ‫ وجْآِادجح‬or ‫ا‬ٟ‫هموًاـو‬
‫( دووجح‬with foll. genit.) to belong to, fall
under; ٗ‫ادجدو‬ٟ‫وواـو‬٠ٌ‫ ـ‬unique of its kind; ‫ٍواا‬ٟ
‫ادوجحا‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬to pursue one's livelihood, earn
one‘s bread 80
‫ دجدوووز‬bāba pl. -āt kind, sort, class,
category
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ دوووو‬bawwāb
gatekeeper
pl.
-ūn
doorman,
‫ثدز‬ٛ‫ د‬biwāba office of gatekeeper
‫ثدوووز‬ٛ‫ د‬bawwāba pl. -āt (large) gate,
portal│‫ثدزاثٌمٕ ٌر‬ٛ‫ د‬b. al-qanṯara lock gate
‫ووخ‬٠ٛ‫ صذ‬tabwīb division into chapters,
sectioning,
classification,
systematic
arrangement, grouping
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ِذوو‬mubawwab arranged in groups,
classed, classified
ٓ١ٍ‫د‬ٛ‫ د‬boblīn poplin
‫ٕز‬١‫د‬ٛ‫( د‬Fr. bobine) bobīna spool, reel
‫ش‬٠ٛ‫ د‬see‫ش ا‬١‫د‬
‫صجّج‬ٛ‫د‬, ُ‫صج‬ٛ‫( د‬It. potasa) būtāsā, būtās potash
‫صمووز‬ٛ‫ د‬būtaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa)
crucible, melting pot│ْ‫صمووووزاثٌَِووووج‬ٛ‫اد‬ٟ‫ـوووو‬
(zamān) in the melting pot of time
‫ثك‬ٛ‫ دووو‬buwāḳ evaporation, exhalation,
vapor, steam
‫ل‬٠ٛ‫ صذوو‬tabwīḳ: ‫لاثٌٕىضووز‬٠ٛ‫ صذوو‬an-nukta the
spoiling of the point of a story
‫ز‬١‫ؽ‬ٛ‫( د‬Fr. bougie) bužīh pl. -āt spark plug (eg.)
(‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ دوجؿ )دو‬bāḥa u (bauḥ) to become known, be
revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret); to
reveal, disclose, divulge ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬s.th., a
secret; ٝ‫ ثٌو‬and ‫ ي‬to s.o.) IV to disclose,
reveal ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬s.th., ‫ ي‬to s.o.); to release,
abandon, make public property, declare
ownerless ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to permit, allow, leave
(s.th., ‫ ي‬to s.o.); to justify, warrant ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.) X to reveal ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to regard as
public property, as ownerless, as fair
game; to deem permissible, lawful ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to hurt (ٗ‫ فٌِضوو‬ḥurmatahū s.o.‘s
honor); to take possession ( ‫ ٘ووو‬of),
appropriate, take as booty ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
seize, confiscate ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.)│ٗ‫ثّوووضذجؿاهِووو‬
(damahū) to proscribe, outlaw s.o.
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ دوو‬bauḥ divulgence, disclosure (of a
secret); confession
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ دوو‬būḥ wide, open space; courtyard;
hall
□ ‫ل‬٠‫ دوج‬bāyiḳ spoiled, bad; vapid, insipid,
stale (also, e.g., of a joke)
‫مجًّش‬ٛ‫ د‬būḳārest Bucharest
‫هًر‬ٛ‫( د‬Fr. poudre) būdra powder
‫هلووز‬ٛ‫ د‬būdaqa pl. ‫ثهق‬ٛ‫ دوو‬bawādiq2 crucible,
melting pot
‫ىث‬ٛ‫ د‬būdā Buddha
ٜ‫ى‬ٛ‫ د‬būdī Buddhistic; Buddhist
‫ز‬٠‫ى‬ٛ‫ د‬būdīya Buddhism
(ًٛ‫ دوجً )د‬bāra u (baur, ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawār) to perish; to
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be
futile, unsuccessful, unprofitable, lead to
nothing (work); to be unsalable, be dead
stock (merchandise)│‫( دوجًساثٌذٕوجس‬bint) the
girl could not get a husband II to let lie
fallow ( ‫ ٘ و‬land); to make unprofitable,
useless ( ٘ s.th.) IV to destroy
ًٛ‫ دو‬būr uncultivated, fallow│ًٛ‫ادوو‬ًٛ‫اث‬
(arḍ), pl. ًٛ‫ادو‬ٛ‫( ثًث‬arāḍin) fallow land,
wasteland
‫ دجفوز‬bāḥa pl. -āt wide, open space; open
place, square, plaza; courtyard; hall
‫ ثدجفوز‬ibāḥa divulgence, disclosure (of a
secret);
permission,
authorization;
licentiousness
ٝ‫ ثدوووجف‬ibāḥī licentious, unrestrained,
uninhibited; anarchist; freethinker
‫ووز‬١‫ ثدجف‬ibāḥīya freethinking, libertinism;
anarchism
‫ ثّووضذجفز‬istibāḥa appropriation, capture,
seizure; spoliation, confiscation
‫ ِذوووووجؿ‬mubāḥ permitted, allowed,
permissible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate;
open to everyone, permitted for all, free;
ownerless (1.1. Law); indifferent (said of
actions for which neither reward nor
punishment is to be expected, but which
are permissible, pl. ‫ ِذجفووجس‬indifferent,
permissible actions, Isl. Law)
(‫ك‬ٛ‫ دووجك )دوو‬bāḳa u to abate, subside, let up,
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade,
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to spoil
( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawār perdition, ruin│ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ اهثًاثٌذ‬hell
ٌ‫ دجة‬bā’ir uncultivated, fallow (land)
ٝٔ‫ًث‬ٛ‫ د‬baurānī (eg.) a vegetable stew
‫و‬١‫ًاّوع‬ٛ‫ دو‬būr sa‘īd Port Said (seaport in NE
Egypt)
ْ‫هث‬ٛ‫ًاّو‬ٛ‫ دو‬būr sūdān Port Sudan (seaport in NE
Sudan)
ٛ‫ى‬٠ًٛ‫ًص‬ٛ‫ د‬burturīkū Puerto Rico
‫ًصؽجي‬ٛ‫ د‬burtugāl Portugal
‫ز‬ًٙٛ‫ د‬būrṣa pl. -āt stock exhange
‫ًاـووؤثه‬ٛ‫ دوو‬Port Fuad (seaport in NE Egypt,
opposite Port Said)
‫ًق‬ٛ‫ د‬bauraq borax
‫ًِج‬ٛ‫ د‬burma Burma
1
ًٜٛ‫( اد‬Turk. boru) būrī trumpet, bugle
ٝ‫ؽ‬ًٚٛ‫ د‬biūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler
2
ًٜٛ‫ ادو‬būrī (pl. ًٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawārī) striped mullet
(Mugil cephalus; zool.)
3
ٗ٠ًٛ‫( اد‬Fr.) būrēh purée
ٗ١‫ـ‬ٛ‫( د‬Fr. buffet) būfēh buffet; bar; sideboard
1
ٍٛ‫ اد‬II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen
‫ق‬ٛ‫ د‬II to blow the trumpet
ٍٛ‫ د‬būz pl. ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abwāz muzzle, snout
‫ق‬ٛ‫ دوو‬būq pl. -āt, ‫ثق‬ٛ‫ ثدوو‬abwāq trumpet,
bugle; fanfare; horn (of an automobile, of
a gramophone); acoustic signaling device;
megaphone; mouthpiece, spokesman;
duplicity, treachery, betrayal│‫س‬ٛ‫وو‬ٌٚ‫قاث‬ٛ‫ادوو‬
b. aṣ-ṣaut or ٛ‫ووو‬٠‫قاثٌٌثه‬ٛ‫ دووو‬loudspeaker
(radio); O ٝ‫قاًفّوو‬ٛ‫( دوو‬raḥimi) oviduct,
Fallopian tube (anat.)
‫َر‬٠ٛ‫ صذ‬tabwīza sullen mien
ٍٛ‫ ِذ‬mubawwaz sullen, glum
2
ٍٛ‫ اد‬būz, ‫ٍر‬ٛ‫ د‬bum ice cream
3
‫ٍر‬ٛ‫اد‬būza a beerlike beverage
4
ٍ‫ادج‬bāz pl. ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abwāz, ْ‫َث‬١‫ د‬bīzān falcon
1
ُٛ‫ د‬būs bus
2
‫ُة‬ٛ‫ دجُ )د‬bāsa u (baus) to kiss (ٖ s.o.)
‫ثق‬ٛ‫ د‬bawwāq trumpeter, bugler
‫ دجل وز‬bāqa bundle; bunch of flowers,
nosegay, bouquet
‫ّز‬ٛ‫ د‬bausa, būsa kiss
‫ دجةمز‬bā’iqa pl. ‫ثةوك‬ٛ‫ د‬bawā’iq2 misfortune,
calamity
ٛ‫ّض‬ٛ‫( د‬It. busto) bustū corset
‫ّ ز‬ٛ‫د‬, ‫ّضز‬ٛ‫( د‬It. posta) busṯa, busta post, mail
ًٛ‫ّف‬ٛ‫ ثٌذ‬al-busfūr the Bosporus
‫لوجي‬ٛ‫ د‬būqāl, ‫لجٌووز‬ٛ‫ د‬būqala pl. ً‫وو‬١‫ثل‬ٛ‫ د‬bawāqīl2
vessel without handles, mug
‫ٓة‬ٛ‫ دووجٓايدوو‬bāša u (bauš) to be boisterous,
shout, roar (crowd) II do.
‫ًه‬ٛ‫وْوووف‬ٛ‫ د‬boksəford patrol wagon, paddy
wagon, Black Maria
ٓٛ‫ د‬bauš pl. ٓ‫دج‬ٚ‫ ث‬aubāš (for ٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ )ثد‬mob.
rabble
1
‫وْىجؾ‬ٛ‫( د‬Engl.) bokəkāf box calf
1
ٗٛ‫ د‬būṣ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬reed
‫ز‬ٙٛ‫ د‬būṣa pl. -āt inch
2
‫ي‬ٛ‫ د‬baul pl. ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abwāl urine│‫يا‬ٛ‫اثٌذ‬ٌِٛ‫ا‬
ٌٜ‫ ثٌْى‬maraḍ al-b. as-sukarī diabetes
ٗٛ‫ د‬būṣ pl. ٗ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abwāṣ, linen or silk fabric
‫ٍز‬ٙٛ‫( د‬It. bussola) bōṣla compass
ٌٝٛ‫ د‬baulī uric, urinary, urinous│‫اثٌّْوجٌها‬
‫وز‬١ٌٛ‫ ثٌذ‬the urinary passages; ‫وز‬١ٌٛ‫اثٌذ‬ٛ‫ِوٌث‬٨‫ث‬
diseases of the kidney and urinary
bladder; ‫ا‬ٌٝٛ‫(صْوووُّادووو‬tasammum) uremia
(med.)
‫ز‬ٟٛ‫ د‬būṯa crucible, melting pot
‫ظز‬ٛ‫ د‬būẓa a beerlike beverage
1
2
ٛ‫ دو‬bū‘ metatarsal bone (anat.)│‫ ا‬ٛ‫عوٌؾاثٌىو‬٠‫ا‬٨
ٛ‫ ِوٓاثٌذو‬h‫ ط‬wouldn‘t know his knee from
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid
person)
‫ دووج‬bā‘ pl. ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثدوو‬abwā‗ the span of the
outspread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4
ḍirā‘ mi‘mārīya = 3 m│ ‫وًاثٌذوج‬٠ٟٛ‫ ا‬mighty,
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable;
generous, liberal; ‫ٌاثٌذووج‬١‫وو‬ٚ‫ ل‬powerless,
helpless, impotent, weak, incapable;
niggardly, stingy; ‫ٌاثٌذووج‬١‫وو‬ٚ‫ ل‬impotence,
weakness; incapability (ٓ‫ ع‬of); ‫ثٌويًث‬ٚ‫دجٌذج ا‬
with might and main
1
‫غ‬ٛ‫ د‬II to surprise
1
‫ دجؼز‬bāga celluloid; tortoise shell
‫ؼجهر‬ٛ‫ د‬būgāda and ‫ز‬ٝ‫ؼج‬ٛ‫ د‬būgāḍa potash, lye
ٍ‫ؼووج‬ٛ‫ د‬būgāz pl. َ١‫ثؼ‬ٛ‫ دوو‬bawāgīiz2 strait(s);
harbor│ً١ٔ‫ؼجٍاثٌوًه‬ٛ‫اد‬the Dardanelles
(‫ي‬ٛ‫ دوجي )دو‬bāl u (baul) and V to make water,
urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to
urinate
‫ٍووووز‬١‫ د‬bīla: O ‫ووووز‬١ٔ‫ٍووووزاآفج‬١‫( د‬āḥīnīya)
albuminuria; O ‫وووز‬٠ِٛ‫ٍوووزاه‬١‫( د‬damawīya)
hematuria (med.)
‫ثٌز‬ٛ‫ د‬bawwāla public lavatory
‫ٌوز‬ٛ‫ ِذ‬mabwala pl. ‫ي‬ٚ‫ ِذوج‬mabāwil2 urinal;
a diuretic; -- mibwala chamber pot; toilet,
water closet
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ثّوضذ‬istibwāl: O ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ثّوضذ‬ist. ad-dam
uremia (med.)
2
‫ ادوجي‬bāl state, condition; heart, mind; notice,
regard,
attention│‫ادوووووجي‬ٚ‫ى‬
significant,
notable, considerable, important, serious,
grave; ‫ ـوٌثغاثٌذوجي‬farāg al-b. leisure; ‫يا‬ٛ‫ِٖوؽ‬
‫ ثٌذوجي‬anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried.;
‫وًاثٌذوجي‬٠ٟٛ long-suffering, patient; ...‫ِوجادجٌوٗا‬
(with verb) why is it that he (it) ... ? why
... ? ‫ ِوجادجٌوه‬how about you? what do you
think? ٗ‫ادجٌو‬٩‫ مو‬ḳalā bāluhū his mind is at
rest, he has no worries; ٗ‫ م وووٌادذجٌووو‬it
occurred to him, it came to his mind; ‫ا‬ٝ ‫ثع‬
‫ايية‬ٝ‫ىاؽعوًةادجٌوٗاثٌو‬ٝ‫( يثٌم‬a‘ṯā, alqā, ja‘ala) to
turn one‘s mind to, give one‘s attention to,
pay attention to, take into account, be
mindful of, bear in mind, heed s.th.; ‫ٍوكا‬٠‫ٌوُا‬
٨‫ادوج‬ٌٝٛ‫ ٌمو‬lam yulqi li-qaulī bālan he didn't
pay any attention to what I said; ‫موًاعٕوٗا‬٠‫ا‬٨
٨‫( دج‬yaqillu) no less significant than this
3
‫ي‬ٛ‫ د‬būl postage stamp
4
‫ دجي‬bāl whale (zool.)
5
‫ دجٌز‬look up alphabetically
□ ‫ه‬٨ٛ‫ د‬būlād (= ‫ى‬٨ٛ‫ )ـ‬steel
‫ز‬ٌٚٛ‫ د‬see ‫ْز‬١ٌٛ‫د‬
‫ق‬٨ٛ‫ د‬būlāq2 a district of Cairo
‫ٌٕور‬ٛ‫ د‬bōlanda Poland
ٜ‫ٌٕو‬ٛ‫ د‬bōlandī Polish; (pl. -ūn) Pole
‫ دجٖا‬bāh coitus; sexual potency; sexuality
‫ج‬١ّ١٘ٛ‫( د‬Engl.) bōhīmiyā Bohemia
ّٟ١٘ٛ‫ د‬bōhēmī Bohemian (adj. and n.)
‫ووووووز‬١ّ١٘ٛ‫د‬
bōhēmīya
Bohemian life
Bohemianism,
‫ٔز‬ٚ‫ دؤ‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
year
‫ز‬٠ٛ‫( د‬Turk. boya) bōya paint; shoe polish
ٝ‫ؾ‬٠ٛ‫دوو‬, ٝ‫ووجؽ‬٠ٛ‫( د‬eg.) boyagī house painter,
painter; shoeshine, bootblack
‫ز‬١‫ د‬bayya = ‫ز‬٠‫ دج‬look up alphabetically
‫تز‬١‫ د‬see ٛ‫د‬
‫جهر‬١‫ د‬biyāda infantry (Eg.)
ٜ‫جه‬١‫ د‬biyādī infantryman, foot soldier
ْ‫وج‬١‫د‬, ‫جٔوز‬١‫د‬, ٛٔ‫وج‬١‫ا د‬biyān, biyāna, biyānō pl. ‫جٔوجس‬١‫د‬
biyānāt piano
1
‫ووخ‬١‫ د‬bīb pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a
reservoir or tank)
‫ج‬١ٌٔٛٛ‫( د‬It. Polonia) būlūniya Poland
2
‫ذز‬١‫ د‬bība (Western) smoking pipe
ٌٟٔٛٛ‫ د‬būlūnī Polish; Pole
(‫وش‬١‫ دوجس )د‬bāta i (‫وش‬١‫ ِذ‬mabīt) to pass or spend
the night; to stay overnight; to become; to
be (ٝ‫ ـو‬in a situation); with foll. imperf.: to
get into a situation. Get to the point
where; to continue to do s.th., go on or
keep doing s.th., stick to s.th. II to brood
(by night; ٘ about s.th.); to contrive, hatch
( ‫ ٘و‬an evil plan, ‫ ي‬against s.o.), plot (‫ي‬
against s.o.); to put up for the night (ٖ
s.o.)│‫وؿ‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫وشاـو‬١‫( د‬ṣaff; eg.) to flunk, fail
promotion (pupil) IV to put up for the
night (ٖ s.o.)
ٌٛٛ‫ د‬bōlō polo
1
ِ١ٌٛ‫( د‬Fr. police) būlīs police│‫هثح‬٢‫ِاث‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬vice
squad; ٝ‫ِاثٌؾٕوووجةووو‬١ٌٛ‫( ثٌذووو‬jinā’ī) criminal
police; ٝ‫ِاثٌقٌدووو‬١ٌٛ‫( ثٌذووو‬ḥarbī) military
police; ٌٜ‫ِاثٌْوو‬١ٌٛ‫( ثٌذو‬sirrī) secret police;
ًٌٌّٚ‫ِاث‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬traffic police
‫ز‬١‫ْوو‬١ٌٛ‫ووزاد‬٠‫ث‬ًٚ riwāya būlīsīya detective
story
2
‫ْوز‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬and ‫وز‬ٚ١ٌٛ‫( د‬Fr. police) būlīsā, būlīṣa pl.
ٌ٘‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawāliṣ2, ٌِ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دو‬bawālis2 certificate
of insurance, policy│ٓ‫ْووزاثٌٖووق‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬b. aššaḥn bill of lading
‫ج‬١‫ف‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬būlīfiyā Bolivia
ٝ‫ف‬١ٌٛ‫ د‬būlīfī Bolivian
O ‫ٕج‬١ٌٛ‫ هث اثٌذ‬dā’ al-baulīnā uremia
َٛ‫ د‬būm (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. َ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abwām owl
1
ْٛ‫ د‬baun, būn interval, distance; difference
2
ْ‫ دوج‬coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬ben tree (Moringa; bot.;
horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera; bot.);
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L.;
bot.)
‫ٌُا‬٠‫ْٔج‬ٛ‫ د‬Buenos Aires
ٝٔٛ‫( د‬Engl.) bōnī pl. ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ د‬bawānī pony
‫وش‬١‫ د‬bait pl. ‫س‬ٛ‫و‬١‫ د‬buyūt, ‫صوجس‬ٛ١‫ د‬buyūtāt
house, building; tent (of nomads); room;
apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; case,
box, covering, sheath; pl. ‫صووجس‬ٛ١‫ د‬large,
respectable houses; respectable families;
(pl. ‫وجس‬١‫ ثد‬abyāt) verse│‫دوٌر‬٨‫وشاث‬١‫ اد‬b. al-ibra
(navigator‘s) compass; ‫وش‬١‫ ث٘وًاثٌذ‬ahl al-b.
family, specif., the family of the Prophet;
‫صوجس‬ٛ١‫ ث٘وًاثٌذ‬people from good, respectable
families; ‫ز‬٠ً‫صجساصؾج‬ٛ١‫( د‬tijārīya) commercial
houses; َ‫شاثٌقوٌث‬١‫( ثٌذ‬ḥaram) the Kaaba; ‫وشا‬١‫د‬
٩‫ ثٌنو‬b. al-ḳalā’ and ‫هح‬٨‫وشاث‬١‫ د‬b. al-adab
toilet, water closet; ‫وشاثٌووث‬١‫ د‬origin or seat
of the disease; ٝ‫فوو‬٠ً‫ووشا‬١‫( د‬rīfī) country
house; ‫ور‬١‫ووو‬ٚ‫وووشاثٌم‬١‫ د‬and ‫و‬١‫ووو‬ٚ‫وووشاثٌم‬١‫( د‬the
essential, principal verse of the kasidah,
i.e.) the quintessence; the gist, the
essential, the hit of s.th.; s.th. that stands
out from the rest, the right thing; ُ‫وشاٌقو‬١‫د‬
baitalaḥm2 Bethlehem; ‫شاثٌٍّه‬١‫ ثٌذ‬the ruling
house; ‫وووشاثٌّوووجي‬١‫ د‬treasure house; fisc,
treasury, exchequer (Isl. Law); (Tun.)
administration of vacant Muslim states
ٝ‫ضو‬١‫ د‬baitī domestic, private, home, of the
house,
house(in
compounds);
domesticated (animals); home made
‫وش‬٠ٛ‫ د‬buwait pl. -āt small house; small
tent
‫ وجس‬١‫ د‬bayyāt pl. -ūn and ‫جص وز‬١‫ د‬bayyāta
boarder (student); (pl. -ūn) pupil of a
boarding school (tun.)
‫س‬ٛ١‫ د‬bayyūt stale, old
ً‫ٌلووث‬١‫ د‬bairaqdār color-bearer, standardbearer
ٗ‫و‬١ٌٔ١‫( ؽذوجياثٌذ‬Fr. Pyrénées) jibāl al-bīrinēh the
Pyrenees
1
ٌٚ١‫ د‬bērū Peru
2
ٌٚ١‫( د‬Fr. bureau) bīrō pl. -āt office, bureau
‫س‬ٌٚ١‫ د‬bairūt2 Beirut (capital of Lebanon)
ٝ‫صو‬ٌٚ١‫ د‬bairūtī pl. ‫ثًصوز‬ٛ‫ د‬bawārita, ‫جًصوز‬١‫د‬
bayārita a native or inhabitant of Beirut
ٟٝ‫لٌث‬ٌٚ١‫ د‬bīruqrāṯī bureaucratic
‫ز‬١ٟ‫لٌث‬ٌٚ١‫ د‬bīrūqrāṯīya bureaucracy; red tape
‫ دجةوش‬bā’it stale, old; (eg.) not promoted,
‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫( ـ‬ṣaff) in school
ْْٛ١‫ د‬bīsōn bison
(‫ووو‬١‫ دووجه )د‬bāda i to perish, die, pass away,
become extinct IV to destroy, exterminate,
extirpate ( ٘, ٖ s.o., s.th.)
ْ‫ووواث‬١‫ د‬baida anna although, whereas;
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet,
however, but, ... though
‫ووث‬١‫ د‬baidā’2 pl. ‫وو‬١‫ د‬bīd, ‫ثس‬ٚ‫ووث‬١‫ د‬baidawāt
desert, steppe, wilderness
‫ ثدووجهر‬ibāda annihilation, extermination,
eradication, extirpation
‫ دجةوو‬bā’id passing, transitory, temporal;
past, bygone
‫وو‬١‫ ِذ‬mubīd destructive, annihilative; (pl.
-āt) means of extermination│‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ووثسافٖو‬١‫اِذ‬
(ḥašarīya) insecticides
‫جهر‬١‫ اد‬look up alphabetically
ً‫و‬١‫ د‬baidar pl. ً‫جه‬١‫ د‬bayādir2 threshing floor
‫ووق‬١‫ د‬baidaq (and ‫ويق‬١‫ )د‬pl. ‫وجهق‬١‫ د‬bayādiq2 pawn
(in chess)
ْ‫ئؾج‬١‫ د‬see ْ‫ دجىٔؾج‬alphabetically
1
‫ووٌق‬١‫ د‬bairaq pl. ‫ٌق‬٠‫ دوج‬bayāriq2 flag, banner,
standard
‫ج‬١ َٔ١‫ د‬bīzanṯiyā Byzantium
‫ؾجِج‬١‫ د‬bījāmā and ‫ؾجِز‬١‫ د‬bījāma pajama
2
‫وٌث‬١‫د‬, ‫وٌر‬١‫( د‬It. birra) bīrā, bīra beer│‫وٌث‬١‫وٕااثٌذ‬ِٚ
maṣna‘ al-b. brewery
‫ووش‬١‫ ِذ‬mabīt overnight stop, overnight
stay; shelter for the night
‫ش‬١‫ ِذ‬mubayyit plotter, schemer, intrigant
1
2
□ ‫وجًر‬١‫ د‬bayyāra pl. -āt (pal.) irrigation wheel;
plantation
ٟ َٔ١‫ د‬bīzanṯī Byzantine
(ٜ١‫ )دو‬ٛ‫ دوج‬bāḍa i to lay eggs (also ‫ ;)٘و‬to stay,
settle down, be or become resident (‫ ح‬at a
place)│‫ـٌك‬ٚ‫ادجٌّىجْا‬ٛ‫( ادج‬wa-farraḳa) to be
born and grow up in a place; to establish
itself and spread (plague) II to make
white, paint white, whitewash, whiten ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to bleach, blanch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., textiles,
laundry, rice, etc.); to tin, tinplate ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to make a fair copy ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.)│‫ا‬
ٗ‫ؽوو‬ٌٛ‫اث‬ٜ١‫(دوو‬wajhahū) to make s.o. appear
blameless, in a favorable light, to
whitewash, exculpate, vindicate, justify
s.o., play s.o. up, make much of s.o.; to
honor s.o., show honor to s.o.; ٗ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫ا ا‬ٜ١‫د‬
may God make him happy! ‫اِووٓا‬ٜ١‫ذوو‬٠‫ا‬٨
ٗ‫فض‬١‫وووق‬ٙ this doesn't show him in a
favorable light V pass. of II; IX to be or
become white
ٜ١‫ د‬baiḍ pl. ٛٛ١‫ د‬buyūḍ eggs
‫وز‬ٞ١‫ د‬baiḍa (n. un.) pl. -āt egg; testicle; helmet;
main part, substance, essence│‫ه‬٠‫وزاثٌوو‬ٞ١‫اد‬
b. ad-dīik (the egg of a rooster i.e.) an
impossible or extraordinary thing; ‫زاثٌذٍو‬ٞ١‫د‬
b. al-balad a man held in high esteem in
his community; ً‫وج‬ٌٕٙ‫وزاث‬ٞ١‫اد‬ٝ‫( ـو‬b. in-nahār)
in broad daylight; ‫ؿ‬١‫و‬ٌٚ‫وزاث‬ٞ١‫ا د‬b. aṣ-ṣaif
the hottest part of the summer; َ٩‫ّو‬٨‫وزاث‬ٞ١‫د‬
the territory or pale of Islam; ‫زا‬ٞ١‫ثٌوـج اعٓاد‬
ٓ٠‫ثٌووو‬, 85 ٟٓٛ‫وزاثٌوو‬ٞ١‫( عووٓاد‬b. id-dīn, b. il-
ٜ‫ دوجة‬bā’iḍ pl. ٜ‫ثة‬ٛ‫ د و‬bawā’iḍ2 (egg-)
laying
waṯan) defense of the faith, of the country;
ً‫زاثٌنو‬ٞ١‫ د‬b. al-ḳidr a woman seluded from
the outside world, a chaste, respectable
woman
ٜ١‫ ِذوو‬mubayyiḍ pl. -ūn whitewasher;
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of
fair copy)
ٝ‫و‬ٞ١‫ د‬baiḍī, ٜٛ‫و‬ٞ١‫ د‬baiḍawī and ٜٚ‫وج‬ٞ١‫د‬
baiḍāwī egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate
‫وز‬ٞ١١‫ د‬buyaiḍa and ‫وز‬ٞ٠ٛ‫ د‬buwaiḍa pl. -āt
small egg, ovule; ovum
ٛ‫ووووووج‬١‫د‬
bayāḍ
white,
whiteness:
whitewash; -- (pl. -āt) barren, desolate,
uncultivated land, wasteland: gap, blank
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma
(med.); linen, pl. ‫ووجس‬ٝ‫ج‬١‫ د‬linen goods,
linens; (syr.) milk, butter, and eggs│‫ا‬ٛ‫وج‬١‫اد‬
‫ش‬١‫ ثٌذ‬b. al-bait white of egg, albumen: ‫ا‬ٛ‫ج‬١‫د‬
ٓ١‫ ثٌعو‬b. al-‘ain the white of the eye: ‫ا‬ٛ‫وج‬١‫د‬
ً‫وج‬ٌٕٙ‫ ث‬b. an-nahār daylight, (acc.) by day,
during the daytime; ٗ‫ٍوو‬١ٌ‫ثها‬ٛ‫ّوو‬ٚ‫ِووٗا‬ٛ٠‫ا‬ٛ‫ وج‬١‫د‬
bayāḍa yaumihi wa-sawāda lailihi by day
and by night: ٗ‫ؽو‬ٌٛ‫اث‬ٛ‫وج‬١‫ د‬b. al-wajh tine
character, good reputation; ٛ‫وووج‬١‫ّوووّهاد‬
samak b. a Nile fish (eg.); ٛ‫وج‬١‫اد‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬blank,
free from writing, printing or marks,
uninscribed; (ٜ‫ ثًصوو‬or) ٛ‫وج‬١‫( ٌوذِاثٌذ‬labisa,
irtada) to dress in white
ٛٛ‫و‬١‫ د‬bayūḍ pl. ٜ١‫ دو‬buyūḍ, bīḍ (egg-)
laying
ٜ١‫ ثد‬abyaḍ2, f. ‫ج‬ٞ١‫ د‬baiḍā’2, pl. ٜ١‫ د‬bīḍ
white; bright; clean, shiny, polished;
blameless, noble, sincere (character);
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pl. ْ‫وج‬ٞ١‫ثٌذ‬
al-bīḍān the white race; ٜ١‫دو‬٨‫ ث‬white of
egg, albumen│ ‫ وج‬ٞ١‫اد‬ًٛ‫( اث‬arḍ) barren,
uncultivated land, wasteland; ‫ وج‬ٞ١‫ًراد‬ٛ‫عوو‬
(ṯaura) peaceful, bloodless revolution;
ٜ١‫د‬٨‫اث‬٠١‫( ثٌن‬ḳaiṯ) first light of dawn; ‫ثٌوي٘خا‬
ٜ١‫د‬٨‫( ث‬dahab) platinum; ٜ١‫د‬٨‫ؿاث‬٩ٌْ‫ دج‬with
cold steel; ‫ وج‬ٞ١‫فضٗاد‬١‫ووق‬ٙ (ṣaḥīfatuhū) his
reputation is good: he has noble de.ds to
his credit, he has a noble character; ‫وقؿا‬ٙ
‫وج‬ٞ١‫( د‬ṣuḥuf) noble, glorious deeds: ‫دوزا‬ٚ‫ثوي‬
‫ وج‬ٞ١‫( د‬ukdūba) white lie, fih: ‫ وج‬ٞ١‫ٍووزاد‬١ٌ
(laila) a sleepless night, a night spent
awake: ٜ١‫د‬٨‫ساث‬ٌّٛ‫( ث‬maut) natural death; ‫وا‬٠
‫ج‬ٞ١‫( د‬yad) beneficent hand, benefaction
ٜ١‫ ِذ‬mabīḍ, mibyaḍ ovary (anat.)
‫ز‬ٞ١١‫ صذ‬tabyīḍa fair copy
O ٛ‫ج‬ٞ١‫ ثد‬ibyiḍāḍ leukemia (med.)
‫ز‬ٞ١‫ ِذ‬mubayyaḍa fair copy
ٌ‫ و‬١‫ د‬baiṯara to practice veterinary science; to
shoe ( ٘ a horse)
ً‫ ووووج‬١‫ د‬baiṯar pl.
veterinarian; farrier
‫ٌر‬ٟ‫ووووج‬١‫د‬
bayātira
ٌٜ‫ وو‬١‫ د‬baiṯarī veterinary│ٌٜ‫ وو‬١‫ثٌ ووخاثٌذ‬
(ṯibb) veterinary medicine; ٌٜ‫ وو‬١‫ووخاد‬١‫ذ‬ٟ
veterinarian
‫ ٌر‬١‫ د‬baiṯara veterinary science; farriery
1
(‫ا‬١‫ دج )د‬bā‘a i (bai‘,‫ا‬١‫ ِذ‬mabī‘) to sell ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
ٖ or ‫ ي‬to s.o., ‫ ح‬for a price) III to make a
contract (ٖ with s.o.); to pay homage (ٖ to
s.o.); to acknowledge as sovereign or
leader (ٖ s.o.), pledge allegiance (ٖ to) IV
to offer for sale ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VI to agree on
the terms of a sale, conclude a bargain VII
to be sold, be for sale VIII to buy,
purchase (ِٓ ٘ s.th. from s.o. and ٘ ٖ from
s.o. s.th.)│ٗ‫عووو‬١‫اثد‬٨ٚ‫اثدضوووج إِوووٗا‬٨‫( ا‬abtā‘u,
abī‘uhū) I don't trust him
‫ووا‬١‫ د‬bai‘ pl. ٛ‫و‬١‫ د‬buyū‘,‫عوجسا‬ٛ١‫ د‬buyū‘āt
sale│‫وا‬١‫ ٌٍذ‬for sale; ‫وز‬٠ٌ‫عوجس( ؽذ‬ٛ١‫ د‬or) ٛ‫و‬١‫د‬
(jabrīya) forced sales, compulsory sale by
auction: ‫واادجٌؾٍّوز‬١‫( د‬jumla) wholesale sale;
ً‫وج‬١‫واادجٌن‬١‫( د‬ḳiyār) optional sale (Isl. Law);
‫موٌاًثؼوخ‬٢‫واا‬١‫( د‬li-āḳir rāgibīn) sale to the
highest bidder; ‫ٕووز‬١‫وااثٌع‬١‫ د‬b. al-‘īna credit
operation (Isl. Law)
‫عوووز‬١‫ د‬bai‘a agreement, arrangement;
business deal, commercial transaction,
bargain; sale; purchase; homage│‫عوز‬١‫اثٌذ‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
into the bargain
‫وج‬١‫ د‬bayyā‘ salesman, merchant, dealer,
commission agent, middleman
‫وا‬١‫ ِذ‬mabī‘ sale, pl. -āt sales (esp. on the
stock market)
‫ع وز‬٠‫ ِذج‬mubāya‘a pl. -āt conclusion of
contract; homage; pledge of allegiance;
transaction
‫ج‬١‫ ثدض‬ibtiyā‘ purchase
‫ دوجةا‬bā’i‘2 pl. ‫ دجعوز‬bā‘a seller, vendor;
dealer, merchant; salesman
‫ دجةعز‬bā’i‘a saleswoman
‫ا‬١‫ ِذ‬mabī‘ and ‫ ِذج‬mubā‘ sold
‫ ِذضج‬mubtā‘ buyer, purchaser
2
‫عوز‬١‫ اد‬bai‘a pl. -āt, ‫ووا‬١‫ د‬biya‘ (Chr.) church;
synagogue
‫وه‬١‫ د‬bē (eg.), bēg, bēk pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ىو‬١‫ د‬bēgawāt (syr.)
bey (title of courtesy); cf. ‫ده‬
‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ى‬١‫ د‬bīkawīya rank of bey
ً‫ىج‬١‫ د‬bīkār compass, (pair of) dividers
ٕٝ‫ىذج‬١‫ د‬see ٕٝ‫دىذج‬
ٗ‫ى‬١‫( د‬Fr.) bīkeh plqué (fabric)
1
ً‫و‬١‫( د‬Fr. bille) bīl ball│ً‫و‬١‫اد‬ٝ‫ وٌّو‬kursī b. ball
bearing
2
‫ٍز‬١‫ د‬bīla see ‫ي‬ٛ‫د‬
ْ‫ٍْج‬١‫ د‬bailasān black elder (bot.)
‫ج‬١ًّ‫ج‬ٍٙ١‫ د‬bilharsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
(med.)
ٗ١ٍ١‫( د‬Fr. bille) bīlya pl. -āt little ball, marble
ْ‫ّجًّضج‬١‫ د‬bīmāristān hospltal; lunatic asylum
1
‫ٓة‬١‫ دوجْ يدو‬bāna i (ْ‫وج‬١‫ د‬bayān) to be or become
plain, evident, come out, come to light; to
be clear (‫ ي‬to s.o.); (ٓ١‫ دوو‬bain, ‫ٔووز‬ٕٛ١‫د‬
bainūna) to part, be separated (ٓ‫ ِو‬from) II
to make clear, plain, visible, evident ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to announce ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to state ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to show, demonstrate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
explain, expound, elucidate ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.),
throw light ( ‫ ٘و‬on) III to part, go away (ٖ
from), leave (ٖ s.o.); to differ, be different
( ‫٘وو‬, ٖ from), be unlike s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘وو‬to
contradict ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be contrary ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to
conflict, be at variance, be inconsistent ( ‫٘و‬
with s.th.) IV to explain, expound,
elucidate (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. to s.o.); to separate,
sift, distinguish (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from); to be
clear, plain, evident V to be or become
clear, intelligible (‫ ي‬to s.o.); to turn out,
prove in the end, appear, become evident;
to follow (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), be explained (ٓ‫ ِو‬by);
to be clearly distinguished (ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to
seek to ascertain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), try to get at the
mct8 ( ‫ ٘و‬of); to eye or examine critically,
scrutinize ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to look, peer ( ‫٘و‬
at); to see through s.th. ( ‫)٘و‬, see clearly,
perceive, notice, discover, find out ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to distinguish (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from) VI
to differ, be different, be opposed, be
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; to
vary, differ, fluctuate (ٓ١‫ دوو‬between two
amounts or limits) X to be or become
clear, plain, evident; to Bee, know,
perceive, notice ( ٘ s.th.); pass. ustubīna to
follow clearly, be clearly seen (ِٓ from)
ٓ١‫ دوو‬bain separation, division; interval;
difference│ٓ١‫ ىثساثٌذوووو‬enmity, disunion,
discord; ٓ١‫اثٌذ‬ٝ‫ ـ‬meantime, meanwhile
ٓ١‫ دوو‬baina (prep.) or ٓ١‫ّووجادوو‬١‫ ـ‬fī-ma b.
between; among, amidst│–‫ا‬ٚ‫ٓا–ا‬١‫ د‬either -or, partly -- partly, e.g., ‫وجِشا‬ٙ‫ٓا‬١‫َادو‬ٛ‫ووجْاثٌمو‬
ٍُ‫ِضى‬ٚ (ṣāmitin wa-mutakallimin) the crowd
was divided among those who were silent
and those who talked; ٗ‫و‬٠‫و‬٠‫ٓا‬١‫( دو‬yadaihi) in
front of him, before him, in his presence;
with him. on him, in his possession, e.g., ‫ا‬٨
ٗ‫وو‬٠‫و‬٠‫ٓا‬١‫ؿادوو‬٩‫( ّوو‬silāḥa) he hasn‘t got a
weapon on him, he is unarmed; ‫ٓاىٌوه‬١‫ّوجادو‬١‫ـ‬
meanwhile, in the meantime; ‫ٓا‬١‫دو‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫ٕو‬١‫ّوجاد‬١‫ـ‬
ٝ‫ ٔفْو‬in my heart, at heart, inwardly; ‫ٓا‬١‫دو‬
ٗ‫و‬١‫ ىًثع‬in his arms; ُٕٙ‫و‬١‫ ِوٓاد‬min bainihim
from among them, from their midst; ٓ١‫ٓادو‬١‫د‬
something between, a cross, a mixture, a
combination; neither good nor bad,
medium, tolerable; ٓ١‫ٓادو‬١‫ ادو‬ٟ‫ ٕو‬something
between, a cross, a mixture, a
combination; ٌ‫آم‬ٚ‫لشا‬ٚ‫ٓا‬١‫( د‬waqt, āḳar), ‫ٓا‬١‫د‬
ٌٜ‫أمو‬ٚ‫( ـضوٌرا‬fatra, uḳrā) at times, from time
to time
ٓ١‫ ِجاد‬mā-baina look up alphabetically
‫ٕوج‬١‫ د‬bainā, ‫ّٕووج‬١‫ د‬bainamā (conj.) while;
whereas
ٓ١‫ دو‬bayyin clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent; (pl. ‫ج‬١ٕ‫ ثد‬abyinā’2) eloquent
ْ‫وج‬١‫ د‬bayān pl. -āt clearness, plainness,
patency,
obviousness;
statement,
declaration, announcement; manifestation;
explanation, elucidation, illustration;
information, news; (official) report.
(official) statement; enumeration, index,
list; eloquence; ْ‫وج‬١‫ ثٌذ‬the Koran; see also
alphabetically│‫مووووووز‬١‫ووووووجْاثٌقم‬١‫د‬
correction
(journ.); ْ‫ووووج‬١‫اعووووٓاثٌذ‬ٟ‫( ؼٕوووو‬ganīy) selfexplanatory, self-evident; ْ‫وج‬١‫‘ عٍوُاثٌذ‬ilm alb. rhetoric; ْ‫وج‬١‫‘ ع وؿاثٌذ‬aṯf al-b. explicative
apposition (gram.)
ٝٔ‫ووج‬١‫ د‬bayānī explanatory, illustrative;
rhetorical
‫ٕووووز‬١‫ د‬bayyina pl. -āt clear proof,
indisputable evidence; evidence (Isl.
Law);
a
document
serving
&8
evidence│‫ووووووووووووز‬١‫ٕووووووووووووزاظٌـ‬١‫د‬
(ẓarfīya)
circumstantial evidence; ‫ٕووز‬١‫اد‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬as has
been proved; ٓ‫ٕووزاِوو‬١‫اد‬ٝ‫ وووجْاعٍوو‬to be fully
aware of; to he well-informed, wellposted, up-to-date about
‫ تابيوكا‬tābiyōkā tapioca
ٓ١‫ ثدو‬abyan2 clearer, more distinct, more
obvious
1
ً‫ صوب‬IV ‫( اتأأ البرأ‬baṣara) to stare (ٖ or ‫ الأ‬at
s.o.)
2
‫ صجًر‬see ًٛ‫ص‬
ْ‫ووج‬١‫ صذ‬tibyān exposition, demonstration,
explanation, illustration
ٓ١‫و‬١‫ صذ‬tabyīn and ‫ ثدجٔووز‬ibāna exposition,
demonstration, explanation, illustration
ٓ٠‫ صذوووج‬tabayun difference, unlikeness,
dissimilarity, disparity
ٕٝ٠‫ صذووووج‬tabāyunī
conflicting
different,
differing,
ٓ‫ دوجة‬bā’in clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent; final, irrevocable (divorce; Isl.
Law); of great length│‫ي‬ٛ‫ دوجةٓاثٌ و‬b. aṯ-ṯūl
towering, of unusual height (person)
‫ دجةٕز‬bā’ina bride‘s dowry
‫ٔز‬ٛ١‫ ِذ‬mabyūna distance
ٓ١‫ ِذ‬mubīn clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent│ٓ١‫ ثٌىضجحاثٌّذ‬the Koran
ٓ٠‫ ِضذوووج‬mutabāyin dissimilar, unlike,
differential, differing, varying
2
ْ‫ج‬١‫د‬, ‫جٔز‬١‫ د‬look up alphabetically
ٕٝ‫ٕذج‬١‫ د‬see ٕٝ‫دىذج‬
ٛ‫ٕض‬١‫ د‬see ٛ‫دٕض‬
ٖ‫ووج‬١ٌّ‫ ًـووااث‬t. raf‘ al-miyāh Archimedean
screw; ‫ تابوت الساقية‬t. as-āqiya scoop wheel,
Persian wheel
‫ تأتأ‬ta’ta’a to stammer (with fright)
‫ صجػ‬see ‫ػ‬ٛ‫ص‬
‫ صؤهر‬see ‫أه‬ٚ
‫ صجٍر‬tāza (= ‫جٍر‬ٟ) fresh, tender, new
‫ تأا‬taka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ذا‬
dāka (dual nom. ‫ صجٔوه‬tānika, genit., acc.
‫ تين‬tainika)
َ‫أ‬ٛ‫ص‬, َ ٛ‫ ص‬tau’am, f. ‫ر‬, pl. ُ‫ثة‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawā’im2 twin
َ١ِ‫ ثٌضج‬at-tāmīz the Thames
ٜ‫ صج‬tay (tun., alg.) tea│ٌّ‫اثف‬ٜ‫ صج‬black tea
ًٛ٠‫ صوج‬tāyōr and ٌ١٠‫ صوج‬tāyēr (Fr. tailleur) pl. -āt
ladies‘ tailored suit, tailleur
‫ صوخ‬tabba i (tabb, ‫ صذوخ‬tabab, ‫ صذوجح‬tabāb) to
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be
stabilized, be or become stable; to be
settled, established, well-ordered, regular,
normal; to progress well│ٌ‫ِوو‬٨‫ثّووضضخاٌووٗاث‬
everything went well with him
ٗ‫ صذوجاٌو‬tabban lahū may evil befall him!
may he perish!
‫ ثّوووضضذجح‬istitbāb normalcy, regularity,
orderliness, order; stability; favorable
course or development
ٗ١‫ د‬bēh = ‫ده‬
‫ ثٌضذش‬at-tibt Tibet
1
ٗ٠ًٛ١‫( د‬Engl.) biyūrē purée
2
ٗ٠ًٛ١‫( د‬Fr. pyorrhée) biyōrēh pyorrhea (med.)
ٌ‫ صذو‬tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
‫ت‬
ٌ‫ صذوو‬tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold
nuggets; ore
ً‫ صذج‬tabār ruin, destruction
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ صذ‬tibrīya dandruff
1
‫ س‬abbreviation of ْٛ‫ صٍف‬telephone
2
‫ س‬ta (particle introducing oaths) by, ‫ صوجهلل‬tallāhi by God!
َ‫و‬٠ٌ‫ صذ‬tabrīz2 Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital of
Azerbaijan province)
‫ صج‬tā’ name of the letter‫سا‬
‫ صذووا‬tabi‘a a (taba‘,‫ صذجع وزا‬tabā‘a) to follow,
succeed (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), come after s.o. or
s.th. ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ); to trail, track ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th) go
after s.o. or s.th. ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ); to walk behind s.o.
(ٖ); to pursue ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to keep, adhere,
‫س‬ٛ‫ صوجد‬tābūt pl. ‫وش‬١‫ثد‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawābīt2 box, case, chest,
coffer; casket, coffin, sarcophagus│‫سا‬ٛ‫صوجد‬
‫وو‬ٙ‫ ثٌع‬t. al-‘ahd ark of the covenant; ‫سا‬ٛ‫صوجد‬
stick ( ‫ ٘ و‬to s.th.), observe ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th; to
follow, take ( ‫ ٘و‬a road), enter upon ‫ ي٘و‬a
road or course); to comply ( ‫ ٘و‬with s.th.);
to belong, pertain ( ‫ ٘وووو‬to); to be
subordinate, be attached (ٖ to s.o.), be
under s.o.‘s (ٖ) authority or command, be
under s.o. (ٖ)│ًُٚ‫( صذااثٌوو‬durūsa) to attend
classes regularly III to follow ( ‫٘و‬, ‫ ٖا‬s.o.
s.th.; also = to keep one's mind or eyes on,
e.g., on a development); to agree, concur
(ٖ with s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬in s.th.), be in agreement
or conformity ( ‫٘و‬, ٝ‫ عٍو‬with); to pursue,
chase, follow up (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to
continue ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; ٌٖ١‫ ّو‬sairahū on one‘s
way), go on ( ‫ ٘و‬with or in) IV to cause to
succeed or follow (in time, rank, etc.); to
place (ٖ s.o.) under s.o.‘s ‫ يٖةا‬authority or
command, subordinate (‫ ٖاٖا‬to s.o. s.o., ‫٘و‬
‫ ٘و‬to s.th. s.th.) V to follow ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., esp.
fig.: a topic, a development, the news,
etc., = to watch, study); to pursue, trail,
track ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to trace ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
be subordinate ( ‫٘و‬, ‫ ٖا‬to), be attached (ٖ to
s.o.) VI to follow in succession, be
successive or consecutive, come or
happen successively; to form an
uninterrupted sequence VIII to follow,
succeed (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), come after ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ);
to make ( ٘ s.th.) be succeeded or followed
(‫ ح‬by s.th. else); to prosecute (ٖ s.o.), take
legal action (ٖ against); to follow, obey,
heed, observe, bear in mind ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
pursue ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to examine, investigate,
study ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); pass. uttubi‘a to have or
find followers, adherents (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬for s.th.,
e.g., for an idea)│‫جّوز‬١ّ‫( ثصذواا‬siyāsatan) to
pursue a policy; ٗ‫ٕوو‬١ّ٠‫( ثصذوواا‬yamīnahū) to
keep (to the) right X to make (ٖ s.o.)
follow, ask (ٖ s.o.) to follow; to seduce (ٖ
s.o.); to have as its consequence,
engender, entail ( ٘ s.th.); to subordinate to
o.s., make subservient to o.s. ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ صذووا‬taba‘ succession; subordinateness,
dependency:
following.
Followers;
subordinate, subservient (‫ ي‬to s.th.): ‫دوجٌضذا‬
successively, consecutively; ‫ صذعوجاي‬taba‘an
li according to, in accordance with,
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in
consequence of, as the result of; (pl. ‫ثصذوج‬
atbā‘) follower, companion, adherent,
partisan; subject, national, citizen;
appertaining,
appurtenant,
pertinent,
incident
ٝ‫ صذع‬taba‘ī: ‫ز‬١‫دزاصذع‬ٛ‫‘( عم‬uqūba) incidental
punishment (jur.)
‫ صذعووووز‬tabi‘a pl. -āt consequence;
responsibility, irresponsibleness│‫اثٌضذعوزا‬ٝ‫ثٌم‬
ٍٝ‫( ع‬alqā) to make s.o. or s.th. responsible
‫ا‬١‫ صذ‬tabī‘ pl. ‫ صذج‬tibā‘ following attached,
attending, adjunct; -- (pl. ‫ صذ وجةا‬tabā’i‘2)
follower, adherent, partisan; aide, help,
assistant, attendant, servant
‫وووز‬١‫ صذع‬taba‘īya pl. -āt subordination,
subjection; subordinateness, dependency;
citizenship,
nationality;
‫وووووووووز‬١‫دجٌضذع‬
subsequently, afterwards; consequently,
hence, therefore, accordingly
‫ صذجعوج‬tibā‘an in succession, successively,
consecutively, one after the other, one by
one
‫ ِضجدعوووز‬mutāba‘a following, pursuing,
pursuit, prosecution; continuation
‫ ثصذووج‬itbā‘ (gram.) intensification by
repeating a word with its initial consonant
changed, such as katīr batīr
‫ صضذوا‬tatabu‘ following (esp. fig., of an
argument, of a development, see V
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession,
course│ٝ‫ن‬٠ً‫ ثٌضضذوااثٌضوج‬the course of history;
‫وووووز‬١ٌ‫‗( صضذعوووووجساعو‬adlīya) legal action,
prosecution
‫ صضووجدا‬tatābu‗ sucession; relay (athlet.);
‫ دجٌضضوووجدا‬consecutively, successively, in
succession; serially, in serialized form
‫ ثصذوج‬ittibā‗ following; pursuit (e.g., of a
policy); adherence (to), compliance
(with), observance (of); ‫ ثصذجعوجاي‬ittibā‘an li
according to, in accordance or conformity
with, pursuant to, in observance of
O ٝ‫ ثصذجع‬ittibā‘ī classical
O ‫ز‬١‫ ثصذجع‬ittibā‘īya classicism
‫ ص وجدا‬tābi‘ pl. ‫ صذع وز‬taba‘a, ‫ صذ وج‬tubbā‘
following,
succeeding,
subsequent;
subsidiary, dependent; minor, secondary;
subordinate (‫ ي‬to s.o.), under s.o. (‫;)ي‬
belonging (‫ ي‬to); subject to s.o.‘s (‫)ي‬
authority or competence; adherent (‫ ي‬to)
following (‫ ي‬s.o. or s.th.); -- (pl. ‫ثصذ وج‬
atbā‘) adherent, follower, partisan;
subject, citizen, national; subordinate,
servant; factotum; (pl. ‫ثدووا‬ٛ‫ )ص‬appositive
(gram.);
appendix,
addendum,
supplement; O function (math.)│‫يا‬ٚ‫اثٌووو‬
‫( ثٌضجدعز‬duwal) the satellite countries
‫ صجدع وز‬tābi‘a pl. ‫ثدووا‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawābi‘2 female
attendant, woman servant; a female
demon who accompanies women;
appurtenance, dependency; consequence,
effect, result; responsibility; pl. ‫ثدوووا‬ٛ‫ص‬
dependencies, dependent territories; O
satellites (pol.), = ‫ثدوا‬ٛ‫ياثٌض‬ٚ‫( ثٌوو‬duwal) the
satellite countries
‫ز‬١‫ صجدع‬tābi‘īya nationality, citizenship
ٛ‫ ِضذ و‬matbū‘ followed, succeeded (‫ح‬
by); one to whom service or obedience is
rendered, a leader, a principal (as
distinguished from ‫ صجدا‬subordinate) 90
‫ ِضضجدا‬mutatābi‗ successive, consecutive
‫ ِضذووا‬muttaba‘ observed, adhered to,
complied with (e.g. regulation, custom);
followed, traveled (road, course)
‫ صذػ‬tibg pl. ‫غ‬ٛ‫ صذ‬tubūg tobaooo
ً‫ صذو‬tabala i to consume, waste, make sick (ٖ
s.o.; said of love) II, III and ً‫دو‬ٛ‫ ص‬taubala to
spice, season ( ٘ s.th)
ً‫ صجدووو‬tābal, tābil pl. ً‫ثدووو‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawābil2
coriander (bot.); spice, condiment,
seasoning
1
ٌ‫ ثٌضض‬at-tatar and ً‫ ثٌضضج‬at-tatar the Tatars
ٌٜ‫ صض‬tatarī Tatarian; Tatar
ٌٜ‫ صضوو‬tatra (from ٌ‫صوو‬ٚ) one after the other,
successively, in succession
‫ صضه‬titik trigger
ٓ‫ صض‬tutun tobacco
ُٕٛ‫ صض‬tetanūs tetanus (med.)
ٌ‫ صؾو‬tajara u and VIII to trade, do business; to
deal (ٝ‫ ـ‬or ‫ ح‬in s.th.) III do. (ٖ with s.o.)
‫ صؾووجًر‬tijāra commerce; traffic, trade;
merchandise
ًٜ‫ صؾوووج‬tijārī commercial, mercantile,
trade,
trading,
business,
(used
attributively); commercialized│ًٜ‫وشاصؾوج‬١‫د‬
(bait) commercial house, business house;
‫وز‬٠ً‫( ثٌقٌووزاثٌضؾج‬ḥaraka) trade, traffic; ‫ٕوٌوزا‬
‫وز‬٠ً‫( صؾج‬širka) trading company; ًٜ‫ثصفوجقاصؾوج‬
(ittifāq) trade agreement
ٌ‫ ِضؾو‬matjar pl. ٌ‫ ِضوجؽ‬matājir2 bussiness,
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store,
shop
ٌٜ‫ ِضؾ‬matjar commercial, trade, trading,
business (used attributively)
ً‫ ثصؾج‬ittijār trade, business (‫ ح‬in s.th)
‫ٌوز‬ٛ‫ صذ‬tabbūla (syr., leb.) a kind of salad
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion,
lemon juice, spices, and oil
ٌ‫ صوجؽ‬tājir pl. ً‫ صؾوج‬tujjār, tijār merchant,
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman│‫ا‬
‫صجؽٌاثٌؾٍّز‬t. al-jumla wholesale dealer; ‫صجؽٌا‬
‫ ثٌضؾَةوز‬t. at-tajzi’a and ٝ‫ صوجؽٌاثٌم وجع‬t. alqiṯā‘ī retailer
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِضذو‬matbūl (Iove-)sick, weak, ravaged,
consumed
‫ووووجعزاصووووجؽٌر‬ٞ‫ د‬biḍā‘a
marketable merchandise
ً‫ ِضذووووو‬mutabbal spiced, seasoned,
flavored; (syr., leb.) stuffed with a mixture
of rice, chopped meat and various spices,
e.g., ً‫ دئؾجْاِضذ‬stuffed eggplant
ٍٖٛ‫( صذ‬Fr. tableau) tablōh pl. -āt a painting
ٓ‫ صذ‬tibn straw
ٕٝ‫ صذ‬tibnī straw-colored, flaxen
ْ‫ صذج‬tabbān straw vendor
‫ هًحاثٌضجدٕ وز‬darb at-tabbāna the Milky
Way
ٓ‫ ِضووذ‬matban pl. ٓ‫ ِض وجد‬matābin2 strawstack
‫وج‬ٛ١‫ اصذ‬tabiyōkā tapioca
tājira
salable,
ٖ‫ صؾوج‬tujāha (prep.) in front of, opposite, face to
face with, facing
‫ا صقووش‬taḥta (prep.) under; below, beneath,
underneath│ ‫( صقوش‬tajriba) on probation;
in an experimental state; ٌ١‫وو‬ٞ‫ صقوشاثٌضق‬in
preparation; ‫( صقووشاثٌقف و‬ḥifẓ) in custody,
under guard; ‫( صقوشاثٌْووثه‬sadād), ‫و‬٠‫صقوشاثٌضْوو‬
due, outstanding, unsettled, unpaid (com.);
‫ؿ‬٩‫ صقووووشاثٌْوووو‬under arms; ُٙ‫صقووووشاّووووّع‬
(sam‘ihim) in their hearing, for them to
hear; ‫ز‬٠ٛ‫( صقووشاثٌضْوو‬taswiya) outstanding,
unpaid,
unsettled (com.); ‫صقوووشاثٕوووٌثؾ‬
(išrāfi)
under
the
patronage
or
superintendence
of;
ًٛ‫صقوووووووشاثٌٖوووووووع‬
subconscious; ٗ‫ووٌـ‬ٚ‫( صقووشاص‬taṣarrufihī) at
his disposal; ‫( صقشاثٌ ذوا‬ṯab‘) in press; ‫صقوشا‬
ْ‫ث‬ٕٛ‫‗( ع‬unwāni) under the title of; ‫ٕٕوج‬١‫صقشاثع‬
(a‘yuninā) before our eyes; ٓ٠ٌ‫ صقوشاثٌضّو‬in
training; ‫وو‬١ٌ‫( صقوشاث‬yad) in hand, at hand,
available, handy; ‫ووٖا‬٠‫ صقشا‬in his power; ‫ِوٓا‬
‫ صقوش‬min taḥt from under, from beneath;
under
‫ صقوووشا‬taḥtu (adv.) below, beneath,
underneath
‫ا‬ٝٔ‫ صقضووووج‬taḥtānī lower, undercompounds)│‫ز‬١ٔ‫دِاصقضج‬٩ِ‫ا‬underwear
(in
‫ صقفوز‬tuḥfa pl. ‫ صقووؿ‬tuḥaf gift, present;
gem (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of
virtu, objet d'art; work of art│‫ووز‬١ٕ‫صقفووزاـ‬
(fannīya) unique work of art
matāḥif2
aš-šam‘
‫ صل‬taḳḳa u to become sour, ferment (dough)
1
‫اصنوش‬pl. tuḳūt bed, couch; bench; seat; sofa;
chest, case, box, coffer, cabinet;
wardrobe;
platform,
dais;
band,
orchestra│‫اصنوووشاثٌٍّوووه‬t. al-mulk throne;
royal residence, capital; ‫ صنوشاثٌٍّّىوز‬t. almamlaka capital (of a country)
ْ‫ث‬ًٚ‫صنووووووشا‬,
ْ‫ث‬ٌٚ‫صنضوووووو‬
taḳtaruwān,
taḳtarawān mule-borne litter
2
‫ اصنضز‬taḳta board; desk; blackboard
ُ‫ اصنو‬taḳima a to suffer from indigestion, feel
sick from overeating IV to surfeit, satiate
(ٖ s.o.)‫ا‬to give (ٖ s.o.) indigestion, make
sick (ٖ s.o.); to overstuff, cloy (ٖ the
stomach) VIII = I
‫ صنّوووز‬tuḳama, tuḳma pl. ُ‫صنووو‬, -āt
indigestion, dyspeptic
َٛ‫ِضنوووووو‬
matḳūm
indigestion, dyspeptic
2
suffering
from
ُ‫اصنو‬taḳama i to fix the limits of ( ‫)٘و‬, delimit,
limit, confine, bound ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to border
( ٘ on), be adjacent ( ٘ to s.th.)
ُ‫ صنوو‬taḳm pl. َٛ‫ صنوو‬tuḳūm boundary,
border, borderline, limit
ُ‫ ِضجم‬mutāḳm neighboring, adjacent
‫َر‬١‫( صٌثد‬eg.; tarābēza) pl. -āt table
‫ِج‬ٛ‫ صٌثم‬trāḳōmā trachoma (med.)
ُ‫( صٌث‬Fr. terrasse) terās terrace
‫ صوٌح‬tariba a to be or become dusty, covered
with dust II and IV to cover with dust or
earth (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to be s.o.‘s (ٖ)
mate or comrade, be of the same age (ٖ as
s.o.) V to be dusty, be covered with dust
‫ صوٌح‬tirb pl. ‫ ثصوٌثح‬atrāb person of the
same
age,
contemporary,
mate,
companion, comrade
‫ صٌح‬tarib dusty, dust-covered
‫ صٌدوز‬turba pl. ‫ صوٌح‬turab dust; earth, dirt;
ground (also fig.); soil; grave, tomb;
graveyard, cemetery, burial ground
ٝ‫ صٌد‬turabī pl. -īya (eg.) gravedigger
‫ صوٌثح‬turāb pl. ‫ ثصٌدوز‬atriba, ْ‫ صٌدوج‬tirbān
dust, earth, dirt; ground, soil
ٝ‫ صٌثد‬turābī dusty; dustlike, powdery;
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray
O ‫ صٌثدز‬turāba cement
‫ صنضل‬taḳtaḳa to rot, decay
1
ٌِٜ‫ صو‬tadmurī, usually pronounced tudmurī
anyone│ٌِٜ‫اصو‬٨‫ا‬nobody, not a living soul
َ‫صٌث‬, ٜ‫ث‬ِٛ‫ صٌث‬trām, tramwāy tramway
‫ صقؿ‬IV to present (‫ ٖ ح‬or ٘ ٖ s.o. with s.th)
‫ ِضقووووؿ‬matḥaf pl. ‫ِضووووجفؿ‬
museum│‫اِضقووووووؿاثٌٖووووووّا‬
m.
waxworks
ٌِ‫ صو‬tadmur2, usually pronounced tudmur2
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a
small village)
‫ذز‬٠ٌ‫ ص‬tarība pl. ‫ صٌثةخ‬tarā’ib2 chest,
thorax
‫ ِضٌدوووووز‬matraba poverty, misery,
destitution; (pl. ‫ ِضجًح‬matārib2) dirt quarry
‫ ِضٌح‬mutrib dusty, dust-covered
ِ‫ صٌد‬tarbasa (= ِ‫ )هًد‬to bolt ( ٘ a door)
ُ‫ صٌدوج‬tirbās pl. ِ١‫ صووٌثد‬tarābis2, ِ‫صووٌثد‬
tarābis2 bolt, l&tch (of a door or window)
ٓ١‫ صٌدٕض‬tarbantīn turpentine
‫َر‬١‫( صٌد‬eg.) tarabēza table
ٓ١‫ صٌد‬trbīn pl. -āt turbine
‫ صٌثط‬see ‫صٌط‬ٚ
ٌ‫ صٌص‬tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg.)
ُ‫ صوٌؽ‬tarjama to translate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. ٓ‫ عو‬from one
language ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to another); to interpret ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to treat ( ‫ ٘ و‬of s.th.) by way of
explanation, expound ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to write a
biography (‫ ي‬of s.o., also ٖ)
opulent means, surround with luxury (ٖ
s.o.) V = I
ُ‫ صووووٌؽ‬tarjama pl. ُ‫ صووووٌثؽ‬tarājim2
translation; interpretation; biography (also
‫وووووجر‬١‫ ;)صٌؽّوووووزاثٌق‬introduction, preface,
foreword (of a book)│‫ز‬١ٕ١‫اثٌضٌؽّوووزاثٌْوووذع‬
(sab‘īnīya) the Septuagint
‫ صوووٌؾ‬taraf and ‫ صٌـوووز‬turfa luxury,
opulence, affluence; effemination
ْ‫ صٌؽّووج‬turjumān pl. ‫ صٌثؽّ وز‬tarājima,
ُ١‫ صٌثؽ‬tarājim2 transla.tor, interpreter
,-:;" mutarjim translator, interpreter;
biographer
ُ‫ ِضٌؽ‬mutarjam translated│ُ‫اثٌفٍو‬ٍٝ‫ِضٌؽُاع‬
(film) synchronized (film)
‫ صوٌؿ‬tariḥa a (taraḥ) and V to grieve, be sad II
and IV to grieve, distress (ٖ s.o.)
‫ صٌؾ‬tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxurious
‫ ِضوٌؾ‬mutraf living in ease and luxury;
sumptuous,
luxurious;
luxuriously
adorned, ornate, overdecorated (‫ ح‬with)
ُ‫ صٌـج‬tirfās (magr.) truffle (bot.)
ً‫ صٌـ‬tarfala to strut
‫ر‬ٛ‫ صٌلوو‬tarquwa pl. ‫ صووٌثق‬tarāqin collarbone,
clavicle (anat.)
1
‫ صوٌؿ‬taraḥ pl. ‫ ثصوٌثؿ‬atrāḥ grief, distress,
sadness
ٌٍٜ‫ ص‬tarzī pl. ‫ز‬٠ٌٍ‫ ص‬tarzīya (eg.) tailor
‫ز‬٠ٌٍ‫ ص‬tarziya tailoring
1
ُ‫ صٌث‬look up alphabetically
2
ٌُ‫ ص‬II to provide with a shield or armor
ٌُ‫ صوو‬turs pl. ٌُ‫ ثصوو‬atrās, ٌُٚ‫ صوو‬turūs
shield; disk of the sun; -- tirs pl. turūs
cogwheel, gear│ٌُٚ‫قاثٌضو‬ٚ‫وٕو‬ٙ‫ ا‬ṣundūq alt. gearbox, transmission; ٌُ‫ ّوّهاثٌضو‬samak
at-turs turbot (zool.)
ٌُ‫ ِضو‬matras, mitras pl. ًُ‫ ِضوج‬matāris2 and
ُ‫ ِضٌث‬mitrās, pl. ِ٠ً‫ ِضوج‬matārīs2 bolt, door
latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; esp. pl.
ِ٠ً‫ ِضج‬barricades
‫ صوٌن‬taraka u (tark) to let be, leave, relinquish,
renounce, give up, forswear ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
desist, refrain, abstain ( ‫ ٘و‬from s.th.); to
leave, quit (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬a place); to leave out,
omit, drop, neglect, pass over, skip ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to leave (‫ ي‬or ٌٝ‫ ٘و ث‬s.th. to); to leave
behind, leave, bequeath, make over ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th., ‫ ي‬to s.o.; as a legacy)│ 93 ً‫فعو‬٠‫ صٌوٗا‬to
let s.o. do s.th.; ٝ‫ صوٌناِىجٔوجاثٌو‬to leave one
place for (another); ٗ‫اىِضووو‬ٟ‫( صٌووووٗاـووو‬fī
dimmatihī) to leave s.th. in s.o.‘s care,
leave s.th. to s.o.; ٗ‫افجٌو‬ٝ‫ صٌووٗاعٍو‬to leave
s.th. or s.o. unchanged, leave s.th. or s.o.
alone; ٗٔ‫ٕوب‬ٚ‫( صٌوٗا‬wa-ša’nahū) to leave s.o.
alone, leave s.o. to his own devices III to
leave (ٖ s.o.); to leave alone (ٖ s.o.); to
leave off hostilities (ٖ against s.o.)
‫صوووووووٌن‬
tark
omission,
relinquishment, abandonment;
leaving behind
neglect;
leaving,
‫ صٌّوووجٔز‬tarsāna, ‫ صٌّوووقجٔز‬tarsḳāna arsenal;
shipyard, dockyard
‫ صٌووز‬tarika pl. -āt (also tirka) heritage,
legacy, bequest
ً‫( صٌّى‬Fr. tricycle) tricycle
‫ىوز‬٠ٌ‫ ص‬tarīka pl. ‫ صٌثةوه‬tarā’ik2 old maid,
spinster
‫ٕز‬١ٌّ‫( ص‬It. terrazzino) tarasīna balcony
‫ ِضجًن‬mutāraka truce
ٌ‫ صو‬tari‘a a to be or become full (vessel) IV to
fill ( ٘ s.th., esp. a vessel)
‫ صٌع وز‬tur‘a pl. ٌ‫ صوو‬tura‘, -āt canal;
artificial waterway│ ‫وٌثه‬٠٨‫ صٌعوزاث‬t. al-īrād
feeder, irrigation canal; ‫ؿ‬٠ٌ‫ووو‬ٚ‫صٌعوووزاثٌض‬
drainage canal (Eg.); ‫فز‬٠ٌ‫ ثٌضٌعووزاثٌٖوو‬the
Residence of the Sultan of Morocco
ً‫صٌؼ‬, ‫ صٌؼٍز‬turgul, turgulla turtledove
‫ صوٌؾ‬tarija a to live in opulence, in luxury IV
to effeminate (ٖ s.o.); to provide with
‫ن‬ٌٚ‫ ِض‬matrūk pl. -āt heritage, legacy
2
‫ صووٌن‬II to Turkify, Turkicize (ٖ s.o.) X to
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt
Turkish manners and customs
‫ ثٌضووٌن‬at-turk and ‫صووٌثن‬٨‫ ث‬al-atrāk the
Turks
ٝ‫ صٌو و‬turkī Turkish; Turk; ‫ووز‬١‫ ثٌضٌو‬atturkīya theTurkish language
‫ج‬١‫ صٌو‬turkiya Turkey
‫ه‬٠ٌ‫ صض‬tatrīk Turkification
ْ‫ صٌوْضج‬turkistān2 Turkstan
ْ‫ ثٌضٌوّج‬at-turkumān the Turkmen
٠١‫ صوٌِذ‬turumbēt (syr.) pl. -āt (Western) drum;
‫ وز‬١‫ صٌِذ‬turumbīṯa (eg.) pl. -āt do.; specif.,
bass drum
ٝ‫ صٌِذ ؾو‬turumbaṯgi (eg.) drummer; bandsman
(mil.)
ٌِِ‫ ص‬turmus, ٌُِٛ‫ ص‬turmūs lupine (bot.)
ٌ‫ِض‬ٌِٛ‫ ص‬termūmitr thermometer
‫ صٌٔؼ‬turunj see ‫ثصٌػ‬, ‫ثصٌٔؼ‬
ٌٖ‫ ص‬tariha a to concern o.s. with trifles
‫ صٌ٘ووز‬turraha pl. -āt sham, mockery,
farce; lie, humbug, hoax
ٖ‫ثه‬ٌٚ‫( ص‬Fr. Troade) tirwāda Troy
‫ح‬ٌٚ‫( صووووو‬Engl. troop) squad, platoon;
squadron│ًٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫حاّووو‬ٌٚ‫( صوو‬sawārī) cavalry
squadron (Eg.)
ٝ‫ضؾ‬١‫ = صٌِذ‬ٝ‫ صٌِذ ؾ‬see under ٠١‫ صٌِذ‬above
‫جق‬٠ٌ‫ ص‬tiryāq theriaca; antidote
ٛ‫ى‬٠ٌ‫( ص‬Fr.) tricot
‫ صْعز‬tis‘a (f. ‫ صْا‬tis‘) nine
ٌٖ‫ صْعزاع‬tis‘ata ‘ašara, f. ‫ صْوااعٖوٌر‬tis‘a
‘ašrata nineteen
‫ صْوا‬tus‘ pl.
ninth part
‫ ثصْوج‬atsā‘ one ninth, the
ْٛ‫ صْع‬tis‘ūn ninety
‫ ثٌضجّا‬at-tāsi‘ the ninth
2
‫ي‬ٚ٨‫ٓاث‬٠ٌ‫ صٖو‬tišrīn al-wwal October, ٝٔ‫ٓاثٌغوج‬٠ٌ‫صٖو‬
t. at-tānī November (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)
‫ج‬١‫ـجو‬ٍّٛٛ‫ى‬١ٖ‫ ص‬tšekoslovākiyā Czechoslovakia
ٍٝ١ٖ‫ ص‬tšīlī Chile
ْ‫ث‬ٛ ‫ ص‬tiṯwān 2 Tetuēn (city in N Morocco)
‫ صا‬abbreviation of ٌٝ‫صعج‬, see ٍٛ‫ع‬
‫ صعوخ‬ta‘iba a (ta‘ab) to work hard, toil, slave,
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become
tired, weary (ٓ‫ ِو‬of s.th.) IV to trouble,
inconvenience (ٖ s.o.); to irk, bother,
weary, tire, fatigue (ٖ s.o.)
‫ صعوووخ‬ta‘ab pl. ‫ ثصعوووجح‬at‘āb trouble,
exertion, labor, toil, drudgery; burden,
nuisance, inconvenience, discomfort,
difficulty, hardship; tiredness, weariness,
fatigue; pl. ‫ ثصعجح‬fees, honorarium
‫ صعوخ‬ta‘ib and ْ‫ صعذوج‬ta‘bān tired, weary,
exhausted 94
‫ ِضجعوخ‬matā‘ib2 troubles, pains, efforts;
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties,
troubles; complaints, ailments, ills
(attending disease); hardships, strains
‫ ِضعوخ‬mut‘ib troublesome, inconvenient,
toilsome, laborious; burdensome, irksome,
annoying; wearisome, tiresome, tiring;
tedious, dull, boring
‫ ِضعخا‬mut‘ab tired, weary
‫اصعضواا‬ta‘ta‘a to stammer; to shake (ٖ s.o.); ‫ثصعضوا‬
itta‘ta‘a to move, stir
َ‫ صعو‬ta‘izz2 Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of
government)
‫اصع وِا‬ta‘asa a, ta‘isa a to fall, perish; to
become wretched, miserable; ta‘asa and
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin
(s.o.)
ِ‫ صعو‬ta‘s and ‫ صعجّوز‬ta‘āsa wretchedness,
misery
ِ‫ صعو‬ta‘is and ِ١‫ صعو‬ta‘īs pl. ‫ صعْوج‬tu‗asā‘
wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
ُٛ‫ ِضعووو‬mat‗ūs pl. ِ١‫ ِضوووجع‬matā‘is
wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
‫ صؿ‬taffa to spit II to say "phew"
‫ صوؿ‬tuff dirt under the fingernails; ‫صفوجاٌوه‬
tuffan laka phew! fie on you!
O ‫ صفجـز‬taffāfa spittoon, cuspidor
‫ صفضج‬tafettā, ٖ‫ صفضج‬taffeta
‫ صفجؿ‬tuffaḥ (call.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬apple(s)
‫ صفىز‬tufka pl. ‫ صفه‬tufak (ir.) gun, rifle
ً‫ صف‬tafala u i (tafl) to spit
ً‫ صف‬tufl and ‫ صفجي‬tufāl spit, spittle, saliva
ً‫ صجـ‬tāfil ill-smelling, malodorous
‫ ِضفٍز‬mitfala spittoon, cuspidor
ٗ‫ صفو‬tafiha a (tafah, ‫ صفج٘وز‬tafāha, ٖٛ‫ صفو‬tufūh) to be
little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat,
tasteless, vapid, insipid
ٗ‫ صفووو‬tafah and ٗ‫ صفووو‬tufūh paltriness,
triviality, insignificance
‫ صفج٘ووووز‬tafāha paltrineBB, triviality,
insignificance‫ا‬flatness,
vapidity,
insipidity, tastelessness; inanity, stupidity,
silliness
ٗ‫ صفوو‬tafih and ٗ‫ صجـوو‬tāfih little, paltry,
trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless;
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat,
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal
‫وز‬ٙ‫ صجـ‬tāfiha pl. ٗ‫ثـو‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawāfih2 worthless
thing; triviality, trifle
2
‫ اصىضه‬taktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling mass)
3
‫ اصىضه‬taktaka to tick (clock)
‫ صىضىووز‬taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a
clock), ticking noise
4
‫ووز‬١‫اصى‬takīya pl. ‫ووج‬٠‫ صىج‬takāyā monastery (of a
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum
(for the invalided or needy)
1
ً‫ اصو‬tall pl. ‫ي‬٩‫ صو‬tilāl, ‫ي‬٩‫ ثصو‬atlāl, ‫ي‬ٛ‫ صٍو‬tulūl hill,
elevation│‫وخ‬١‫اصوًاثد‬t. abīb Tel Aviv (city in
W Israel)
2
ً‫ اص‬tull tulle
ٜٚ‫ صمج‬see ٜٛ‫ل‬
‫ز‬١ٍ‫ صم‬see ٍٝ‫ل‬
ٓ‫ صمو‬IV to perfect, bring to perfection ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th; to
master, know well ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th., e.g., a
language), be proficient, skillful, wellversed ( ٘ in s.th.)
‫ صمجٔز‬taqāna firmness, solidity; perfection
‫ صٍوا‬IV to stretch one's neck; to crane ( ‫ ٘و‬the
neck)
‫اِضمٓا‬mutqan perfect; exact, precise
ٝ‫ صم‬taqā i to fear (esp. God) VIII see ٝ‫ل‬ٚ
2
ٝ‫ اصمو‬taqīy pl. ‫وج‬١‫ ثصم‬atqiyā’ God-fearing,
godly, devout, pious
ٝ‫ ثصم‬atqā more pious
ٝ‫ صموو‬tuqan and ٜٛ‫ صم و‬taqwā godliness,
devoutness, piety
‫اصوووه‬takka u to trample down, trample
underfoot, crush ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to intoxicate (ٖ
s.o.; wine)
2
‫اصوه‬tikka pl. ‫ صىوه‬tikak waistband (in the upper
seam of the trousers) 95
3
‫ اصه‬takka to tick (clock)
‫ صىوز‬tikka pl. -āt ticking, ticktock (of a
clock), ticking noise
‫ز‬١‫ اصى‬look up alphabetically
‫س‬ٛ‫ صى‬tukūt pl. of Engl. ticket
1
‫وو‬١ٍ‫ ص‬talīd, ‫ صجٌوو‬tālid, ‫ه‬٩‫ صو‬tilād inherited, timehonored, old (possession, property)
‫ح‬ٛ‫ صٍْى‬tiliskūb telescope
ْ‫ ثصموووج‬itqān perfection; thoroughness,
exactitude, precision; thorough skill,
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of a
special field, of a language)│ْ‫صموج‬٨‫وزاث‬٠‫اؼج‬ٝ‫اـ‬
to greatest perfection; of excellent
workmanship
3
ً‫ص‬٩‫ ص‬talātil2 hardships, troubles, adversities
ٓ‫ صم‬tiqn skillful, adroit
ٓ‫ ثصم‬atqan2 more perfect, more thorough
1
‫ه‬١‫ اصىض‬taktīk tactics
‫ اصىضوووه‬taktaka to trample down, trample
underfoot ( ٘ s.th)
‫ صٍع وز‬tal‘a pl. ٩‫ صوو‬tilā‘ hill, hillside,
mountainside; (torrential) stream
‫ وا‬١ٍ‫ ص‬talī‘ long, outstretched, extended;
high, tall
‫ صٍؽوووٌثؾ‬tiligrāf, taligrāf pl. -āt telegraph;
telegram, wire, cable│ٝ‫ ثًّووًاصٍؽٌثـووجاثٌوو‬to
send a wire to
ٝ‫ صٍؽٌثـ‬tiligrāfī, taligrāfī telegraphic
‫ صٍ وؿ‬talafa a (talaf) to be annihilated, be
destroyed; to be or become damaged or
spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, go
to pieces II to ruin ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to wear out,
―finish‖ (ٖ s.o.) IV to destroy, annihilate
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to ruin, damage, spoil, break ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to waste ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ صٍووؿ‬talaf ruin, destruction; ruination,
damage, injury, harm.; loss; waste
ْ‫ صٍفوج‬talfān spoiled; useless, worthless,
good-for-nothing
‫ ِضٍووؿ‬matlaf, ‫ ِضٍفووز‬matlafa pl. ‫ِضووجٌؿ‬
matālif2 desert
‫ؾ‬٩‫ ِوض‬mitlāl wastrel; ruinous, harmful,
injurious
‫ؾ‬٩‫ ثصووووو‬itlāf pl. -āt annihilation,
destruction; damage, injury, harm
‫ صوووجٌؿ‬tālif ruined, damaged, broken;
spoiled, bad
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ِضٍ و‬matlūf and ‫ ِضٍووؿ‬mutlaf ruined,
damaged, broken; spoiled, bad
‫ ِضٍووووؿ‬mutlif annihilator, destroyer;
injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful,
injurious, noxious
َ‫ صٍف‬talfaza to televise, transmit by television
‫ صٍفَر‬talfaza television
‫وووز‬٠ٍ‫ ثىثعوووزاصٍفج‬iḍāfa talfāẓīya television
broadcast, telecast
O ٍ‫ صٍفج‬tilfāz television set
ْٛ٠َ‫( صٍف‬Fr. télévision) tilivisyōn television
‫ة‬ٍٛ‫ايص‬٩‫ يص‬talā u (ٍٛ‫ ص‬tulūw) to follow, succeed; to
ensue; -- (‫ر‬ٚ٩‫ صو‬tilāwa) to read, read out
loud ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o..); to recite ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) VI to follow one another, be
successive
ٍٛ‫ ص‬tilwa (prep.) after, upon│‫ا‬ٛ‫ثًًّاوضجدجاصٍو‬
‫ وضجح‬to send letter after letter
‫ر‬ٚ٩‫ صوو‬tilāwa reading; public reading;
recital, recitation
‫ صوووووجي‬tālin following, succeeding,
subsequent, next; ٌٝ‫ دجٌضوج‬bi-t-tālī then, later,
subsequently;
consequently,
hence,
therefore, accordingly
‫ ِضضجي‬mutatālin successive, consecutive
ٓ‫ صٍف‬talfana to telephone
ٍٝ‫ ص‬tallī (tun.) tulle
ْٛ‫ صٍف‬tilifūn and ْٛ‫ف‬١ٍ‫ ص‬talīfūn pl. –āt telephone
ٝ‫ذجع‬١ٍ‫ ص‬tilībātī telepathy; telepathic
‫ صٍمج‬see ٝ‫ٌم‬
ِ١ٍ‫ ص‬tallīs, tillis pl. ِ١ٌ٩‫ ص‬talālīs2 sack
‫ صٍه‬tilka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ىٌه‬
ْٛ٠َ‫ف‬١ٍ‫( ص‬Fr. télévision) tilīvisyōn television
ٍُ‫ ص‬talam pl. َ٩‫ ثص‬atlām (plow) furrow
ْٛ‫ف‬١ٍ‫ ص‬pl. –āt talīfūn telephone
‫ صٍّوي‬talmada to take on as, or have for, a pupil
or apprentice (ٖ s.o.); to be or become a
pupil or apprentice (‫ ي‬of s.o., 96 also ٝ‫)عٍو‬,
receive one‘s schooling or training (ٝ‫عٍو‬
from) II tatalmada to be or become a
pupil or apprentice (‫ ي‬or ‫ووٖا‬٠‫ا‬ٝ‫ اعٍو‬of s.o.),
work as an apprentice (‫ ي‬or ٖ‫وو‬٠‫ا‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬under
s.o.)
‫ صٍّوير‬talmada school days, college years;
apprenticeship; (time of) probation
‫ صٍّجى‬tilmād learning, erudition
‫ووي‬١ٍّ‫ ص‬tilmīd pl. ‫ وي‬١ِ٩‫ ص‬talāmīd2, ‫ِووير‬٩‫ص‬
talamida pupil, student, apprentice;
probationer; trainee; disciple│ٌٜ‫ ويادقوو‬١ٍّ‫اص‬
(baḥrī) approx.: chief warrant W-3 (naval
rank; Eg.); ٌٜ‫ وياّووف‬١ٍّ‫( ص‬safarī) approx.:
chief warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.)
‫ير‬١ٍّ‫ اص‬tilmīda pl. –āt girl student
ْ‫ صٍّْج‬tilimsān2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria‫ة‬
‫ه‬ٍّٛ‫ ص‬talmūd Talmud
ٗ‫ صٍو‬taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed,
perplexed, at a loss
ٗ‫ صجٌوو‬tālih and ٗ‫ ِضٍوو‬mutallah at a loss,
bewildered, perplexed│ً‫ صجٌوٗاثٌعمو‬t. al-‘aql
absent-minded, distracted
ٝٔٛ‫فو‬١ٍ‫ ص‬talifūnī telephonic, telephone- in
compounds)
ُ‫ صوو‬tamma i to be or beoome complete,
completed, finished, done; to be
performed, be accomplished (‫ ي‬by s.o..);
to come to an end, be or become
terminated; to come about, be brought
about, be effected, be achieved, come to
pass, come off, happen, take place, be or
become a fact; to be on hand, be there,
present itself; to persist (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬in); to
continue (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th. or to do s.th.) II and IV
to complete, finish, wind up, conclude,
terminate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to make complete,
supplement, round out, fill up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
carry out, execute, perform, accomplish,
achieve ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.) X to be complete,
completed, finished
َ‫ صّووج‬tamām completeness, wholeness,
entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire,
complete, perfect; separate, independent;
‫ صّجِووووج‬tamāman completely, entirely,
wholly, perfectly, fully, quite; precisely,
exactly│َ‫(ادوًاصّج‬badr) and َ‫( لٌّاصّوج‬qamar)
full moon; ‫اصّوجَاثٌْوجعزاثٌْجهّوز‬ٝ‫ ـو‬at 6 o'clock
sharp; ‫اثٌىٍّوز‬ٝ‫( دضّوجَاِعٕو‬ma‘nā l-kalima) in
the full sense of the word; َ‫ دجٌضّوج‬entirely,
completely
‫ّز‬١ّ‫ ص‬tamīma pl. ُ‫ صّجة‬tamā’im2 amulet
ُ‫ ثص‬atamm2 more complete, more perfect
‫صضّوووووووووووز‬
tatimma
completion;
supplementation; supplement
ُ١‫ صضّووو‬tatmīm completion; perfection;
consummation, execution, fulfillment,
realization, effectuation, accomplishment
َ‫ ثصّوووج‬itmām completion; perfection;
termination, conclusion; consummation,
execution,
fulfillment,
realization,
effectuation, accomplishment 97
َ‫ ثّضضّج‬istitmām termination, conclusion
ً‫( صٕذو‬Turk. tembel) tambal pl. ‫ صٕجدٍوز‬tanābila
lazy
ٓ١‫( صٕؾْض‬Fr. tungstène) tongəstēn tungsten
‫( صٕور‬It. tenda) tanda awning, roofing, sun roof
ًٛ‫ صٕو‬tannūr pl. ٌ١ٔ‫ صٕوج‬tanānīr2 a kind of baking
oven, a pit, usually clay-lined, for baking
bread
‫ًر‬ٕٛ‫ ص‬tannūra (syr., leb.) (lady's) skirt
ِٕ‫ ص‬tennis
1
ٝ‫ صٕىؾ‬tanakjī tinsmith, whitesmith
َ‫ صوووج‬tāmm complete, perfect, entire,
consummate; of full value, sterling,
genuine
‫ صّذووجن‬tumbāk Persian tobacco (esp. for the
narghile)
‫ صّوضُا‬tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to
recite under one's breath (‫ ح‬s.th)
‫ اصٕه‬tanak tin plate
‫ صٕىوز‬tanaka pl. -āt tin container, can, pot,
jerry can
2
‫ اصجٔه‬tānika see ‫ صجن‬alphabetically
ِ١ٕ‫ ص‬tennis
ٓ١ٕ‫ ص‬tannīn tannin, tannic acid
ٌ‫ صّوو‬tamr (coll.; n. un. ‫ر‬, pl. tamarat, ًٛ‫صّ و‬
tumūr) dates, esp. dried ones│ٜ‫اصّووٌإ٘ووو‬
(hindī) tamarind (bot.)
ٗ‫ض‬ٙ‫ ص‬tahtaha to stammer, stutter
1
‫ّوز‬ٙ‫اص‬tuhma pl. ُ‫و‬ٙ‫ ص‬tuham accusation, charge;
suspicion; insinuation
ٝ‫( صٌّؽو‬eg. tamargī), ٝ‫ًؽ‬ٛ‫صّو‬, ٝ‫ٌِؽ‬ٛ‫ صو‬pl. -ya
male nurse, hospital attendant; ‫وز‬١‫ صٌّؽ‬pl. āt female nurse
2
‫جِوز‬ٙ‫ ص‬tihāma2 Tihama, coastal plain along the
southwestern and southern shores of the
Arabian Peninsula
ٍّٛ‫ ص‬look up alphabetically
ّٓ‫ ص‬tumman rice
‫ث‬ٛ‫ صو‬tawwan right away, at once, immediately;
just (now), this very minute│ٛ‫اٌٍض‬li-t-tawwi
at once, right away, also with pers. suffix.:
ٜٛ‫ ٌضو‬li-tawwī, ‫٘وج‬ٛ‫ ٌض‬li-tawwihā (I have, she
has) just ... ; at once, presently,
immediately
ٍّٛ‫ ص‬tammūz2 July (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)
‫ش‬١ٌ‫ث‬ٛ‫( ص‬Fr. toilette) tuwālēt toilette
1
ٓ‫ اص‬tunn tuna (zool.)
َ‫أ‬ٛ‫ ص‬see َ‫صب‬
2
ٕٓ‫وو‬١‫ اص‬tinnīn pl. ٓ١ٔ‫ صٕووج‬tanānīn2 sea monster;
Draco (astro.); waterspout (meteor.), see
also alphabetically
‫حة‬ٛ‫ صوجح يصو‬tāba u (‫ح‬ٛ‫ صو‬taub, ‫دوز‬ٛ‫ ص‬tauba, ‫ِضوجح‬
matāb) to repent, be penitent, do penance,
with ٓ‫عو‬: to turn from (sin), be converted
from, renounce, forswear s.th.; (said of
God) to restore to His grace, forgive (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o.)│ ‫ا‬ٝ‫ صوووجحاثٌووو‬to turn to God in
repentance II to induce to repentance or
penitence, make repent (ٖ s.o.) X to call on
s.o. (ٖ) to repent
2
‫ صّْجؿ‬timsāḥ pl. ‫ـ‬١ّ‫ صّج‬tamāsīḥ crocodile
‫ صّؽز‬tamga stamp; stamp mark│‫ًقاصّؽز‬ٚ waraq
t. stamped paper
‫ صجٔب‬tāni’ pl. ‫ صٕج‬tunnā’ resident
‫ صٕذووجن‬tunbāk (pronounced tumbāk) and ‫صٕذووه‬
tumbak Persian tobacco (esp. for the
narghile)
‫ صٕذوجي‬tinbāl pl. ً‫وو‬١‫ صٕجد‬tanābīl2 short, of small
Stature
ٌ‫( صٕذو‬Fr. timbre) tambar pl. ٌ‫ صٕوجد‬tanābir2 stamp
(magr.)
‫اِضٕذٌا‬mutambar stamped (magr.)
‫دووووز‬ٛ‫ ص‬tauba repentance,
contrition; penance 98
penitence,
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ صو‬tawwāb doing penance; repentant,
penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful
(God)
‫ صجةخ‬tā’ib repentant, penitent, contrite
ْٛ‫ ص‬tūn and ‫ٔز‬ٛ‫ ص‬tūna (zool.)
ً‫د‬ٛ‫ ص‬see ً‫صذ‬
‫ٔؼ‬ٛ‫( ص‬Turk. tunç) tunj bronze
‫ج‬١‫ؼٌثـ‬ٛ‫د‬ٛ‫ ص‬tobogrāfiyā topography
ِٔٛ‫اص‬tūnus2 Tunis
1
2
ْٝٔٛ‫ ص‬tūnisīy pl. ‫ثْٔوز‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawānisa Tunisian
(adj. and n.)
‫س‬ٛ‫ اصو‬tūt mulberry tree; mulberry│ٝ‫و‬ًٝ‫ساث‬ٛ‫صو‬
(ardī) and ‫ا‬ٝ‫ساثـٌٔؾو‬ٛ‫( صو‬ifranjī) strawberry;
ٝ‫و‬ٕٛ‫سا‬ٛ‫( ص‬šaukī) and ‫وك‬١ٍ‫ساثٌع‬ٛ‫ صو‬t. al-‘ullaiq
raspberry
‫وز‬١ٔٛ‫ ص‬tūniya pl. ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ صو‬alb of priests and deacons
(Chr.)
‫س‬ٛ‫ اص‬tūt the first month of the Coptic calendar
(ٖٛ‫ صجٖ )ص‬tāha u and II = (ٗ١‫ صجٖ )ص‬tāha i and II
‫ج‬١‫ص‬ٛ‫ ص‬tūtiyā, ‫ج‬١‫ص‬ٛ‫ ص‬tūtiyā’, ‫ز‬١‫ص‬ٛ‫ ص‬zinc
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ صو‬II to crown (ٖ s.o.; also fig. ‫ ٘و ح‬s.th. with)
V to be crowned
‫ صووجػ‬pl. ْ‫ؾووج‬١‫ ص‬tījān crown; miter (of a
bishop)│‫ه‬ٛ‫ صوجػاثٌعّو‬t. al-‘amūd capital of a
column or pilaster); ‫ صووجػاثٌىووٌر‬t. al-kura
calotte
‫ؼ‬٠ٛ‫ ص‬tuwaij little crown, coronet
‫ؼ‬٠ٛ‫ صض‬tatwīj crowning, coronation
ٛ‫ؽو‬ٛ‫ ص‬tōgo and ‫ٌٕوو‬ٛ‫ؽ‬ٛ‫ ص‬tōgōland (Eg. spelling)
Togo (region in W Africa)
(‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ صجؿ )ص‬see ‫ـ‬١‫ص‬
‫ صوجًر‬tāratan once; sometimes, at times│‫صوجًرا–ا‬
‫صجًر‬, ‫ًث‬ٛ‫و‬ٟ‫( صجًرا–ا‬ṯauran), ٌٜ‫( صوجًرا–اثمو‬uḳrā)
sometimes – sometimes, at times – at
other times
‫ًثر‬ٛ‫ ص‬taurāh Torah, Pentateuch; Old Testament
‫وو‬٠‫ًﭙ‬ٛ‫ص‬, ‫وو‬١‫ًد‬ٛ‫ ص‬turpīd, turbīd torpedo (sub-marine
missile)
ٓ١‫ًد‬ٛ‫ ص‬turbīn pl. -āt turbine
‫ًصز‬ٛ‫ ص‬torta pl. -āt pie, tart
(‫ق‬ٛ‫ صوجق )صو‬tāqa u (tauq, ْ‫لوج‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawaqān) to long.,
yearn, wish (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬for), hanker (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬after),
desire, crave, covet (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.th.), strive (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
for), aspire (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to)
‫ق‬ٛ‫ صووو‬tauq, ْ‫لوووج‬ٛ‫ ص‬tawaqān longing,
yearning, craving, desire
‫ثق‬ٛ‫ صوو‬tawwāq longing, yearning, eager
(ٌٝ‫ ث‬for), craving (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th)
‫ صوجةك‬tā’iq longing, yearning, eager (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
for), craving (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th)
‫٘ز‬ٛ‫ ص‬tūha daughter
ٌٚ‫جص‬١‫( ص‬It. teatro) tiyātrō theater
□ ً‫ض‬١‫ ص‬taital pl. ً‫جص‬١‫ ص‬see ً‫ض‬١‫ع‬
ُٕٛ‫ض‬١‫ ص‬tītānūs tetanus (med.)
(‫ـ‬١‫ صوجؿ )صو‬tāḥa i to be destined, be foreordained
(by fate, by God; ‫ ي‬to s.o.); to be granted,
be given (‫ ي‬to s.o.) IV to destine,
foreordain ( ‫ ي ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.); to grant,
afford, offer ( ‫ ي ٘و‬s.o. s.th.); pass. utīḥa to
be destined, be foreordained, be granted,
be given (‫ ي‬to s.o.)│‫وك‬١‫ـ‬ٛ‫ـاٌوٗاثٌض‬١‫( ثصو‬utīḥa)‫ا‬
he met with success, he was successful;
‫ووز‬ٌٙ‫ـاٌووٗاثٌف‬١‫( ثصوو‬furṣa) he was given the
opportunity, he had the chance .
ً‫وج‬١‫ ص‬tayyār pl. -āt flow, stream, course, current,
flood; fall (of a stream); movement,
tendency, trend; draft (of air); (el.)
current│O ٌ‫وجًاِذجٕو‬١‫( ص‬mubāšir) and ‫وجًا‬١‫ص‬
ٌّ‫ ِْوض‬mustamirr) direct current; O ‫وجًا‬١‫ص‬
‫ح‬ٚ‫( ِضٕوووج‬mutanāwib) and O ٌ‫ووو‬١‫وووجًاِضؽ‬١‫ص‬
(mutagayyir) alternating current; O ‫وجًا‬١‫ص‬
‫ ِضيدوويحا‬mutadabdib) oscillating current
(el.); O ٜ‫وجًأوجد‬٠ (nābiḍ) pulaoting current;
99 O ‫ااثٌضووٌهه‬٠ٌ‫ووجًاّوو‬٠ (sarī‘ at-taraddud)
high-frequency current; O ‫ اثٌضووٌهه‬ٟ ‫ووجًد‬١‫ص‬
(baṯī’ at-taraddud) low-frequency current;
O ‫وو‬ٙ‫اثٌؾ‬ٌٝ‫جًاعوج‬١‫‘( ص‬ālī l-jahd) heigh-tension
current; O ‫وو‬ٙ‫وباثٌؾ‬ٟ‫ث‬ٚ‫وجًا‬١‫( ص‬wāṯI’ al-jahd)
low-tension current; O ٝ‫جًاىثصو‬١‫( ص‬dātī) selfinduced current
O ً‫ ِضج‬matār (Byr.) dynamo, generator
‫َر‬١‫( ص‬Turk. teyze) tēza maternal aunt
‫ووز‬١ِ‫وووزاثِج‬ٛ‫( ص‬tōka amāmīya; eg.) belt buckle
(mil.)
ِ١‫ ص‬tais pl. ُ‫ج‬١‫ ثص‬atyās, ُٛ١‫ ص‬tuyūs billy goat
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ص‬tūl tulle
‫ووز‬٠‫ه‬ٛ‫ف‬١‫اثٌض‬ٝ‫ ثٌقّوو‬al-hummā t-tīfūdīya
fever
ٝ‫ٌِؽ‬ٛ‫ ص‬see ٝ‫صٌّؽ‬
ِ١‫ ثص‬atyās2 foolish, crazy
typhoid
ُٛ‫ف‬١‫ ص‬tīfūs typhus
‫وه‬١‫ ص‬tīka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ىثن‬
dāka
1
ً‫و‬١‫ ص‬II (from Turk. tel) to cable, wire, telegraph
(syr.)
2
ً١‫ ص‬tīl hemp; linen
3
‫ٍز‬١‫ ص‬tīla fiber, staple
1
(ُ١‫ صوجَ )صو‬tāma I (taim) to become enslaved,
enthralled by love; to enslave, make
blindly subservient (ٖ s.o.; through love) II
to enslave, enthrall (love; ٖ s.o.); to make
blindly subservient, drive out of his mind,
infatuate (ٖ s.o.; love)
ُ١‫ ِضو‬mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by
love), infatuated
2
‫ّج‬١‫ اص‬taimā’ Taima (oasis in NW Arabia)
ٝ‫ّجًؽ‬١‫ ص‬see ٝ‫اصٌّؽ‬
ٓ١‫ صو‬tīn (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬fig │ٟ‫و‬ٛ‫ٓإو‬١‫( صو‬šaukī)
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficusindica
Haw.)
‫ٕه‬١‫ ص‬tainika see ‫ صجن‬alphabetically
(ٗ‫و‬١‫ صوجٖ )ص‬tāha i to get lost, wander about, 1ose
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander
(thoughts); to escape (ٓ‫ ِوو‬s.o.), slip (ٓ‫ِوو‬
s.o.‘s memory); to perish, be destroyed, be
lost; to be perplexed, startled, astonished;
to be haughty; to swagger, boast, brag (ٍٝ‫ع‬
to s.o.)│‫ووٗاثدضْووجِز‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫ووٗاعٍوو‬١‫ صض‬asmile flits
over his face II to mislead, lead astray (ٖ
s.o.); to distract, divert (ٖ s.o.); to confuse,
confound, bewilder (ٖ s.o.) IV = II
ٗ١‫ ص‬tīh desert, trackless wilderness; maze,
labyrinth; haughtiness, pride
ٖ‫ وج‬١‫ ص‬tayyāh straying, stray, wandering;
haughty
ْ‫وج‬ٙ١‫ ص‬taihān2 straying, stray, wandering;
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud,
hughty
‫ووج‬ٙ١‫ ص‬taihā’2 and matāha a trackless,
desolate region; ‫ ِضج٘ز‬maze, labyrinth
ٗ‫ صجةوو‬tā’ih straying, stray, wandering,
roving, errant; lost in thought, distracted,
absent-minded; lost, forlorn; infinite;
haughty
‫خ‬١ٌٛ١‫( ص‬Engl.) tulip
‫ث‬
‫ ط‬abbreviation of ‫ز‬١ٔ‫ عج‬second (time unit)
‫ عج‬tā’ name of the letter ‫ط‬
‫ عتخ‬ta’iba a (‫ عبح‬ta’b) and VI to yawn
‫ عؤدووج‬tu’abā’ yawning, yawn; fatigue,
weariness
ً‫ عوب‬ta’ara a (ta’r) to avenge the blood of (ٖ or
‫)ح‬, take blood revenge (ٖ for 100 s.o.
killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. (‫ٖ ح‬
on s.o. for, also ٓ‫ ِو‬or ‫ ي‬for) IV and VIII
ً‫ ثعووب‬itta’ara to get one‘s revenge, be
avenged
ً‫ عب‬ta’r pl. -āt ً ‫ أع‬at’ār, ً‫ آعج‬ātār revenge,
vengeance, blood revenge; retaliation,
reprisal│ًٖ‫ أموووياعوووب‬or ً‫ أمووويادجٌغوووب‬to take
revenge, avenge o.s.; ً‫ ِذووجًثراثٌغووب‬mubārāt
at-t. return match (sports)
ٌ‫ عجة‬tā’ir avenger
‫ي‬ٛ‫ عؤٌو‬tu’lūl and ‫ٌوز‬ٌٛ‫ عؤ‬tu’lūla pl. ً‫و‬١ٌ ‫ ع‬ta’ālīl2
wart
ٜ‫ عب‬ta’ā scars
‫ عذوش‬tabata u (‫ عذوجس‬tabāt, ‫س‬ٛ‫ عذو‬tubūt) to stand
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable,
unshakable, firm, strong, stable; to hold
out, hold one's ground (‫ ي‬against s.o. or
s.th.), be firm, remain firm (‫ ي‬toward s.o.
or s.th.), withstand, resist, defy (‫ ي‬s.o. or
s.th.); to be established, be proven (fact);
to remain, stay (‫ ح‬at a place); to maintain
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.), keep, stick, adhere (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to
s.th.), abide or stand by s.th. (ٝ‫ ;عٍو‬e.g., by
an agreement); to insist (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on)│‫ا‬ٝ‫اعذوشاـو‬
ٗ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ (fī wajhihī) to hold one‘s own against
s.o., assert o.s. against s.o. II to fasten,
make fast, fix ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to consolidate,
strengthen ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to stabilize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to confirm, corroborate, substantiate ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to appoint permanently (. s.o.; to an
office); to prove, establish ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.),
demonstrate, show (ْ‫ دووج‬that); to prove
guilty, convict (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬a defendant); to
confirm (Chr.)│ٗ‫وٌٖادو‬ٚ‫(اعذوشاد‬baṣarahu) to
fix one‘s eyes on, gaze at; ٗ‫وو‬١ِ‫عذووشالو‬
(qadamaihi) to gain a foothold IV to
establish, determine ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to assert as
valid or authentic, affirm ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
confirm, corroborate, substantiate ( ‫٘ووو‬
s.th.); to prove (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. to s.o.; ‫ ي‬to
s.o., ْ‫ ث‬that); to demonstrate, show ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to furnish competent evidence ( ‫٘و‬
for); to bear witness, attest ( ‫ ٘ و‬to); to
acknowledge ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., a qualification,
a quality, ‫ ي‬in s.o.), concede (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. to
s.o.); to prove guilty, convict (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬a
defendant); to enter, record, register, list
(ٝ‫ ٘ ـ‬s.th. in a book, in a rooter, etc.)│‫اثعذضٗا‬
‫ًق‬ٛ‫اثٌوو‬ٝ‫( ـوو‬waraq) to put s.th. down in
writing, get s.th. on paper; ٘‫ثعذووشاثٌٖوون‬
(šaḳṣa) to determine s.o.‘s identity,
identify s.o.; ٗ‫ض‬١‫و‬ٚ‫( ثعذوشإن‬šaḳṣīyatahū) to
identify o.s., prove one‘s identity V to
ascertain, verify (ٝ‫ ـ‬s.th., ً‫ ٘و‬if), make sure
(ٝ‫ ـ‬of s.th., ً٘ if); to consider carefully (ٝ‫ـو‬
s.th.), proceed with caution (ٝ‫ ـو‬in) X to
show o.s. stead-fast, persevering; to seek
to verify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), try to make sure ( ‫ ٘و‬of),
seek confirmation of or reassurance with
regard to ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to ascertain, verify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
make sure ( ‫ ٘ و‬of s.th.); to find right,
proven or true, see confirmed ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
regard as authentic ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ عذووووش‬tabt firm, fixed,
steadfast, unflinching; brave
established;
‫ عذش‬tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible
‫ عذش‬tabat pl. ‫ ثعذجس‬atbāt list, index, roster
‫ عذوووووجس‬tabāt firmness; steadiness,
constancy,
permanence,
stability;
certainty,
sureness;
perseverance,
persistence, endurance;
continuance,
maintenance, retention (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬of s.th.),
adherence (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to)
verification│‫ إووج٘واثعذووجس‬witness for the
prosecution; ‫عذوجس‬٨‫‘ عخ اث‬ib’ al-i. burden of
proof (jur.)
ٝ‫ ثعذ وجص‬itbātī affirmative, confirmatory,
corroborative, positive
‫ صغذش‬tatabbut ascertainment; verification,
examination, check; careful, cautious
procedure, circumspection; interment (of
the remains of a saint; Chr.)
‫ عجدوووش‬tābit firm, fixed, established;
stationary, immovable; steady, invariable,
constant, stable; permanent, lasting,
durable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a
constant│ٓ‫ اعجدشاثٌؾوب‬t. al-ja’š undismayed,
fearless, staunch, steadfast; ََ‫ عجدوشاثٌعو‬t. al‘azm firmly resolved, determined; ‫نا‬٩‫ثِوو‬
‫ عجدضز‬and ‫ثياعجدضوز‬ِٛ‫ أ‬immovable property, real
estate, realty; O ٖ‫صؾووج‬٨‫ عجدووشاث‬t. al-ittijāh
unidirectional, rectified (el.)
‫ عجدضز‬tābita pl. ‫ثدش‬ٛ‫ ع‬tawābit2 fixed star
‫س‬ٛ‫ ِغذوو‬matbūt established, confirmed;
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven
ٌ‫ عذو‬tabara u to destroy, ruin (ٖ s.o.); (ًٛ‫عذ و‬
tubūr) to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal
and perseverance (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.th.), persevere,
persist (ٍٝ‫ ع‬in)
ًٛ‫ عذو‬tubūr ruin, destruction│‫وًا‬٠ٌٛ‫ادج‬ٜ‫ٔوجه‬
ًٛ‫ثٌغذ‬ٚ (‫ هعوج‬or) nādā (da‘ā) bi-l-wail wa-t-t.
to wail, burst into loud laments
‫ِغوووووووووجدٌر‬
mutābara
persistence,
perseverance,
endurance;
diligence,
assiduity
‫س‬ٛ‫ عذووو‬tubūt constancy, immutability,
steadiness;
permanence,
durability;
certainty, sureness│ٌٙ‫ساثٌٖوو‬ٛ‫اعذ و‬t. aš-šahr
the official determination of the beginning
of a lunar month
٠‫ عوذ‬tabaṯa u and II to hold back, keep, prevent
(ٓ‫ ٖ عوو‬s.o. from doing s.th.); to hinder,
handicap, impede, slow down, set back
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to bring about the failure
( ٘ of s.th.), frustrate ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ثعذوش‬atbat more reliable, firmer, steadier,
etc.
‫ عذٕوز‬tubna pl. ٓ‫ عوذ‬tuban lap, fold of a garment
(used as a receptacle)
‫وش‬١‫ صغذ‬tatbīt consolidation, strengthening;
stabilization; confirmation; corroboration,
substantiation│‫وووش‬١‫ اّوووٌاثٌضغذ‬sirr at-t. the
Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.)
‫ ثعذوووجس‬itbāt establishment; assertion;
confirmation; affirmation, attestation;
demonstration; proof, evidence; 101
registration, entering, listing, recording;
documentation,
authentication,
ْ‫ عذج‬tibān = ‫ عذٕز‬tubna
ً‫ض‬١‫ ع‬look up alphabetically
‫ عؼ‬tajja u to flow coplously
‫ عؾجػ‬tajjāj coplously flowing, streaming
ٓ‫ عن‬taḳuna u to be or become thick, thicken; to
be firm, solid, compact IV to wear out,
exhaust, weaken (ٖ s.o.)│‫ووووٌدج‬ٝ‫ثعنٕووووٗا‬
(ḍarban) to wallop s.o., give s.o. a sound
thrashing; ٚ‫اثٌعو‬ٝ‫‗( ثعنٓاـ‬aduw) to massacre
the enemy; ‫ ثعنٕوٗادوجٌؾٌثؿ‬to weaken s.o. by
inflicting wounds
‫جا‬٠ٌ‫اع‬turayyā Pleiades; (also ‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ )ع‬pl. ‫جسا‬٠ٌ‫ع‬
turayyāt chandelier
ٓ‫ عنوو‬tiḳan, ‫ عنجٔ وز‬taḳāna, ‫ٔ وز‬ٛ‫ عن‬tuḳūna
thickness,
density;
consistency;
compactness
ْ‫ ععذج‬tu‘bān pl. ٓ١‫ ععجد‬ta‘ābīn snake│ ‫ اععذجْاثٌّوج‬t.
al-mā’ eel
ٓ١‫ عن‬taḳīn pl. ‫ عنٕج‬tuḳanā’2 thick; dense
ٜ‫ عوو‬tady and tadyan m. and f., pl. ‫ ثعووث‬atdā’
female breast; udder
ٌ‫ ع‬tarr abounding in water│ ‫( عٌراِوٓاثٌووِا‬dam‘)
tear-wet, tear-blurred (eye)
‫ عوٌح‬taraba i (tarb) and II to blame, censure (ٖ
and ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.)
‫خ‬٠ٌ‫ صغ‬tatrīb blame, censure, reproof
ٌ‫ عٌع‬tartara (‫ عٌعٌر‬tartara) to chatter, prattle
ً‫ عٌعوج‬tartār prattler, chatterbox; ‫عٌعوجًر‬
tartāra do. (fem.)
‫ عٌعٌر‬tartara chatter, prattle
‫ عٌه‬tarada u to crumble and sop ( ٘ bread)
‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ ع‬jarid a dish of sopped bread, meat‫ا‬
and broth
‫ ِغٌه‬mitrad bowl
ٌَ‫ عو‬tarama i (tarm) to knock s.o.‘o (ٖ) tooth
out; -- tarima a (taram) to have a gap
between two teeth
(ٌٚ‫ عو‬and ٌٜ‫ )عو‬ٌٜ‫ عو‬tariya a to become wealthy
IV to become or be rich, wealthy (‫ ح‬or ٓ‫ِو‬
through s.th.); to make rich, enrich (ٖ s.o.)
102
ٌ‫ ِغ‬mutr wealthy, rich
ٝٔ‫ ععذوووووج‬tu‗bānī
serpentine; eely
snaky,
snakelike,
‫ ِغعخ‬mat‘ab pl. ‫ ِغجعخ‬matā‘ib2 drain
‫ ععجٌز‬tu‘āla fox
‫ ععٍ وخ‬ta‘lab pl. ‫ ععجٌووخ‬ta‘ālib2 fox│‫اهث اثٌغعٍووخ‬
alopecia (med.), loss of hair
ٝ‫ ععٍذ‬ta‘labī foxy, foxlike
‫ ععٍذز‬ta‘laba vixen; O tetter (med)
ٌ‫ عؽو‬tagir pl. ًٛ‫ عؽو‬tugūr front tooth; mouth;
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport
‫ عؽوٌر‬tagra pl. ٌ‫ عؽو‬tugar breach, crevasse,
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity,
hollow; narrow mountain trail
ُ‫ عؽ‬tagam white, whiteness
ُ‫ عجؼ‬tāgim white (adj.)
‫ة‬ٛ‫ عؽجايعؽ‬tagā u ( ‫ عؽج‬tugā‘) to bleat (sheep)
‫ عؽج‬tugā’ bleating, bleat
‫ ع وجغ‬tāgin bleating│‫ووز‬١‫اًثؼ‬٨ٚ‫ووزا‬١‫اِووجاٌووٗاعجؼ‬
(tagiya) he has absolutely nothing, he is
deprived of all resources, prop.: he has
neither a bleating (sheep) nor a braying
(camel)
ٌ‫ عف‬tafar pl. ً‫ ثعفج‬atfār crupper (of the saddle)
ٌٜ‫ عو‬taran moist earth; ground, soil│‫وٓا‬٠‫ث‬
‫وووج‬٠ٌ‫اِوووٓاثٌغ‬ٌٜ‫ ثٌغووو‬aina t-t. min t-turayyā
(proverbially of things of disproportionate
value) what has the ground to do with the
Pleiades? ٖ‫ووخا اعووٌث‬١ٟ (ṯayyaba) approx.:
may God rest him in peace!
ً‫ عف‬tufl dregs, lees, sediment; residues
ٌٜ‫ عوو‬tarīy pl. ‫ووج‬٠ٌ‫ ثع‬atriyā’2 wealthy,
rich│‫اثٌقووٌح‬ٌٜ‫ عو‬t. al-ilarb war profiteer,
nouveau riche
‫ز‬١‫ ثعف‬look up alphabetically
ٌٞ‫اع‬tarīyāt plantations
‫ر‬ٌٚ‫ عو‬tarwa and ‫ر‬ٌٚ‫ عو‬tarā‘ fortune, wealth,
riches│‫ر‬ٌٚ‫ ث٘ووًاثٌغوو‬ahl at-t. the rich, the
wealthy; ‫وووز‬١ِٛ‫رال‬ٌٚ‫( عووو‬qaumīya) national
wealth; ‫ووز‬١‫راِجة‬ٌٚ‫( عوو‬mā’īya) abundance of
water, abundant supply of water (of a
region)
ٓ‫ عفو‬III to associate (ٖ with s.o.), frequent s.o.‘s
( ٘) company; to pursue, practice (ٖ s.th.)
‫ عفٕووز‬taftna pl. -āt, ٓ‫ عفوو‬tifan callus,
callosity
‫ عمز‬see ‫عك‬ٚ
‫ عموخ‬taqaba u (taqb) to bore, or drill, a hole ( ‫٘و‬
in s.th.), pierce, puncture, perforate ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.) II do. II and IV to light, kindle ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) V and VII to be pierced, be
punctured, be perforated
‫ عمووخ‬taqb piercing, boring, puncture,
perforation; (also tuqb pl. ‫ح‬ٛ‫ عمو‬tuqūb, ‫ثعموجح‬
atqāb) hole, puncture, borehole, drill hole
‫ا عمذز‬tuqba pl. ‫ عمخ‬tuqab hole
‫ عموجح‬and ‫هاثٌغموجح‬ٛ‫‘ عو‬ūd al-tiqāb matchstick; matches
‫ح‬ٛ‫ا عمو‬tuqūb keenness, acuteness (of the
mind)
‫ ِغموخا‬mitqab pl. ‫ ِغجلوخ‬matāqib2 borer,
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble,
perforator; drilling machine
‫ ثعمجح‬itqāb kindling, lighting
‫ عجل وخ‬dqib penetrating, plercing, sharp
(mind, eyes)│ٌ‫ اعجلووووخاثٌٕروووو‬t. an-naẓar
perspicacity; sharp-eyed; ٌ‫ عجلخاثٌفىو‬t. al-fikr
sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness;
shrewd, sagacious, sharp-witted
‫ عجلذجس‬tāqibāt borers (zool.) 103
‫ عموؿ‬taqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (ٖ s.o.); -taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart,
clever II to make straight, straighten ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to correct, set right, straighten out
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to train, form, teach, educate ( ‫٘و‬
s.o.); to arrest ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o.); to seize, confiscate
(ٖ s.th.) III to fence (ٖ with s.o.) V to be
trained, be educated
‫ عمجـوووووز‬taqāfa culture, refinement;
education; (pl. -āt) culture, civilization
strength, ask too much (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of s.o.); to
trouble, inconvenience, bother (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. ‫ح‬
with s.th.), pester, molest (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.)│‫اعموًا‬
ٗ‫وجٍ٘و‬and ٗ‫( ثعموًاوجٍ٘و‬kāhilahū) to burden s.o.
or s.th; ْ‫َث‬١ٌّ‫ ثعمًاوجً٘اث‬to burden the budget
IV to burden ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to oppress,
distress (ٖ s.o.). weigh heavily (ٖ on); to be
hard to bear (ٖ for s.o.)│ٗ‫اثعموووًاوجٍ٘ووو‬
(kāhilahū)‫ا‬see II; VI to become or be
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.), trouble. oppress (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.); to
be sluggish. doltish. slow; to be in a bad
mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find
burdensome and turn away (ٓ‫ عوو‬from
s.th.); not to bother (ٓ‫ عو‬about); to be too
dull, too sluggish (ٓ‫ عو‬for s.th., to do s.th.)
X to find heavy, hard. burdensome,
troublesome ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), find annoying ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o.. s.th.)│ٗ‫( ثّوضغمًاظٍو‬ẓillahū) to find s.o.
unbearable, dislike s.o.
ً‫ عمو‬tiql pl. ‫ ثعموجي‬atqāl weight; burden
load; gravity; heaviness│‫عموجي‬٨‫ اًـااث‬raf‘ ala. weight lifting (athlet.); ‫ا‬ٝ‫ع‬ٛ‫ثٌغموووًاثٌٕووو‬
(nau‘ī) specific gravity
ً‫ عموووو‬tiqal
dullness
heaviness;
sluggishness,
ً‫ عم‬taqal pl. ‫ ثعمجي‬atqāl load, baggage
ْ٩‫ ثٌغم‬at-taqalān the humans and the jinn
ٝ‫ عموووجـ‬taqāfī educational; intellectual;
cultural│ٝ‫( اٍِقووووكاعمووووجـ‬mulḥaq) cultural
attaché
ً‫ عموووو‬taqla
discomfort
‫ووؿ‬١‫ عم‬tatqīf cultivation of the mind;
training, education; instruction
ً‫ عمووو‬taqala heaviness; sluggishness,
doltishness; dullness
‫ ِغجلفوز‬mutāqafa fencing, art or sport of
fencing, swordplay, swordsmanship
ً‫ و‬١‫ عم‬taqīl pl. ٩‫ عموو‬tuqalā’2, ‫ عم وجي‬tiqāl
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave,
serious,
important;
burdensome,
troublesome, cumbersome, oppressive;
unpleasant,
disagreeable,
distasteful
(person)│َ‫وًاثٌوو‬١‫ اعم‬t. ad-dam insufferable,
unpleasant, disagreeable (person); ‫وووًا‬١‫عم‬
‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫ ثٌوو‬t. ar-rūḥ doltish, dull (person); a
bore; ً‫وووًاثٌرووو‬١‫ عم‬t. aẓ-ẓill disagreeable,
insufferable (person); ُ‫و‬ٙ‫وًاثٌف‬١‫ عم‬t. al-fahm
slow of understanding, slow-witted; ‫وًا‬١‫عم‬
‫ ثٌْوّا‬t. as-sam‘ hard of hearing; ‫ٍوز‬١‫وٕجعزاعم‬ٙ
(ṣinā‘a) heavy industry; ً‫ و‬١‫ ِووج اعم‬heavy
water (phys.)
‫ صغموووؿ‬tataqquf culturedness, culture,
refinement, education
‫ ِغمووووؿ‬mutaqqaf
cultured
educated;
trained;
ً‫ عم‬taqula u (tiql, ‫ عمجٌوز‬taqāla) to be heavy; with
‫ ح‬to load or burden s.th., make s.th.
heavy; to be hard to bear (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.),
weigh heavily (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on), be burdensome,
cumbersome, oppressive (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.); to
be heavy-handed. sluggish, doltish, dullwitted; to be too dull, too sluggish (ٓ‫ عو‬for
s.th. to do s.th.), not to bother (or about) II
to make heavy, weight ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to
burden, encumber (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., ‫ ٘و‬with s.th.),
overburden (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.), overtax s.o.‘s (ٝ‫)عٍو‬
trouble,
inconvenience,
ً‫ ثعم‬atqal2 heavier; more oppressive
‫ ِغموجي‬mitqāl pl. ً‫و‬١‫ ِغجل‬matāqīl2 weight
(also s.th. placed as an equipoise on the
scales of a balance); miskal, a weight (in
Egypt = 24 ٟ‫ = لٌث‬4.68 g)│‫ اِغمجياىًر‬m. 104
darra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a
tiny amount; a little bit; ٓ‫ ِغموجياِو‬a little of,
a little bit of
ً‫وووو‬١‫ صغم‬tatqīl
molestation
weighting,
burdening;
ٝ‫عو‬٩‫ ع‬talātī tertiary; Tertiary (geol.)│‫ِوجا‬
ٝ‫ع‬٩‫ لذًاثٌغ‬pre-Tertiary
ٌ‫عوزاعٖوو‬٩‫ ع‬talātata ‘ašara, f. ‫طاعٖووٌر‬٩‫عوو‬
talāta ‘ašrata thirteen
‫ ثٌغجٌظ‬at-tālit the third; ‫ عجٌغوج‬tālitan thirdly;
‫ عجٌغز‬1/60 of a second
ْٛ‫ع‬٩‫ ع‬talātūn thirty
ً‫ صغجل‬tatāqul sluggishness, dullness
ً‫ ِغم و‬mutaqqal and mutqal burdened,
encumbered; overloaded; weighted (‫ح‬
with s.th.); oppressed (‫ ح‬by); heavy
ً‫ ِضغجل و‬mutatāqil sluggish, dull; sullen,
grumpy
ً‫ عىو‬takila a (takal) to lose a child (ٖ), also: to
be bereaved of a loved one (ٖ) by death IV
‫ٌوو٘ج‬ٚ‫َا‬٤‫ ثعىوًاث‬atkala l-umma waladuhā to
bereave a mother of her son
ً‫ عىو‬takal state of one who has lost a
friend or relative; mourning over the loss
of a loved one
ْ٩‫ عى‬taklān (2) bereaved of a child
ٍٝ‫ عى‬taklā bereaved of a child (mother)
‫ ثٌغٍغوج‬at-talatā’ and ‫َاثٌغٍغوج‬ٛ‫و‬٠ yaum at-t.
Tuesday
‫ط‬٩‫ عو‬tulāt2 and ‫ ِغٍوظ‬mutallat three at a
time
ٝ‫عو‬٩‫ ع‬tulātī tripartite, consisting of three,
(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three
radicals; tri-; trio (mus. )│‫وج‬٠‫ث‬ٌَٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫عو‬٩‫ ع‬t. zzawāyā triangular; ‫ًلوووجس‬ٌٛ‫اث‬ٝ‫عووو‬٩‫ع‬
t. lwaraqāt trifoliate
‫ط‬ٌٛ‫ عوج‬tālūt Trinity (CM.); trinity, triad;
triplet│ ‫ط‬ٌٛ‫ ٍ٘ووٌراثٌغووج‬zahrat at-t. pansy
(bot.)
‫وظ‬١ٍ‫ صغ‬tatlīt doctrine of the Trinity; Trinity
(Chr.)
ٝ‫غ‬١ٍ‫ صغ‬tatlītī trigonometric(al)
2
‫ عجوٍوز‬tākila pl. ً‫ثوو‬ٛ‫ ع‬tawākil bereaved of
a child (mother)
‫ عٍوز‬tulla pl. ً‫ عٍو‬tulal troop, band, party, group
(of people); military detachment
‫ ِغٍووظ‬mutallat tripled, triple, threefold;
having three diacritical dots (letter);
triangular; (pl. -āt) triangle (geom.)│‫وزا‬٠‫اثٌٌث‬
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ٌو‬٤‫( ثٌّغٍغوزاث‬rāya), ‫‘( ثٌعٍوُاثٌّغٍوظ‬alam) and
‫ ثٌّغٍوظ‬the tricolor; ‫( ثٌّغٍوظاثٌقوجه‬ḥadd) acuteangled triangle; ‫وج‬٠‫ث‬ٌَٚ‫ ِغٍوظاث‬m. az-zawāyā
triangular; ٓ١‫اثٌْوجل‬ٜٚ‫( ثٌّغٍوظاثٌّضْوج‬mutasāwā
s-sāqain) isosceles triangle; ‫ا‬ٜٚ‫ثٌّغٍوظاثٌّضْوج‬
٩‫وو‬ٝ٤‫ ث‬equilateral triangle; ُ‫ثٌّغٍووظاثٌمووجة‬
right-angled triangle
‫ عٍوخ‬talaba i (talb) to criticize, run down (ٖ
s.o.); to slander, defame (ٖ s.o.)
‫ ثٌّغٍغ وجس‬al-mutallatāt and ‫فْووجحاثٌّغٍغ وجس‬
ḥisāb al-m. trigonometry
‫ عىٕز‬tuknā pl. ٓ‫ عى‬tukan, -āt barracks (mil.)
ً‫ عو‬talla u (ً‫ عٍو‬talal) to tear down, destroy,
overthrow, subvert ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th., esp. ‫عٌٕووج‬
‘aršan to topple a throne) VII to be
subverted, overthrown (throne)
‫ عٍخ‬talb slander, defamation
‫ عٍوظ‬II to triple, make threefold ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to do
three times ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ عٍوؼ‬talaja u: ‫( عٍؾوشاثٌْوّج‬samā’u) it snowed,
was snowing; -- talija a to be delighted,
105 be gladdened (soul, heart; ‫ ح‬by) II to
cool with ice ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to freeze, turn into
ice ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV ‫ ثعٍؾوشاثٌْوّج‬it snowed, was
snowing; to cool, moisten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)│‫ثعٍوؼا‬
ًٖ‫وو‬ٙ (ṣadrahū) to delight, please, gratify
s.o. V to become icy, turn into ice,
congeal; to freeze
‫ عٍوظ‬tult pl. ‫ط‬٩‫ ثعو‬atlāt one third; tulut a
sprawling, decorative calligraphic style
‫ عٍوؼ‬talj pl. ‫ػ‬ٛ‫ عٍو‬tulūj snow; ice; artificial
ice│‫ ٔوـزاثٌغٍؼ‬nadfat at-t. snowflake
‫عز‬٩‫ ع‬talāta (f. ‫ط‬٩‫ ع‬talāt) three; ‫ عٍغج‬talātan
three times, thrice
ٝ‫ عٍؾو‬taljī snowy, snow- (in compounds);
icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds)
‫ ِغٍذووووز‬matlaba pl.
shortcoming, defect,
disgrace
‫ عجٌووووخ‬tālib
slanderer
2
‫ ِغجٌووووخ‬matālib
blemish, stain,
slanderous,
defamatory;
‫ؼ‬١ٍ‫ ع‬talīj icy
‫ػ‬٩‫ ع‬tallāj pl. -ūn ice vendor
‫ؽووز‬٩‫ ع‬tallāja pl. -āt iceberg, ice floe;
refrigerator, icebox
ٌ‫ عّو‬tamara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit,
benefit ( ‫ ٘و‬from); to exploit, utilize ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to invest profitably ( ٘ money)
ٌ‫ عّوو‬tamar pl. ً‫ عّ وج‬timār, ً‫ ثعّ وج‬atmār
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit,
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain
‫ ِغٍؾوز‬matlaja pl. ‫ ِغوجٌؼ‬matālij2 icebox,
refrigerator; cold-storage plant
‫ عّووٌر‬tamara (n. un. of tamar) pl. -āt
fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit,
gain
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ ِغٍوو‬matlūj snow-covered; iced, icy;
‫ؽجس‬ٍٛ‫ ِغ‬frozen food; iced beverages
‫ ِغٍؼ‬mutallaj iced; icy, ice-cold
ُ‫ عٍو‬talama i (talm) to blunt, make jagged ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), break the edge of ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to make a
breach, gap or opening ( ‫ ٘و‬in a wall); to
defile, sully ( ‫ ٘وو‬reputation, honor); -talima a to be or become jagged, dull,
blunt II to blunt ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to become
blunt VII to be defiled, be discredited
(reputation)
ً‫ ثّووضغّج‬istitmār exploitation (also pol.econ.), utilization, profitable use
ٌ‫ ِغّوووو‬mutmir fruitful,
profitable, lucrative
ٌّ‫ ِْوضغ‬mustatmir pl. -ūn exploiter (pol.econ.); beneficiary
ً‫ عّو‬tamila a (tamal) to become drunk IV to
make drunk, intoxicate (ٖ s.o.)
ُ‫ عٍوو‬talm nick, notch; breach, opening,
gap; crock, fissure, rift│‫ش‬١‫و‬ٌٚ‫ عٍوُاث‬t. aṣ-ṣīt
defamation
ًّ‫ ع‬tamal intoxication, drunkenness
‫ عٍّز‬tamala drunken fit, drunkenness
ًّ‫ ع‬tamil intoxicated, drunk(en)
‫ عٍّوز‬tulma pl. ُ‫ عٍو‬tulam = talm│ ‫ّوواعٍّوز‬
sadda talmatan to fill a gap; ‫اصْووو‬٨‫عٍّووزا‬
(tusaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, an
irreparable loss
ٌُ‫ عج‬talim dull, blunt
‫ عّجٌوز‬tumāla residue, remnant, dregs (of a
liquid), heeltap (of wine); .cum, foam,
froth 106
1
َٛ‫ ِغٍو‬matlūm defiled, sullied (reputation,
honor)
ٍُ‫ ِوغ‬mutatallim blunted, blunt; cracking
(voice)
ٓ١ّ‫ ع‬tamīn costly, precious, valuable
ُ‫ عو‬tamma there ُ‫ عو‬min tamma hence, therefore,
for that reason
ٓ‫ ثعّوو‬atman2 costlier, more precious,
more valuable
ُ‫ عو‬tumma then, thereupon; furthermore,
moreover; and again, and once more
(emphatically in repetition)│٩‫اعوووُاوووو‬٩‫وووو‬
(kallā) no and a hundred times no! ُ‫ِوٓاعو‬
min tamma then, thereupon
ٓ١‫ صغّوووو‬tatmīn estimated,
assessment, valuation, rating
appraisal,
ّْٛ‫ ِغ‬matmūn object of value
ّٓ‫ِووووووووووغ‬
mutammin
appraiser│ّٓ‫ٌاِغ‬١‫ مذ‬assessor
‫ عّز‬tammata (‫ )عّش‬there; there is│‫ِاعّوز‬١‫ٌو‬
there isn't
‫ ثعّو‬look up alphabetically
ٓ‫اعّو‬II to appraise, asses, estimate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
determine the price or value ( ٘ of s.th.); to
price ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.)│ً‫اعّووو‬٨‫ ا‬lā yutammanu
invaluable, inestimable, priceless
ٓ‫ عّو‬pl. ٓ‫ ثعّوو‬atmān, ‫ ثعّٕوز‬atmina price,
cost; value│ٍٝ‫و‬ٙ٤‫( ثٌوغّٓاث‬aṣlī) cost price;
ّٝ‫ّج‬٤‫( ثٌغّٓاث‬asāsī) par, nominal value
‫ش‬١‫و‬ٌٚ‫ ِٕوغٍُاث‬muntalim aṣ-ṣīt of ill repute,
of dubious reputation
َ‫ عّج‬tumām a grass│َ‫وٌؾاثٌغّوج‬ٟ‫ا‬ٍٝ‫( ع‬ṯarafi
t-t.) within easy reach, handy; ‫ا‬ٝ‫ؽعٍووٗاعٍوو‬
َ‫وووووٌؾاثٌغّوووووج‬ٟ he made it readily
understandable, he presented it plsusibly
for all
productive,
ّٓ‫ ِوووووغ‬mutamman
valuable, precious
estimator,
prized,
valued,
ّٓ‫ ِغ‬mutmin costly, precious, valuable
ّٓ‫ ِغ‬mutman object of value
2
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ عّج‬tamāniya (f. ْ‫ عّج‬tamānin) eight
ٌٖ‫زاع‬١ٔ‫ عّج‬tamāniyata ‘ašara, f. ‫اعٌٖر‬ٟٔ‫عّج‬
tamāniya ‘ašrata eighteen
ّٓ‫ ع‬pl. ْ‫ ثعّج‬atmān one-eighth
‫ عّٕوز‬tumna pl. -āt a dry measure (Eg. =
1/3 ‫ = لوؿ‬.258 l; Pal. = ca. 2.25 l)
ْٛٔ‫ عّج‬tamānūn eighty
ِٓ‫ ثٌغج‬at-tāmin the eighth
ّٓ‫ ِغ‬mutamman eightfold; octagonal
‫ عٕز‬tunna pl. ٕٓ‫ ع‬tunan fetlock
‫ر‬ٚ‫ عٕوو‬tunduwa pl. ‫ عٕوجه‬tanādin breast (of the
male)
ٝ‫ عٕو‬tanā i (tany) to double, double up, fold,
fold up, fold under ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bond, flex
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to turn away, dissuade, keep,
prevent, divert (ٓ‫ ٖ عو‬s.o. from)│‫اعٕوجْا‬ٝ‫اعٕو‬
ٗ‫‗( ـٌّو‬ināna farasihī) he galloped off II to
double, make double ( ٘ s.th.); to do twice,
repeat ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to pleat, plait ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
form the dual ( ‫ ٘و‬of a word); to provide
with two diacritical dots ( ‫ ٘و‬a letter) IV to
commend, praise, laud, extol (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.,
s.o.), speak appreciatively (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of)│‫ا‬ٝ‫اثعٕو‬
‫ٌاثٌغٕوج‬ٟ‫ٗاعوج‬١ٍ‫‗( ع‬āṯira tanā’) to speak in the
most laudatory terms of s.o. V to double,
become double; to be doubled; to be
repeated; to bond, fold; to be bent, be
folded. be folded up or under; to walk
with a swinging gait VII to bend, bend up,
down or over, lean, incline, bow; to fold,
be foldable, be folded back; to turn away
(ٓ‫ عو‬from), give up, renounce (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to
turn, face (‫ي‬I toward); to apply o.s., turn
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.th.); (with foll. imperf.) to set out,
prepare (to do s.th.) X to except, exclude
(ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th. or s.o. from), make an
exception ( ٘ of s.th.)
ٝ‫ عٕو‬tany bonding; folding; turning away,
dissuasion, keeping, prevention
ٝ‫ عٕو‬tiny pl. ‫ ثعٕوج‬atnā’ fold, pleat, plait,
crease (in cloth); bond, twist│ٝ‫وجادعوواعٕو‬١ٕ‫اع‬
tinyan ba‘da tinyin from time to time
‫ ثعٕوج‬atnā‘ (prep.) during; in the course
of│ ‫اثعٕوج‬ٝ‫ ـو‬fī atnā’i do.; ‫اثعٕوج اىٌوه‬ٝ‫ـو‬, ‫اصٍوها‬ٝ‫ـو‬
‫عٕوج‬٨‫ث‬, ‫ ثعٕوج اىٌوه‬in the meantime, during all
this time, meanwhile
‫ووز‬١ٕ‫ ع‬tanya pl. tanyāt fold, pleat, plait,
crease (in cloth)
‫وز‬١ٕ‫ ع‬tanya pl. ‫وج‬٠‫ عٕج‬tanāyā middle incisor;
narrow pass; mountain trail│‫وج‬٠‫اعٕج‬ٝ‫ اـو‬in,
inside, among, between, frequently only a
fuller,
rhetorically
more
elegant
expression for "in". e.g., ٗ‫وجأفْو‬٠‫اعٕج‬ٝ‫ ـو‬in his
heart, inwardly, ‫وجاثٌىضوجح‬٠‫اعٕج‬ٝ‫ ـو‬in the book;
‫وج‬٠‫ٓاعٕج‬١‫ دو‬in, inside, among, between; ‫ ا‬٩‫و‬ٟ
‫وووج‬٠‫ ثٌغٕج‬ṯallā‗ at-t. one with high-flung
aspirations 107
‫ عٕوج‬tanā’ commendation, praise, eulogy;
appreciation
‫ عٕج‬tunā’2 and ٕٝ‫ ِغ‬matnā two at a time
ٜٕٛ‫ ع‬tanawī dualist
‫ز‬٠ٕٛ‫ ع‬tanawīya dualism
ٝ‫ عٕجة‬tanā’ī laudatory, eulogistic
ٝ‫ عٕوووجة‬tunā’ī twofold, double, dual,
binary, bi-; biradical (gram.); duet, duo
(mus.)│ ً‫ث‬ٛ‫اثٌّٖو‬ٝ‫( ِقوٌناعٕوجة‬muḥarrik t. lmišwār) two-cycle engine
O ‫ووز‬١‫ عٕجة‬tunā’īya dualism; duet, duo
(mus.)
ْ‫ ثعٕج‬itnāni, f. ْ‫ ثعٕضج‬itnatāni two
ٌ‫ ثعٕوجاعٖو‬itnā ‘ašara, f. ‫ ثعٕضوجاعٖوٌر‬itnatā
‘ašrata twelve
ٓ١‫عٕوو‬٨‫َاث‬ٛ‫وو‬٠ yaum al-itnaini and ٓ١‫عٕوو‬٨‫ث‬
Monday
ٝٔ‫ ثٌغوج‬at-tānī the second; the next; ‫وج‬١ٔ‫عج‬
tāniyan and ‫وز‬١ٔ‫ عج‬tāniyatan secondly; for
the second time, once more, again│‫ا‬ٝٔ‫اعوج‬
ٓ١‫ ثعٕو‬t. itnain the second of a pair, pendant,
companion piece, match
‫وز‬١ٔ‫ عج‬tāniya pl. ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ عو‬tawānin second (time
unit)
ٜٛٔ‫ عج‬tānawī secondary; minor│‫ز‬٠ٛٔ‫ًاعج‬ِٛ‫ث‬
matters of secondary importance, minor
matters; ‫وووز‬٠ٛٔ‫ ِوًّوووزاعج‬secondary school;
ٞٛٔ‫ػاعج‬٠ْٛ‫ ص‬subletting
‫وز‬١ٕ‫ صغ‬tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleating;
doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual;
second sequel (e.g., of a collection of
short stories); commendation, praise,
eulogy│ ‫ٕضٌث‬٨‫زاث‬١ٕ‫ اصغ‬Deuteronomy
‫ ثٔغٕج‬intinā’ bending, flection; flexibility,
foldability│ ‫ثٔغٕج‬٩ٌ‫ الجدًا‬foldable, folding
‫ ثٔغٕووج ر‬intinā’a pl. -āt (n. vic.) bend,
flexure, curve
‫ ثّووضغٕج‬istitnā’ exception, exclusion│‫ا‬
‫ دجّوضغٕج‬with the exception of, except; ‫ْا‬ٚ‫دوو‬
‫ ثّضغٕج‬without exception
ٝ‫ ثّوووضغٕجة‬istitnā’ī exoeptional; ‫ج‬١‫ثّوووضغٕجة‬
istitnā’īyan as an exception│‫ز‬١‫ثياثّوضغٕجة‬ٛ‫اثفو‬
emergencies;
‫ز‬١‫ؽٍْووووووزاثّووووووضغٕجة‬
(jalsa)
emergency session
ٝ‫ ِغٕوو‬matnīy folded; plaited, pleated;
doubled
ٝ‫ ِغٕوو‬mutannan ouble, twofold; in the
dual (gram.)
ٕٝ‫ ِْضغ‬mustatnan excepted, excluded (ٓ‫ِو‬
from)
‫ر‬ٛ‫ ع‬see ٜٛ‫ع‬
1
‫حة‬ٛ‫ عوجحايعو‬tāba u to return, come back (also,
e.g., a state or condition, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ي‬to s.o.);
with ‫ح‬: to return s.th. (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.o.)│‫ا‬ٝ‫اعوجحاثٌو‬
ٗ‫ ٔفْو‬to regain consciousness, come to; ‫عوجحا‬
ٖ‫وٗإًوو‬١ٌ‫( ث‬rušduhū) to recover one‘s senses
II to reward (ٖ s.o.; said of God) IV to
repay, requite ( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. with); to reward
(ٍٝ‫ ٖ ع‬s.o. for) X to seek reward
‫ح‬ٛ‫ عوو‬taub pl. ‫ووجح‬١‫ ع‬tiyāb, ‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ثعوو‬atwāb
garment, dress; cloth, material; (fig.) garb,
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask;
pl. ‫وجح‬١‫ ع‬clothes, clothing, apparel│ ‫ووجحا‬١‫ع‬
‫ٌر‬ٙ‫ ثٌْوو‬t. as-suhra formal dress, evening
clothes; ٠١‫حادْو‬ٛ‫اع‬ٝ‫ ـ‬in plain, homely form;
‫وووووجح‬١‫وووووجٌ٘اثٌغ‬ٟ of flawless character,
irreproachable
ًٛ‫ عو‬taur pl. ْ‫وٌث‬١‫ ع‬tīrān bull, steer; ox;
Taurus (astron.)│ًٛ‫ووًاثٌغوو‬٠‫ًدزاى‬ٛ‫ إوو‬šōrabat
dail at-t. oxtail soup
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ عوووو‬taura excitement, agitation;
outbreak, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair,
etc.); eruption (of a volcano); (pl. -āt)
upheaval, uprising, insurrection, riot,
rebellion, revolt, revolution│‫وووز‬١ٍ٘‫ًراث‬ٛ‫عووو‬
(ahlīya) internal strife, civil war
ًٜٛ‫ ع‬taurī revolutionary (adj. and n.)
ًٜٚٛ‫ عوو‬taurawī revolutionary (adj. and
n.)
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ عو‬tawāb requital, recompense, reward
(for good deeds); (Isl. Law) merit, credit
(arising from a pious deed)
ْ‫ًث‬ٛ‫ عووو‬tawarān agitation, excitation,
flare-up, emption, outbreak, outburst, dust
whirl
‫دوووز‬ٛ‫ ِغ‬matūba requital, recompense,
reward (bestowed by God for good deeds)
ً‫ ِغوج‬matār incentive, stimulus, motive,
spur, occasion, cause│‫ اِغووجًاثٌؾوووي‬m. aljadal and ‫ ِغوجًاثٌٕوَث‬object of controversy,
point of contention
‫ ِغووجح‬matāb and ‫ ِغجدوز‬matāba place to
which one returns; meeting place;
rendezvous; resort, refuge
‫ ِغجدوز‬matāba (with foll. genit.) place or
time at which s.th. appears or recurs; 108
manner, mode, fashion; see also preceding
entry│‫( ادّغجد وز‬with foll. genit.) like, as;
tantamount to, equivalent to, having the
same function as
2
difficulty, ٗ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫ ـو‬fī wajhihī before s.o.);
to be triggered, be unleashed, break out; to
revolt, rebel, rise (ٝ‫ عٍو‬against); to rage,
storm│ٌٖ‫( اعووجًاعووجة‬tā’irohū) to fly into a
rage, become furious, flare up IV to
agitate, excite (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to stimulate
(ٖ s.o., ٘ s.th.); to irritate (ٖ s.o., ٘ s.th.); to
arouse, stir up, kindle, excite ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g.,
feelings), cause, provoke, awaken ( ‫٘ووو‬
s.th.); to raise, pose, bring up (‫ِْووبٌز‬
mas’alatan a question, a problem)│‫اثعوجًا‬
ٗ‫( عجةٌصو‬tā’iratahū) to infuriate s.o., excite
s.o. X to excite, stir up, kindle ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
esp. passions); to rouse ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to
arouse, awaken ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., esp. feelings); to
elicit, evoke ( ‫ ٘و‬wails, outcries, ٓ‫ ِو‬from
s.o.); to incite, set (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. against)│‫ا‬
ٗ‫ووذ‬ٞ‫( ثّووضغجًاؼ‬gaḍabahū) to infuriate s.o.,
make s.o. angry
‫ح‬ٚ‫ عتخ( صغج ح = اصغج‬VI) to yawn
‫ًة‬ٛ‫ عووجًايعوو‬tāra u to stir, be stirred up, be
aroused, be excited; to swirl up, rise
(dust); to arise (question, problem; a
‫ ثعووووجًر‬itāra excitation,
kindling;
agitation,
provocation,
(a)rousing,
irritation, stimulation
stirring up,
incitement;
awakening;
ٌ‫ عوووجة‬tā’ir excited, agitated, raving,
furious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the
idiomatic phrase ‫ عوجًاعوجةٌر‬see above); (pl.
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫عووووووو‬
tuwwār)
insurgent,
rebel,
revolutionary
‫ عووجةٌر‬tā’ira pl. ٌ‫ثة‬ٛ‫ ع و‬tawā’ir2 tumult;
excitement, agitation; fury, rage
ٌ‫وووو‬١‫ ِغ‬mutīr exciting; provocative;
stimulative, irritative; excitant, irritant,
stimulant; instigator; germ, agent; pl.
‫ٌثس‬١‫ ِغ‬stimulants
َٛ٠ًٛ‫ ع‬tōriyūm thorium (chem.)
‫ي‬ٛ‫ عو‬VII to swarm, crowd, throng (ٝ‫ عٍو‬around
s.o.); to come over s.o. (ٍٝ‫)ع‬
‫ي‬ٛ‫ عو‬law and ً‫ياثٌٕقو‬ٛ‫ عو‬t. an-nḥl swarm of
bees
possessed, undismayed; ٠‫ دؾووبٓاًثدوو‬with
unswerving courage, unflinchingly
ٗ‫ؽجوض‬, ‫ ؽجوضز‬and ٗ‫ض‬١‫ ؽجو‬žakēta jacket, coat
ٌْٛ‫ ؽج‬galōn gallon
ٌٜ١ٌ‫( ؽج‬Eg. spelling) galērī gallery (theat.)
َ‫ ؽج‬jām pl. –āt cup; drinking vessel; bowl
‫ز‬١‫ ؽجِى‬jāmakīya pl. -āt, ‫ثِه‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāmik2 pay
ُِٛ‫ ؽج‬jāmūs pl. ِ١ِ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāmīs2 buffalo
َٛ‫ ع‬tūm (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬garlic
ٜٛ‫ ع‬tawā i ( ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ع‬tawā’, ٜٛ‫ ع‬tuwīy, ٜٛ‫ ِغو‬matwan)
to stay, live (‫ ح‬at a place); to settle down
(‫ ح‬at a place); pass. tuwiya to be buried
IV to stay, live; to lodge, put up as a guest
(ٖ s.o.)
ٜٛ‫ ع‬tawīy guestroom
‫ر‬ٛ‫ عو‬tūwa pl. ٜٛ‫ عو‬tuwan signpost, roadsign
ٜٛ‫ ِغوو‬matwan pl. ٚ‫ ِغوج‬matāwin abode,
habitation, dwelling; place of rest
‫وخ‬١‫ ع‬tayyib pl. -āt a deflowered but unmarried
woman, widow, divorcée
ً‫ضو‬١‫ ع‬taital pl. ً‫جصو‬١‫ ع‬tayātil2 a variety of wild goat
(Capra jaela) 109
‫ج‬
‫ّز‬ِٛ‫ ؽج‬jāmūsa buffalo cow
‫( ؽوووجٌٔن‬pronounced žānəreg, from Turk.
caneriği; coll.; n. un. žānərgēye) a variety
of small green plum with several stones
(syr.)
ٖ‫ ؽوج‬jāh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory,
fame
ٖٚ‫ ؽج‬jāwa Java
ٜٚ‫ ؽوج‬jāwī Javanese; benzoin; (pl. -ūn) a
Javanese
ً‫هث‬ٚ‫ ؽج‬jāwadār rye
ٔ٠ٚ‫ ؽج‬čāwīš sergeant = ٓٚ‫ٕج‬, ٔ٠ٚ‫ٕج‬
1
‫ ؽوخ‬jubb pl. ‫ ثؽذووجح‬ajbāb, ‫ ؽذوجح‬jibāb well,
cistern; pit
2
‫ ؽذوز‬jubba pl. ‫ ؽذوخ‬jubab, ‫ؽذوجح‬, jibāb, ‫ؽذجةوخ‬
jabā’ib2 jubbah, a long outer garment,
open in front, with wide sleeves
‫ ؽوذـ‬jabḥ pl. ‫ ثؽوذـ‬ajbuḥ, ‫ ؽذوجؿ‬jibāḥ, ‫ ثؽذوجؿ‬ajbāḥ
beehive
‫ك‬١ٍ‫ ؽجع‬jātalīq = ‫ك‬١ٍ‫ؽغ‬
2
‫ ؽؤؽوؤ‬ju’ju’ pl. ‫ ؽو ؽب‬ja’āji breast; prow, bow
(of a ship)
ً‫ ؽوب‬ja’ara a (ja’r, ً‫ ؽوؤث‬ju’ār) to low, moo; to
supplicate, pray fervently (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to God)
ً‫ ؽوب‬ja’r, and ً‫ ؽوؤث‬ju’ār, lowing, mooing
(of cattle)
1
ٍ‫ ؽج‬giiz pl. -āt (Eg. spelling) gas
2
ٍ‫ ؽج‬jāz jazz
ٍْٚ‫( ؽج‬Fr. gazon, Eg. spelling) gāzōn lawn
ٓ‫ ؽوووب‬ja’aša a (ja’š) to be agitated, be
convulsed (with pain or fright)
ٓ‫ ؽووب‬ja’š emotional agitation; heart,
soul│ٗ‫اؽبٕو‬٠‫ اًدو‬rabaṯa ja’šahū to remain
calm, composed, self-possesed; ٓ‫اثٌؾوب‬٠‫ًثدو‬
or ٓ‫ عجدوشاثٌؾوب‬calm, composed, cool, self-
‫ ؽذنجٔووز‬jabḳāna, jabaḳāna powder magazine;
ammunition; artillery depot
ٌ‫ ؽذوو‬jabara u (jabr, ًٛ‫ ؽذ و‬jubūr) to set ( ‫٘ و‬
broken bones); to restore, bring back to
normal ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to help back on his feet,
help up (ٖ s.o.; e.g., on. fallen into
poverty); to force, compel (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to do
s.th.)│ٌٖٟ‫( اؽذووٌامووج‬ḳāoṯirahū) to console,
comfort, gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.)
in a conciliatory or kindly manner II to set
( ‫ ٘و‬broken bones) III to treat with kindness
with friendliness (ٖ s.o.), be nice (ٖ to s.o.)
IV to force, compel (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to do s.th.);
to hold sway (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over) V to show o.s.
proud, haughty; to act strong, throw one‘s
weight around; to show o.s. strong or
powerful, demonstrate one‘s strength or
power; to be set (broken bones)│‫اصؾذوٌا ا‬
‫( دجدٕوه‬bi-bnika) God has demonstrated His
power on your son, i.e., He has taken him
unto Himself VII to be mended. repaired,
restored
ٌ‫ ؽذوو‬jabr setting (of broken bones); force,
compulsion; coercion, duress; power, 110
might; (predestined, inescapable) decree
of fate; ‫ ؽذوٌث‬jab,an forcibly, by force│‫اعٍوُا‬
ٌ‫‘ ثٌؾذ‬ilm al-j. algebra; ٌ‫َاؽذوٌاثٌذقو‬ٛ٠ yaum j.
al-baḥr a local holiday of Cairo (the day
on which, in former times, the water of the
Nile was channeled into the nowabandoned ḳalīg, or City Canal, thus
marٝ‫ـوو‬ng the beginning of the irrigation
season)
‫ ؽذجّووز‬jabbāsa gypsum quarry; plaster
kiln
2
ِ‫ ؽذ‬jabas (coll.; n. un. ‫ ;ر‬syr.) watermelon(s)
1
ً‫ اؽذو‬jabala u i (jabl) to mold, form, shape,
fashion ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to knead ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
create (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. with a natural disposition
or propensity for); pass. ٝ‫( ؽذًاعٍو‬jubila) to
be born for, be naturally diaposed to, bave
a propensity for
‫ ؽذٍووووز‬jibla, jibilla pl.
disposition, nature, temper
2
-āt
natural
ٌٜ‫ ؽذوووو‬jabrī algebraic; compulsory,
forced; -- jabarī an adherent of the
doctrine of predestination and the
inescapability of fate; fatalist
ً‫ اؽذو‬jabal pl. ً‫ ؽذو‬jibāl, ‫ ثؽذوجي‬ajbāl mountain;
mountains, mountain range│‫ٌوخ‬٨‫ اؽذوجياث‬j.
al-alb the Alpes; ُ‫ًث‬ٚ٨‫ ؽذ وجياث‬the Aurès
Mountains (in E Algeria); ‫وو‬١ٍ‫ ؽذًاؽ‬iceberg;
‫ٕج‬١‫ ؽذووًاّوو‬j. sīnā Mount Sinai; ‫ووجًق‬ٟ‫ؽذووًا‬
Gibraltar; ً‫ ؽذًأج‬volcano
‫ووز‬٠ٌ‫ ؽذ‬jabarīya an Islamic school of
thought teaching the inescapability of fate;
fatalism
ٍٝ‫ ؽذ‬jabalī mountainous, hilly; mountain
(adj.); montane; (pl. -ūn) highlander,
mountaineer
ً‫ ؽذوج‬jabbār, pl. -ūn, ٌ‫ ؽذوجد‬jabābir2, ‫ؽذوجدٌر‬
jabābira
giant;
colossus;
tyrant,
oppressor; almighty, omnipotent (God);
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; Orion
(astron.)│‫ر‬ٛ‫ اؽذوجًاثٌن و‬j. al-ḳuṯ.wa striding
powerfully, taٝ‫ـ‬ng buge strides
ٜٚ٩‫ ؽووووذ‬gabalāwī
mountaineer
‫ ؽذجًر‬jibāra (art of) bonesetting
‫وٌر‬١‫ ؽذ‬jabīra and ‫ ؽذوجًر‬jībāra pl. ٌ‫ؽذوجة‬
jabā’ir2 splint (surg.)
‫س‬ٌٚ‫ ؽذووو‬jabarūt omnipotence; power,
might; tyranny
2
‫ج‬٠ٌ‫ ؽذ‬jibriyā’ pride, haughtiness
O ٌ١‫ صؾذ‬tajbīr, َ‫ٌاثٌعرج‬١‫ صؾذ‬orthopedics
ً‫ ثؽذج‬ijbār compulsion, coercion
ًٜ‫ثؽذووووووج‬
ijbārī
forced,
forcible,
compulsory, obligatory│ًٜ‫ؽذووووج‬٨‫ووووواث‬١ٕ‫ثٌضؾ‬
compulsory
recruitment;
military
conscription
ٌ‫ ؽجد‬jābir and ٌ‫ ِؾذ‬mujabbir, bonesetter
ًٛ‫ ِؾذو‬majbūr and ٌ‫ ِؾذو‬mujbar forced,
compelled
ً١‫ ؽذٌة‬jabra’īl2ً٠ٌ‫ اؽذ‬jibrīl2 Gabriel
2
ِ‫ ؽذ‬jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris
ِ‫اؽووذ‬II to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with
plaster ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to put in a cast, set in
plaster ( ٘ s.th.)
(eg.)
highlander,
‫ز‬٠٩‫ ؽذ‬gabalāya pl. -āt (eg.) grotto, cave
ٓ‫ ؽووذ‬jabuna u (jubn, ‫ ؽذجٔووز‬jabāna) to be a
coward, be fearful; to be too much of a
coward (ٓ‫ عو‬to do s.th.), shrink (ٓ‫ عو‬from
s.th.) II to cause to curdle ( ‫ ٘و‬milk); to
make into cheese ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to curdle; to
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (ٖ s.o.)
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese
ٓ‫ ؽذ‬jubn and ‫ ؽذجٔز‬jabāna cowardice
ٓ‫ ؽذ‬jubn and ‫ ؽذٕز‬jubna cheese
ْ‫ ؽذ وج‬jabān pl. ‫ ؽذٕ وج‬jubanā’2 coward;
cowardly
ْ‫ ؽذج‬jabbān cheese merchant
ٓ١‫ ؽذ‬jabīn pl. ٓ‫ ؽذ‬jubun, ‫ ثؽذٕز‬ajbina, ٓ‫ثؽوذ‬
ajbun forehead, brow; façade, front; face
ٝ‫ٕو‬١‫ ِوٓاؽذ‬min jabīnī I alone; ‫ٓاثٌْوّج‬١‫اؽذو‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
in the sky 111
ٕٝ١‫ ؽذ‬jabīnī frontal
ٓ‫ ثؽذ‬ajban2 more cowardly
‫ ؽذجٔز‬jabbāna pl. -āt cemetery
ٓ١‫ صؾذو‬tajbīn cheese making, processing
into cheese
1
ٗ‫ ؽذ‬jabaha a to moot, face, confront (ٖ s.o.) III
to face, confront, oppose, defy (ٖ s.o., ‫٘و‬
s.th.), show a hold front (ٖ to); to face ( ‫ ٘و‬a
problem, a difficulty)
‫وز‬ٙ‫ ؽذ‬jabha pl. ٖ‫ ؽذوج‬jibāh, ‫وجس‬ٙ‫ ؽذ‬jabahāt
forehead, brow; front, face, façade;
frontline, battle front
‫وز‬ٙ‫ ِؾجد‬mujābaha facing, confrontation,
opposition
2
‫ ؽذٗامجٔز‬see ‫ؽذنجٔز‬
ٝ‫ ؽذو‬jabā i (‫وز‬٠‫ ؽذج‬jibāya) to collect, raise, levy
( ‫ ٘و‬taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. (in
prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
ٖ s.o.)
‫وز‬٠‫ ؽذج‬jibāya raising, levying (of taxes);
(pl. oat) tax, duty, impost
ٟ‫ ؽذجة‬jibā’ī tax- (in compounds); fiscal
ُ‫ ؽووجع‬jātim pl. ُ‫ ؽووغ‬juttam squatting,
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone
(ٛ‫ ؽغوج )ؽغو‬jatā u (jutuw) to kneel, root on the
knees; to bend the knee, genullect; to fall
on one‘s knees
ٛ‫ ؽغ‬jutūw kneeling pooition
‫ر‬ٛ‫ ؽغو‬jutwa rock pile, mound; sepulchral
mound, tumulus
ٝ‫ ِؾغ‬majtan hassock
‫ ؽوووجط‬jātin kneeling; ٝ‫ ثٌؾوووجع‬Hercules
(astron.)
‫ ؽقوو‬jaḥda a (jaiḥd, ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽقو‬juḥūd) to negate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to disclaim, disavow, disown, deny
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to refuse, reject, repudiate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to renounce, forswear, adjure ( ‫ ٘و‬a
belief); to deny ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o. his right)│‫اؽقووا‬
ٍٗ١ّ‫( ؽ‬jamīlahū) to he ungrateful to s.o.
ٝ‫ ِؾذوو‬majban pl. ‫ ِؾووجح‬majābin tax,
impost
‫ ؽقوو‬jaḥd denial; repudiation, disavowal,
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ ؽوجح‬jābin pl. ‫ ؽذوجر‬jubāh tax collector,
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.)
conductor (ir.)
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽق و‬juḥūd denial; evasion, dodging,
shirking (of a moral obligation);
ingratitude;
repudiation,
disavowal,
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ز‬١‫ ؽجد‬jābiya pl. ‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawābin pool, basin
‫ ؽضووج‬jatā (abbreviation of َ‫ووخاثٌضّووج‬١‫ )ؽ‬cosine
(math.)
‫ ؽجفو‬jāḥid denier; infidel, unbeliever
ٌ‫ ؽق‬VII to hide in ito hole or den (animal)
‫ ؽوظ‬jatta (jatt) and VIII to tear out, uproot ( ‫ ٘و‬a
tree, also fig.)
ٌ‫ ؽقو‬juḥr pl. ً‫ ثؽقووج‬ajḥār, ًٛ‫ ؽقو‬juḥūr
hole, den, lair, burrow (of animals) 112
‫ ؽغوز‬jutta pl. ‫ ؽغوظ‬jutat, ‫ ثؽغوجط‬ajtāt body;
corpse, cadaver; carcass
ٔ‫ ؽقو‬jaḥš pl. ٓ‫ ؽقوج‬jiḥāš, ْ‫ ؽقٖوج‬jiḥšān, ٓ‫ثؽقوج‬
ajḥāš young donkey; (pl. ٓٛ‫ ؽق و‬juḥūš)
trestle, horse
‫ ِؾضظ‬muitat uprooted (also fig.)
‫ؽقٖز‬
ً‫ ؽغ‬jatl thick, dense (esp. hair)
a young female donkey
‫ك‬١ٍ‫ ؽغ‬jitlīq pl. ‫ ؽغجٌموز‬jatāliqa catholicos, primate
of the Armenian Church
‫ ؽقو‬jaḥaẓa a (‫ظ‬ٛ‫ ؽقو‬juḥūẓ) to bulge, protrude
(eyeball)
ُ‫ ؽوغ‬jatama u i (jatm, َٛ‫ ؽغو‬jutūm) to alight, sit,
perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to fall or
lie prone, lie face down; to beset, oppress
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.th.)
ٓ١‫ظاثٌعو‬ٛ‫ ؽقو‬juḥūz al-‘ain exophthalmic goiter,
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
‫ ؽغّوز‬jatma (n. vic.) motionless sitting or
lying
َ‫ ؽغوج‬jutām and َٛ‫ ؽوجع‬jātūm nightmare,
incubus
ْ‫ ؽغّج‬jutmān pl. -āt hody, mortal frame
ٝٔ‫ؽغّوووووج‬
corporeal
jutmānī
hodily,
physical,
‫ ؽقوؿ‬jaḥafa a (jaḥf) to peel off, scrape off ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to sweep away ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to have a
bias (‫ ِووا‬for), side (‫ ِووا‬with s.o.) IV to
harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.);
to ruin. destroy (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.); to wrong (‫ح‬
s.o.)
‫ ثؽقوووجؾ‬ijḥāf injustice, wrong; bias,
prejudice
‫ ِؾقووؿ‬mujḥif unjust, unfair; biased,
prejudiced
ً‫ ؽقفوو‬jaḥfala pl. ً‫ ؽقجـوو‬jaḥāfil2 multitude,
legion, host, large army; army corps
(Syr.); eminent man
ُ١‫ ؽق‬jaḥīm f. (also m.) fire, hellfire, hell
ّٝ١‫ ؽق‬jaḥīmī hellish, infernal
‫ ؽل‬jaḳḳa (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to boast,
brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly ironical)
‫ ؽنجك‬jaḳḳāḳ boaster, braggart
1
‫ ؽو‬jadd pl. ‫ه‬ٚ‫ ؽو‬judūd, ‫ ثؽجه‬ajdād grand-father;
ancestor, forefather│ٝ‫عٍوووو‬٨‫( اثٌؾووووواث‬a‘lā)
ancestor
‫ ؽور‬jadda pl. -āt grandmother
2
‫ ؽووو‬jadda i to be new; to be a recent
development, have happened lately, have
recently become a fact; to be added, crop
up or enter as a new factor (circumstances,
costs); to appear for the first time (also,
e.g., on the stage); to be or become
serious, grave; to be weighty, significant,
important; to take ٝ‫ ـو‬s.th.) seriously; to
strive earnestly ٝ‫ ـو‬for), go out of one‘s
way (ٝ‫ ـو‬to do s.th.), make every effort (ٝ‫ـو‬
in); to be serious, be in earnest (ٝ‫ ـو‬about),
mean business; to hurry (ٝ‫ ـو‬one‘s step) II
to renew ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to make anew, remake
( ٘ s.th.); to modernize ( ٘ s.th.); to restore,
renovate, remodel, refit, recondition,
refurbish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to be an innovator, a
reformer; to feature s.th. new or novel,
produce s.th. new; to rejuvenate,
regenerate, revive, freshen up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
renew,‫ا‬extend ( ٘ a permit); to begin anew,
repeat ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), make a new start ( ‫ ٘و‬in
s.th.); to try again (ٗ‫ فروو‬ḥaẓẓahū one‘s
luck) IV to strive, endeavor, take pains; to
apply o.s. earnestly and assiduously (ٝ‫ـوو‬
to), be bent, be intent (ٝ‫ ـوو‬on s.th.); to
hurry (ٝ‫ ـو‬one's step); to renew, make new
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to become new, be renewed; to
revive X to be new, be added or enter as a
new factor, come newly into existence; to
make new, renew ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽوو‬iadd pl. ‫ه‬ٚ‫ ؽوو‬judūd good luck, good
fortune
‫ ؽووووو‬jidd seriousness, earnestness;
diligence, assiduity, eagerness; ‫ ؽووث‬jiddan
very, much│‫ ادؾووو‬and ‫ ِووٓاؽووو‬earnestly,
seriously; ٘‫ ؽووادوج‬jiddu bāhiẓin very high
(price); ُ١‫ ؽووواعروو‬j. ‘aẓīmin very great;
‫ؾ‬٩‫مووض‬٨‫ْاؽووواث‬ٛ‫نضٍفوو‬٠ (jidda l-iḳtilāf) they
differ widely; ‫اّوجقاثٌؾوواي‬ٝ‫لؿاعٍو‬ٚ (sāqi l-j.)
to apply o.s. with diligence to, take pains
in, make every effort to
ٜ‫ ؽوو‬jiddī serious; earnest; ‫ج‬٠‫ ؽوو‬jiddīyan
in earnest, earnestly, seriously
‫ووز‬٠‫ ؽو‬jiddīya earnestness; seriousness,
gravity (of a situation)
‫ ؽووور‬jidda newness, recency, novelty;
modernness, modernity; O rebirth,
renaissance
‫ ؽوور‬judda2 Jidda (eeaport in W Saudi
Arabia, on Red Sea) 113
‫ووو‬٠‫ ؽو‬jadīd pl. ‫ ؽوووه‬judud, judad new,
recent;
renewed;
modem;
novel,
unprecedented│ْ‫ووث‬٠‫ ثٌؾو‬al-jadīdān day and
night; ‫وو‬٠‫ ِوٓاؽو‬anew, again; (eg.) ‫وواٌوٕؼ‬٠‫ؽو‬
gadīd lang brand-new.
‫ ثؽووو‬ajadd2 more serious, more intent;
newer, more recent
‫ووو‬٠‫ صؾو‬tajdīd renewal (also. e.g., of a
permit); creation of s.th. new origination;
new presentation, new production (theat.);
innovation;
reorganization,
reform;
modernization; renovation, restoration,
remodeling. refitting. reconditioning,
refurbishing; rejuvenation, regeneration;
pl. -āt innovations; new achievements
‫ صؾووووه‬tajaddud renewal, regeneration,
revival
‫ ؽوجه‬jādd in earnest, earnest; serious (as
opposed to comic, funny)
‫ ؽوجهر‬jādda pl. –āt, jawādd2 main street;
street
‫ه‬ٚ‫ ِؾو‬majdūd fortunate. lucky
‫ ِؾووووه‬mujaddid renewer; innovator;
reformer
‫ ِؾووووه‬mujaddad renewed, extended;
remodeled, reconditioned, renovated,
restored; rejuvenated, regenerated, new,
recent, young
‫ ِؾووووو‬mujidd
assiduous
painstaking,
diligent,
‫ ِْضؾو‬mustajidd new, recent; incipient
‫ ؽووح‬jaduba u ‫دوز‬ٚ‫ ؽو‬judūba) to be or become
dry, arid (soil) IV to suffer from drought,
poverty or dearth; to be barren, sterile; to
come to nothing, go up in smoke, fall flat,
fizzle out; (syr.) to explode in the barrel
(shell; mil.)
‫ ؽووح‬jadb drought, barrenness, sterility;
sterile, barren
‫خ‬٠‫ ؽووو‬jadīb and ‫ ثؽوووح‬ajdab2, f. ‫ؽووودج‬
jadbā’2 barren, sterile
‫ ثؽووو‬ajda‘ mutilated (by having the
nose, or the like cut off) 114
2
□ ‫ ؽوو‬gada‘ (= ‫ ؽوي‬jada‘) pl. ْ‫ ؽووعج‬gid‘ān
(eg.) young man, young fellow; heman
1
‫ اؽووؾ‬II to curse, blaspheme (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., esp.
God)
‫ؿ‬٠‫ صؾو‬tajdīf imprecation, blasphemy
2
‫ ِؾوووح‬mujdib barren, sterile; desolate,
arid; unproductive, unprofitable
‫ ؽوط‬jadat pl. ‫ ثؽوثط‬ajdāt grave, tomb
‫ ِؾوثؾ‬mijdāf pl. ‫ ِؾجهؾ‬majādif2 oar
1
‫ ؽوؽو‬judjud pl. ‫ ؽوثؽو‬jadājid2 cricket (zool.)
1
ً‫ اؽو‬jadura u (‫ ؽوثًر‬jadāra) to be fit, suitable,
proper. appropriate (‫ ح‬for s.o., for s.th.);
to befit, behoove (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.); to be
worthy (‫ ح‬of), deserve (‫ ح‬s.th.)│ٌٖ‫ؾوًاىوو‬٠‫ا‬
(dikruhū) and ٌ‫ؾووووًادجٌووويو‬٠ it is worth
mentioning
ٌ٠‫ ؽوو‬jadīr pl. -ūn ‫ ؽووًث‬judarā‘2 worthy,
deserving (‫ ح‬of s.th.); becoming, befitting
(‫ ح‬s.th.); proper, suited, suitable fit (‫ح‬
for), appropriate (‫ ح‬to)│ٌ‫ٌادجٌويو‬٠‫( اؽوو‬dikr)
worth mentioning
ٌٝ‫ اؽوو‬jadalī controversial; disputatious;
a disputant
‫ ؽووووووثي‬jaddāl and ‫ ِؾووووووثي‬mijdāl
disputatious, argumentative; mijdāl see
also below
ً‫ ثؽوو‬ajdar worthier; more appropriate;
better suited, more suitable
‫ٍوز‬٠‫ ؽو‬jadīla pl. ً‫ ؽووثة‬jadā’il2 braid, plait;
tress
‫ ؽوووووثًر‬jadāra worthiness; fitness,
suitability,
aptitude,
qualification;
appropriateness
‫ ِؾوثي‬mijdāl pl. ‫ ِؾوجهي‬majādil2 flagstone,
ashlar; see also above under jaddāl
ً‫ ؽووث‬jidār pl. ً‫ ؽوو‬judur, ْ‫ ؽووًث‬judrān
wall
‫ ؽووثي‬jidāl and ‫ ِؾجهٌوز‬mujādala pl. –āt
quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion,
debate│‫مذوووووووووووًاثٌؾووووووووووووثي‬٠‫ا‬٨‫ا‬
(yaqbalu)
incontestable, indisputable; ‫اؽووووثي‬٨ lā
jidāla and ‫اؽووثي‬٩‫ دو‬bi-lā j. incontestably,
indisputably
ًٜ‫ ؽوث‬jidārī mural, wall (adj.)
ً‫ اؽو‬judira (pass.) and II to have smallpox
ًٜ‫ ؽو‬judarī, jadarī smallpox
ًٚ‫ ِؾوووو‬majdūr and ً‫ ِؾوووو‬mujaddar
infected with smallpox; pock-marked
‫ي‬ٚ‫ ِؾووو‬majdūl tightly twisted; braided,
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress of
hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., leg)
‫ ِؾووًر‬mujaddara dish made of rice or
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions and
oil (eg., syr.)
‫ ؽوو‬jada‘a a (jad‗) to cut off, amputate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., esp. some part of the body)
‫ٔووؿ‬٨‫ دؾووو اث‬bi-jad‘i l-anf (prop., at the
cost of having the nose cut off) at any
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved
‫ اؽووي‬jadala u i (jadl) to twist tight, tighten,
stretch ( ‫ ٘و‬a rope); to braid, plait ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
the hair, etc.) II to braid, plait, ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III
to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (ٖ with s.o.); to
argue, debate (ٖ with s.o.); to dispute,
contest (ٝ‫ ـو‬s.th.) VI to quarrel, have an
argument; to carry on a dispute
‫ ؽوووي‬jadal quarrel, argument; debate,
dispute, discussion, controversy│‫ا‬ٌٛ‫اـووو‬
٨‫ ؽوو‬faraḍa jadalan to assume for the sake
of argument, propose as a basis for
discussion
ً‫ ؽو‬jadr wall
2
‫ اؽوؾ‬jadafa i and II to row (o a boat)
‫ ِؾووجهي‬mujādil disputant, opponent in
dispute
2
‫ي‬ٚ‫ اؽوو‬jadwal pl. ‫ي‬ٚ‫ ؽووث‬jadāwil2 creek, brook,
little stream; column; list, roster; index;
chart, table, schedule│ٝ‫ياهًثّو‬ٚ‫( ؽوو‬dirāsī)
curriculum; ‫وز‬ًٙٛ‫ياثٌذ‬ٚ‫ ؽوو‬stock list, ‫اموجًػا‬
‫ووز‬ًٙٛ‫ياثٌذ‬ٚ‫( ؽووو‬ḳārija) not quoted (stock
exchange); ‫عّووجي‬٨‫ياث‬ٚ‫ ؽووو‬agenda; working
plan
‫ة‬ٚ‫ ؽووثايؽوو‬jadā u to give a present (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.)
IV to give as a present (‫ ح‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. s.th.),
present (‫ ح‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. with); to be of use, be
useful, profitable│‫أفعوج‬ٜ‫( ثؽوو‬naf‘an) to be
useful; ‫ه‬٠‫ؾوو‬٠‫ا‬٨‫ ٘يثا‬that won‘t help you, that
will be of no use (to you); ‫اعٕوها٘ويث‬ٜ‫ؾوو‬٠‫ِوجا‬
do.; ٩١‫اـضو‬ٜ‫ؾوو‬٠‫ا‬٨ (fatīlan) = ٩١‫ااـضو‬ٝ‫ؽٕو‬٠‫ا‬٨ see
ً‫و‬١‫ ـض‬X to beg for alms; to implore, beg ( ‫ٖ ٘و‬
s.o. for s.th.), plead ( ٘ for s.th.)
‫ ؽوث‬jadā’ advantage, gain (.r for s.o.)
ٜٚ‫ ؽووو‬jadwā gift, present; advantage,
benefit, gain│ٜٚ‫اؽو‬٩‫( اد‬bi-lā) and ‫وٌا‬١‫اؼ‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ٜٚ‫( ؽوو‬gairi) of no avail, useless, futile, in
vain
ٜ‫ ثؽوووووو‬ajdā
advantageous
more
useful,
more
ٜ‫ ؽوو‬jady pl. ‫ ؽووث‬jidā’, ْ‫ج‬٠‫ ؽوو‬jidyān kid, young
billy goat; Capricorn (astron.); ٜ‫ ثٌؾوو‬the
North Star
‫ ؽي‬jadda u (jadd) to cut off, clip ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽوويثىر‬jadāda pl. -āt slip of paper; pl.
‫ ؽووويثىثس‬small pieces, shreds, scraps,
clippings
‫ ؽويح‬jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
attract ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to pull out, draw out,
whip out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), draw ( ‫ ٘و‬a weapon, or
the like); to appeal, prove attractive (ٖ to
s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, allure (ٖ
s.o.), win (ٖ s.o.) over (ٗ١ٌ‫ ث‬to one‘s side) III
to contend (ٖ with s.o.) at pulling, tugging,
etc. ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)│ً‫ ؽجىدوٗاثٌقذو‬115 (ḥabla) to vie
with s.o.; (to be able) to compete with s.o.,
measure up to s.o., be a match for s.o.;
َ٩‫ ؽجىدٗاثٌى‬or ‫غج‬٠‫ ؽجىدٗافو‬or ‫ظ‬٠‫وٌثؾاثٌقوو‬ٟ‫ؽجىدوٗاث‬
(aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) he engaged him in
conversation, involved him in a
discussion; ‫ووجًر‬ٞ‫ووٌثؾاثٌق‬ٟ‫( ؽجىدووٗاث‬aṯrāfa lḥaḍāra) to vie with s.o. in culture VI to
pull back and forth (ٖ s.o.); to contend (ٖ,
٘ for); to attract each other│‫وٌثؾا‬ٟ‫ثاث‬ٛ‫اصؾوجىد‬
‫ظ‬٠‫( ثٌقووو‬aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) they were deep in
conversstion, they were talking together
VII to be attracted; to be drawn, gravitate
(JI toward, to) VIII to attract (ٖ s.o., ‫٘و‬
s.th., ٗ‫وو‬١ٌ‫ ث‬to o.s.; also magn.); to allure,
entice (ٖ s.o.); to win (ٖ s.o.) over (ٗ‫و‬١ٌ‫ ث‬to
one's side); to draw, inhale ( ‫ ٘و‬puffs from
a cigarette, etc.)
‫ ؽويح‬jadb attraction; gravitation; appeal,
lure, enticement, captivation│‫ اثمووياؽوويدج‬to
wrest away, take away by force; ‫ثٌؾوويحا‬
ْٕٝ‫( ثٌؾ‬jinsī) sex appeal
‫ ؽويثح‬jaddāb attractive; magnetic (fig.);
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching,
engaging; charming, enticing, captivating,
gripping
‫ ثؽووويح‬ajdab2 more attractive, more
captivating
‫ ثٔؾووويثح‬injidāb attraction, inclination,
pronenesa, tendency
‫ ثؽضيثح‬ijtidāb attraction; enticement, lure
‫ ؽ وجىح‬jādib attractive; magnetic (fig.);
winning, fetubing, engaging; charming,
enticing, captivating, gripping
‫ووز‬١‫ ؽجىد‬jādibīya gravitation; attraction;
attractiveness;
charm,
fascination;
magnetism (fig.); lure, enticement│O
ً‫زاثٌغم‬١‫ ؽجىد‬j. ataql gravitational force; ‫زا‬١‫ؽجىد‬
‫ز‬١‫ْو‬١ ٕ‫( ِؽ‬magnaṯisūya) magnetism; ‫وزا‬١‫ؽجىد‬
ِٕ‫ ثٌؾ‬j. al-jins sex appeal
‫ح‬ٚ‫ ِؾوووي‬majdūb attracted; possessed,
maniacal, insane; (pl. ‫ ِؾ وجىح‬majādib2)
maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot│‫ا‬ٝ‫ِْضٖووف‬
‫خ‬٠‫ ثٌّؾجى‬mustašfā l-m. mental hospital
‫ ِضؾ وجىح‬mutajādib mutually attractive;
belonging together, inseparable
‫ ِٕؾووويح‬munjadib attracted; inclined,
tending (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to)
ً‫ ؽوي‬jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tear out by the
roots ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II do.; to extract the root ( ‫٘و‬
of a number; math.); to take root
ً‫ ؽوي‬jidr, jadr pl. ًٚ‫ ؽوي‬judūr root (also
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pl. ً‫ثؽويث‬
ajdār) stub (of a receipt book, or the
like)│ ٝ‫عوو‬١‫( ؽوويًاصٌد‬tarbī‘ī) square root
(math.)
ًٜ‫ ؽي‬jidrī, radical, roct (adj.)
ٌ٠‫ صؾووي‬tajdīr evolution, root extraction
(math.)
‫ ؽوي‬jada‘ pl. ‫ ؽوي‬jud‘ān young man, young
fellow (cf. □ ‫ ؽوو‬gada‘); new, incipient│
‫( عووجهساثٌقووٌحاؽيع وز‬ḥarbu, jada‘atan) the
war broke out again, started all over again;
‫ِووٌاؽوويعج‬٨‫( ثعووجهاث‬l-amra) he reopened the
whole affair, he reverted to the earlier
status
‫ ؽوي‬jid‘ pl. ‫ ثؽويث‬ajdā‘, ٚ‫ ؽوي‬judū‘ stem,
trunk.; stump, tree stump; torso
ٝ‫ ؽيع‬jid‘ī truncal
‫ ؽيؾ‬II to row ( ٘ a boat)
‫ ِؾيثؾ‬mijdāf pl. ‫ ِؾجىؾ‬majādif2 oar
‫ ؽوويي‬jadala a (jadal) to be happy, gay,
exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy,
gladden, cheer (ٖ s.o.)
‫ ؽيي‬jidl pl. ‫ ثؽويثي‬ajdāl, ‫ي‬ٚ‫ ؽوي‬judūl stump
(of a tree)
ً٠‫ ؽوي‬jadīl wooden post on which camels
rub themselves
‫ ؽويي‬jada1 gaiety, hilarity, exuberance,
happiness 116
‫ ؽويي‬jadil pl. ْ٨‫ ؽوي‬judlān gay, hilarious,
cheerful, in high spirits, exuberant, happy
ْ٨‫ ؽوي‬jadlān2 gay, hilarious, cheerful, in
high spirits, exuberaut, happy
َ‫ ؽوي‬ijdama i (jadm) to out off, chop off ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., esp. a part of the body); to remove,
ta.ke out, excise ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., the tonsils, the
appendix; surg.); pass. judima to be
afllicted with leprosy
َ‫ ؽي‬jidm pl. َٚ‫ ؽي‬judūm, َ‫ ثؽيث‬ajdām root
َ‫ ؽيث‬judām leprosy
‫ ؽيثِز‬judāma stubble
َ‫ ثؽويث‬ajdām2 pl. ِٝ‫ ؽويث‬jadmā mutilated
(from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut off);
leprous; leper
َٚ‫ ِؾي‬majdūm leprous; leper
ًِٛ‫ ؽي‬judmur stump
‫ر‬ٚ‫ ؽوي‬jadwa, jidwa, judwa pl. ٜ‫ ؽوي‬jidan, judan,
‫ ؽيث‬jidā’ firebrand; burning log
ٌ‫ ؽو‬jarra u (jarr) to draw, pull ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
drag, tug, haul ( ٘ s.th.): to tow ( ٘ s.th.); to
trail ( ٘ s.th.); to drag along (ٖ s.o., ٘ s.th.);
to draw (ٍٝ‫ ٘ ع‬s.th. on s.o.), bring ( ٘ s.th.)
down (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬upon s.o.); to lead (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to),
bring on, cause (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.th.); to entail ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g.,
some evil, ٝ‫ عٍووو‬for s.o.); (gram.) to
pronounce the final consonant with i, put
(a word) into tho genitive│‫وووٌر‬٠ٌ‫ؽوووٌاؽ‬
(jarīratan) to commit an outrage, a crime
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬against s.o.); ‫هث‬ٛ‫و‬١‫( ؽوٌال‬quyūdan) to be
in shackles, go shackled; ٗ‫و‬ٌٙ‫ال‬ٝ‫ؽوٌاثٌٕوجًاثٌو‬
(qurṣihī) to secure advantages for o.s.,
feather one‘s nest; ‫ؾووووٌاٌْووووجٔٗادىٍّووووز‬٠‫ا‬٨
(lisānahū bi-kalima) he won‘t let a word
escape his lips IV to ruminate VII passive
of I; to be driven; to be swept along, drift,
float│ ‫ًث‬ٛ‫اثٌو‬ٝ‫( اثٔؾوٌاثٌو‬warā’i) to withdraw,
fall back, give way VIII to ruminate│‫اثؽضوٌا‬
ِٗ٨‫( آ‬ālāmahū) to mull over one‘s grief
ٌ‫ ؽووو‬jarr pull(ing), drawing, draft.;
traction, drag(ging), tugging, towage,
hauling; bringing on, causing; genitive│‫ا‬
ٌ‫ فووٌؾاثٌؾوو‬ḥarf al-j. (gram.) preposition;
‫ٍُ٘اؽٌث‬ٚ wa-halumma jarran and so forth
‫ ؽٌر‬jarra pl. ً‫ ؽٌث‬jirār (earthenware) jar
‫ ؽوٌر‬jarra, jurra trail, track; rut (left by a
wagon)│ُ‫ ادؾووٌرالٍوو‬bi-j. qalam with one
stroke of the pen
‫ ؽٌر‬jirra cud (of a ruminant)
ٌٜ‫ ِوٓاؽو‬min jarrā because of│‫اِوٓاؽوٌثن‬
because of you, on your account, for your
sake
‫ ِٓاؽٌث‬min jarā’i because of, due to│‫ِٓا‬
ْ‫ ؽٌث اأ‬because
ً‫ ؽووٌث‬jarrār huge, tremendous (army);
potter; (pl. -āt) tractor; tugboat, steam tug,
towing launch
ًًٚ‫ ؽ وج‬jārūr pl. ٌ٠ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽ و‬jawārīr2 (syr.)
drawer (of a desk, etc.)
‫ًر‬ًٚ‫ ؽج‬jārūra (leb.) rake (tool)
‫ووٌر‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīr pl. ٌ‫ ؽٌثةووو‬jarā’ir2 guilt;
offense, outrage, crime│‫ووٌر‬٠ٌ‫ اِوووٓاؽ‬min
jarīrati because of, on account of
‫ ؽوووٌثًر‬jarrāra pl. -āt a variety of
scorpion; tractor
ٌ‫ ِؾ‬mijarr trace, tug (of a harness)
‫ ِؾٌر‬majarra galaxy
‫وز‬٠ً‫ ثٔؾٌث‬injirārīya (eg.) towage charges
for watercraft
ًٌٚ‫ ِؾوو‬majrūr drawn, dragged, towed,
etc.; word governed by a preposition,
word in the genitive form; (pl. ٌ٠ً‫ِؾووج‬
magārir2) drain, sewer (eg.); ٌ٠ً‫ِؾوووج‬
sewers, sewage system (eg.)
ٌ‫ ِؾض‬mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.)
ٌ‫ ؽو‬jaru’a u (‫ ؽوٌأر‬jur’a, ‫ ؽوٌث ر‬jarā’a) to dare,
venture, risk, hazard (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.), take the
risk (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of, ْ‫ ث‬of doing s.th.), have the
117 courage (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.th.) II to encourage
(ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to s.th.) V to dare, venture, risk.
hazard (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.) VIII to be venturesome,
be daring; to become bold, make bold (ٍٝ‫ع‬
with s.o.); to venture (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th. or upon
s.th.), have the audacity (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to do s.th.)
ٝ‫ذووووو‬٠ٌ‫ صؾ‬tajrībī trial, test (adj.);
experimental; based on experience,
empirical│ٝ‫ذو‬٠ٌ‫‘( عٍوُاثٌوٕفِاثٌضؾ‬ilm an-nafs)
experimental psychology
O ‫ز‬١‫ذ‬٠ٌ‫ صؾ‬tajrībīya empiricism (philos.)
‫ ِؾوووٌح‬mujarrib experimental; tester;
examiner; tempter
‫ ِؾوٌح‬mujarrab tried, tested; proven or
establisbed by experience, time-tested,
time-tried;
experienced,
practiced,
seasoned; man of experience
2
‫ ؽوووٌا‬jarī’ pl. ‫وووج‬٠ٌ‫ ثؽ‬ajriyā’ bold,
courageous (‫ح‬, ٝ‫ عٍوو‬in s.th.); forward,
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, foolbardy
‫ ؽووٌأر‬jur’a and ‫ ؽووٌث ر‬jarā’a courage,
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence
‫ ِؾضٌا‬mujtari’ bold, forward
‫( ؽٌثػ‬Fr.) garāž pl. -āt garage (eg.)
ٝ‫ض‬١ٔ‫ ؽٌث‬granītī granitic (eg.)
َ‫ ؽٌدوو‬jurbuz pl. ‫ ؽٌثدووَر‬jarābiza impostor,
confidence man, swindler
‫ز‬٠‫ ؽٌدٕو‬jarabandīya (and ‫ز‬٠‫ )ؽٌثدٕو‬knapsack,
rucksack
‫ ؽوٌح‬jariba a (jarab) to be mangy; (eg.) to
fade (color) II to test ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to try, try
out, essay ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to sample ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
rehearse, practice ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to attempt ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to put to the test, try, tempt ( ‫٘ و‬
s.o.)│ٝ‫ اؽوٌحأفْووٗاـوو‬to try one‘s hand at;
َ‫ج‬٠٨‫( ؽٌحاث‬ayyāma) to gather experience
‫ ؽٌح‬jarab mange; itch, scabies
‫ ؽٌح‬jarib mangy; scabby
‫ ثؽوٌح‬ajrab2, f. ‫ ؽٌدوج‬jarbā’2, pl. ‫ؽوٌح‬
jurb and ْ‫ ؽٌدج‬jarbān2 mangy; scabby
‫ ؽوٌثح‬jirāb pl. ‫ ثؽٌدوز‬ajriba, ‫اؽوٌح‬jurub
sack, bag, traveling bag; knapsack;
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scabbard
(for the sword)
‫ ؽٌثح‬jurāb pl. -āt stocking, sock
‫خ‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīb a patch of arable land
‫ صؾٌدوز‬tajriba pl. ‫ صؾوجًح‬tajārib2 trial, test;
tryout; attempt; practice, rehearsal;
scientific test, experiment; probation; trial,
tribulation;
temptation;
experience,
practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also
‫ز‬١‫( صؾٌدزاِ ذع‬maṯba‘īya)
test(ing);
‫ ؽٌدير‬jarbada = ‫ؽٌدَر‬
ٛ‫ ؽٌد‬jarbū‘ (= ٛ‫ٌد‬٠) pl. ‫ا‬١‫ ؽٌثد‬jarābī‘2 jerboa
(zool.)
‫ش‬١ٔ‫ ؽٌث‬granīt granite (eg.)
‫ووووخ‬٠ٌ‫ صؾ‬tajrīb trial,
tribulation; temptation
‫ًح‬ٛ‫ اؽ‬look up alphabeticaUy
‫ ؽٌدووَر‬jarbaza (also ‫ )ؽٌد وير‬deception,
swindle
َ‫ ؽٌث‬grām gram (eg.)
2
2
trial,
َٛ‫ ؽٌع‬jurtūm, ‫ِوز‬ٛ‫ ؽٌع‬jurtūma pl. ُ١‫ ؽوٌثع‬jarātīm2
root; origin; germ; microbe, bacillus,
bacterium│َٛ‫اصقووووووشاثٌؾٌعوووووو‬
taḥt
al-j.
inframicrobe
‫ ؽٌثػ‬look up alphabetically
ٌ‫ ؽٌؽو‬jarjara (‫ ؽٌؽوٌر‬jarjara) to gargle; to jerk
or pull back and forth; to trail, drag ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to tow away ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)│ٖ‫اؽٌؽوٌام وج‬
(ḳuṯāhū) to drag one‘s feet, shuffle along
II tajarjara pass. and refl. of I
‫ ؽٌؽٌر‬jarara gargling; rombling noise;
rumble, clatter (of a wagon)
ٌ‫ ؽٌؽ‬jirjir (large, thick) beans
ٌ١‫ ؽٌؽ‬jirjīr watercress (eg., syr.) 118
‫ ؽوٌؿ‬jaraḥa a (jarḥ to wound (ٖ s.o.); to injure,
hurt (ٖ s.o.; also fig., the feelings) II to
invalidate ( ‫ ٘وووو‬teatimony), challenge,
declare unreliahle (ٖ a witness), take
formal exception (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬to) VIII to commit
( ‫ ٘وو‬an outrage, a crime)│‫ س‬١‫اثؽضووٌؿاثٌْوو‬
(sayyi’āt) to do evil things
‫ ؽووٌؿ‬jurḥ pl. ‫ ؽووٌثؿ‬jirāḥ, ‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫ ؽوو‬jurūḥ,
‫فوووجس‬ٌٚ‫ ؽ‬jurūḥāt, ‫ ثؽوووٌثؿ‬ajrāḥ wound,
injury, lesion
‫ ثؽٌثه‬ajrād2, f. ‫ ؽوٌهث‬jardā’2, pl. ‫ ؽوٌه‬jurd
desolate, bleak, without vegetation;
hairless, bald; threadbare shabby, worn
(garment); open, unprotected (border)
‫ ؽٌثؿ‬jarrāḥ pl. -ūn surgeon│ْ‫ّوٕج‬٨‫ؽوٌثؿاث‬
dental surgeon
‫ ؽٌثفز‬jirāḥa surgery
ٝ‫ ؽٌثفووو‬jirāḥī surgical│‫ووووز‬١‫ووووزاؽٌثف‬١ٍّ‫اع‬
(‗amalīya) surgical operation
‫ ؽٌثه‬jarād (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬locust(s)│‫اؽٌثها‬
‫( ثٌٌفوجي‬raḥḥāl) migratory locust(s); ‫ؽوٌثها‬
ٌ‫ ثٌذقوو‬j. al-baḥr langouste, sea cray-fish;
‫ دؾٌثه٘ج‬bi-jarādihā in its entirety
‫ـ‬٠ٌ‫ ؽوو‬jarīḥ pl. ٝ‫ ؽٌف و‬jarḥā wounded,
injured, hurt
‫ـ‬٠ٌ‫ صؾوووو‬tajrīḥ
disparagement
surgery;
‫ وو‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīd palm branches stripped of
their leaves; jeered, a blunt javelin used in
equestrian games
defamation,
‫ ؽوجًؿ‬jarīḥ injuring; wounding, stinging,
painful, hurting; rapacious (beast),
predatory
‫وور‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīda pl. ‫ ؽٌثةوو‬jarā’id2 (n. un. of
‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ )ؽ‬palm-leaf stalk; list, register, roster,
index; newspaper│‫ووز‬١ِٛ٠‫ووورا‬٠ٌ‫( ؽ‬yaumīya)
daily newspaper; ‫ ؽٌثةوواثٌّْوج‬j. al-masā’
the evening papers; ‫مز‬ٟ‫وراثٌٕج‬٠ٌ‫ ثٌؾ‬and ‫ورا‬٠ٌ‫ثٌؾ‬
‫ز‬١‫ّٕجة‬١ٌْ‫ ث‬tho newsreel
‫ ؽجًفووووز‬jāriḥa pl. ‫ثًؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽوووو‬jawāriḥ2
predatory animal or bird│ٌ١ ٌ‫ثًؿاث‬ٛ‫ اؽ‬j. aṯṯair predatory birds
‫ثًؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawāriḥ2 limbes, extremities (of
the hody)│ٗ‫ثًف و‬ٛ‫ ادىووًاؽ‬with might and
main, with all his strength
ٜ‫ه‬ٌٚ‫ ثؽ‬ajrūdī (syr.) beardless, hairless
‫ ِؾٌه‬mijrad pl. ‫ ِؾجًه‬majārid2 scraper
‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫ ِؾووو‬majrūḥ pl. ‫ـ‬٠ً‫ ِؾوووج‬majārīḥ2
wounded, injured, hurt
‫ ؽوٌه‬jarada u (jard) to peel, pare ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk ( ‫ ٘و‬of
s.th.); to denude, diveet, strip, bare ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); (com.) to take stock; to make an
inventory (‫وجةا‬ٞ‫ ثٌذ‬of goods on hand) II to
peel, pare ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to remove the shell,
peel, rind or husk ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.); to denude,
divest, strip, dispossess, deprive (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬or ٖ
s.o. or s.th. of); to withhold (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬from s.o.
s.th.); to draw, unsheathe (‫ؿ‬١‫ ثٌْووو‬the
sword); to unleash (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍوو‬s.th. against
s.o.); to send, dispatch ( ‫ ٘ و‬a military
detachment, troops, ‫ووو‬ٝ or ٝ‫ عٍوو‬against
s.o.); to free (ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬or ٖ s.o. or s.th. from);
to isolate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to abstract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
divest (ٓ‫ ِوو‬ss.o. of his citizenship, of a
rank, of a vested right, etc.)│‫ؿ‬٩ٌْ‫اؽٌهٖآِاث‬
to disarm s.o.; ِٓ‫ ؽٌهأفْٗا‬to free o.s. from,
rid o.s. of, give up s.th. V pass. of II; to
strip o.s., rid o.s., get rid (ِٓ or ٓ‫ ع‬of), free
o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٓ‫ عو‬from); to be free (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٓ‫عو‬
from, ‫ ي‬for a task); to devote o.s.
exclusively (‫ ي‬to s.th.); to give up,
renounce (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to isolate o.s. ;
to be absolute
‫ ؽوٌه‬jard bare, threadbare, shabby, worn;
(com.) inventory; stocktaking
‫ وو‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīd without vegetation, barren,
bleak, stark (landscape)
‫وووووووو‬٠ٌ‫صؾ‬
tajrīd
peeling.
paring;
disrobement,
stripping;
denudation;
deprivation; divestment; disarmament;
dispatching (of troops); freeing; isolation;
abstraction│‫ؿ‬٩‫ووواِووٓاثٌْوو‬٠ٌ‫ صؾ‬disarmament
119
‫ور‬٠ٌ‫ صؾ‬tajrīda pl. -āt ‫و‬٠ً‫ صؾج‬tajārīd2
military detachment, expeditionary force
‫ صؾوٌه‬tajarrud freedom (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٓ‫ عو‬from);
isolatedness, isolation; independence,
impartiality; absoluteness; abstractness,
abstraction
‫ ِؾووٌه‬mujarrad denuded, bare, naked;
freed, free (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٓ‫ عو‬from); pure, mere,
nothing more than; sole; very, absolute;
abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem of
tbe verb (gram.)│with foll. noun in
genitive = mere, sheer, nothing but:) ‫ِؾوٌها‬
ٛ‫و‬ٌٙ mujarradu lahwin mere play, just fun;
‫ٓاثٌّؾٌهر‬١‫ دجٌع‬with the naked eye; ‫ دّؾٌهاِج‬bimujarradi mā as soon as, at the very
moment when
‫ ؽٌهي‬jardal pl. ‫ ؽٌثهي‬jaradil2 bucket, pail
‫ ؽٌى‬jurad pl. ْ‫ ؽٌىث‬jirdān, jurdān large rat
ْٚ‫ ؽوٌى‬jirdaun pl. ٓ٠‫ ؽوٌثى‬jarādīn2 large
rat
1
ٌُ‫ ؽوو‬jarasa i (jars) to ring, toll, knell,
(re)sound II to make experienced, inure by
severe trials, sorely try (ٖ s.o.; time,
events); to compromise, disgrace,
discredit, expose, bring into dierepute (‫ح‬
s.o.)
ٌُ‫ ؽ‬jars, jirs sound, tone
ٌُ‫ ؽ‬jaras pl. ُ‫ ثؽٌث‬ajrās bell
‫ ؽٌّوز‬jursa defamation, public exposure;
scandal, disgrac
2
‫ز‬٠‫ اؽٌّوج‬jirsāya, ‫ز‬١‫ ؽٌّو‬jirsīya pl. -āt jersey,
woolen sweater; ٌّٝ‫ ؽ‬jersey cloth
ٌٓ‫ ؽ‬jaraša u (jarš) to crush ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to grate,
bruise, grind ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌٓ‫ ؽ‬jarš a grating, scraping noise
‫ ؽٌثـوز‬jarrāfa pl. -āt, ‫ وؿ‬٠ً‫ ؽٌث‬jarārīf
rake; harrow
2
‫ ِؾوٌؾ‬majraf pl. ‫ ِؾوجًؾ‬majārif2 torrent,
.trong current
‫ ِؾٌـوووز‬mijrafa shovel, scoop; (syr.)
mattock; trowel
‫ ِؾوٌثؾ‬mijrāf pl. ‫ ِؾوجًؾ‬majārīf2 shovel,
scoop
‫ ؽوجًؾ‬jārif torrential (stream, mountain
creek); stormy, violent (emotions,
passions) 120
ِ‫ ثٌؾٌو‬al-jarkas the Circassians
ٔ٠ٌ‫ ؽوو‬jarīš crushed, bruised, coarsely
ground; crushed grain; grits
ٝ‫ ؽٌوْووو‬jarkasī pl. ‫ ؽٌثوْوووز‬jarākisa
circassian (adj. and n.)
‫ٕوز‬ًٚ‫ ؽج‬jārūša pl. ًٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawarīš2 quern,
hand mill (for grinding grain)
ٌَ‫ ؽو‬jarama i (jarm) to sone (ُ‫ ثٌقو‬al-laḥma the
meat); -- to commit an offense, a crime, an
outrage (ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬against s.o.), sin (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or
ٝ‫ ثٌو‬against s.o.), injure, harm, wrong (ٝ‫عٍو‬
or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.o.) II to incriminate, charge with a
crime (ٖ s.o.; syr.) IV to commit a crime,
to sin (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬against s.o.), do wrong
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.o.), harm, wrong (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ثٌو‬
s.o.) VIII = IV
ٌٛ‫ ؽو‬jaraḍa a (jaraḍ): ٗ‫مو‬٠ٌ‫اد‬ٌٛ‫( ؽو‬bi-rīqihī)
he choked on his saliva, could not
swallow his saliva (because of excitement,
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, in a
atate of great agitation, deeply moved; -jaraḍa u (jarḍ) to choke, sulfocate (ٖ s.o.)
IV ٗ‫مو‬٠ٌ‫وٗاد‬ٌٝ‫( ثؽ‬cf. I) to alarm s.o., fill s.o.
with apprehension
ٜ٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīḍ: ٜ٠ٌ‫ْاثٌمو‬ٚ‫اه‬ٜ٠ٌ‫ افجياثٌؾ‬ḥāla
l.j. dūna l-qarīḍ (proverb; lit.: choking
prevented poetry, i.e.) in the face of death
one does not think of rhyming (among
other interpretations)
ٌ‫ ؽو‬jara‘a a (jar‘) and jari‘a a (jara‘) to
swallow, gulp, devour ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to pour
down, toss down ( ‫ ٘و‬a drink) II to make (ٖ
s.o.) swallow ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to gulp down V to
drink ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VIII to swallow, gulp down
( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽٌعوز‬jur‘a, jar‘a pl. ٌ‫ ؽو‬jura‘, -āt gulp,
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.)
‫ ؽٌؾ‬jarafa u (jarf) and VIII to sweep away ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to wash away ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to shovel
away ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to remove ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to tear
away, carry off ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to carry along ( ‫٘و‬
or ٖ s.o. or s.th.) VII to be swept away, be
carried away
‫ ؽوٌؾ‬jurf, juruf pl. ‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ ؽو‬jurūf, ‫ثؽوٌثؾ‬
ajrāf undercut bank or shore; clilf, steep
slope, precipice; bluff (along a river or
coast)│ٞ‫و‬١ٍ‫( اؽٌؾاؽ‬jalīdī) avalanche
ٌَ‫ ؽ‬garm pl. ٌَٚ‫ ؽ‬gurūm (eg.) long, flatbottomed sarge, lighter (naut.)
ٌَ‫ ؽ‬jirm pl. َ‫ ثؽٌث‬ajrām, ٌَ‫ ؽ‬jurum body;
mass, sulk, volume (of a body)│‫ؽوٌثَا‬٨‫اث‬
‫ز‬١‫( ثٌفٍى‬falakīya) the celestial bodies
ٌَ‫ ؽو‬iunn pl. َ‫ ثؽووٌث‬ajrām, ٌَٚ‫ ؽوو‬jurūm
offense, crime, sin
ٌَ‫اؽوو‬٨ lā jarama surely, certainly, of
course
ُ٠ٌ‫ ؽوووو‬jarīm hulking,
voluminous, of great size
bulky,
huge,
‫ّوز‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarīma pl. ُ‫ ؽووٌثة‬jarā’im2 crime;
offense; sin│(ٝ‫اعرّوووو‬or) ‫ا‬ٌٜ‫ّووووزاوذوووو‬٠ٌ‫ؽ‬
(kubrā, uẓma) capital offense; ُ‫ْاثٌؾوٌثة‬ٛٔ‫لوج‬
penal code
َ‫ثؽووووووٌث‬
ijrām
delinquency
crime;
culpability,
ِٝ‫ ثؽٌث‬ijrāmī criminal
ٌَٚ‫ ٌقُاِؾ‬laḥm majrūm fillet (meat)
‫ ّٕزاِؾٌِز‬sana mujarrama an entire year
ٌَ‫ ِؾووو‬mujrim criminal; (pl. -ūn) a
criminal;
evildoer,
culprit,
delinquent│‫ ِؾٌَاعجةو‬recidivous criminal
َ‫ ؽٌثِوو‬jarāmiz2 and َ‫وو‬١ِ‫ ؽٌث‬jarāmīz2
limbs, legs│َٖ‫و‬١ِ‫وُاؽٌث‬ٝ‫( ا‬ḍamma) he beat
it, he made off
ْ‫ ثٌؾٌِ وج‬al-jarmān the Germanic tribes, the
Teutons
ٝٔ‫ ؽٌِج‬jarmānī Germanic, Teutonic
1
ٌْ‫ اؽ‬jurn pl. ْ‫ ثؽوٌث‬ajrān (stone) basin; mortar;
(eg.) threshing floor, barn│‫وز‬٠‫ه‬ّٛ‫ اؽوٌْاثٌّع‬j.
al-ma‘mūdīya baptismal font
2
ْ‫ اؽووٌث‬jirān the front part of a camel‘s
neck│ٗ‫وٌحادؾٌثٔو‬ٝ to become established,
take root; ٗ‫وٗاؽٌثٔو‬١ٍ‫اع‬ٝ‫( ثٌمو‬alqā, jirānahū) to
apply o.s. to s.th. and adjust to it,
accustom o.s. to s.th.
‫ ؽٌٔجي‬jurnāl (eg. also gurnāl) pl. ً١ٔ‫ ؽٌث‬žarānīl2
(eg., garānīl2) journal, newspaper,
periodical
‫ش‬١ٔ‫ ؽٌث‬granīt granite
ٝ‫ض‬١ٔ‫ ؽٌث‬grānītī granitic
ٌٚ‫ ؽو‬jarw (jirw, jurw) pl. ٌ‫ ثؽو‬ajrin, ‫ ؽوٌث‬jirā’,
‫ ثؽوٌث‬ajrā’, ‫وز‬٠ٌ‫ ثؽ‬ajriya puppy, whelp, cub
(of a dog or beast of prey)
‫ّز‬ٌٚ‫ ؽ‬grōsa gross (= 12 dozen)
ٌٜ‫ ؽو‬jarā i (jary) to flow, stream (water); to
run; to hurry, rush; to slow (wind); to take
place, come to pass, happen, occur; to be
under way, be in progress, be going on
(work); to befall (‫ ي‬s.o.), happen (‫ ي‬to); to
be in circulation, circulate, be current; to
wend one‘s way (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), head (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for); to
proceed (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬in accordance with); to
follow (‫ ِوا‬s.th.), yield, give way (‫ ِوا‬to,
e.g., to a desire); to entail (‫ ح‬s.th.); (with
‫ًث‬ٚ) to run or be after s.th., seek to get
s.th.│‫ظاِوا‬٠‫اٌوٗافوو‬ٌٜ‫اؽو‬he had a talk with;
ٖ‫اِؾووٌث‬ٌٜ‫( ؽوو‬majrāhū) to take the same
course as, be analogous to, follow the
same way as, proceed or act in the same
manner as; َ‫اثٌوو‬ٌٜ‫ اِؾو‬ٟ‫إِوٗاثٌٖو‬ٌٜ‫( ؽو‬minhu
š-šai’u majrā d-dam) it had become
second nature to him; ٓ‫ٌْوو‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫اعٍوو‬ٌٜ‫ؽوو‬
(alsun) to circulate, make the rounds
(rumor); 121 ْ‫اوووًاٌْووج‬ٝ‫اعٍوو‬ٌٜ‫ ؽوو‬to be on
everyone‘s lip; ٗ‫الٍّو‬ٝ‫اعٍو‬ٌٜ‫( ؽو‬qalamihī) to
come to s.o.‘s pen (e.g, a poem); ‫ا‬ٝ‫اعٍو‬ٌٜ‫ؽو‬
‫( م وز‬ḳiṯṯa) to follow a plan; ‫وٗا‬١ٍ‫اع‬ٌٜ‫ؾو‬٠‫ِوجا‬
ً‫‘( ثٌعّو‬amalu) the way things are handled,
what is customary practice; ً‫ادوٗاثٌعّو‬ٌٜ‫ ؽو‬to
be in force, be valid, be commonly
observed (law, custom); ‫ ؽوٌساثٌعوجهراح‬to be
customary, be common practice, be a
common phenomenon, have gained
vogue; ٝ‫ادجٌعووووجهراعٍوووو‬ٌٜ‫ ؽوووو‬to do s.th.
customarily, se in the habit of doing s.th.;
ُٙ‫ ؽوٌسادويٌهاعوجهص‬that was their habit II to
cause to run│ٗ‫مو‬٠ً‫ا‬ٌٜ‫( ؽو‬rīqahū) to make
s.o.‘s mouth water III to concur, agree, be
in agreement (ٖ with s.o., ٝ‫ ـو‬in s.th.); to
keep pace, keep up (ٖ with s.o.; also
intellectually); to be able to follow (ٖ s.o.);
to go (along) ( ‫ ٘و‬with); to adapt o.s. adjust,
conform ( ‫ ٘و‬to), be guided ( ‫ ٘و‬by) IV to
cause to flow, make flow ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
cause to run, set running ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.);
to make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) take place or happen,
bring about ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to carry out, execute,
enforce, put into effect, apply ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.,
e.g., rules, regulations); to carry out,
perform ( ‫ ٘و‬an action); to Set going, set in
motion ( ‫ ٘وو‬a project), launch ( ‫ ٘وو‬an
undertaking); to channel (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ٘و ي‬s.th.
to), bestow, settle (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. upon
s.o.); to impose, inflict (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍوو‬s.th., a
penalty, on s.o.)│‫اصؾٌدوز‬ٌٜ‫( اثؽو‬tajribatan)
to carry out an experiment; ‫موج‬١‫اصقم‬ٌٜ‫ ثؽو‬to
conduct an investigation; ‫اٌووٗاثعجٔوووز‬ٌٜ‫ثؽوو‬
(i‘ānatan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; ‫ثؽووٌثٖا‬
ٌٜ‫( ِؾو‬majrā, with foll. genitive) to treat
s.th. in the same manner as, put s.th. on
equal footing with
ٌٜ‫ ؽو‬jary course│ٝ‫وجاعٍو‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jaryan ‗alā in
accordance with, according to
‫ ؽوووٌثن‬min jarāka and min jarā’ika
because of you, on your account, for your
sake
‫ ؽٌث‬jarrā’ runner, racer
‫وز‬٠‫ ؽٌث‬jirāya pl. -āt daily (food) rations;
pay, salary│‫ووز‬٠‫ٔاؽٌث‬١‫‘ عوو‬ēš girāya (eg.)
coarse bread
ْ‫وووج‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬jarayāan flow, flux; course;
stream
ٌٜ‫ ِؾوووو‬majra.. pl. ً‫ ِؾووووج‬majārin
watercourse, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent
or flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel;
drain, sewer, pl. sewers, sewage system;
power line (el.); current (el.); current (of a
stream); guide rail (tech.); course (of
events), progress, passage│‫ي‬ٛ‫اثٌذ‬ٌٜ‫ ِؾ‬m. lbaul urethra (anat.); ِ‫اثٌضووٕف‬ًٜ‫ ِؾ وج‬m. ttanaffus respiratory tract (anat.); ‫ا‬ٌٜ‫ِؾوو‬
‫ث‬ٛ‫و‬ٌٙ‫ ث‬m. l-hawā’ air stream, current of air,
draft; ٖ‫ ثموياِؾوٌث‬to take its course; See also
ٌٜ‫ ؽ‬I and IV
cases (jur.); ‫ووز‬١‫( ؽووٕـاؽَة‬junaḥ) summary
delicts (jur.); ‫ووووز‬١‫ ِقووووجوُاؽَة‬courts of
summary justice; ‫وووز‬١‫جدوووزاؽَة‬١ٔ (niyāba)
parquet of a summary court; ‫ووز‬١‫فجهعووزاؽَة‬
minor incident; ‫وز‬١‫زاؽَة‬٠ٛ‫( صْو‬taswiya) part
payment; ‫ووجس‬١ٍ‫ثٌى‬ٚ‫ وجسا‬١‫( ثٌؾَة‬kullīyāt) the
particular and general aspects, the minor
and the major issues
‫وجس‬٠ٌ‫ ِجؽ‬mājarayāt, mājariyāt (pl. of ‫ِوجا‬
ٌٜ‫( )ؽ‬course of) events, happenings
َٞ‫ ؽ‬juzai’ pl. -āt molecule
‫ ِؾوجًثر‬mujārāh keeping up (with foll.
genitive: with); conformity (with foll.
genitive: with)│ ‫ ِؾوجًثراي‬mujārātan li in
conformity with, in accordance with,
according to
ٝ‫ ثؽَثة‬ajzā’ī pl. -ūn pharmacist, druggist
ٝ‫ ثؽَثؽووو‬ajzājī pl. -īya pharmacist,
druggist
‫ز‬١‫ ثؽَثة‬ajzā’īya and ‫ ثؽَثمجٔز‬ajzāḳāna pl. āt pharmacy, drugstore
‫ ثؽووٌث‬ijrā’ pl. -āt performance (of an
action); execution; enforcement; pl.
measures, steps, proceedings│‫اثصنوياثؽوٌث ثس‬
(ittaḳada) to take measures; ‫وز‬١ٔٛٔ‫ثؽوٌث ثسالج‬
(qānūnīya) legal step, proceedings at law
ً‫ ؽوج‬jārin flowing, streaming, running;
circulating; current, present│ًٜ‫ٌاثٌؾوج‬ٙ‫اثٌٖوو‬
(šahr) the current month
‫وز‬٠ً‫ ؽج‬jāriya pl. –āt, ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawārin girl;
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel
َ‫ ؽو‬jazza u (jazz) to cut off, clip ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
shear, shear off ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; esp. the wool of
sheep)
‫ صؾَةوووووز‬tajzi’a division; partition;
separation; dissociation; breakdown (into
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation│‫ا‬
‫ لجدًاٌٍضؾَةز‬divisisle; ‫زاثٌضؾَةوز‬١ٍ‫ لجد‬divisibility;
‫ صجؽٌاثٌضؾَةز‬retailer, retail merchant
ْ‫ ؽَهث‬juzdān, jidān pl. -āt wallet; change purse
ًَ‫ ؽوو‬jazara u (jazr) to slaughter; to kill,
butcher ( ‫ ٘و‬an animal); -- i u (jazr) to sink,
fall, drop, ebb (water)
ًَ‫ ؽو‬jazr slaughter; butchering; ebb (of
the sea)
‫ ؽووَر‬jizza pl. ٍَ‫ ؽو‬jizaz, َ‫ ؽَثةو‬jazā’iz2
shorn wool, fleece, slip
‫ ؽًَر‬jazra blood sacrifice
‫ ؽوَثٍر‬juzāza pl. -āt slip of paper; label,
tag
ً‫ ؽَث‬jazzār pl. ‫ر‬, -ūn butcher
ًَٚ‫ ؽ‬jazūr pl. ًَ‫ ؽ‬juzur slaughter camel
‫وٌر‬٠َ‫ ؽ‬jazīra pl. ٌ‫ ؽَثةو‬jazā’ir2, ًَ‫ ؽو‬juzur
island│ ‫ٌر‬٠َ‫ ٕذٗاؽ‬šibhu j. peninsula; ‫ٌر‬٠َ‫ثٌؾ‬
Al Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopotemia;
ٌ‫ ثٌؾَثةو‬Algeria; Algiers; ‫وٌراثٌعوٌح‬٠َ‫ ؽ‬j. al‘arab Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula;
‫( ثٌؾَثةوٌاثٌنجٌووثس‬ḳālidāt) the Canary Islands;
‫وٌث‬ٞ‫وٌراثٌن‬٠َ‫( ثٌؾ‬ḳaḍrā’) Algeciras (seaport
in SW Spain)
ٍ‫ ؽَث‬jazzāz pl. –ūn shearer, woolshearer
َ‫ ِؾ‬mijazz woolshears 122
‫ ؽوَأ‬jaza’a a and VIII to be content, content
o.s. (‫ ح‬with) II to divide, part, separate,
break up, cut up, partition ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to
divide, break up, be or become divided; to
be separated, be detached, be partitioned
off; to be divisible, separable (ٓ‫ ع‬from)
ًَٜ‫ ؽ‬jazarī insular; (pl. -ūn) islander
َ‫ ؽوو‬juz’ pl. ‫ ثؽووَث‬ajzā’ part, portion;
constituent, component; fraction; division;
section; the 30th part of the Koran (= 2
ḥizb)
ٌٜ‫ ؽَثةو‬jazā’rī pl. -ūn Algerian (adj. and
n.); islander
ٝ‫ ؽَةوووو‬juz‘ī partial; minor, trivial,
insignificant, unimportant; (jur.) minor,
petty; ‫وج‬١‫ ؽَة‬juz’īyan partly; ‫وجس‬١‫ ؽَة‬juz’īyāt
details, particulars; trivialities; subordinate
partly; divisions, sections (e.g., of a court
of justice)│‫وووز‬١‫ثهاؽَة‬ٛ‫( اِووو‬mawādd) petty
‫ ِؾوووًَر‬majzara pl. ًٍ‫ ِؾوووج‬majāzir2
butchery; massacre, carnage
ًَ‫ ِؾوووو‬majzar pl. ًٍ‫ ِؾووووج‬majāzir2
slaughterhouse, abattoir; butchery
2
ًَ‫اؽ‬jazar (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬carrot(s)
َ‫ ؽ‬jazi‘a a (jaza‘, َ‫ ؽ‬juzū‘) to be or become
anxious, worried, concerned; to be sad,
unhappy (ٓ‫ ِو‬about); to feel regret (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for
s.o.), pity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.); to mourn (j. for s.o.)
V to break apart, break, snap
2
ْ٨َ‫اؽ‬juzlān = ْ‫ؽَهث‬
1
ََ‫ اؽو‬jawma i (jazm) to cut off, cut short, clip
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to judge; to decide. Settle ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to be positive (‫ ح‬about), be
absolutely certain (‫ ح‬of s.th.); to assert
authoritatively (‫ ح‬s.th.); to make up one's
mind, decide, resolve (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do s.th.); to
impose, make incumbent (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. on
s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the final
consonant (of a word) without a vowel; to
put ( ‫ ٘و‬a verb) into the apocopate form or
the imperative
َ‫ ؽ‬jaz‗ onyx
َ‫ ؽ‬juz’ axle; shaft (techn.)
َ‫ ؽووووو‬jaza‘ anxiety, uneasiness,
apprehension, concern; anguish, fear;
sadness
َ‫ ؽوو‬jazi‘ restless, impatient; anxious,
worried, uneasy, apprehensive
ََ‫ ؽو‬jazm cutting off, clipping; decision;
resolution, resolve; apodictic judgment;
(gram.) apocopate form│ََ‫ِووووزاثٌؾوووو‬٩‫اع‬
‘alāmat al-j. = jazma
َ‫ ؽووو‬jazū‗ and ٍ‫ ؽوووج‬jāzi‘ restless;
impatient; anxious, worried, uneasy,
apprehensive
َ‫ ِؾوووو‬mujazza‘ marbled,
variegated, dappled 123
‫ ؽَِووووز‬jazma diacritical mark (o)
indicating vowellessness of a final
consonant
veined;
‫ ؽووووَؾ‬III to act at random, blindly,
Indiscriminately, take a chance; to
speculate (fin.); to speak vaguely, in
general terms; to risk, stake (‫ ح‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
ٗ‫ ؽجٍؾادٕفْو‬to risk one‘s life; ٝ‫ ؽوجٍؾادوٗاـو‬to
plunge s.o. into (some adventure)
‫ ؽوَثؾ‬juzāf purchase of a certain amount
of things (Isl. Law); ‫ ؽَثـووج‬juzāfan at
random, haphazardly
ََٚ‫ ِؾو‬majzūm cut off. cut short, clipped;
decided. settled; (gram.) vowelless (final
consonant); in the apocopate form
‫ ِؾجٍـوز‬mujāzafa rashness, recklessness,
foolhardiness; risk, hazard; adventure,
venture
ََ‫ ِٕؾ‬munjazim (gram.) in the apocopate
form
‫ ِؾوجٍؾ‬mujāzif rash, reckless, foolhardy;
adventurous; venturesome
2
‫ اؽوَي‬jazūla u to be considerable, abundant,
plentiful IV ‫‘( ثؽوَياٌوٗاثٌع وج‬aṯā’) to give
generously, openhandedly, liberally to s.o.
VIII to write shorthand
‫ ؽوَي‬jazl and ً‫و‬٠َ‫ ؽ‬jazīl pl. ‫ ؽوَثي‬jizāl
abundant, plentiful, ample, much; pure,
lucid, eloquent (style)│ٞ‫ اؽوووَياثٌوووٌأ‬of
sound, unerring judgment; ٩٠َ‫ٕوىٌٖإوىٌثاؽو‬
šakarahū šukran jazīlan he thanked him
profusely; ٩٠َ‫ ٕىٌثاؽ‬many thanks!
‫ ؽَي‬jizla piece, slice
‫ ؽَثٌوووز‬jazāla profusion, abundance;
(rhet.) purity (of style)
‫ ِؾضَي‬mujtazil stenographer
1
ٍَ‫ ؽووووج‬jāzim decisive; peremptory,
definite,
definitive,
final;
firmly
convinced, absolutely certain (‫ ح‬of s.th.);
(pl. ٍَ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽوووو‬jawāzim2) governing the
apocopate form (gram.)
‫ٍي‬ٛ‫ اؽ‬look up alphabetically
2
‫ اؽَِوز‬jazma pl. –āt, ََ‫ ؽو‬jizam (pair of) shoes
(pair of) boots│ٟ‫( اؽَِوزادٌدوج‬bi-ribāṯ) laced
soots; ‫( ؽَِوزاٌّجعوز‬lammā‘a) patent-leather
shoes
ٝ‫ ؽَِؾووو‬gazmagī (eg.) and ٝ‫ؽَِوووجص‬
gizamātī (eg.), jazmātī (syr.) pl. -īya
shoemaker
َٜ‫ ؽو‬jazā i ( ‫ ؽوَث‬iazii') to requite, recompense
(ٖ s.o., ‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬for), repay (ٖ to s.o., ‫ ح‬or
ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to reward (ٖ s.o., ‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬for);
to punish (ٖ s.o., ‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬for); to satisfy (ٖ
s.o.), give satisfaction (ٖ to s.o.); to
compensate, make up (‫ ٘و ح‬for s.th. with
or by); to compensate, offset (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫وٌث‬١‫( ؽوَثنا ام‬ḳairan) may God bless you
for it!; ً‫( ؽوَثٖاؽوَث اّوّٕج‬jazā’a sinimmāra)
he returned to him good for evil III to
repay, requite (‫ ٘و ح‬s.th. with, ‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. for),
recompense (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. for); to reward (ٝ‫عٍو‬
or ‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. for); to punish (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ٖ ح‬s.o.
for)│‫ٌث‬١‫( اؽَثُ٘ام‬ḳairan) he invoked God‘s
reward upon them IV to suffice (ٖ s.o.), do
for s.o. (ٖ); to take the place, serve instead
(ٓ‫ ع‬of), replace (ٓ‫ ع‬s.th.)
‫ ؽوووووَث‬jazā’ requital, repayment;
recompense, return; compensation, setoff;
124 amends, reparation; punishment,
penalty│ٞ‫( اؽَث أمو‬naqdī) fine
ٝ‫ ؽَثة‬jazā’ī penal
‫وز‬٠َ‫ ؽ‬jizya pl. َٜ‫ ؽو‬jizan, ‫ ؽوَث‬jizā’ tax;
tribute; head tax on free non-Muslims
under Muslim rule
‫ز‬٠َ‫ صؾ‬tajziya reward
‫ ِؾوووجٍثر‬mujāzāh requital, repayment;
punishment
ِ‫ ؽو‬jassa u (jass, ‫ ِؾْوز‬majassa) to touch, feel,
handle ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to palpate, examine by
touch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to test, sound, probe ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to try to gain information ( ‫ ٘و‬about),
try to find out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to spy out ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)│ٗ‫وو‬ٞ‫( اؽوِأذ‬nabḍahū) to feel s.o.‘s
pulse, (fig.) ٟ‫اثٌٖو‬ٜ‫ ؽوِأوذ‬to probe, sound
out, try to find out s.th. V to try to gain
information ( ‫ ٘و‬about), try to find out ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to reconnoiter, scout, explore ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to be a spy, engage in espionage; to
spy, pry, snoop (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on s.o.)│‫اصؾْوِاٌووٗا‬
‫( ثمذوجًث‬aḳbāran) to gather information for
s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to touch, feel, handle
( ٘ s.th.); to spy out ( ٘ s.th.)
ِ‫ ؽو‬jass: ِ‫اثٌؾو‬ٌٜ‫و‬ٟ ṯarīy al-j. delicate to
the touch, having a tender surface, fresh
ُّٛ‫ ؽج‬jāsūs pl. ِ١ّ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāsīs2 spy
‫ّز‬ّٛ‫ ؽج‬jāsūsa woman spy
ٝ‫ّ و‬ّٛ‫ ؽج‬jāsūsī of espionage, spy- (in
compounds)
‫ز‬١ّّٛ‫ ؽج‬jāsūsīya spying, espionage
‫ّْز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jausasa spying, espionage
ِ‫ ِؾو‬majass spot which one touches or
feels; sense of touch│ِ‫ امٖوٓاثٌّؾو‬ḳašin alm. coarse to the touch, having a rough
surface
‫ ؽْوو‬II to make corporeal, invest with a body,
embody, incarnate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), give concrete
form ( ‫ ٘و‬to s.th.); to render or represent in
corporeal form ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) V to become
corporeal,
assume
concrete
form,
materialize; to become incarnate (Chr.); to
become three-dimensional
‫ ؽْو‬jasad pl. ‫ ثؽْجه‬ajsād body│‫وواثٌؾْوو‬١‫اع‬
‘īd al-j. and ‫ِاثٌؾْوو‬١ّ‫ م‬Corpus Christi Day
(Chr.)
ٜ‫ ؽْو‬jasadī bodily, fleshly, carnal
ٝٔ‫ ؽْوث‬jusdānī bodily
‫ صؾْو‬taia.snul materialization; incar·
nation (OM.)
‫ ِؾْو‬mujassad embodied, corporified
‫ ِضؾْووو‬mutajassid corporeal; incarnate
(Chr)
ٌ‫ ؽْو‬jasara u to span, cross, traverse ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
(‫ ؽْوجًر‬jasāra, ًٛ‫ ؽْو‬jusūr) to venture, risk
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.), have the courage (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do
s.th.) II to build a dam or dike; to
embolden, encourage ( ‫ ٘و‬s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do
s.th.) VI to dare, venture, risk (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.),
have the audacity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do s.th.); to be
sold, forward, insolent, impudent (ٝ‫عٍوو‬
with s.o.) VIII to span, cross, traverse ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
ٌ‫ ؽْوو‬jisr pl. ٌ‫ ثؽْوو‬ajsur, ًٛ‫ ؽْ و‬jusūr
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; -(pl. ‫ًر‬ٛ‫ ؽْ و‬jusūra) beam, girder; axle,
axletree│‫( اؽْوٌاِضقوٌن‬muḥarrik) movable
bridge; ‫( ؽْووٌاِعٍووك‬mu‘allaq) suspension
bridge; ُ‫ ؽْوٌاعوجة‬pontoon bridge, floating
bridge
ًٛ‫ ؽْووو‬jasār sold, daring; forward,
insolent, impudent
‫ ؽْوووجًر‬jasāra boldness, recklessness,
intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
ٌ‫ صؾجّوو‬tajāsur boldness, recklessness,
intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
ٌ‫ ِضؾجّو‬mutajāsir bold, daring; forward,
insolent, impudent 125
ِ‫ ِؾ‬mijass probe (med.)
ٓ ْ‫ ؽ‬see ‫ ٓا‬ٚ‫اؽ‬
ِْ‫ صؾ‬tajassus spying, espionage
ُ‫ ؽْو‬jasuma u (‫ ؽْوجِز‬jasāma) to be great. Big,
large. bulky. huge. immense II to make
corporeal. invest with a body ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
give ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) shape or form; to materialize
‫ ؽجّب‬jāsi’ hard, rough, rugged
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to cause to stand out. bring out
( ٘ s.th.); to enlarge, magnify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; e.g.,
microscope); to make big, bulky, huge ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to play up, exaggerate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to
become corporeal, become embodied; to
materialize; to assume a form, take shape,
become tangible or concrete; to be
materialized; to become big, large, huge,
increase in volume, grow in size
ُ‫ ؽْو‬pl. َ‫ ثؽْوج‬ajsām, َٛ‫ ؽْو‬jusūm body
(also O of an automobile); substance,
matter; mass; form, shape
ّٝ‫ ؽْو‬iiaa1 bodily, physical; substantial,
material
ُ١‫ اؽْو‬jasīm pl. َ‫ ؽْوج‬great, big, large;
voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, immense;
stout,
corpulent;
weighty,
most
significant, momentous, prodigious
ُ١‫ ؽْوو‬jusaim pl. -āt particle (phys.);
corpuscle (biol.)
ُ‫ ثؽْوو‬ajsam2 more voluminous, larger;
stouter, more corpulent
ُ‫ ؽْوو‬jasāma size, volume; stoutness,
corpulence
ْ‫ ؽّْج‬jusmān body, mass
ٝٔ‫ ؽْووووّج‬jusmānī bodily,
Corporal│ٝٔ‫ووووووووخاثٌؾْووووووووّج‬٠‫ثٌضبه‬
punishment
physical.
corporal
ُ١‫ صؾْوووو‬tajsīm embodiment; relief;
enlargement, magnification, magnifying
power
ُ‫ ؽْو‬mujassam bodily, corporeal; (math.)
body;
three-dimensional;
tangible,
material, concrete; raised, relieflike,
standing out in relief (e.g., ‫ ووزاِؾْووّز‬٠ٌ‫م‬
relief map); relief; enlarged. Magnified│‫ا‬
ُ‫ـٍووووووُاِؾْوووووو‬
(film)
three-dimensional
(stereoscopic) film, 3-D motion picture
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ ؽّْج‬jasmānīya2 Gethseman
‫ة‬ْٛ‫ ؽْجايؽ‬jasā u to become hard, solid
ٔ‫ ؽو‬jašša u (jašš) to grind, crush, bruise, grate
( ٘ s.th.)
ٔ‫ ؽو‬jušša hoarseness, huskiness, raucity
(of the voice)
ٔ١ٖ‫ ؽ‬jašīš ground, grated, crushed
ٔ‫ ثؽوو‬ajašš2, f. ‫ ؽٖووج‬jaššā’2 hoarse,
husky, raucous (voice)
‫ ؽٖب‬II and V to belch, burp
‫ ؽٖووج‬jušā’ and ‫ ؽٖ وبر‬jaš’a belch(ing),
burp(ing)
ً‫ ؽٖج‬jušār livestock
‫ ؽٖوا‬jaši‘a a (jaša‗) and V to be covetous,
greedy
‫ ؽٖووا‬jaša‗ greed, avidity, inordinate
desire
‫ ؽٖا‬jaši‗ greedy, covetous
ُ‫ ؽٖو‬jašāma a (jašm, ‫ ؽٖوجِز‬jašāma) to take
upon o.s. ( ‫ ٘و‬some hardship) II to make (ٖ
s.o.) suffer or undergo ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to impose
( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬on s.o. s.th. difficult), burden ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o.
with s.th.) V to take upon o.s., suffer,
undergo ( ٘ s.th., e.g., hardships)
ٕٝ‫( ؽٖو‬eg., cf. ٕٝ‫ ٕٖو‬šišnī) sample, specimen;
sampling
٘‫ ؽ‬II to plaster, whitewash ( ٘ s.th.)
٘‫ ؽ‬jiṣṣ gypsum; plaster of Paris
ٓ ‫و‬ٚ‫ ؽ‬II tajaṣṯana to lounge, stretch lazily,
loll
‫ ؽعز‬ji‘a beer
‫ ؽعخ‬II to corrugate ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽعذز‬ja‘ba pl. ‫ ؽعجح‬ji‘āb quiver; tube, pipe; gun
barrel; o cartridge pouch (Syr.)│ً‫اؽعذوزاثمذوج‬
j. aḳbār town gossip (person) 126
‫ ؽعؾوا‬ja‘ja‘a (‫ ؽعؾوا‬ja‘ja‘a) to clamor, roar,
shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, explode
in anger
‫ ؽعؾعوز‬ja‘ja‘a hubbub, rumpus, clamor,
roar; creak, clapping noise (of a mill
wheel); bluster
‫ ؽعؾوووج‬ja‘jā‘ clamorous, boisterous,
noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person
‫ ؽعو‬ja‘uda a (‫هر‬ٛ‫ ؽعو‬ju‘ūda, ‫ ؽعوجهر‬ja‘āda) and V
to become curly, frizzed, kinky, curl
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be
wrinkled II to curl, frizz ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; the hair);
to wave ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; the hair); to crease, pleat,
plait ( ٘ cloth); to wrinkle ( ٘ the skin)
‫ ؽعوو‬ja‘d (or ‫وو‬١ٌ‫ ؽعوواث‬j. al-yad, ‫ ؽعوواثٌىوؿ‬j.
al-kaff) stingy, niggardly, tightfisted
‫ ؽعور‬ja‗da curl, lock, ringlet
ٜ‫ ؽعو‬ja‘dī and ‫ ثؽعو‬aj‘ad2 curly
ٜ‫وو‬١‫ ؽع‬gə‘īdī (eg.) bum, loafer, good-fornothing
‫ وو‬١‫ صؾجع‬tajā‘īd2 wrinkles, lines (of the
face)
‫ صؾعوثس‬taja‘‘udāt wrinkles
‫ ِؾعووو‬muja‘‘ad curled, frizzed; wavy;
furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ ِضؾعوو‬mutaja‘‘id curled, frizzed; wavy;
furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ ؽعؤز‬ja‘dana idle talk, gossip (leb.)
ٌ‫ ؽع‬ja‘ara a (ja‘r) to drop its manure (animal)
ْ‫اؽعوٌث‬ٛ‫ ثدو‬abū ji‘rān2 scarabaeus; dung
beetle
ٌ‫ ؽعف‬ja‘far little river, creek
ً‫ ؽعو‬ja‘ala a (ja‘l) to make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to put,
place, lay ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to create ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
effect, bring about ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to make ( ‫٘و ٘و‬
s.th. a rule, a principle, or the like, ٖ ٖ s.o.,
e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint (ٖ ٖ s.o. to
an office, rank, or the like); to fix, set ( ٘ ٘
a sum, a price, at); to think, deem, believe
(‫ ٖ ح‬or ٖ ٖ s.o. to be …, ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. to be ...),
take (‫ ٖ حا‬or ٖ ٖ s.o. for, ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. for); to
represent ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ‫ًر‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ا‬ٝ‫ ـو‬as, or in the
form of, s.th. else); to appoint, settle (‫٘و ي‬
s.th. for s.o., in s.o.‘s favor); to give,
grant, concede (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th., an advantage, to
s.o.), put s.o. (‫ )ي‬in the way of s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to
attribute ( ‫ ي ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.), maintain that
s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬belong. to s.o. (‫ ;)ي‬to entrust (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
‫ ٘و‬s.th. to s.o.); to put, get (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
into a specific state or condition); (with
foll. imperf.) to begin to, set out to│‫ؽعٍوٗا‬
ً‫فعو‬٠ to induce s.o. to do; to make s.o. do
s.th. (in a narrative); ‫( ؽعٍوووٗادٌَّٕٕوووز‬bimanzilati) to place s.o. on equal footing
with; ٖ‫وووو‬٠‫يا‬ٚ‫اِضٕوووج‬ٝ‫( ؽعٍوووٗاـووو‬fī mutanāwali
yadihī) to bring or put s.th. within s.o.‘s
reach III to seek to bribe, try to win (‫ٖ ح‬
s.o. with s.th.)
ً‫ ؽعو‬ju‘l pl. ‫ ثؽعوجي‬aj‘āl pay, wages; piece
wages; reward, prize
ٍٝ‫ ؽع‬ju‘līi: ‫ا‬ٍٝ‫( ثصفجقاؽع‬ittifāq) piece-work
contract
ً‫ ؽعو‬ju‘al pl. ْ٩‫ ؽعو‬ji‘lān dung beetle;
scarabaeus
‫ ؽعجٌز‬ji‘āla, ja‘āla, ju‘āla pl. ً‫ ؽعجةو‬ja‘āil2
pay, wages; allowance; reward, prize:
bribe
‫ووووج‬١‫ ؽؽٌثـ‬jugrāfiyā and ‫ووووز‬١‫ ؽؽٌثـ‬jugrāfīya
geography│‫وووووووز‬١‫ع‬١‫ذ‬ٟ‫وووووووزا‬١‫ؽؽٌثـ‬
(ṯabī‘īya)
physical geography
ٟ‫ ؽؽٌثـ‬jugrāfī geographical; geographer
‫ ؽوؿ‬jaffa (1st pers. perf. jafaftu) i (‫ ؽفوجؾ‬jafāf,
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؽفو‬jufūf) to dry, become dry; to dry out
II to dry, make dry ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽفوجؾ‬jafāf dryness; desiccation; drying
up; dullness
‫اصؾفوجؾ‬tajfāf pl. ‫ؿ‬١‫ صؾوجـ‬tajāfīf2 protective
armor
‫وووووؿ‬١‫ صؾف‬tajfīf drying;
dehydration; drainage 127
desiccation;
‫ ؽوجؾ‬jāff dry│‫( الٍوُافذوٌاؽوجؾ‬qalam ḥibr)
ball-point pen
‫ ِؾفووووؿ‬mujaffaf dried, desiccated,
dehydrated; ‫ ِؾففجس‬dehydrated foods
‫ ؽفوووج‬jufā’ useless, vain, futile│ ‫اى٘وووخاؽفوووج‬
dahaba jufā’an to be in vain, be of no
avail, pass uselessly
‫ ؽفش‬jift, ‫ ﭽـوش‬čift (pronounced šift; eg.) pincers,
tweezers; metal clamp│ْ‫ج‬٠ٌ‫ اؽفوووشإووو‬j.
šaryān arterial clamps
ٖٝ‫( ﭽـض‬pronounced šiftišī; eg.) filigree
‫ ؽفضٍوه‬jiftlik farm, country estate; government
land (Pal.)
ٌ‫ ؽفووو‬jafr, ٌ‫‘ عٍوووُاثٌؾفووو‬ilm al-j. divination,
fortunetelling
‫ ؽفٌر‬jufra pl. ٌ‫ ؽف‬jufar pit, hole
ً‫ ؽفو‬jafala i u (jafl, ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ؽفو‬jufūl) and IV to start,
jump with fright; to shy (horse) II to start,
rouse ( ٘ s.th., .s.o.); to scare away (ٖ s.o.)
ً‫ ؽفو‬jafl and ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ؽفو‬jufūl fright, alarm;
shying
‫( ﭽـٍه‬pronounced šiflik; eg.) = ‫ؽفضٍه‬
ٓ‫ ؽف‬pl. ْٛ‫ ؽف‬jufūn, ْ‫ ثؽفج‬ajfān eyelid
‫ ؽفٕوز‬jafna pl. ْ‫ ؽفوج‬jifān, ‫ ؽفٕوجس‬jafanāt
bowl; grapsvine
(ٛ‫ ؽفوج )ؽفو‬jafā u (jafw, ‫ ؽفوج‬jafā’) to be rough,
coarse; to treat (ٖ s.o.) roughly, harshly; to
turn away (. from), shun, avoid, flee (ٖ
s.o.) III to treat (ٖ s.o.) roughly, rudely,
‫ ؽٍووز‬julla, jilla droppings, dung (of
animals); julla pl. ً‫ ؽٍو‬julal (cannon) ban;
bomb 128
harshly; to be cruel (ٖ to s.o.); to be cross
(ٖ with s.o.); to elude, flee (ٖ s.o.;
slumber); to offend ( ‫ ٘و‬against good taste,
one‘s sense of honor, or the like) VI to
withdraw (ٓ‫ عو‬from), shun, avoid (ٖ s.o.);
to loathe (ٓ‫ عو‬s.o., s.th.), have an aversion
(ٓ‫ عو‬to); to display rude manners, act the
ruffian
‫ ؽٍوز‬julla attire, clothing│‫وزا‬١‫ص‬ٌٚ‫اثٌؾٍوزاثٌؾذ‬
‫وووووزة‬١‫ص‬ٕٛٙ‫يثٌى‬
(ḥabrawīya, kahnūtīya)
Episcopal (sacerdotal) vestments (Chr.)
ً١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīl pl. ٩‫ ثؽ‬ajillā’2, ‫ ثؽٍز‬ajilla, ً‫ة‬٩‫ؽ‬
jalā’il2 great, important, significant,
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted,
sublime; revered, honorable, venerable;
glorious, splendid
ٛ‫ ؽف‬jafw roughness, harshness
‫ر‬ٛ‫ ؽفووو‬jafwa roughness; estrangement,
alienation; disagreement, dissension,
quarrel
‫ي‬٩‫ؽووووو‬
jalāl
loftiness,
augustness; splendor, glory
‫ ؽفوووووج‬jafā’ roughness; harshness;
sternness; antipathy, aversion, distaste,
loathing; estrangement, alienation
ٝ‫ ثؽفو‬ajfā refraining even more (‫ ي‬from),
more averse (‫ ي‬to s.th.)
‫ٌوووووز‬٩‫ ؽ‬jalāla loftiness, sublimity,
augustness; majeoty│‫ٌوز‬٩‫وجفذزةاثٌؾ‬ٙ‫جفخاي‬ٙ‫ا‬
His (Her) Majesty, ‫ٌوزاثٌٍّوه‬٩‫ ؽ‬j. al-malik
His Majesty, the King
‫ ؽوجؾ‬jāfin pl. ‫ ؽفوجر‬jufāh harsh, rough,
coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude
ً‫ ثؽو‬ajall2 greater; more sublime; more
splendid
‫ ؽجوضز‬look up alphabetically
‫ ِؾٍوز‬majalla pl. -āt periodical; review,
magazine│ ‫ز‬١‫ع‬ٛ‫( ِؾٍوزاثّوذ‬usbū‘īya) weekly
magazine; ‫ز‬٠ٌٙ‫( ِؾٍووزإوو‬šahrīya) monthly
publication;
‫ووووووزاح‬ٙ‫ِؾٍووووووزامج‬
(ḳāṣṣa)
professional journal for a. ; َ‫فىووج‬٨‫ِؾٍووزاث‬
lawbook, code; ٓ١ٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ِؾٍزاثٌم‬do.
ٌ‫ ؽى‬III (syr.) to tease (ٖ s.o.)
1
sublimity,
ً‫ ؽوو‬jalla i (‫ي‬٩‫ ؽ و‬jalāl) to be great, lofty,
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too
great (ٓ‫ عو‬for), be beyond s.th. (ٓ‫)عو‬, be far
above s.th. (ٓ‫ٌ│)ع‬ٚ‫‘(اؽًاعٓاثٌق‬an il-ḥaṣr)
to be innumerable II to honor, dignify,
exalt (ٖ s.o.); to cover ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., esp. the
ground, as snow, plants, etc.); to envelop,
wrap, drape, clothe; to border, edge ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., ‫ ح‬with) IV to honor, dignify, revere,
venerate, esteem highly, exalt (ٖ s.o.); to
deem too high, too exalted (ٓ‫ عو‬for s.th.),
consider far beyond s.th. (ٓ‫ )عو‬VI to deem
o.s. far above s.th. (ٓ‫ )عو‬X to be great,
exalted, sublime
ً‫ ؽ‬great, outstanding; bulky
ً‫ ؽوو‬jull major portion, bulk, majority,
main part│ٍٗ‫ ؽ‬julluhū most of it; ‫ِوز‬٨‫ ؽًاث‬j.
al-umma the majority of the people; ‫ؽوًاِوجا‬
ٗ‫و‬١‫ ـ‬its main contents; ٗ‫موجياثٔو‬٠‫ؽوًاِوجا‬ٚ (jullu)
that much, at least, can be said that ...
ً‫ ؽٍووووو‬jalal important,
momentous, weighty
significant,
ٝ‫ ؽٍو‬jullā pl. ً‫ ؽٍو‬julal matter of great
importance, momentous undertaking,
great feat, exploit
‫ صؾٍوووز‬tajilla and ‫ي‬٩‫ ثؽووو‬ijlāl honor,
distinction; esteem, deference, respect;
reverence
2
ً‫ اؽ‬jull rose
‫ح‬٩‫ ؽ‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
ٓ١‫ص‬٩‫( ؽ‬Fr. gélatine) želātīn jelly
‫ز‬١ّ٩‫( ؽ‬Fr. glacé) glasēh (eg.) kid leather
1
‫ ؽٍوخ‬jalaba i u (jalb) to attract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
fetch, get, bring ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ‫ ي‬to s.o.); to
import ( ‫ ٘و‬goods); to bring about ( ‫ ٘و‬a
state, condition); to bring ( ‫ ٘و‬harm, shame,
etc., ٍٝ‫ ع‬upon s.o.); to gain, win, obtain ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to earn ( ٘ s.th.); (‫ح‬ٍٛ‫ ؽ‬julūb) to scar
over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; to
be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain,
acquire ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); = II; VII pass. of I VIII
to procure, bring, fetch, get ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
draw ( ‫ ٘و‬on s.th.); to import ( ‫ ٘و‬goods) X
to import ( ‫ ٘و‬goods); to fetch, summon,
call in (ٖ s.o.); to attract, draw ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o.,
s.th.); to seek to attract or win ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o.,
s.th.); to get, procure ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ؽٍوووووووخ‬
jalb
bringing,
fetching;
procurement; acquisition; importation,
import; causation, bringing on, bringing
about
‫ ؽٍخ‬jalab imported; foreign
‫ ؽٍخ‬jalab and ‫ ؽٍذز‬jalaba clamor; uproar,
tumult, turmoil
‫ ؽٍذز‬julba scar
‫وخ‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīb imported, foreign; (pl. ٝ‫ؽٍذوو‬
jalbā, ‫ ؽٍذج‬julabā‘2) foreign slave
‫ح‬٩‫ ؽووو‬jallāb attractive, captivating;
importer, trader; see also alphabetically│‫ا‬
‫و‬١‫حاثٌعذ‬٩‫ ؽ‬slave trader
‫ووز‬١‫د‬٩‫ ؽ‬gallābīya (eg.) pl. -at, ‫ووخ‬١ٌ٩‫ؽ‬
galālīb2 galabia, a loose, shirtlike
garment, the common dreao of the male
population in Egypt
‫ ؽٍذجح‬below under ‫ؽٍذخ‬
‫ ؽٍوووخ‬ajlab2 more attractive, more
captivating
‫ ِؾٍذوووز‬majlaba pl. ‫ ِؾجٌوووخ‬majālib2
causative factor, motive, reason, cause,
occasion
‫ اؽٍؾٍز‬juljula, ‫ ؽذًاثٌؾٍؾٍز‬jabal al-j. Golgotha
3
ْ٩‫اؽٍؾ‬juljulān, jiljilān sesame
‫ ؽٍـ‬jaliḥa a (jalaḥ) to be or become bald
‫ ثؽٍوـ‬ajlaḥ2, f. ‫ ؽٍقوج‬jalḥā’2, pl. ‫ ؽٍوـ‬julḥ
bald-headed, bald
‫ ؽٍول‬jalaḳa a and II to sharpen ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
whet, hone ( ‫ ٘و‬a knife), strop ( ‫ ٘و‬a razor);
to stretch, extend, roll out ( ٘ metal)
‫ ؽٍل‬jalḳ grindstone, whetetone, hone
‫ ؽٍوو‬jalada i (jald) to whip, flog, lash (ٖ s.o.); -jalida a to be frozen, freeze; -- jaluda u to
be tough, hardy, undismayed, steadfast,
patient II to bind ( ‫ ٘و‬a book); (to cause) to
freeze ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to fight (ٖ s.o.) IV to
freeze; to be frozen, be covered with ice V
to take heart; to show o.s. tough, hardy,
robust; to resign o.s. to patience; to bear,
suffer VI to engage in a sword fight
‫ ؽٍ وو‬jald flogging; -- (pl. ‫ه‬٩‫ ثؽوو‬ajlād)
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy
‫ ؽٍوو‬jild pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽٍو‬julūd, ‫ه‬٩‫ ثؽو‬ajlād skin,
hide; leather│ْ‫ج‬١‫( اؽٍوووووواّووووونض‬suḳtiyān)
morocco; ‫( ؽٍواٌّج‬lammā‘) patent leather
‫ح‬٩‫ثّووووووووضؾ‬
istijlāb
procurement,
acquisition; importation, import; supply;
attraction│ٓ١‫حاثٌْووجةق‬٩‫ اثّووضؾ‬promotion of
tourist traffic
‫ ؽٍوور‬jilda skin, hide; piece of leather;
race│‫ اثدوووووٓاؽٍووووووصٕج‬ibn jildatinā our
countryman, our fellow tribesman, pl. ‫ا‬ٛ‫دٕو‬
‫ ؽٍوصٕج‬banū j.
‫ ؽجٌوووخ‬jālib causative factor, motive,
reason, cause, occasion
‫ا‬ٜ‫ ؽٍوووو‬jildī dermal, cutaneous, skin
(adj.)│‫ز‬٠‫اؽٍو‬ٛ‫ اثٌِث‬skin diseases
2
‫ح‬٩‫ اؽ‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
3
‫ اؽٍذج‬jalabā jalap (bot.)
‫ ؽٍذوخ‬II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (‫ ح‬with), be
clothed, be clad (‫ ح‬in a garment, also fig.)
‫ ؽٍذوجح‬jilbāb pl. ‫وخ‬١‫د‬٩‫ ؽ‬jalābīb2 garment,
dress, gown; woman's dress
ْ‫ ؽٍذووج‬julubbān chickling vetch, grass pea
(Lathyrus sativua)
1
2
ً‫ اؽٍؾو‬jaljala to reverberate; to resound, ring
out; to rattle; to shake ( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ ؽٍؾو‬juljul pl. ً‫ؽو‬٩‫ ؽ‬jalājil2 (little) bell,
sleigh bell; cowbell; jingle
‫ ؽٍؾٍوز‬jaljala sound of a bell; loud, shrill
sound
ً‫ ِؾٍؾو‬mujaljil shrill, piercing; ringing,
resounding, reverberant
‫وور‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬julaida pl. -āt membrane, pellicle;
O film (phot.)
‫ ؽٍوو‬jalad enduranos; suffering; patience;
firmament
‫ ؽٍور‬jalda lash, stroke with a whip
‫ووو‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīd pl. ‫ ؽٍوووث‬juladā’2 staunch,
steadfast; strong, sturdy
‫وو‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīd ice│‫وو‬١ٍ‫ اؽذوًاؽ‬jabal j. iceberg;
‫و‬١ٍ‫( ل عزآِاثٌؾ‬qiṯ‘a) ice floe
ٜ‫وو‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīdī icy, ice-covered, glacial, ice
(adj.); snow-covered│ٜ‫وو‬١ٍ‫وٌاثٌؾ‬ٚ‫‗( اثٌع‬aṣr)
the Ice Age
‫ه‬ٍٛ‫ ؽ‬jalūd long-suffering, patient
‫ه‬٩‫ ؽوو‬jallād pl. -ūn leather merchant;
executioner, hangman
‫هر‬٩‫ ؽو‬jalāda and ‫هر‬ٛ‫ ؽٍو‬julūda endurance,
patience
‫ ِؾٍور‬mijlada whip, lash, scourge
‫و‬١ٍ‫ صؾ‬tajlīd freezing; bookbinding
‫ه‬٩‫ ؽ‬jilād fight, battle (against)
‫ صؾٍو‬tajallud endurance, patience
‫ ِؾٍووو‬mujallid: ‫ ِؾٍووواثٌىضووخ‬m. al-kutub
bookbinder
‫ ِؾٍوو‬mujallad frozen, icy, ice-covered;
bound (book); (pl. -āt) volume (book)
‫ ِؾجٌو‬mujālid pl. -ūn gladiator
‫ ِضؾٍو‬mutajallid patient
ٍَّ‫ ؽ‬jillauz (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬hazelnut; hazel
ِ‫ ؽٍو‬jalasa i (ُٛ‫ ؽٍو‬julūs) to sit down (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with
s.o., at a tabl., etc., ٝ‫ عٍو‬on a chair); to sit
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with s.o., at a table, ٝ‫ عٍو‬on a chair)│‫ا‬
َ‫اثٌٌّوج‬ٝ‫( ؽٍوِاثٌو‬rassām) to sit for a painter
III to sit (ٖ with s.o., next to s.o., in s.o.‘s
company); to keep s.o. (ٖ) company IV to
ask to sit down, make sit down, eeat (ٖ
s.o.)
‫ ؽٍْووز‬jalsa pl. -āt seat (in an auditorium);
session (of parliament, of a committee,
130 of a court, etc.); party, gathering,
meeting│‫‗ عموووواؽٍْوووز‬aqada jasatan to
convene a session; ‫‗( ؽٍْووزاعجِووز‬āmma)
plenary session
‫ ؽٍْز‬jilsa manner of sitting
ِ١‫ ؽٍو‬pl. ‫ ؽٍْوج‬julasā’2 participant in a
social gathering; table companion: one
with whom one sits together; ٗ‫ْوو‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬the
man who was at the party with him
‫ْووز‬١ٍ‫ا ؽ‬jalīsa lady companion; fem. of
ِ١ٍ‫ؽ‬
ُٛ‫ ؽٍوووو‬julūs sitting: sitting down;
accession to the throne; pl. of ٌِ‫ ؽج‬sitting
ِ‫ ِؾٍوو‬majlis pl. ٌِ‫ ِؾووج‬majālis2 seat;
session room, conference room; party,
gathering, meeting; social gathering:
session, sitting; council meeting; council;
concilium; collegium, college: board,
committee, commission; administrative
board; court, tribunal│ٗ‫اِؾٍْوو‬ٝ‫ ـوو‬in s.o.‘s
presence, in s.o.‘s company; ‫وخ‬٠‫ِؾٍوِاثٌضبه‬
and ٝ‫ذ‬٠‫ ِؾٍوِاصوبه‬disciplinary board; ‫ِؾٍوِا‬
ٝ‫ْ و‬١ّ‫ صب‬constituent assembly; ٝ‫ِؾٍووِاآـووجل‬
regional court (tribunal régional; Tun.);
‫ِووز‬٤‫ ِؾٍووِاث‬m. al-umma parliament (Ir.);
ٓ‫ِو‬٤‫ ِؾٍِاث‬m. al-amn the Security Council;
‫وز‬٠‫ ِؾٍوِاثٌذٍو‬m. al-baladīya and ٜ‫ِؾٍوِادٍوو‬
(baladī) local council, municipal council;
‫ ِؾٍوِاثٌقوٌح‬m. al-ḥarb war council; ‫ِؾٍوِا‬
ٝ‫( فْوذ‬ḥasbī) probate court (for Muslim;
Eg.); ٠ٍ‫( ِؾٍووِاِنووض‬muḳtaliṯ) mixed court
(eg.); ‫ ِؾٍووِاثٌوووـج‬defense council; ‫ِؾٍووِا‬
‫هثًر‬٨‫ ث‬m. al-idāra administrative board,
committee of management, directorate;
board of directors (of a corporation or
bank); ‫ووووز‬٠ٌ٠‫ ِؾٍووووِاثٌّو‬m. al-mudīrīya
provincial council, provincial parliament
(Eg.); ‫ٌووز‬ٚ‫ ِؾٍووِاثٌو‬m. ad-daula Supreme
Administrative Court (Eg.); ٝ‫فوو‬ًٚ‫ِؾٍووِا‬
(rūḥī) religious court, clerical court (of the
Coptic Church); ‫ٌوز‬ٚ‫اثٌو‬ًٜٛ‫ ِؾٍوِإو‬m. šūrā
d-daula council of state; ‫ك‬ٛ١‫ِؾٍوووِاثٌٖووو‬
council of elders: Senate (Eg.); ٌٝ‫ِؾٍوِاعوو‬
(‗adlī) court, tribunal (Syr.); (ٌٜ‫ عْوى‬or)
ٝ‫‗( ِؾٍووِاعٌـوو‬urfī, ‗askarī) court-martial;
ُِ٤‫ذزاث‬ٚ‫ ِؾٍِاع‬m. ‘uṣbat al-umam Council
of the League of Nations; َٛ‫ ِؾٍوِاثٌعّو‬the
House of Commons; ْ‫ووج‬١‫ع‬٤‫ ِؾٍوِاث‬m. ala‘yān senate (Ir., Jord.); ‫لضوٌث‬٨‫ ِؾٍوِاث‬draft
board, recruiting commission (mil.); ‫ِؾٍوِا‬
ٌٜٚ‫( لو‬qarawī) local council; ٜ‫وجه‬ٚ‫ِؾٍوِاثلض‬
(iqtiṣādī) economic council: ِٝٛ‫ِؾٍووِالوو‬
(qaumī) national assembly; ‫ًر‬ٛ‫وجهراثٌغو‬١‫ِؾٍِال‬
m.
qiyādat
at-taura
Supreme
Revolutionary Tribunal (Eg.): ٌ‫و‬١‫ثٌّؾٍوِاثٌىذ‬
and ٌ‫وذ‬٨‫( ثٌّؾٍِاث‬akbar) the Grand Council
(= le Grand Conseil; Tun.); ٓ٠‫ًه‬ٛ‫ِؾٍوِاثٌٍو‬
the House of Lords: ‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ِؾٍووِاثٌٕوو‬m. annuwwāb lower house, chamber of
deputies; ٝ‫ووجد‬١ٔ‫( ِؾٍووِا‬niyābī) parliament;
‫وز‬ٙ‫ ِؾٍوِاثٌؾ‬m. al-jiha approx.: provincial
council (= conseil de région; Tun.); ‫ِؾٍوِا‬
‫ًٍث‬ٛ‫ ثٌو‬m. al-wuzarā’ cabinet, council of
ministers
‫ ِؾجٌْز‬mujālasa social intercourse
ٌِ‫ ؽوج‬jālis pl. ُٛ‫ ؽٍو‬julūs, ُ٩‫ ؽو‬jullās
sitting; pl. ُ٩‫ ؽوو‬participants in a social
gathering
٠‫ ؽٍو‬jalaṯa i (jalṯ) to chafe, gall, abrade ( ‫ ٘و‬the
skin); to shave (ُ‫ ثٌٌأ‬ar-ra’sa the head
‫ اؽٍ وووز‬julṯa lump, clot│‫وووز‬٠ِٛ‫اؽٍ وووزاه‬
(damawīya) blood clot, thrombus
‫ ؽٍؿ‬jilf pl. ‫ؾ‬٩‫ ثؽ‬ajlāf boorish, rude, uncivil
٠‫ ؽٍف‬jalfaṯa (‫ ؽٍف ز‬jalfaṯa) to calk ( ٘ a ship)
ٓ‫ ؽٍف‬galfana (eg.) to galvanize
clarify, clear up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), throw light ( ‫ا ٘و‬
on); to uncover, unearth, bring to light,
find out, discover, detect ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽٍفٕز‬galfana galvanization
ٓ‫ ِؾٍف‬mugalfan galvanized
٩‫ ثدوٓاؽو‬ibn jalā a famous, well-known
man, a celebrity
‫لووزا‬٩‫ ؽ‬jalāqa: ‫ووزا‬٠ٌٚ‫لووزال‬٩‫( ؽ‬qarawīya) yokel,
bumpkin
ٝ‫ ؽٍو‬jalīy clear, plain, evident, patent,
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; ‫ووووج‬١ٍ‫ؽ‬
jalīyan obviously, evidently
ٍُ‫ ؽ‬jalama i (jalm) to clip, shear off ( ٘ s.th.)
ٍُ‫ ؽ‬jalam pl. َ٩‫ ثؽ‬ajlām shears
‫ووز‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīya pl. ‫ووج‬٠٩‫ ؽ‬jalāyā sure thing,
plain fact│ٌ‫ِو‬٤‫وزاث‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalīyat al-amr the true
state of the affair
ٛ‫اؽٍّذ‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū galambū (eg.) a variety of crab
‫ ؽٍّو‬II tajalmada to be petrified
‫ ؽٍّوو‬jalmad pl. ‫ِوو‬٩‫ ؽ‬jalāmid2 and ‫ه‬ٛ‫ؽٍّو‬
julmūd pl. ‫و‬١ِ٩‫ ؽ‬jalāmīd2 rook, bolder
ٝ‫ ثؽٍو‬ajlā clearer, more obvious, more
distinct
ً‫ ؽٍٕج‬jullanār pomegranate blossom
(ٛ‫ا ؽٍو‬and ٝ‫ )ؽٍو‬٩‫ ؽو‬jalā u to clean, polish
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to clear ( ‫ ٘و‬the view); to make
clear, make plain, clarity, clear up ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.), throw light on ( ‫)٘و‬, to reveal, unveil,
disclose ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.), to dislodge, oust,
remove (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬or ٖ s.o. or s.th. from), to
shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.s. (ٝ‫ ـو‬in
s.th.); to be or become clear, evident,
manifest; to pull out, move out (ٓ‫ عو‬of a
place), go away, depart (ٓ‫ عو‬from‫ا‬a place),
leave, quit, evacuate (ٓ‫ عو‬a place); -- ٝ‫ؽٍو‬
jalā i to polish, burnish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to
reveal, disclose, bring to light (ٓ‫ عو‬or ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to show, represent (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
IV to remove, dislodge, oust, drive away
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to evacuate (ٖ s.o. from);
to move away, go away (ٓ‫ عو‬from a place),
leave (ٓ‫ عوو‬a place) V to become clear,
evident, manifest; to reveal itself, be
revealed, to appear, show, come to light,
come out, manifest itself, to be
manifested, be expressed, find expression
VII to be clean or cleaned, be polished, be
burnished, to be removed, be dislodged,
be ousted; to move away (ٓ‫ عوو‬from a
place), vacate, evacuate (ٓ‫ عو‬a place), to be
dispelled, vanish, go away, pass (crisis,
difficulty, etc.), to disappear, to reveal
itself, be revealed, be disclosed; to be
unveiled (bride), to become manifest,
manifest itself; to become clear or plain;
to clear up and reveal (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.), to lead,
come (ٓ‫ عو‬to), end (ٓ‫ عو‬in), to result (ٓ‫عو‬
in)│ٌ‫ِوو‬٤‫اعٕووٗاث‬ٝ‫ٕؾٍوو‬٠‫ ِووجا‬the outcome of the
matter, what will come of it VIII to reveal,
disclose (‫ ٘و ا‬s.th.), to regard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), look
at ( ‫ )٘و‬X to seek to clarify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), to
ٜٛ‫ ؽٍو‬jalwā unveiling (of the bride)│‫ٍوزا‬١ٌ
‫ر‬ٍٛ‫ ثٌؾ‬lailat al-j. wedding night
٩‫ ؽووو‬jalā’ clarification, elucidation;
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness;
departure, (e)migration (ٓ‫ عوووو‬from),
evacuation (ٓ‫ عوو‬of an area; mil.); ٩‫دؾوو‬
clearly, plainly
ْ‫وووووج‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬jalayān
apocalypse (Chr.)
vision,
revelation,
‫ ِؾوووجي‬majālin (pl. of ٝ‫ ِؾٍووو‬majlan)
manifestations
‫وز‬١ٍ‫ صؾ‬tajliya: ‫وز‬١٘٨‫وزاث‬١ٍ‫( صؾ‬ilāhīya) divine
revelation; theophany (Chr.)
ً‫ صؾوو‬tajallin revelation, manifestation;
Transfiguration (of Christ)│ٝ‫ووواثٌضؾٍوو‬١‫‘ ع‬īd
at-t. Transfiguration Day (Chr.)
٩‫ ثؽض‬ijtilā’ contemplation
٩‫ ثّضؾ‬istijlā’ clarification, elucidation
‫وز‬١ٌ‫ ؽج‬jāliya pl. -āt, ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawālin colony
(of foreigners); colony of emigrants
ٍٝ‫ ثٌّؾ‬al-mujallī the winner (in a race)
ً‫ا ِضؾوووو‬mutajallin
manifest, patent
obvious,
evident,
ٍْٛ‫ ؽ‬galōn pl. -āt gallon (eg.)
ٍْٛ‫ ِؾ‬mugalwan galvanized (eg.)
ٍٝ‫ ؽ‬jullā see 1ً‫ؽ‬
ٓ١‫ص‬ٛ١ٍ‫ ؽ‬gilyotīn guillotine (eg.)
1
َ‫ ػا‬abbreviation of ٌِٜٚ‫ٗا‬١ٕ‫ ؽ‬Egyptian pound
2
ُ‫ ؽو‬jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect
one‘s thoughts, concentrate; to rest II and
V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to gather;
to collect one‘s thoughts, concentrate; to
rest, relax, seek recreation (ٓ‫ا ِو‬from); to
be covered with luxuriant vegetation
(ground)
ُ‫ ؽو‬jamm abundant, plentiful; much, a
great deal of; many, numerous; manifold,
multiple; crowd, group of people│ٌ‫عو‬٤‫ؽوُاث‬
j. al-atar effective, efficacious; ‫ثفذوٗافذوجاؽّوج‬
(aḥabbahū ḥubban) to be more than fond
of; ‫ثةوواؽّوز‬ٛ‫ ـ‬numerous advantages, ample
benefits; ٌ١‫ ؽُاؼف‬large crowd, throng
َ‫ ؽّوج‬jamām rest, relaxation, recreation,
gathering of new strength
ُ‫ ِؾو‬majamm place where s.th. gathers or
flows together│ٗ‫ِْووووضؾّع‬ٚ‫ا‬ٞ‫ِؾووووُا٘وووويثاثٌووووٌأ‬
(mustajma‘uhū) what this opinion
amounts to
ُ١‫ صؾّوو‬tagmīm (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of
women)
ُ‫ثّوووووووضؾّجص‬
istijmām
collectedness;
concentration; attentiveness, attentive
reverence; rest, relaxation, recreation
ٍ‫ؽّذج‬, ٍٜ‫ ؽٕذج‬see ٍ‫ؽٕذج‬, ٍٜ‫ؽٕذج‬
ٌٜ‫( ؽّذوو‬from It. gambero) gambarī, ٌٜ‫ؽّوو‬
gammarī (eg.) shrimp (zool.)
2
ُ‫ ؽّؾو‬jamjama (‫ ؽّؾّووز‬jamjama), َ٩‫ؽّؾووُاثٌىوو‬
(kalāma) and II tajamjama to articulate
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.s.
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble
2
‫ ؽّؾّووز‬jumjuma pl. ُ‫ ؽّ وجؽ‬jamājim2 skull,
cranium
ّٝ‫ ؽّؾ‬jumjumī cranial
‫ ؽّوـ‬jamaḥa a (jamḥ, ‫ ؽّوجؿ‬jimāḥ, ‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽّو‬jumūḥ
to holt (horse); to he refractory, unruly,
recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her
husband, run away from home (wife)
2
‫ اؽّوو‬jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽّو‬jumūd)
to freeze; to congeal, harden, stiffen, be or
become hard or solid, solidify; to
coagulate, clot (blood); to be rigid,
inflexible (in one‘s thinking); to stagnate;
to be apathetic, indolent, dull, indifferent│‫ا‬
ٝ‫ ؽّووسأفْوٗاعٍو‬to be indifferent toward, put
up with, acquiesce in; ٖ‫وو‬٠‫( ؽّوسا‬yaduhū) to
be niggardly, tightfisted II to freeze, frost,
congeal ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to solidify, coagulate,
harden, stiffen ( ٘ s.th.); to curdle ( ٘ s.th.);
to freeze ( ‫ ٘و‬assets V to freeze, become
frozen, turn into ice, freeze up. become
icebound; to freeze to death; to congeal; to
solidify; to harden, set (e.g., cement); to
coagulate, clot (blood) VII to freeze up,
become icebound; to freeze, become
frozen, turn to ice
‫ ؽّوووووو‬jamd freezing; congelation,
solidification, coagulation│‫هًؽوووووزاثٌؾّوووووو‬
darajat al-j. freezing point
‫ ؽّو‬jamad ice
‫ ؽّ وجه‬jamād pl. -āt a solid; inorganic
body; mineral; inanimate body, inanimate
being; O neuter (gram.)
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽّو‬jumūd frozen state; solid, compact
state, compactness, solidity; rigor, rigidity,
stiffness; inorganic state; hardening,
induration;
hardness,
inflexibility;
deadlock, standstill; inertia, inaction,
inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity,
indifference
‫هر‬ّٛ‫ ؽ‬jumūda solidity, hardness
‫ووو‬١ّ‫ صؾ‬tajmīd solidification, hardening;
consolidation; reinforcement (of a
foundation)│‫ثي‬ٛ‫ِوووو‬٨‫ووووواث‬١ّ‫ صؾ‬t. al-amwāl
freezing of assets
‫صؾّوووووو‬
tajammud freezing;
frost;
congelation; solidification; coagulation
‫ ؽّوووجؿ‬jimāḥ recalcitrance, defiance;
willfulness
‫ ثٔؾّوجه‬injimād freezing up or over, icing
up; ice formation
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽّووو‬jumūḥ recalcitrance, defiance;
willfulness
‫ ؽجِوووو‬jāmid hard, solid; stiff; rigid;
motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.)
defective; dry. dull (book, and the like);
impervious to progress to innovation,
ossified, ultraconservative; pl. ‫ثِووووو‬ٛ‫ؽ‬
jawāmid2 inanimate things, inorganic
matter, minerals
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽّو‬jamūḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly,
ungovernable
‫ ؽوجِـ‬jāmiḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly;
indomitable, untamable
‫ ِضؾّووو‬mutajammid frozen, icy; stiff,
congealed; coagulated
‫ ِٕؾّوو‬munjamid frozen, icy, ice (adj.);
arctic│‫اثٌّٕؾّوووو‬٠١‫( ثٌّقوو‬muḥīṯ) the Arctic
Ocean
2
ٜ‫اؽّووجه‬jumādā name of the fifth and sixth
months of the Muslim year (ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ٨‫اث‬ٜ‫ ؽّوجه‬j.
al-ūlā Jumada I and ‫موٌر‬٢‫اث‬ٜ‫ ؽّجه‬j. al-āḳira
Jumada II)
ٌّ‫ ؽ‬II to roast ( ٘ meat) VIII to bum incense
‫ ؽٌّا‬jamr embers, live coal│‫اثفٌا‬ٍٝ‫اوجْاع‬
ٌ‫( ِوٓاؽّو‬aḥarra) to be on tenter-hooks; to
be in greatest suspense, be dying with
curiosity
‫ ؽّوٌر‬jamra (n. un. of ٌ‫ )ؽّوو‬live coal;
firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling
resentment; (pl. -āt) carbuncle (med.)│O
‫غز‬١‫ ثٌؾٌّراثٌنذ‬anthrax
ً‫ ؽّ وج‬jummār palm pith, palm core
(edible tuber growing at the upper end of
the palm trunk)
‫ ِؾّوووٌر‬mijmara pl. ٌِ‫ ِؾوووج‬majāmir2
brazier; censer
2
ٌّٜ‫ ؽ‬see ٌٜ‫ؽّذ‬
‫( ؽٌّن‬eg.) gumruk pl. ‫ ؽٌّن‬gamārik2 customs;
customhouse│‫ ًّووووُاثٌؾّووووٌن‬rasm al-g.
customs duty, tariff
ٝ‫ ؽٌّو و‬gumrukī customs, tariff (used
attributively)│ٝ‫( اثصقوووووجهاؽٌّوووووو‬ittih ād)
customs union
‫ ِؾٌّن‬mugamrak duty paid
َ‫و‬١ّ‫ ؽ‬jummaiz (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬sycamore (Ficus
sycomorus; bot.)
ُِٛ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
ٔ‫ ؽّو‬jamaša i u (jamš) to unhair ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to
make love, caress, pet
‫ ؽّوا‬jama‘a a (jam‗) to gather ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
collect ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., money); to unite, combine,
bring together (parts into a whole); to put
together. join ( ‫ ٘و‬things); to set, compose
( ‫ ٘و‬type; typ.); to compile ( ‫ ٘و‬a book); to
summarize. sum up ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) to rally,
round up (ُ‫ ٘و‬people); to pile up, amass
accumulate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to assemble (ُ‫٘وو‬
several persons); to convoke, convene,
call ( ‫ ٘و‬a meeting); to add ( ‫ ٘و‬numbers),
add up ( ‫ ٘و‬a column); (gram.) to make
plural, pluralize ( ‫ ٘و‬a word); to unite, link,
bring together (ٓ١‫ دووو‬several things or
persons); to combine (ٚ‫ٓا–ا‬١‫ دوو‬e.g., both
strength and courage); to contain, hold,
comprise ( ‫ ٘وووو‬s.th.)│ ٟ‫ووووٌثؾاثٌٖوووو‬ٟ‫ؽّووووااث‬
(aṯrāfa) to summarize, sum up s.th.; to
give a survey of s.th.; ‫وجا‬ٙ‫ٌثـ‬ٟ‫ؽّااثٌذٌثعزاِوٓاث‬
(barā‘ata) to be very efficient, do an
excellent job, do superlatively good work;
‫وا‬١ ‫( ؽّواإوًّاثٌم‬šamla l-q.) to round up the
herd; ‫ج‬ٙ‫فقجص‬ٙ‫ٓا‬١‫ؾّااثٌىضجحاد‬٠ (ṣafaḥātihā) the
book contains, lists …; ‫س‬ٛ‫و‬١‫اد‬ٝ‫وشاعٍو‬١‫ؾّوااد‬٠
(yujma‘u) the plural of bait is buyūt II to
pile up, amass, accumulate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
rally, round up ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th., ُ‫ ٘وو‬s.o.); to
assemble ( ‫ ٘و‬the parts of a 134 machine)
III to have sexual intercourse (‫ ٘وج‬with a
woman) IV to agree (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on s.th., to do
s.th.); to be agreed (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on); to decide
unanimously (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on), resolve (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do
s.th.)│ٌُِ٘‫ثاث‬ٛ‫( ثؽّع‬amrahum) they came to
terms, they made a joint decision V to
gather; to assemble, congregate; to rally,
band together, flock together (people); to
pile up; to accumulate; to gather into a
mass, agglomerate; to cluster; to coagulate
VIII to be close together; to come
together, meet, join; to unite, combine (‫ح‬
with); to assemble, meet, convene (an
organization, a committee, etc.); to be or
get together, have a ‫ا‬meeting, interview or
conference, hold talks (‫ح‬, ‫ ِوا‬with s.o.),
meet (‫ح‬, ‫ ِوا‬s.o.; to concur (ٝ‫ عٍو‬in), agree,
be agreed (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on s.th.) X to gather,
collect ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; also ٖ‫ث‬ٛ‫ لوو‬quwāhu one‘s
strength, ًٖ‫ ثـىوج‬afkārahū one‘s thoughts);
to summarize, sum up ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
possess, combine ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽّوووووا‬jam’ gathering; collection;
combination;
connection,
coupling,
joining; accumulation; (arith.) addition;
union, merger, aggregation, integration
(ٓ١‫ دو‬of) holding together (ٓ١‫ دو‬of divergent,
separate things); (pl.
ٛ‫ ؽّوووو‬jumū‗)
gathering, crowd, throng; gang, troop;
(gram.) plural│ًّ‫ اؽّااثٌٖو‬j. aš-šaml union,
integration; ٌ١‫ ؽّوووااثٌضىْووو‬the broken (=
internal) plural, ٌُ‫ ثٌؾّوااثٌْوج‬the regular (=
external) plural; ‫ ثّووووُاثٌؾّوووا‬ism al-j.
collective noun (gram.); ‫وو‬١ٌ‫ ؽّوااث‬j. al-yad
fist
‫ ؽّا‬jum‗, ‫ ؽّااثٌىؿ‬j. al-kaff, ‫وو‬١ٌ‫ ؽّااث‬j. alyad fist, clenched hand│ٗ‫وو‬٠‫و‬٠‫ ادؾّوواا‬with
clenched fists
‫ ؽّع وز‬jum‗a pl. ‫ ؽّووا‬juma‘, -āt week;
Friday│‫َاثٌؾّعوز‬ٛ‫و‬٠‫ ا‬yaum al-j. Friday; ‫ؽّعوزا‬
َ٨٢‫ ث‬Passion Week; ‫ّوز‬١‫ ثٌؾّعوزاثٌعر‬and ‫َا‬ٛ‫و‬٠
‫ٕز‬٠َ‫ا ثٌؾّعزاثٌق‬Good Friday (Chr.)
‫وزا‬١‫ ؽّع‬jam‘iya pl. -āt club, association,
society; corporation, organization; 135
assembly│ُ‫ِو‬٤‫زاث‬١‫ ؽّع‬j. al-umam League of
Nations; ‫ووز‬٠ٌ١‫ووزام‬١‫( ؽّع‬ḳairīya) charitable
organization; ‫ّوووعجؾ‬٨‫وووزاث‬١‫ ؽّع‬j. al-is‘āf
approx.: civil ambulance service; ‫ووز‬١‫ؽّع‬
(tašrī‘īya) legislative assembly; ‫وووزا‬١‫ؽّع‬
‫وز‬١ِّٛ‫‗ ع‬umūmīya) and ‫وزاعجِوز‬١‫‗( ؽّع‬āmma)
general assembly; general meeting;
plenum, plenary session; ‫وووز‬١ٔٚ‫وووزاصعج‬١‫ؽّع‬
(ta‘āwunīya) cooperative
‫ وا‬١ّ‫ ؽ‬jamī‘ (with foll. genitive) total;
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ُ‫وااثٌٕوج‬١ّ‫ؽ‬
all men, all mankind; ‫وا‬١ّ‫ ثٌؾ‬all people,
everybody; the public at large; ‫عوووج‬١ّ‫ؽ‬
jamī‘an in a body, altogether, one and all,
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally
2
2
‫ ؽّوا‬ajma‘ pl. -ūn, f. ‫ ؽّعوج‬jam‘ā‘ , pl.
‫ ؽّا‬juma‗2 entire, whole, all`│‫ا‬ِٝ٩ّ٨‫ثٌعجٌُاث‬
‫( ثؽّا‬ajma‘a) the entire Islamic world; ‫ثٌوثًا‬
‫( ؽّعوج‬jam‘ā’a) the whole house; ٗ‫ دجؽّعو‬biajma‘ihī in its entirety, to its full extent,
completely, altogether; ُٙ‫ثادوجؽّع‬ٚ ‫ ؽوج‬all of
them came
‫ ؽّوووج‬jummā‗ aggregate; total, total
amount
O ٝ‫ٌدوووجة‬ٙ‫ؽّوووج او‬
storage battery
jammā‘ kahrabā‘ī;
‫ ؽّجعوز‬jamā‘a pl. -āt group (of people);
band, gang, party, troop; community;
squad (military unit; Eg. 1939)│‫اؽّجعوجسا‬
‫ثـوٌثهث‬ٚ jamā‘ātin wa-afrādan in groups and
individually
ٝ‫ ؽّوجع‬jamā‘ī collective (as opposed to
ٜ‫ ـٌه‬fardī individual)
‫ ِؾّوا‬majma‘ pl. ‫ ِؾوجِا‬majāmi‗2 place
where two or more things meet, place or
point of union, junction; meeting,
congregation, convention, assembly; (also
ٝ‫ ِؾّوااعٍّو‬m. ‘ilmī) academy (scientific);
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries);
synod│ٜ‫( ِؾّاادٍوو‬baladī) provincial synod
(Chr.); ٝ‫ٌوو‬١ٍ‫( ِؾّااثو‬iklīrīkī) clerical synod
(of the Coptic Church); ‫ح‬ٛ‫ ثمويادّؾوجِااثٌمٍو‬to
win or captivate the hearts; 135 ٗ‫و‬١ٕ١‫دّؾجِااع‬
bi-m. ‘ainaihi (to look at s.o.) with
complete concentration, intently
‫ا‬ٝ‫ ِؾّعووو‬majma‘ī
academician
academy member,
ٟ‫ اصؾّو‬tajmī‗ assembly, assemblage (of
the parts of machinery)
‫ ؽّوووج‬jimā‗ sexual intercourse; s.th.
comprising or involving another thing or a
number of things│ُ‫ع‬٨‫اثٌنٌّاؽّج اث‬al-ḳamr j.
al-itm wine involves sin, wine
‫ ثؽّوج‬ijmā‗ agreement, unanimity (also
ٞ‫ ;)ثؽّوج اثٌوٌأ‬unanimous resolution (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to
do s.th.); (Isl. Law) consensus (of the
authorities in a legal question; one of the
four uṣūl of Islamic Law)│ ‫ؽّوووج‬٨‫ادج‬
unanimously ‫ا‬
ٝ‫ ثؽّووووجع‬ijmā‘ī based on general
agreement,
unanimous;
collective,
universal
‫ صؾّوا‬tajammu‗ pl. -āt coming together,
meeting; gathering; troop concentration;
crowd, throng, mob; agglomeration; O
agglutination (chem.-med.)
‫ ثؽضّووج‬ijtimā‗ pl. -āt meeting (‫ ح‬with
s.o.; of a corporate body; of parliament);
get-together,
gathering,
assembly;
reunion; rally; convention; conjunction,
constellation (astron.); confluence (of
rivers); life in a social group, community
life, social life;
‫ؽضّوووووج‬٨‫ ث‬human
society│‫ ثؽضّووووج اثٌ ووووٌق‬ijtimā‘ aṯ-ṯuruq
crossroads, intersection, junction; ‫عٍوووُا‬
‫ؽضّوج‬٨‫‘ ث‬ilm al-ijt. sociology; ‫ؽضّوج‬٨‫عٍّوج اث‬
sociologists
ٝ‫ ثؽضّوجع‬ijtimā‘ī community, group (used
attributively);
social;
socialist(ic);
sociological│‫ووووووووووووووز‬١‫ؽضّجع‬٨‫ْاث‬ٚ‫ٍثًراثٌٖووووووووووووووؤ‬ٚ
ministry for social affairs; ‫وز‬١‫ؽضّجع‬٨‫ثٌقجٌوزاث‬
personal status; ‫ووز‬١‫ؽضّجع‬٨‫( ثٌنوِووزاث‬ḳidma)
social service, social work; ‫ز‬١‫ؽضّجع‬٨‫ثراث‬ٚ‫ثٌّْج‬
(musāwāh) social equality; ‫وز‬١‫ؽضّجع‬٨‫توزاث‬١ٌٙ‫ث‬
(hai’a) human society
‫ز‬١‫ ثؽضّجع‬ijtimā‘īya socialism
‫ ؽ وجِا‬jāmi‘ comprehensive, extensive,
broad, general, universal; collector;
compiler (of a book); compositor,
typesetter; (pl. ‫ثِوا‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāmi‗2) mosque│‫ا‬
‫( ِْوؾواؽوجِا‬masjid) great, central mosque
where the public prayer is performed on
Fridays
‫ ؽجِعووزا‬jāmi‘a pl. -āt league, union,
association;
community;
federation;
religious
community,
communion;
commonness, community of interests or
purpose; university│O ‫ٌدوج‬ٙ‫ ؽجِعوزاثٌى‬j. alkahrabā’ storage battery, accumulator;
ُ‫ِو‬٨‫ ؽجِعوزاث‬j. al-umam League of Nations;
‫ز‬١ِ٩‫ّوو‬٨‫( ثٌؾجِع وزاث‬islāmīya) Pan-Islamism;
‫ووز‬١‫‗( ثٌؾجِعووزاثٌعٌد‬arabīya) and ‫يا‬ٚ‫ؽجِعووزاثٌووو‬
‫ز‬١‫( ثٌعٌد‬duwal) the Arab League; ‫ز‬١‫ؽجِعوزإوعذ‬
(ša‘bīya) university extension, adult
education courses, evening courses
ٝ‫ا ؽوووجِع‬jāmi‘ī academic, collegiate,
university (adj.); university graduate
ٛ‫ ِؾّووو‬majmū‗ collected, gathered;
totality, whole; total, sum (arith.)│‫ؾا‬ٌٚ‫اثٌق‬
‫عز‬ّٛ‫ ثٌّؾ‬matter (typ.); ٌ‫اثٌم و‬ٝٝ‫ اثًث‬ّٛ‫ ِؾ‬m.
arāḍī l-quṯr the total area of the country;
ٌٟٗٛ‫ ا‬ّٛ‫ ِؾ‬m. ṯūlihī its total length; ‫ ا‬ّٛ‫ثٌّؾ‬
ٟ‫ذ‬ٚ‫‗( ثٌع‬aṣabī) the nervous system
‫عوز‬ّٛ‫ا ِؾ‬majmū‘a pl. -āt, ‫ا‬١ِ‫ ِؾوج‬majāmī‘2
collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps,
etc., also of stories); compilation, list;
group {also, e.g., of trees, of islands, etc.);
series (e.g., of articles in a newspaper; O
battery (el.); alliance, league, bloc (e.g., of
states);
collective,
collectivistic
organization; aggregate; complex, block
(of
buildings);
system;
bulletin,
periodical│‫ز‬١‫عوزاثٌّْٖو‬ّٛ‫( اثٌّؾ‬šamāīya) the
solar system; ‫ز‬١‫وووٕجع‬ٙ‫عوووزا‬ّٛ‫( ِؾ‬ṣinā‗īya)
syndicate
‫ ِؾّووا‬mujammi‗ collector (techn.); O
storage battery, accumulator
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ ِؾّوااع‬mujma‘ ‘alaihi (that which is)
agreed upon, unanimous
‫ ِؾضّوا‬mujtama‘ pl. -āt gathering place,
place of assembly; meeting place,
rendezvous; assembly, gathering, meeting;
society; human society; community,
commune, collective
‫ز‬١‫ز = ؽّى‬١‫ ؽجِى‬look up alphabetically
1
ً‫ اؽّو‬jamala u (jaml) to sum up, summarize
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- jamula u (‫ ؽّوجي‬jamāl) to be
beautiful; to be handsome, pretty, comely,
graceful; to be proper, suitable,
appropriate (‫ ح‬for s.o.), befit (‫ ح‬s.o.) II to
make beautiful, beautify, embellish, adorn
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) III to be polite, courteous,
amiable (. to 8.0.) IV to sum, total, add ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to treat as a whole, mention
collectively ( ‫ ٘وووو‬s.th.); to sum up,
summarize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to act well, decently,
be nice V to make o.s. pretty, adorn o.s.
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one
another
‫ ؽٍّوز‬jumla pl. ً‫ ؽّو‬jumal totality, sum,
whole; group, troop, body; crowd;
wholesale; (gram.) sentence, clause; ‫ؽٍّوز‬
jumlatan completely, wholly, on the
whole, altogether, in general, at all│‫اؽٍّوزا‬
‫ثفوور‬ٚ jumlatan wāḥidatan all at once, at
one swoop; ‫ ؽٍّوووزاثٌىجةٕوووجس‬everything in
existence; ٗ‫وقجد‬ٙ‫ وجْآِاؽٍّوزاث‬he was one of
his companions, he belonged to his
companions; ‫اؽٍّووزاِووجالجٌووٗا‬ٝ‫( لووجياـوو‬jumlati)
among other things, he said ... ; ‫يا‬ٛ‫ؽٍّوزاثٌمو‬ٚ
ْ‫ ث‬wa-jumlatu l-qauli anna or ْ‫ٌِاث‬٨‫ؽٍّزاث‬ٚ ‫ا‬
in short ... , to sum up …, briefly stated ...
; ‫اثٌؾٍّووز‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬in short, in a word; ‫دجٌؾٍّووز‬
wholly, on the whole, altogether, in
general, at all; by wholesale (com.); ‫ؽٍّوزا‬
‫ؽوووٌراثٌّْوووضقمز‬٨‫ ث‬j. al-ujra al-mustaḥiqqa
gross wage; ‫صوووجؽٌاثٌؾٍّوووز‬
wholesaler,
wholesale dealer; 41.J:1 ~ sr,. al·j. wholesale price; ‫ز‬١ّ‫( ؽٍّووزاثّوو‬ismīya) nominal
clause; ‫ز‬١ٍ‫( ؽٍّزاـع‬fi‘līya) verbal clause; ‫ؽٍّزا‬
‫وز‬٠ً‫( ثمذج‬iḳbārīya) or ‫وز‬٠ٌ‫( ؽٍّوزامذ‬ḳabarīya)
declarative sentence (or clause); ‫ز‬١‫ؽٍّزاثٖٔوجة‬
(inšā’īya) exclamatory sentence; ‫وز‬١ٌ‫ؽٍّوزافج‬
(ḥālīya) circumstantial clause; ‫ااؽٍّوووزا‬
ٌٟٟ‫(ٕوو‬šarṯīya) conditional clause; ‫ؽٍّووزا‬
‫ز‬ٌٝ‫( ِعض‬mu‘tariḍa) parenthetical clause
ً‫ فْوجحاثٌؾّو‬ḥisāb al-jummal (or jumal)
use of the letters of the alphabet according
to their numerical value
‫ ؽّجي‬jamāl beauty│O ‫‘ عٍوُاثٌؾّوجي‬ilm al-j.
aesthetics
ً‫ و‬١ّ‫ ؽ‬jamīl beautiful, graceful, lovely,
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act,
favor, service, good turn; courtesy│‫ثعضٌثؾا‬
ً١ّ‫دجٌؾ‬, ً‫و‬١ّ‫ ِعٌـزاثٌؾ‬ma‘rifat al-j. and ‫عٌـوجْا‬
ً‫ووووو‬١ّ‫‗( دجٌؾ‬irfān) gratitude; ‫أىوووووٌثْا‬
ً‫ و‬١ّ‫ثٌؾ‬nukrān al-j. ingratitude; ً‫ و‬١ّ‫ٔووجوٌاثٌؾ‬
ungrateful; ٩١ّ‫( فف اٌٗاؽ‬ḥafiẓa) to keep s.o.
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. with
gratitude
ًّ‫ ثؽ‬ajmal2 more beautiful
ً‫وووووووووو‬١ّ‫صؾ‬
tajmīl
embellishment; cosmetics
beautification,
‫ ِؾجٍِوز‬mujāmala pl. -āt (act of) courtesy;
civility, amiability; flattery; ‫ِؾجٍِوووووز‬
mujāmalatan amicably, in a friendly way│‫ا‬
‫وجًراِؾجٍِوز‬٠ٍ ziyārat m. courtesy call; ‫ثعووا‬ٛ‫ل‬
‫س‬٩ِ‫ ثٌّؾج‬etiquette
‫ ثؽّ وجي‬ijmāl summation, summing up;
summarization; ٨‫ ثؽّوووج‬ijmālan on the
whole, in general, generally speaking, as a
general principle│‫ي‬ٛ‫اٌوويٌهاثلوو‬٨‫ اثؽّ وج‬to sum
up, I (would) say ... ; ٗ‫اثؽّجٌ و‬ٝ‫ ـوو‬in its
entirety, as a whole; ‫ؽّجي‬٨‫ دج‬and ‫ؽّوجي‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
in general, on the whole, altogether; ‫ؽوٗا‬ٛ‫د‬
‫ؽّجي‬٨‫ ث‬bi-wajhi l-i. = ٨‫ثؽّج‬
ٌٝ‫ ثؽّوج‬ijmālī comprehensive, summary,
general, over-all, total, collective│‫ووٌا‬٠ٌ‫صم‬
ٌٝ‫ ثؽّووووج‬over-all report; ‫ووووز‬١ٌ‫ؼٌثِووووزاثؽّج‬
(garāma) collective penalty; ‫ووز‬١ٌ‫ٔرووٌراثؽّج‬
(naẓra) general view
ً‫ ِؾّوووو‬mujmil
wholesale dealer
2
pl.
-ūn
wholesaler,
ٌ‫وو‬ّٙ‫ا صؾ‬tajamhur gathering (of people;
crowd
ٓ‫ ؽو‬janna u (jann, ْٛ‫ ؽٕو‬junūn) to cover, hide,
conceal, veil ( ‫٘و‬, ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to descend,
fall, be or become dark (night); pass.
junna: to be or become possessed, insane,
mad, crazy│ٗ‫ٔوو‬ٕٛ‫( اؽووٓاؽ‬junūnuhū) to get
madly excited, become frantic II to craze,
make crazy, drive insane, madden, enrage,
infuriate (ٖ s.o.) IV to cover, veil, hide,
conceal ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); = II; V to go mad,
become crazy X to be covered, veiled,
concealed; to regard (ٖ s.o.) as crazy, think
(ٖ s.o.) mad
ٓ‫( ؽ‬coll.) jinn, demons (invisible beings,
either harmful or helpful, that interfere
with the lives of mortals)
ٕٝ‫ ؽ‬jinnī demonic; jinni, demon
‫ز‬١ٕ‫ ؽ‬jinnīya female demon
‫ ؽٕووز‬janna pl. -at, ْ‫ ؽٕووج‬jinān garden;
paradise│ُ١‫ اؽٕ وجساثٌٕعوو‬paradise; ْ‫ّووجوٓاثٌؾٕووج‬
inhabitant of paradise, deceased person,
one of blessed memory
ً‫ ِؾّووووو‬mujmal summary, resume,
synopsis, compendium; general concept;
sum, total│ًّ‫ دجٌّؾ‬by wholesale
‫ٕوزا‬١ٕ‫ ؽ‬junaina pl. -āt, ٓ‫ ؽٕوجة‬janā’in2 little
garden; garden
ً‫ اؽّوو‬jamal pl. ‫ ؽّووجي‬jimāl, ‫ ثؽّوووجي‬ajmāl
camel│‫ه‬ٛٙ١ٌ‫ ؽًّاث‬j. a1-yahūd chameleon
‫ ؽٕوز‬jinna possession, obsession; mania,
madness, insanity
‫ ؽّجي‬jammāl pl. -ūn camel driver
ْ‫ ؽّج‬jumān (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pearls
ٌ‫وو‬ّٙ‫ ؽ‬jamhara to gather, collect (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
s.o.);‫ا‬to assemble (ٖ s.o.) II tajamhara to
gather, flock together (crowd)
‫ٌر‬ّٙ‫ ؽ‬jamhara multitude, crowd, throng;
the great mass, the populace
ًٛ‫ووو‬ّٙ‫ ؽ‬jumhūr pl. ٌ١٘‫ ؽّوووج‬jamāhīr2
multitude; crowd, throng; general public,
public; ٌ١٘‫ ثٌؾّج‬the masses, the people
ٌّٜٙ‫ ؽ‬iumhllri republican (adj. and n‫ة‬.
‫ووووووووز‬٠ًّٛٙ‫ؽ‬
jumhūriya
pl.
-āt
republic│‫ووزاثٌّضقووور‬١‫ووزاثٌعٌد‬٠ًّٛٙ‫‗( ثٌؾ‬arabīya,
muttaḥida) the United Arab Republic;
‫وووز‬١ٔ‫ٌّج‬٨‫وووزاث‬٠‫صقجه‬٨‫وووزاث‬٠ًّٛٙ‫( ثٌؾ‬ittiḥādīya) the
Federal Republic of Germany; ‫ووزا‬٠ًّٛٙ‫ثٌؾ‬
‫وووووز‬١ٔ‫ٌّج‬٨‫وووووزاث‬١ٟ‫لٌث‬ّٛ٠‫( ثٌو‬dīmūqrāṯīya) the
German Democratic Republic
ٕٝ‫ ؽٕجة‬janā’inī gardener
‫ ؽٕووزا‬junna pl. ٕٓ‫ ؽ و‬junan protection,
shelter, shield
ْ‫ ؽٕج‬janān pl. ْ‫ ثؽٕج‬ajnān heart, soul
ْ‫ ؽٕج‬jannān gardener
ٓ١‫ ؽٕو‬janīn pl. ‫ ثؽٕوزا‬ajinna, ‫ْا‬ٛ‫ ثؽٕو‬ajnūn
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.)
ْٛ‫ ؽٕوووو‬junūn possession, obsession;
mania, madness, insanity, dementia;
foolishness, folly; frenzy, rage, fury;
ecstasy, rapture│ْٛ‫ْاـٕوو‬ٛ‫ ثٌؾٕوو‬al-j. funūn
madness has many varieties, manifests
itself in many ways
ٟٔٛ‫ ؽٕو‬junūnī crazy, insane, mad; frantic,
frenzied
ٓ‫ ِؾ‬mijann pl. ْ‫ ِؾج‬majānn2 shield
‫ ِؾٕز‬majanna madness, insanity
ْ‫ ؽج‬jānn jinn, demons
ْٛ‫ ِؾٕووو‬majnūn pl. ٓ١ٔ‫ ِؾوووج‬majānīn2
possessed, obsessed; insane, mad;
madman, maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked;
crackpot; foolish; fool
‫ ؽٕوخ‬janaba u to avert, ward off ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬from s.o.
s.th.) II to keep away, avert, ward off ( ٘ ٖ ‫ا‬
from s.o. s.th.), keep s.o. (ٖ) out of the way
of ( ‫)٘و‬, spare ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬s.o. s.th.) III to be or
walk by s.o.‘s (ٖ) side; to run alongside of
( ‫)٘و‬, run parallel to ( ‫)٘و‬, skirt, flank ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to avoid ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to avoid ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., ٖ s.o.); to keep away ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ from),
steer clear, get out of the way ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ ‫ا‬of) VI
and VIII = V; VIII to be at the side of ( ‫)٘و‬,
run side by side with ( ‫)٘و‬, run alongside of
( ٘), skirt, flank ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ ؽٕوخ‬janb pl. ‫ح‬ٛ‫ ؽٕو‬junūb, ‫ ثؽٕوجح‬ajnāb
side; janba (prep.) beside, next to, near,
at│‫اؽٕخ‬ٌٝ‫( ؽٕذجاث‬also ‫ )ؽٕذوجاٌؾٕوخ‬side by side;
ٗ١‫ٓاؽٕذ‬١‫( د‬janbaihi) inside (it), within; ‫ٓا‬١‫ِجادو‬
ٗ‫وو‬١‫( ؽٕذ‬baina janbaihi) what it contains,
comprises, its contents; ‫اؽٕووخ‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬aside,
apart; ‫ ىثساثٌؾٕخ‬pleurisy
‫ ؽٕذووز‬janba pl. janabāt side; region,
area│ٗ‫اؽٕذجصو‬ٝ‫ اـو‬in it, within, wide; ‫ٓا‬١‫وّٗادو‬ٝ
ٗ‫( ؽٕذجصووو‬ḍammahū) to comprise, hold,
contain s.th.; ‫ ؽٕذ وجساثٌؽٌـووز‬j. al-gurfa the
whole room; ‫ٓاؽٕذوجساثٌؽٌـوز‬١‫ دو‬in (the middle
of) the room; ‫ ٍثمٌاثٌؾٕذجس‬crammed, chockfull, brimful, filled to overflowing or
bursting
ٝ‫ ؽٕذ‬janbī lateral, side (adj.)
‫ ؽٕووخ‬junub in a state of major ritual
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not a
kinsman│‫اثٌؾووووجًاثٌؾٕووووخ‬the neighbor not
belonging to the family
‫ ؽٕووجح‬jināb (title of respect) approx.:
Right Honorable; ُ‫ ؽٕوجدى‬Your Honor; you
(polite form)
‫ ؽٕجدوز‬janāba major ritual impurity (Isl.
Law)
‫ ؽٕجح‬junāb (= ‫ )ىثساثٌؾٕخ‬pleurisy
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ؽٕووو‬janūb south; ‫دوووج‬ٕٛ‫ ؽ‬janūban
southward, to the south
‫ح‬ٕٛ‫ ؽ‬janūbī southern│‫ج‬١‫م‬٠ٌ‫اثـ‬ٝ‫د‬ٕٛ‫ اؽ‬South
Africa
‫ ؽٕخ‬jānib pl. ‫ثٔوخ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawānib2 side; lateral
portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face
(geom.); part, portion, partial amount;
partial view, section (ِٓ of a scene, picture
or panorama); quantity, amount; a certain
number (ٓ‫ ِو‬of), a few, some│ٗ‫ اِوٓاؽجٔذو‬on
his part; ٌ‫ ِوٓاؽجٔوخا–اِوٓاؽجٔوخاآمو‬on the one
hand -- on the other hand; ٗ‫اؽجٔذو‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to him,
to his address; at his (its) side, next to him
(it); ٗ‫ دؾجٔذو‬beside him (it), next to him (it);
‫اؽجٔوخ‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬and ‫ دؾجٔوخ‬side by side with; in
addition to; apart from, aside from; ‫وعٗا‬ٝٚ
‫ ؽجٔذوج‬to put s.th. aside; ‫هعوٗاؽجٔذوج‬ٚ to leave
s.th. aside, omit s.th.; ‫اؽجٔوووخ‬ٝ‫ ـووو‬in
comparison with, as compared with, as
against; regarding, with regard to; ‫ٓا‬١‫ِوجادو‬
ُٙ‫ثٔذ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬their hearts; ُ‫ ؽجٔذجاثٌف‬jānibā l-fam the
comers of the mouth; ٓ‫ ؽجٔووووخاِوووو‬a
considerable, or certain, degree of; a
considerable amount of, a good deal of;
ٓ‫وٌاِو‬١‫ ؽجٔوخاوذ‬a great deal of, a large portion
of; ٓ‫وٌاِو‬١‫اؽجٔوخاوذ‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬he is very …; ‫ا‬ٝ‫ووجْاعٍو‬
ٌَ‫ُاِووٓاثٌىوو‬١‫( ؽجٔووخاعروو‬karam) to be very
generous; ‫وووووز‬١ّ٘٨‫ُاِوووووٓاث‬١‫اؽجٔوووووخاعرووووو‬ٝ‫عٍووووو‬
(ahammīya) of great importance; ‫اثعروُا‬ٍٝ‫ع‬
‫ًر‬ٛ‫‘ ؽجٔخآِاثٌن و‬alā a‘ẓami jānibin min alkuṯūra of utmost importance, of greatest
significance; ‫اوًاؽجٔوخ‬ٝ‫ ـ‬everywhere, on all
sides; ٗ‫اٌوٗاؽجٔذو‬ٜ‫( مفو‬ḳafaḍa, jānibahū) to
show o.s. condescending, affable or
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair terms;
ٗ‫ ثِوٓاؽجٔذو‬amina jānibahū to be safe from
s.o.; َ‫( ٌوُاثعوٌٖاؽجٔوخاث٘ضّوج‬u‘irhu) I paid not
the least attention to him; ‫مجؾايً٘وخىا٘وجحةا‬
ٗ‫( ؽجٔذو‬jānibahū) to fear s.o., be afraid of
s.o.; ‫ ٍِهاثٌؾجٔخ‬milk al-j. crown lands; ‫ؽجٔوخا‬
ٌٞ‫وو‬١ٌّ‫ ث‬j. al-mīrī (eg.) fisc, treasury; ‫ٓا‬١‫ٌوو‬
‫ ثٌؾجٔوخ‬layyin al-j. gentle; docile, tractable,
compliant; ‫ٓاثٌؾجٔووخ‬١‫ ٌوو‬līn al-j. gentleness;
‫ثٔووخ‬ٛ‫ ًفووخاثٌؾ‬raḥb al-j. roomy; spacious,
unconfined; ‫وكاثٌؾجٔوخ‬١‫ ًل‬friendly, amiable,
gentle; ‫حاثٌؾجٔوخ‬ٛ‫ ٌِ٘و‬feared, dreaded; ‫وَا‬٠َ‫ع‬
‫ ثٌؾجٔوخ‬powerful, mighty, strong; ‫عوَراثٌؾجٔوخ‬
‘izzat al-j. power; ‫وخاثٌؾجٔوخ‬١ِٙ mahīb al-j.
dreaded, respected; ً‫ثٔوخاثٌووث‬ٛ‫اؽ‬ٝ‫ ـ‬about the
house, all over the house; often ٗ‫ثٔذو‬ٛ‫اؽ‬ٝ‫= ـو‬
ٗ١‫ـ‬
ٝ‫ ؽوووجٔذ‬jānibī lateral, side, by- (in
compounds)
ٟ‫ ثؽٕذ‬ajnabī foreign, alien; (pl. -ūn, ‫ثؽجٔوخ‬
ajānib2 foreigner, alien│‫ووز‬١‫ؽٕذ‬٤‫هاث‬٩‫ ثٌووذ‬the
foreign countries, the outside world; ‫ـٌلوزا‬
‫ؽجٔخ‬٨‫ ث‬firqat al-ajānib the Foreign Legion
‫ووز‬١‫ ؽٕجد‬gannābīya pl. –āt (eg.) curb;
embankment, levee; side channel, lateral
‫ ؽجٔـ‬jāniḥ side, flank, wing
(following a road or railroad tracks);
bypass (of a lock or sluice)
‫ ؽجٔقوز‬jāniḥa pl. ‫ثٔـ‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawāniḥ2 rib; pl.
also bosom, heart, soul│ٟ‫ثٔق‬ٛ‫ٓاؽو‬١‫ دو‬in my
bosom, at heart; ‫وج‬ٙ‫ثٔق‬ٛ‫فوٌساؽ‬ٟ (ṭafarat) she
became happily excited, she trembled with
joy
‫ صؾٕخ‬tajannub avoidance
‫ ثؽضٕجح‬ijtināb avoidance
‫ا ِؾٕذووز‬mujanniba flank, wing (of an
army
ٌٞ‫ ؽٕذ‬see ٌٞ‫اؽّذ‬
ٍ‫ ؽٕذووج‬junbāz, ٍ‫ ؽّذووج‬calisthenics; gymnastics;
athletics
ٍٞ‫ ؽٕذووج‬junbāzī (ٍٞ‫ )ؽّذووج‬calisthenic(al),
gymnastic│‫وووووز‬٠ٍ‫ٌعوووووجحاثٌؾّذج‬٨‫ اث‬gymnastic
exercises, physical exercises
‫ ِؾٕـا‬mujannaḥ winged
‫ ؽٕوو‬II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (ٖ s.o.;
mil.); to mobilize ( ‫ ٘و‬an army, ٝ‫ عٍو‬against)
V to be drafted, be conscripted, be
enlisted (for military service)
‫ ؽٕوو‬jund m. and f., pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽٕو‬junūd, ‫ثؽٕوجه‬
ajnād soldiers; army│ٗ٩‫ ؽٕووواثٌنوو‬j. alḳalāṣ Salvation Army
‫ ؽووٕـا‬janaḥa a (‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽٕ و‬junūḥ) to incline, be
inclined, tend (‫ ي‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬to); to lean (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫ثٌو‬
to or toward); to turn, go over (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), join
(ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬s.th.), associate o.s. (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬with); to
strand (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬on a coast; ship); to
diverge, deviate, depart (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to turn
away (ٓ‫ عوو‬from), break (ٓ‫ عوو‬with) II to
provide ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) with wings, lend wings
( ‫ ٘و‬to s.th.) IV to incline, be inclined, tend
(‫ ي‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬to); to lean (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to or toward);
to turn (‫ ي‬or ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.th.); to strand (ship)
ٜ‫ ؽٕوووو‬jundī pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽٕووو‬junūd soldier,
private│‫ي‬ٚ‫اث‬ٜ‫( اؽٕوووو‬awwal) private first
class (Ir., Syr.); ‫اِْووضؾو‬ٜ‫( ؽٕووو‬mustajidd)
recruits (Ir., Syr.); ‫ي‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٙ‫اثٌّؾ‬ٞ‫ ثٌؾٕوووو‬the
Unknown Soldier
‫وز‬٠‫ ؽٕو‬jundīya military affairs, the army,
the military; military service
‫وووو‬١ٕ‫ صؾ‬tajnīd draft, enlistment (mil.)
recruitment; mobilization│ًٞ‫ؽذوووج‬٨‫وووواث‬١ٕ‫ثٌضؾ‬
(ijbārī) military conscription
‫ ؽٕـ‬jinḥ side
‫ ؽوٕـ‬junḥ, jinḥ darkness gloom│‫اؽوٕـا‬ٝ‫ـو‬
ً‫و‬١ٌٍ‫( ث‬j. il-lail) in the dark of night, under
cover of night; ٌٜ‫اثٌىو‬ٟ‫ٓاؽٕقو‬١‫( دو‬junḥay ilkarā) lit.: between the two halves of
slumber, i.e., at night when everyone‘s
asleep
‫ ؽٕقوزا‬junḥa pl. ‫ ؽوٕـ‬junaḥ misdemeanor
(jur., less than a felony, ‫وز‬٠‫ؽٕج‬, and more
than an infraction, ‫)ِنجٌفز‬
‫ ؽٕوجؿ‬janāḥ pl. ‫ ثؽٕقوز‬ajniḥa, ‫ ثؽوٕـ‬ajnuḥ
wing (of a bird. of an airplane, of a
building, of an army); side; flank│‫ا‬ٝ‫اثٔوجاـو‬
ٗ‫ا ؽٕجفو‬I am under his protection; ‫اؽٕوجؿا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ٌ‫و‬١‫ع‬٨‫ ث‬over the ether, by radio; ‫اؽٕووجؿا‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
‫( ثٌٌْعز‬j. is-sur‘a) with winged haste
‫ صؾٕو‬tajannud military service
‫ ِؾٕو‬mujannad recruit
ًٜ‫ ؽٕوث‬gindārī standard-bearer, comet (Eg.)
‫ ؽٕوح‬jundub pl. ‫ ؽٕجهح‬janādib2 grasshopper
1
ً‫ اؽٕو‬gandara (eg.) to mangle ( ٘ laundry)
‫ ؽٕوووًر‬gandara mangling (of laundry);
press; O rotary press (typ.)
2
ًٜ‫ اؽٕوث‬look up alphabetically
‫ ؽٕوًِز‬žandarma gendarmery
ًِٝ‫ ؽٕو‬žandarmī gendarme
ٍٝ‫ ؽٕوـ‬ganduflī (eg.) oysters 140
1
‫ ؽٕوجؿ‬junāḥ misdemeanor (jur.); sin│‫ا‬٨‫ا‬
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫( ؽٕوجؿاع‬junāḥa) it won‘t be held against
him if he ... ; it won't do any harm if he …
‫ ؽٕووي‬jandala to throw to the ground, bring
down, fell (ٖ s.o.)
‫ ؽٕووي‬jandal pl. ‫ ؽٕوجهي‬janādil2 stone; pl.
‫ ؽٕجهي‬cataract, waterfall (eg.)
‫ ثؽٕـ‬ajnaḥ2 more inclined (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to
2
‫ؿ‬ٕٛ‫ ؽ‬janūḥ inclined (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th.)
‫ ؽٕ وٌثي‬jenərāl, ginrāl (eg.) general (military
rank)
‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽٕوو‬junūḥ inclination, leaning, bent,
tendency (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to)
‫ي‬ٚ‫ ؽٕو‬gundūl (eg.) pl. ً٠‫ ؽٕجه‬ganādīl2 gondola
َ‫ ؽٕو‬II to say the burial prayers, conduct the
funeral service (ٖ for the deceased; Chr.)
‫ ؽٕوجٍر‬jināza, janāza pl. -āt َ‫ ؽٕوجة‬janā’iz2
bier; funeral procession
ِٕ‫ صؾو‬tajannus acquisition of citizenship,
naturalization
ٍ‫ ؽٕوج‬junnāz pl. َ١ٔ‫ ؽٕوج‬janānīz2 requiem,
funeral
rites,
obsequies;
funeral
procession
ِٔ‫اصؾوووووووووووووووج‬tajānūs
homogeneity,
homogeneousness; likeness, similarity,
resemblance
ً١‫ ؽَٕد‬janzabīl (= ً١‫ )ٍٔؾذ‬ginger
1
ِٔ‫ ِؾووج‬mujānis similar, like, related;
homogeneous
ٌ‫وو‬٠َٕ‫ ؽ‬janzara (= ٌ‫ )ٍٔؾوو‬to be or become
covered with verdigris
ِٕ‫ ِضؾ‬mutajannis naturalized
ً‫ ؽَٕث‬jinzār (=ً‫ )ٍٔؾج‬verdigris
2
ٌ‫و‬٠َٕ‫ ؽ‬jinzīr (= ٌ‫و‬١‫ )ٍٔؾ‬pl. ٌ٠ٍ‫ ؽٕوج‬janāzīr2 chain;
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); a
linear measure (= 5 qaṣaba = 17.75 m;
also = 20 m; Eg.)│ٌ‫و‬٠َٕ‫وجًراؽ‬ٟ ṭārat j. track
sprocket, sprocket wheel
ًَٕ‫ ِؾ‬mujanzar track-laying (vehicle)
ِٕ‫ ؽ‬II to make alike, make similar ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
assimilate, naturalize (ٖ s.o.); to class,
classify, sort, categorize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to be
akin, be related, similar ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ to), be of the
same kind or nature (ٖ as s.o., ‫ ٘و‬as s.th.),
be like s.o. or s.th. ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ) resemble (ٖ s.o.,
‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to have o.s. naturalized, acquire
the citizenship (‫ ;)ح‬to be naturalized VI to
be akin, related, of the same kind or
nature, homogeneous
ِٕ‫ ؽوو‬jins pl. ُ‫ ثؽٕووج‬ajnās kind, sort,
variety, species, class, genus; category;
sex (male, female); gender (gram.); race;
nation│ِٕ‫اثّوُاثٌؾو‬ism al-j. (gram.) generic
noun, collective noun of nonpersonal
things (which form a n. un. in ‫ثٌؾوِٕا ;)ر‬
ٌٞ‫( ثٌذٖو‬bašarī) the human race; ‫ثدٕوج اؽْٕوٕج‬
abnā’ jinsinā our fellow tribesmen; ‫ا‬ٛ‫٘وو‬
ِٕ‫اثٌؾو‬ٌٞ‫و‬ِٚ he is Egyptian by nationality;
‫وؿ‬١ ٌٍ‫ ثٌؾوِٕاث‬the fair sex; ٓ‫ ثٌؾوِٕاثٌنٖو‬the
strong sex
ْٟٕ‫ا ؽ‬jinsī generic; sexual; racial
ْٟٕ‫ؽ‬٨ ‫ا‬lā-jinsī asexual, sexless
‫ز‬١‫ا ؽْٕوووو‬jinsīya
citizenship
pl.
-āt
nationality,
ِ١‫ صؾٕو‬tajnīs naturalization; paronomasia
(rhet.)
ُ‫ ؽٕوووج‬jinās (rhet.) assonance, pun,
paronomasia
‫ ِؾجْٔووز‬mujānasa relatedness, kinship,
affinity; similarity, likeness, resemblance
ِٔ‫ ِضؾووج‬mutajānis akin, related, of the
same kind or nature, homogeneous
‫جٔج‬١ ٕ‫( ؽ‬Lat. Gentiana) gentian (eg.)
1
‫اؽٕوؿ‬VI to deviate (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to incline, be
inclined (ٌٝ‫ ث‬or ‫ ي‬to s.th.)
2
‫ؿ‬١ٕ‫ اؽ‬look up alphabetically
ٗ‫ ؽٕفج‬junfāṣ, ٘١‫ ؽٕف‬junfaiṣ sackcloth, sacking
‫ ؽٕه‬junk pl. ‫ن‬ٕٛ‫ ؽ‬junūk harp
‫ث‬ٕٛ‫ ؽ‬janowā Genoa (seaport in NW Italy)
ٝ‫ ؽٕو‬janā i (jany) to pick, gather, harvest, reap
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., also the fruits of one‘s work); to
pocket, rake in, collect ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to derive
( ‫ ٘و‬profit, ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to secure, realize ( ‫٘و‬
profits, an advantage); to incur ( ‫ ٘و‬evil,
harm, punishment); to cause, 141 provoke,
bring about ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- (‫وز‬٠‫ ؽٕج‬jināya) to
commit a crime, an outrage (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on); to
offend, sin (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬against); to commit,
perpetrate (‫وز‬٠‫ؽٕج‬, ‫ ىٔذوج‬danban a crime, an
offense; ٝ‫عٍوو‬, less frequently ٝ‫ثٌوو‬, on or
against); to inflict ( ‫ ٘و‬some evil, ٝ‫ عٍو‬on
s.o.); to harm (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o., s.th.) V to
incriminate, accuse, charge with a crime
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.), lay the blame (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on s.o.),
blame (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.); to act meanly VIII to
gather, harvest ( ٘ s.th.)
ٝ‫ ؽٕو‬jany harvest; reaping (fig.); -- janan
(coll.) fruits
‫ وز‬٠‫ ؽٕج‬jināya pl. -āt perpetration of a
crime; felony (jur.; in the strictly legal
sense, more than a misdemeanor, ‫ؽٕقووز‬,
and an infraction, ‫)ِنجٌفوز‬, capital offense │
‫وووجس‬٠‫ ِقىّوووزاثٌؾٕج‬maḥkamat al-j. criminal
court
ٟ‫ ؽٕوجة‬jinā’ī criminal│ law ‫وز‬١‫ِقىّوزاؽٕجة‬
(maḥkama) criminal court; ٟ‫ْاثٌؾٕ وجة‬ٛٔ‫ثٌمووج‬
criminal law, penal law
ٕٝ‫ ِؾ‬majnan pl. ْ‫ ِؾج‬majānin that which
is picked or harvested, a crop; source of
profit or advantage
ٓ‫ صؾوو‬tajannin incrimination, accusation
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬of s.o.); mean way of acting, low,
underhand dealings
ْ‫ ؽوج‬jānin pl. ‫ ؽٕوجر‬junāh perpetrator (of a
delict); delinquent, criminal
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫اع‬ٕٝ‫ ِؾ‬majnīy ‘alaih, harmed, injured;
aggrieved party; victim of a crime
‫ؿ‬١ٕ‫( ؽ‬Fr. Geneve) žənēf Geneva
ٗ‫و‬١ٕ‫( ؽ‬Engl. guinea) ginēh, also gunaih pl. –āt
pound (eg.)│‫ة‬ٟٕ١ٌٌ‫ايثّووض‬َٞ‫وو‬١ٍ‫ووٗاثٔؾ‬١ٕ‫ ؽ‬pound
sterling, English pound; ٌٞ‫وووو‬ِٚ‫ووووٗا‬١ٕ‫ؽ‬
Egyptian pound (abbreviation: َ‫)ػا‬
‫ز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬see ٗ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫ا‬
‫ذوي‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahbad pl. ‫جدوير‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahābida man endowed
with a critical mind; great scholar; bright,
brilliant, intelligent
much as possible; ٗ‫جلضو‬ٟ‫ووا‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬j. ṭāqatihī as
much as he can, to the limit of his
abilities; ٗٔ‫واثِىج‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhda imkānihī do.; ‫ووا‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
‫ ِوج‬juhda mā as much as. to the limits of
what ... ; ٞ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhdī as far as I can
‫و‬١ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahīd see ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahd
‫وجه‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jihād fight, battle; jihad, holy war
(against the infidels, as a religious duty)
ٞ‫جه‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jihādī fighting, military
‫ اِؾج٘ور‬mujāhada fight, battle
‫ووووجه‬ٙ‫ ثؽ‬ijhād exertion;
overstrain(ing) 142
overexertion,
‫وجه‬ٙ‫ ثؽض‬ijtihād effort, exertion, endeavor,
pains, trouble; application, industry,
diligence;
(Isl.
Law)
independent
judgment in a legal or theological
queetion, based on the interpretation and
application of the 4 uṣūl, as opposed to
taqlīd, q.v.; individual judgment
‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive, labor,
take pains, put o.s. out; to over-work,
overtax, fatigue, exhaust (ٖ s.o.) III to
endeavor, strive; to fight ( ٟ‫ًاثٌٖو‬١‫اّوذ‬ٝ‫ ـو‬for
s.th.); t.o wage holy war against the
infidels IV to strain, exert ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to tire,
wear out, fatigue (ٖ s.o.), give trouble (ٖ ‫ا‬
to)│ٝ‫ووأفْوٗاـو‬ٙ‫( ثؽ‬nafsahū) to go to great
lengths, go out of one‘s way (ٟ‫ ـو‬for or in
s.th.); ٝ‫وواـىوٌٖاـو‬ٙ‫( ثؽ‬fikrahū) to concentrate
on, put one's mind to, apply o.s. t.o VIII to
put o.s. out (ٝ‫ ـو‬for s.th.), work hard; (Isl.
Law) to formulate an independent
judgment in a legal or theological question
(based on the application of the 4 uṣūl; as
opposed to taqlid, q.v.)
‫ه‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬majhūd pl. -āt endeavor, effort,
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltage,
tension (el.)│ٗ‫هثصوو‬ٛٙ‫ دوويياِؾ‬to make every
effort, go to greatest lengths
‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahd pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juḥūd strain; exertion;
endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, pains
(ٝ‫ ـو‬on behalf or for the sake of s.th.); O
voltage, tension (el.)│ٖ‫وووو‬ٙ‫وووواؽ‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahada
jahdahū, also ٖ‫وو‬ٙ‫يةاؽ‬ٚ‫ عّوًايفوج‬to do (try)
one‘s utmost, do (try) all in one‘s power,
make every conceivable effort; ‫وو‬١ٙ‫وواؽ‬ٙ‫دؾ‬
bi-jahdin jahīdin with great difficulty, by
dint of atrenuous efforts; ‫وو‬١ٙ‫وواؽ‬ٙ‫ دعوواؽ‬after
a lot of trouble O ‫ووواعووجي‬ٙ‫‘( ؽ‬ālin) high
tension (el.)
ٌٙ‫ ؽ‬jahara a (jahr, ً‫وج‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jihār) to be brought to
light, come out, show, appear; -- to
declare publicly, announce ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬s.th.);
to avow in public, proclaim (‫ ح‬s.th.); to
raise ( ‫ا ٘و‬the voice); -- jahura u (‫ووجًر‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
jahāra) to be loud, be clearly audible
(voice) III to declare or say openly, voice,
utter, express frankly (‫ ح‬s.th.)
‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used
prepositionally) to the limit of ... │‫ووا‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
‫ ثٌ جلوز‬juhda ṭ-ṭāqa as far as possible, as
‫وٌر‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahratan openly, overtly, frankly,
publicly
‫ ِؾج٘وو‬mujāhid pl. -ūn fighter, freedom
fighter; warrior; sergeant (Eg. 1939)
‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬mujhid strenuous, exacting, trying,
grueling;
-mujhad
overworked,
exhausted
‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِؾض‬mujtahid diligent, industrious; (pl.
-ūn) mujtahid, a legist formulating
independcnt decisions in legal or
theological matters, based on the
interpretation and application of the four
uṣūl, as oppoeed to muqallid, q.v.
ٌ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahr and ً‫ وج‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jihār publicness,
publicity, notoriety; ‫وٌث‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahran and ‫وجًث‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
jihāran publicly, in public
ٌٞ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahrī notorious, well-known,
public
ٌ١ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahīr loud (voice, shout)
ٌٙ‫ ثؽ‬ajhar2 day-blind
ٌ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ثؽ‬ajhar2 (elative) louder, more
audible
ٌّٞٙ‫ ؽ‬jahwarī loud (voice)
ٌٙ‫ ِؾ‬mijhar loud-voiced
ٌ‫وووو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬mijhar
microsoope
pl.
ٌ٘‫ِؾووووج‬
majāhir2
ٌٜٙ‫ ِؾ‬mijharī microscopic(al)
ً‫ووووووج‬ٙ‫ِؾ‬
mijhār
loudspeaker
loud-voiced;
O
‫ ِؾوجٌ٘ر‬mujāhara franknees, candor (of
one‘s words)
َ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahaza a to finish off (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬a
wounded man), deliver the coup de grace
to (ٍٝ‫ )ع‬II to make ready, prepare ( ٘ s.th.);
to arrange ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to provide, supply ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to equip, fit out, furnish, supply,
provide (‫ ٖ ح‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th. or s.o. with) IV to
finish off (ٝ‫ عٍو‬a wounded man), deliver
the coup de grace to (ٝ‫ ;)عٍو‬to finish, ruin
ٝ‫ يعٍوو‬s.o.) V to he equipped, furnished,
supplied, provided; to equip o.s.; to
prepare o.s., get ready; to be ready, be
prepared
ٍ‫وج‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāz (alas pronounced jihāz) pl. āt, ‫ووَر‬ٙ‫ ثؽ‬ajhiza equipment, appliances,
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance,
gadget; implement, appliance, utensil;
installation, apparatus (techn.); system,
apparatus (anat.) │ ٟ‫ّوٍى‬٨‫ووجٍا‬ٙ‫( ؽ‬lā-silkī)
wirelees set, radio; ‫ا‬ٛ‫ووو‬٠‫وووجٍاًثه‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬radio
(receiving set); O ‫جٍاِْوضمذًا‬ٙ‫( ؽ‬mustaqbil),
O ‫ّووضمذجي‬٨‫ووجٍاث‬ٙ‫ؽ‬, O ٟ‫ٌضمووج‬٨‫ووجٍاث‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬receiver,
receiving set (radio); ‫اا‬٠‫وجٍاِوي‬ٙ‫(ؽ‬muḍī‗), O
‫ًّوجيا‬٨‫وجٍاث‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬j. al-irsāl transmitter (radio);
‫ا‬ٟٔٛ٠َ‫ف‬١ٍ‫جٍاص‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬television set; ٌ‫جٍاثٌقف‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬j. alḥafr drilling rig; oil derrick; ًٞٚ‫ووجٍاه‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
(daurī) circulatory system (anat.); ‫ووجٍا‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
‫ز‬١‫و‬ًٝ٨‫٘ضَثٍثساث‬٨‫ًاث‬١‫ ٌضْؾ‬or ‫وَثسا‬ٌٙ‫وجُاث‬١‫وجٍال‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
‫ز‬١‫و‬ًٝ٨‫( ث‬hazzāt, arḍīya)seismograph; ‫وجٍا‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
ٌٞ‫ّوووووو‬
(sirrī)
secret
organization,
underground organization; ‫ّوووضّج‬٨‫وووجٍاث‬ٙ‫ؽ‬
sound locator; ٟ‫ووذ‬ٚ‫ وجٍاثٌع‬ٙ‫‗( ثٌؾ‬aṣabī) the
nervous system; ُ‫وو‬ٌٞٙ‫ووجٍاث‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬j. al-haḍm
digestive apparatus
َ‫ووو‬١ٙ‫ صؾ‬tajhīz equipment, furnishment;
preparation; pl. ‫ووَثس‬١ٙ‫ صؾ‬equipment, gear
144
َٞ‫و‬١ٙ‫ صؾ‬tajhīzī preparatory; (of a school)
preparing for college
َ٘‫ ؽوج‬jāhiz ready, prepared; readymade;
equipped │ ‫ّوجس( ؽجَ٘ر‬ٛ‫ ٍِذ‬or) ‫( ثٌذْوز‬albisa)
ready-made clothes
َ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬mujahhaz equipped, provided,
furnished, supplied (‫ ح‬with); armed (‫ح‬
with guns; of a ship, tank, etc.)
ٔ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬IV to sob, break into sobs│ ‫ؤادجٌذىوج‬ٙ‫ثؽ‬
(bukā’) to be on the verge of tears,
struggle with tears; to break into tears
‫ٖوز‬ٙ‫ا ؽ‬jahša (n. vic.) pl. -āt sob; outburst
of tears
ٓ‫ج‬ٙ‫ ثؽ‬ijhāš outburst of tears
ٜ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬IV to bear young ones, litter; to have a
miscarriage (woman)│ ‫ج‬ٙ‫وووووشأفْووووو‬ٞٙ‫ثؽ‬
(nafsahā) she induced an abortion
ٜٙ‫ ؽ‬jihḍ miscarried fetus
ٜ١ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahīḍ miscarried fetus
ٛ‫وووج‬ٙ‫ ثؽ‬ijhāḍ miscarriage, abortion;
induced abortion
ً‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahila a (jahl, ‫جٌوز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāla) to be ignorant;
not to know (‫ ح‬or ٘ s.th., how to do s.th.);
to be irrational, foolish; to behave
foolishly (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬toward) VI to ignore ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to refuse to have anything to do ( ‫٘و‬
with), shut one‘s eyes ( ‫ ٘و‬to), disregard ( ‫٘و‬
a fact); to affect ignorance, pretend to
know nothing X to consider ignorant or
stupid (ٖ s.o.)
ً‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahl and ‫جٌ وز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāla ignorance;
folly, foolishness, stupidity│ ً‫و‬ٙ‫ عوٓاؽ‬out
of ignorance
‫ي‬ٛٙ‫ ؽ‬jahūl ignorant; foolish, stupid
ً‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬majhal pl. ً‫ِؾج٘ووو‬
majāhil2
unknown region, unexplored territory │
‫ج‬١‫م‬٠ٌ‫ ِؾجً٘اثـ‬unknown Africa
ً١ٙ‫ صؾ‬tajhīl stultification
ً٘‫ صؾج‬tajāhul ignoring, disregard(ing)
ً‫ ؽج٘و‬jāhil pl. ‫ٍوز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahala, ً‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhhal,
‫وجي‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhhāl, ٩‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬juhalā’ not knowing (‫ح‬
s.th., how to do s.th.); ignorant,
uneducated, illiterate; foolish; fool
ٍٝ٘‫ ؽوج‬jāhilī pagan, of or pertaining to
pre-Islamic times
‫وز‬١ٍ٘‫ ؽج‬jāhilīya state of ignorance; preIslamic paganism, pre-Islamic times
‫ي‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬majhūl unknown; anonymous
(also ُ‫ّوو‬٨‫ياث‬ٛ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِؾ‬m. al-ism); pl. ً‫وو‬١٘‫ِؾج‬
majāhīl2 unknown things│‫ي‬ٛ‫ و‬ٙ‫ؽزاثٌّؾ‬١‫وو‬ٙ‫ا‬
ṣīgat al-m. passive (gram.)
‫ووووز‬١ٌٛٙ‫ ِؾ‬majhūlīya
unknown nature
being
unknown,
ُ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahuma u (‫جِوز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāma, ‫ِوز‬ٛٙ‫ ؽ‬juhūma) to
frown, glower V to frown, scowl, glower;
to regard with displeasure ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ or ‫ ي‬s.o. or
s.th.), frown ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ي‬on); to eye gloomily,
coolly, grimiy ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ or ‫ ي‬s.o., s.th.); to
become sullen, gloomy (face)
ُ‫و‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy
(face)
َ‫ج‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahām clouds
‫جِوز‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬jahāma and ‫ِوز‬ٛٙ‫ ؽ‬juhūma grim
look, sullen expression; gloominoss;
brooding silence
ُٕٙ‫ ؽ‬jahannam2 (f.) hell
ّٟٕٙ‫ ؽ‬jahannamī hellish, infernal
ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jaww pl. ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثؽوو‬ajwā’, ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jiwā’ (pl.
frequently with singnlar meaning) air;
atmosphere (also fig.); sky; weather;
sphere, milieu, environment; ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawwan
by air; by telegraph, telegraphically│‫ووا‬٠ٌ‫د‬
ٛ‫ ثٌؾو‬air mail; ٛ‫ذموجساثٌؾو‬ٟ ṭabaqāt al-j. air
layers; ٌ‫اِّ ووو‬ٛ‫اؽووو‬ٝ‫( ـووو‬mumṭir) in rainy
weather
ٜٛ‫ ؽووو‬jawwī air, aerial, aero- (in
compounds);
airy,
atmospheric(al);
weather
(used
attributively),
meteorologic(al)│ٞٛ‫اثٌؾوووووو‬٠‫وووووؽ‬ٌٞ‫ث‬
(ḍagṯ)
atmospheric pressure; ‫وز‬٠ٛ‫ذموجساؽ‬ٟ (ṭabaqāt)
air layers; ٞٛ‫ياؽو‬ٛ ّ‫( ث‬usṭūl) air fleet; ‫ؼوجًرا‬
‫وز‬٠ٛ‫ ؽ‬air raid; ‫وز‬٠ٛ‫ثساثٌؾ‬ٛ‫( ثٌمو‬quwāt) air force;
‫ووز‬٠ٛ‫فووزاثٌؾ‬٩ٌّ‫ ث‬aviation; ‫ووز‬٠ٛ‫ٕووج اؽ‬١ِ (mīnā’)
airport; ‫وووووز‬٠ٛ‫وووووجهاؽ‬ًٙ‫ث‬
meteorological
observations; ٞٛ‫( فؾٌاؽ‬ḥajar) meteorite
‫ث‬ٛ‫( ؽو‬colloq.) jawwā (pronounced gūwa
in Eg.) in it, within; inside
ٝٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawwānī, juwwānī inner, inside,
interior
‫ثـز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬guwāfa (eg.) guava (fruit); guavshrub
‫ثي‬ٛ‫( ؽ‬eg.) guwāl pl. -āt sack
ٟ‫ثٔض‬ٛ‫( ؽ‬It. guanti; eg.) gloves
1
‫ح‬ٛ‫( ؽ‬Fr. jupe) skirt
2
‫حة‬ٛ‫ ؽوجح يؽو‬jāba u (jaub) to travel, wander ( ‫٘و‬
through), traverse, roam, tour, explore ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., e.g., foreign lands); to pierce,
penetrate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.), cut through ( ‫ ;)٘ و‬to
wander, cruise ( ‫ ٘و‬about a place) III to
answer (ٖ s.‫ك‬., ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.), reply, respond (ٖ
to s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.th.); to comply (‫٘و ا‬with),
accede ( ‫ ٘و‬to) IV to answer (ٖ or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.o.,
ٓ‫ عو‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬a question), reply, respond (ٖ or
ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.th.); to comply ( ‫ ٘و‬with
a request), accede, defer ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to hear (ٖ
s.o.), accede to the request or wishes of
(ٖ); to fulfill, grant ( ‫ ٘و‬a wish); to consent,
assent, agree (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to); to concur (ٝ‫ثٌوو‬
in)│ٗ‫ٍذو‬ٟ‫ا‬ٝ‫ ثؽوجحاثٌو‬ṯalabihi) to comply with
s.o.‘s request VI to reply to one another;
to echo ( ‫٘و‬, ‫ ح‬from); to ring out (voices);
to
be
(mutually)
corresponding,
harmonize; to be favorahle, propitious (‫ِوا‬
to s.o.; situation) VIl to scatter, break up,
pass over (clauds); to be dispelled,
disappear, vanish (worries); to fade
(darkness) X ‫ ثّوضؾجح‬to hear, answer ( ‫ ٘و‬a
prayer), grant ( ‫ ٘و‬a request); to comply
with the request of (‫)ي‬, accede or defer to
the wiohes of (‫ ;)ي‬to react (‫ ي‬to); to
respond (‫ ي‬to, ‫ ح‬with), listen, pay
attention (‫ ي‬to), show interest (‫ ي‬in); to
meet, answer (‫ ي ح‬s.o. with), reply (‫ ي ح‬to
s.o. with or hy doing s.th.); to resound,
reverberate, re-echo; to resonate (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫ثٌو‬
to s.th.), be in resonance with (phys.); -‫ح‬ٛ‫ ثّوضؾ‬istajwaba to interrogate, examine,
question (ٖ s.o.); to hear (ٖ the defendant or
witn...); to interpellate (ٖ s.o.; in
parliament)
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaub travening, touring, exploration
(of
foreign
countries);
piercing,
penetration
‫دوز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jauba pl. -āt, ‫ح‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬juwab opening,
gap; hole, pit
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawāb pl. ‫د وز‬ٛ‫ ثؽ‬ajwiba answer,
reply; octave (to a given tone; mus.); (eg.;
pronounced gawāb pl. -āt) letter,
message│ٌٟ‫ثحاثٌٖووو‬ٛ‫ ؽووو‬j. aš-šarṭ, main
clause (conclusion) of a conditional
sentence, apodosis
ٝ‫ثد‬ٛ‫ؽوووووو‬
jawābī
attributively)
answering
(used
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ؽووو‬jawwāb traverser (of foreign
countries), traveler, explorer
‫ ثؽجدوووز‬ijāba answer(ing), reply(ing),
response,
respondence;
compliance;
fulfillment, granting (of a request);
accession, consent, assent│ُ‫ثؽجدوووزاٌ ٍووووذى‬
ijābatan li-ṭalabikum, in compliance with
your request; in answer to your request
‫ح‬ٚ‫ صؾوج‬tajāwub agreement, conformity;
harmony
‫ ثّوضؾجدز‬istijāba hearing, answering (of a
prayer); granting, fulfillment (of a
request); resonance; consonance (phys.)│‫ا‬
‫ ثّوضؾجدزاي‬istijābatan li in compliance with,
in answer to, in deference to
‫ثح‬ٛ‫ ثّووضؾ‬istijwāb pl. -āt interrogation,
questioning;
hearing;
interview;
interpellation (in parliament)
‫ح‬ٚ‫ ِضؾج‬mutajāwib harmonious
‫خ‬١‫ ِْوووضؾ‬mustajīb hearing, answering,
granting;
reverberant,
resonant,
resonating;
responsive,
susceptible,
impressible 145
‫س‬ٛ‫( ؽ‬Engl.) jūt jute
‫ؿة‬ٛ‫ ؽوجؿايؽو‬jāḥa u and IV to annihilate, destroy,
ruin; to flood, inundate ( ‫ ٘و‬the land) VIII
do.; to carry away, sweep away (ٖ s.o.,
s.th.; storm); to put down, subdue, quell
( ٘ s.th., e.g., a riot)
‫ ثؽجفوووز‬destruction, annihilation; crop
damage; crop failure, bad harvest
‫ وجؿ‬١‫ ثؽض‬ijtiyāḥ destruction, annihilation;
subdual, suppression
‫ اؽووووجةـ‬jā‘iḥ
disastrous
crushing,
devastating;
2
‫ ؽجةقوز‬jā’iḥa pl. ‫ثةـ‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawā’iḥ calamity,
disaster, ruin; epldemic; crop damage
‫ك‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jūḳ pl. ‫ثك‬ٛ‫ ثؽ‬ajwāḳ broadcloth
‫هة‬ٛ‫ ؽوجهايؽو‬jāda u (‫هر‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jūda) to be or become
good, become better, improve; -- (jūd) to
grant generously (‫ ح‬s.th.), be so generous
as to do s.th. (‫ ح‬with verbal noun); to be
liberal, openhanded (‫ ح‬with s.th., ٝ‫عٍوو‬
toward s.o.), bestow liberally (‫ا ح‬s.th., ٝ‫عٍو‬
upon s.o.), grant, give lavishly (‫ ح‬of s.th.,
ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.), shower (‫ ح‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. with); to
donate (‫ ح‬a sum of money, etc.) │ٗ‫ؽوجهادٕفْو‬
to sacrifice o.s.; to give up the ghost; ‫ؽجهسا‬
‫ٕوووجٖادجٌووووِاا‬١‫‗( ع‬aināhu bi-d-dam‗) tears
welled from his eyes; ‫( ؽجهساثٌْوّج ا‬heavens
granted rain) it rained II to do well ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to make better, improve, better,
ameliorate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to recite (the Koran;
cf. ‫وو‬٠ٛ‫ )صؾ‬IV to do well, do excellently ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to master ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.), be skilled,
proficient ( ‫ ٘و‬in), be an expert ( ‫ ٘و‬at), be
conversant ( ‫ا ٘ و‬with an art or field of
knowledge); to accomplish or say good,
excellent thing; to achieve excellent
results; to be excellent, outstanding,
distinguish o.s. (e.g., as a poet) │‫ثؽوجهاٌؽوزا‬
(lugatan) to master language; ‫ثؽوجهاثٌعوَؾا‬
‫ا‬ٛٔ‫وج‬١‫اثٌذ‬ٝ‫‗( عٍو‬azfa) to play the piano well X
to think ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.) good or excellent,
approve of ( ‫ ;)٘ و‬to consider ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.)
suitable for or appropriate to (‫)ي‬
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽووو‬jūd openhandedness, liberality,
generosity
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaud heavy rains
‫ ؽجهر‬see under 2‫ؽو‬
‫هر‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jūda goodness, excellence
‫وو‬١‫ ؽ‬jayyid pl. ‫وجه‬١‫ ؽ‬jiyād good, perfect,
faultless; outstanding, excellent, first-rate;
good (as an examination grade); ‫وووث‬١‫ؽ‬
jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly │‫ا‬
‫ وواؽوووث‬١‫( ؽ‬jidda) very good (also as an
examination grade)
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ثؽ‬ajwad2 better ,
‫ثه‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawād pl. ‫ثه‬ٛ‫ ثؽو‬ajwād, ‫ه‬ٚ‫ ثؽوج‬ajāwid2,
‫و‬٠ٚ‫ ثؽج‬ajawīd2, ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jūd openhanded, liberal,
generous, magnanimous; jawād pl. ‫ وجه‬١‫ؽ‬
jiyād, ‫جه‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajyād, ‫وو‬٠ٚ‫ ثؽج‬ajāwīd2 race horse,
racer; charger │‫ثه‬ٛ‫ؽ‬٨‫اثدٓاث‬noble man
‫وو‬٠ٛ‫ صؾ‬tajwīd art of reciting the Koran,
Koran reading (in accordance with
established rule, of pronunciation and
intonation)
‫و‬١‫ ِؾ‬mujīd adept, efficient, proficient
ً‫هث‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaudār see ‫هثًا‬ٚ‫( ؽج‬alphabetically)
‫ًة‬ٛ‫ ؽوجًايؽو‬jāra u (jaur) to deviate, stray (ٓ‫عو‬
from); to commit an outrage (ٍٝ‫ ع‬on), bear
down (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬upon), wrong, persecute,
oppress, tyrannize (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.); to encroach,
make inroads (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on another‘s territory)
III to be the neighbor of s.o. (ٖ), live next
door to (ٖ); to be adjacent, be next ( ‫ ٘و‬to
s.th.), adjoin ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to be in the
immediate vicinity of (ٖ ‫)٘و‬, be close to (ٖ,
‫ا;)٘و‬to border ( ‫ ٘و‬on) IV to grant asylum or
a sanctuary (ٖ to s.o.); to protect (ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ِو‬
from), take (ٖ s.o.) under one‘s wing; to
stand by s.o. (ٖ), aid (ٖ s.o.) VI to be
neighbors; to be adjacent; to have a
common border X to seek protection, seek
refuge (‫ ح‬with s.o., ٓ‫ ِو‬from s.th.), appeal
for aid (ٖ to s.o., ِٓ against s.th.) 146
ًٛ‫ ؽو‬jaur injustice; oppression, tyranny;
outrage
ً‫ ؽوج‬jār pl. ْ‫وٌث‬١‫ ؽ‬jīrān neighbor; refugee;
protégé, charge
‫ ؽجًر‬jāra pl. -āt neighboress
‫ٌر‬١‫ ؽ‬jīra neighborhood
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jūra pl. ًٛ‫ ؽ‬juwar pit, hole
ًٜٛ‫ ؽ‬see alphabetically
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jiwār neighborhood, proximity;
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ دؾوو‬in the neighborhood of, in the
vicinity of, near, close to
‫ًر‬ٚ‫ِؾووووووج‬
proximity
mujāwara
neighborhood,
ٌ‫ ؽووجة‬jā’ir pl. ‫ًر‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawara, ‫ ؽووجًر‬jāra
unjust. unfair; tyrannical, despotic; tyrant,
oppressor, despot
ًٚ‫ ِؾووج‬mujāwir neighboring, adjacent;
near, close by; (pl. -ūn) student (esp. of Al
Azhar University; living in the vicinity of
the Mosque)
ٌ١‫ ةّؾ‬mujīr protector
ًٚ‫ ِضؾووج‬mutajāwir having a common
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous
‫ًح‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaurab pl. ‫ثًح‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawārib2 stocking; sock
‫وووج‬١‫ًؽ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jorjiyā Georgia (republic of the
U.S.S.R.)
1
ًٞٛ‫ ؽوو‬jūrī damask rose (Rosa damascena,
bot.); crimson
2
ًٞٛ‫( ؽ‬Engl.) jūrī jury
1
‫ٍة‬ٛ‫ ؽوجٍ يؽو‬jāza u (ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawāz, ٍ‫ ِؾوج‬majāz) to
pass, come, travel ( ‫ ٘و‬through); to pass ( ‫٘و‬
an examination, a test); to be allowed,
permitted, permissible; to be possible,
conceivable; to work, succeed (ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ ع‬with
s.o.; deceit, artifice) │‫ٍوز‬١‫ٗاثٌق‬١ٍ‫( ؽجٍساع‬ḥīla)
the trick worked with him, he fell for the
trick II to permit, allow ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
approve ( ‫ ٘وووو‬of), sanction, warrant,
authorize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to pass ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. or by
s.th.), go or walk past s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘ و‬to go
beyond s.th. ( ‫)٘ و‬, overstep, cross, leave
behind ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), also, e.g., ‫ٓاِوٓا‬١‫عو‬٩‫ٍاثٌغ‬ٚ‫ؽوج‬
ٌ‫‗( ثٌعّو‬umr) he is past thirty; to exceed,
surpass ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to pass over s.th. (ٓ‫)عو‬,
disregard (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.), pay no attention (ٓ‫عو‬
to); to let (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.) go unpunished; to give
up, forgo, relinquish (ٓ‫ عوو‬s.th.) IV to
traverse, cross ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ ثٌو‬on the way to);
to permit, allow ( ‫ ي ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.); to
authorize ( ‫ ي ٘و‬s.o. to do s.th., also ‫ ;)ٖ ٘و‬to
license ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to approve, confirm,
endorse ( ‫ ٘و‬a decision, a judgment); to
approve ( ٘ of s.th.), sanction ( ٘ s.th.) V to
tolerate, suffer, bear VI to pass ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. or
by s.th.), go or walk past s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to go
beyond s.th. ( ‫)٘ و‬, overstep, cross, leave
behind ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to exceed, surpass ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., also ٝ‫ ;)عٍو‬to go too far, overstep all
bounds, encroach, make inroads; to pass
over s.th. (ٓ‫)عو‬, disregard (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.) pay no
attention (ٓ‫ عوو‬to); to give up, forgo,
re1inquish (A s.th.); to refrain from) VIII
to pass, run, go ( ‫ ٘و‬through), cut across
( ‫ ;)٘ و‬to cross ( ‫ ٘ و‬a border, a street, a
mountain range); to traverse ( ‫ ٘و‬a country
or sea); to cover ( ‫ ٘و‬a distance); to pass ( ‫٘و‬
through the mind; said of ideas, thoughts);
to go ( ‫ ٘و‬through hard times or a crisis); to
surmount, overcome ( ‫ ٘ و‬a crisis) X to
deem permissible ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to ask
permission
ٍٛ‫ ؽو‬jauz pl. ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثؽو‬ajwāz heart, center (of
a desert, of a large area, etc.) │‫ا‬ٝ‫اـوو‬
ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ثؽو‬amid, in the middle of, in; ‫ثٍا‬ٛ‫اثؽو‬ٝ‫ـو‬
‫ج‬ٞ‫( ثٌف‬faḍā’) in space
ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawāz permissibility, admissibility;
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official)
permit, license, authorization; possibility,
conceivability;
passing
(of
an
examination) │ٌ‫ثٍاثٌْوف‬ٛ‫ اؽو‬j. as-safar (pl. āt) (traveling) passport 147
ٍ‫ ِؾوج‬majāz crossing; passage; corridor
(pol.-georgr.);
metaphor,
figurative
expression (rhet.) │‫ ِؾووجٍث‬majāzanl, ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
ٍ‫ًاثٌّؾج‬١‫ ّذ‬figuratively, metaphorically
ٍٜ‫ ِؾج‬majāzī figurative, metaphorical
‫ ثؽوووووجٍر‬ijāza pl. -āt permission,
authorization; approval; license; = Fr.
licence ‫ا‬as an academic degree; permit;
vacation, leave (of absence) │ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫اثؽوجٍراثٌق‬
i. al-ḥaṣr grant of patent, issue of letters
patent; patent; ‫ز‬١ٍ‫ووو‬ٕٚ‫( ثؽوووجٍرال‬qunṣulīya)
exequatur of a consul (dipl.); ‫ز‬١‫و‬ٌِٝ‫ثؽوجٍرا‬
(maraḍīya) sick leave; ‫ز‬١‫ؽووجٍثساثٌّوًّوو‬٨‫ث‬
(madrasīya) school vacation; ‫ؽوجٍر‬٨‫ؼجةوخادج‬
on leave, on vacation
‫ّك‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jausaq pl. ‫ثّوك‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāsiq2 palace; manor,
villa
‫ٍر‬ٚ‫ ِؾووج‬mujāwaza and ٍٚ‫ صؾووج‬tajāwuz
crossing;
exceeding;
overdraft,
overdrawing (of an account); disregard
(ٓ‫ ع‬for); relinquishment (ٓ‫ ع‬of s.th.)
ْ‫عوج‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jau‘ān2, f. ٝ‫ع‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jau‘ā’, pl. ‫وج‬١‫ؽ‬
jiyā‗ hungry, starved, famished
ٍ‫ووووج‬١‫ ثؽض‬ijtiyāz traversing, crossing;
passage; transit; covering (of a distance);
passing (of an examination); surmounting
(of difficulties)
‫ ؽووجةا‬jā’i‘ pl. ‫ووج‬١‫ ؽ‬jiyā‗, ٛ‫ ؽوو‬juwwa‗
hungry, starved, famished
َ‫ ؽوووجة‬jā’iz permitted, lawful, legal;
conceivable, thinkable
‫ وز‬٠ٛ‫ ؽ‬gawīṭa pl. ٠‫ثة‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬gawā’iṭ2 (eg.) dowel,
peg
‫ ة‬ٛ‫ ؽوج ايؽو‬jā‘a u to be hungry; to starve II to
cause (ٖ s.o.) to starve, starve out, famish
(ٖ s.o.) IV do.
ٛ‫ ؽو‬jū‘ hunger, starvation │‫عوج‬ٛ‫ ِوجساؽ‬to
starve to death
‫ ِؾجعز‬majā‘a pl. -āt famine
‫ا‬٠ٛ‫ صؾ‬tajwī‗ starving out
‫ ثؽجعز‬ijā‘a starving out
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬II to make hollow, hollow out ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jauf pl. ‫ثؾ‬ٛ‫ ثؽو‬ajwāf hollow, cavity;
depression; interior, inside, center, heart;
belly, abdomen; north (magr.) │‫ؾ‬ٛ‫اؽوو‬ٟ‫ـو‬
inside, in the interior of, in the middle of;
ً١ٌٍ‫ؾاث‬ٛ‫اؽ‬ٟ‫( ـ‬j. il-lail) or ً١ٌٍ‫ؾاث‬ٛ‫( ؽ‬jaufa) in
the middle of the night
‫ ؽووجةَر‬jā‘iza pl. َ‫ثة‬ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawā‘iz2 prize,
reward, premium │‫ز‬١‫( ؽوجةَراهًثّو‬dirāsīya)
stipend, scholarship
ٍ‫ ِؾوج‬mujāz licensed; licentiate (as an
academic title, = Fr. licencié; e.g., ‫ا‬ٝ‫ِؾوجٍاـو‬
ٍَٛ‫ ثٌع‬licencié ès sciences)
2
ٟ‫ـ‬ٛ‫ ؽووو‬jaufī inner, interior, inside;
subterranean, underground, subsurface (of
geological strata); northern (magr.) │‫وجٖا‬١ِ‫ا‬
‫ز‬١‫ـ‬ٛ‫ؽ‬ground water 148
□‫ٍا‬ٛ‫ػ = اؽ‬ٍٚ II to give in marriage
□ٍٛ‫ اؽ‬jauz pl. ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثؽ‬ajwāz = ‫ػ‬ٍٚ couple
□ٍٛ‫( اِؾوو‬syr.; pronounced məžwez, 
‫ػ‬َٚ‫ ِوو‬muzwaj) wind instrument with a
double pipe, corresponding to the
Egyptian zummāra)
3
4
1
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ثؽو‬ajwaf2, f. ‫ـوج‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaufā’, pl. ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jūf
hollow; empty; vain, futile, inane,
pointless, senseless
‫وؿ‬٠ٛ‫ صؾ‬tajwīf pl. ‫ثؾ‬ٚ‫ صؾوج‬tajāwīf2, hollow,
cavity
‫ٍث‬ٛ‫ ثٌؾ‬al-jauzā’ Gemini (astron.)
ٍٛ‫ اؽو‬jauz (coll.; n. un. ‫ ر‬pl. -āt) walnut │‫ٍا‬ٛ‫ؽو‬
‫وخ‬١ ٌ‫ ث‬j. aṭ-ṭīb nutmeg; ٟ‫ٍاثٌمو‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬j. al-qai’
nux vomioa; ‫ٕوو‬ٌٙ‫ٍاث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬j. al-hind, ٞ‫ٍإ٘وو‬ٛ‫ؽو‬
(hindī) coconut; َ‫ٍاثٌمو‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬j. alqazz cocoon,
chrysalis of the silkworm
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ِؾ‬mujawwaf hollowed out, hollow
‫ق‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jauq pl. ‫ثق‬ٛ‫ ثؽو‬ajwāq and ‫لوز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jauqa
pl. -āt troop, group; theatrical troupe,
operatic company; choir (mus.); orchestra,
band (also ‫ز‬١‫م‬١‫ّو‬ِٛ‫لوزا‬ٛ‫ق│ )ؽ‬ٛ‫ٌاثٌؾو‬٠‫ اِوو‬mudīr
al-j. conductor, bandleader, choir leader;
‫لزاثٌٌٖؾ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬j. aš-šaraf Legion of Honor
‫ٍر‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬gōza (eg.) narghile
ٍٞٛ‫ ؽو‬jauzī nut (used attributively and in
compounds); nut-brown, hazel
5
ٍ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
‫ٍي‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jauzal pl. ‫ثٍي‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāzil2 young pigeon
(ُٛ‫ ؽوجُ )ؽو‬jāsa u to peer around, pry around,
look around (‫ي‬٩‫ موو‬kilāla in); to search,
investigate, explore ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.) VIII to
search, investigate, explore ( ٘ s.th.)
1
‫ية‬ٛ‫ ؽجيايؽ‬jāla u (jaul, ‫ٌوز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaula, ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ صؾو‬tajwāl,
ْ٨ٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawalān) to roam, rove, wander
about; to move freely, be at home (ٟ‫ ـو‬in a
field of learning), occupy o.s. (ٟ‫ ـو‬with); to
be circulated, go the rounds; to pass (ٟ‫ـو‬, ‫ح‬
through the mind)│ٗ‫ ؽوجيادٌأّو‬to preoccupy
s.o., engross s.o.‘s attention; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ياـوو‬ٛ‫ؾوو‬٠‫ِووجا‬
‫ٌٖة‬ٟ‫ٌٖايدنج‬ٟ‫ مج‬what he is preoccupied with,
what is on his mind; ٗ‫وو‬١ٕ١‫اع‬ٟ‫ؽووجياثٌوووِااـوو‬
(dam‗, ‗ainaihi) his eyes swam in tears;
ٟ‫ووٖاـو‬٠‫( ؽجٌوشا‬yaduhū) he laid his hands on,
he committed defalcations of IV to
circulate, pass around ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │ٞ‫ثؽوجياثٌوٌأ‬
(ra’ya) to weigh s.th. thoroughly, ponder
s.th.; ٌ‫( ثؽوجياثٌٕرو‬naẓara) to let one‘s eyes
wander about; to look around V to roam,
rove, wander about, move around; to
patrol, go the rounds; to cruise; to tour,
travel from place to place, travel about
‫ٌوز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jaula pl. -āt circuit, round; patrol;
excursion, outing; tour; (round) trip;
voyage, run (of a steamer); (round-trip)
flight (of an airplane); round (in sports)
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ؽوووو‬jawwāl wandering, migrant,
itinerant, roving; cruising; traveling;
ambulant; traveler, tourist; see also
alphabetically │‫ثي‬ٛ‫اًثَاؽو‬rāmin jawwāl pl.
‫ثٌوز‬ٛ‫ ًِوجراؽ‬rumāh jawwāla rifleman (mil.;
Syr.)
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِضؾوو‬mutajawwil wandering, migrant,
roaming, roving, itinerant; ambulant;
traveling; traveler │‫ي‬ٛ‫ووًاِضؾوو‬١‫و‬ٚ traveling
salesman; ‫ي‬ٛ‫وووج اِضؾووو‬١‫( د‬bayyā‗) peddler,
hawker; ‫ي‬ٛ‫ِاِضؾووو‬١‫( لْووو‬qissīs) itinerant
preacher
2
‫ٌؿ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬golf golf (eg.)
َ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
ْٛ‫ ؽ‬jūn pl ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثؽ‬ajwān gulf, inlet, bay
‫ٍٔوز‬ٛ‫ؽ‬, ٩ٔٛ‫ؽو‬, ‫ٍوز‬١ٔٛ‫( ؽ‬It. gonnella)gonella pl. -āt
(woman‘s) skirt (eg.) 149
ٖ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
ٌ٘ٛ‫ ؽ‬II tajauhara to become substance
ٌ٘ٛ‫ ؽو‬jauhar pl. ٌ٘‫ث‬ٛ‫ ؽو‬jawāhir2 intrinsic,
essential nature, essence; content,
substance (as opposed to form; philos.);
matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem; pl.
jewelry │ٌ٘ٛ‫ثٌؾو‬ٚ‫وؿا‬٠ٌَ‫( ث‬zaif) the spurious
and the genuine
‫ثٌوز‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawwāla one given to roaming or
traveling;
wanderer,
wayfarer;
O
motorcycle; cruiser
‫ٌ٘ر‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jauhara jewel, gem
ٌٞ٘ٛ‫ ؽووو‬jauharī substantial; intrinsic,
essential, inherent; fundamental, main,
chief, principal; material; jeweler
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ صؾووو‬tajwāl migration, wandering,
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism
‫ْا‬٨ٛ‫ؽووو‬jawalān migration, wandering,
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism
│‫وووو‬١ٌ‫ْاث‬٨ٛ‫ اؽووو‬j. al-yad embezzlement,
defalcation
‫ ِؾوجي‬majāl pl. -āt room, space (‫ ي‬for
s.th.); field, domain, sphere; scope, extent;
reach; range; elbowroom, free scope; play,
clearance; field (magn.)│‫اٌٍٖوه‬٨‫ِوجاصوٌناِؾوج‬
(šakk) to admit of no doubt; ‫اِؾوجياٌٍ عوٓا‬٨
ٗ‫و‬١‫( ـ‬majālan, ṭa‘n) (it is) incontestable; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
‫ ٘يثاثٌّؾجي‬in this connection; ‫ه اثٌّؾجياثِجِوٗا‬ٚ
‫قج‬١‫( ـْو‬amāmahū) to give s.o. a free hand,
wide scope of action; ٞٛ‫و‬١‫( ِؾوجياف‬ḥayawī)
lebensraum; ً‫ ِؾوجياثٌعّو‬m. al-‘amal field of
activity;
ٟ‫ْوووووو‬١ ٕ‫ِؾووووووجياِؽ‬
(magnaṭīsī)
magnetic field; ‫ ٕووراثٌّؾوجي‬šiddat al-m. field
intensity (magn.)
‫ي‬ٛ‫ صؾووووو‬tajawwul roaming, roving,
wandering, migration; going out, moving
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour;
traveling │‫ي‬ٛ‫ إِااثٌضؾ‬man‘ at-t. curfew
‫ي‬ٚ‫ دوووجةااؽوووج‬bā’i‘ jāwil pl. ٍْٛ‫دجعوووزاؽوووجة‬
peddler, hawker
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬look up alphabetically
ٟ‫ٌ٘ؽ‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jauharjī jeweler
‫ٌ٘ثس‬ٛ‫ ِؾووو‬mugauharāt (eg.) jewelry,
trinkets; jewels, gems
1
ٜٛ‫ ؽوو‬jawiya a (jawan) to be passionately
stirred by love or grief
ٜٛ‫ ؽ‬jawan ardent love, passion
2
ٜٚ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
ً‫وث‬٠ٛ‫هثً = ؽ‬ٚ‫ ؽج‬look up alphabetically
‫ ة‬ٟ‫ ؽج ايؽ‬jā’a ٟ‫ؾ‬٠ yajī’u ( ٟ‫ ِؾ‬majī’) to come
(ٖ, ٘ to); to get ( ٘ to), reach ( ٘ a place); to
arrive; to bring (‫ ح‬s.th.; ‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. s.th.);
to bring forth, produce (‫ ح‬s.th.); to set
forth (‫ ح‬s.th.); to do, perform; to commit,
perpetrate ( ‫ ٘وووو‬s.th.); to occur, be
mentioned, be said (ٝ‫ ـوو‬in an article,
document or book); (with foll. Imperf.) to
be about or set out to do s.th. │‫ورا‬٠ٌ‫اؽ‬ٝ‫ؽج اـ‬
ْ‫٘وووٌثَاث‬٤‫ ث‬the newspaper ―Al Ahram‖
reports that ... ; ْ‫ِاث‬٠ً‫ ؽوج اِوٓادوج‬a report
from Paris says that ... ; ‫ؽج سأضجةؾوٗاِ جدموزاي‬
(muṭābiqatan) its results coincided with...‫ا‬
‫تووز‬١‫ ؽ‬jī’a, jai’a coming, arrival │‫تووزا‬١‫ؽ‬
‫ى٘جح‬ٚ (dahāb) coming and going, ‫توزا‬١‫ى٘خاؽ‬
‫ى٘جدج‬ٚ to pace the floor, walk up and down
ٟ‫ ِؾ‬majī’ coming, arrival, advent
ْ‫ٖوووج‬١‫ ؽ‬jayašān excitement, agitation;
raging
‫وؿة‬١‫ ؽوجؾايؽ‬jāfa i, II and V to be putrid, stink
(decaying cadaver)
‫جس‬١‫ ثٌؾجة‬al-jā’iyāt the things to come
1
‫وخ‬١‫ ؽ‬jaib pl. ‫ح‬ٛ‫و‬١‫ ؽ‬juyūb breast, bosom, heart;
sine (math.); hole, hollow, cavity,
excavation; pocket; purse │‫وووووخا‬١‫اثٌؾ‬
ٗ‫(ثٌنووج‬ḳaṣṣ) the privy purse; ‫ووخ‬١‫صّووجَاثٌؾ‬
tamām al-j., َ‫خاثٌضّج‬١‫ ؽ‬cosine (math.); ‫ّوجعزا‬
‫وخ‬١‫ ثٌؾ‬pocket watch; ‫وخ‬١‫ؾاثٌؾ‬ٌٚ‫و‬ِٚ pocket
money; ‫ووز‬١‫ٔف‬٨‫حاث‬ٛ‫ و‬١‫( ثٌؾ‬anfīya) the nasal
sinuses (anat.); ‫ِووووز‬ٚ‫حاثٌّمج‬ٛ‫وووو‬١‫ ؽ‬j. almuqāwama pockets of resistance (mil.)
ٟ‫ذ‬١‫ ؽ‬jaibī pocket (adj.)
2
‫خ‬١‫ ؽ‬jīp, ‫خ‬١‫ ؽ‬jīb and ‫خ‬١‫جًراؽ‬١ّ sayyārat j. jeep
‫ش‬٠‫( ﭽ‬ir.) čīt a colorful cotton fabric, chintz
‫فز‬١‫ ؽ‬jīfa pl. ‫وؿ‬١‫ ؽ‬jiyaf, ‫وجؾ‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajyāf corpse,
cadaver
ٝ‫ى‬٠‫ ﭽ‬čīkī Czech
ً‫وو‬١‫ ؽ‬jīl pl. ‫ووجي‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajyāl people, nation, tribe;
generation; century; epoch, era
ٟ‫ص‬٩١‫( ؽ‬It. gelati) jēlātī ice cream
ُ١‫ ؽ‬jīm name of the letter ‫ػ‬
ٓ١‫( ؽ‬Fr. gaine) corselet, sheath corset (eg.)
‫ووج‬١‫ؼٌثـ‬ٛ١‫ ؽ‬jiyogrāfiyā geography │‫ووجا‬١‫ؼٌثـ‬ٛ١‫اثٌؾ‬
‫ز‬٠ٌٖ‫( ثٌذ‬bašarīya) anthropogeography
‫ج‬٠َ١‫ـ‬ٛ١‫ا ؽ‬jiyofīziyā geophysics
ٟ‫جة‬٠َ١‫ـ‬ٛ١‫ ؽ‬jiyofīziyā’ī geophysical │‫اثٌْوٕزا‬
‫ز‬١‫جة‬٠َ١‫ـ‬ٛ١‫( ثٌؾ‬sana) the geophysical year
1
‫و‬١‫ ؽ‬jīd pl. ‫جه‬١‫ ثؽ‬ajyād, ‫ه‬ٛ١‫ ؽ‬juyūd neck
2
‫و‬١‫ ؽ‬jayyid see ‫ه‬ٛ‫ؽ‬
ٟ‫م‬٠َ١‫ـ‬ٛ١‫ ؽ‬jiyofīzīqī geophysical
3
‫جه‬١‫ؽ‬, ‫جه‬١‫ ثؽ‬see ‫ثه‬ٛ‫اؽ‬jawād
‫ج‬١‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ١‫ ؽ‬jiyolōjiyā geology
1
ٌ١‫ ؽ‬jairi surely, truly, verily
2
ٌ١‫ ؽ‬jīr lime
ٟ‫ؽ‬ٌٛٛ١‫ ؽ‬jiyolōjī geologic(al)
‫ح‬
ٌ١‫ ؽ‬jīrī calcareous, lime (adj.)
ً‫ج‬١‫ ؽ‬jayyār unslaked lime
‫ فج‬ḥā‘ name of the letter ‫ؿ‬
‫جًر‬١‫ ؽ‬jayyāra limekiln
3
ٌ١‫ ؽ‬II to endorse (fin.)
ٌٚ١‫( ؽ‬It. giro) endorsement (fin.)
4
‫ٌر‬١‫ؽ‬, ْ‫ٌث‬١‫ ؽ‬see ًٛ‫ؽ‬
‫وَر‬١‫ ؽ‬gīza Giza (city in N Egypt); a brand of
Egyptian cotton
‫ٔة‬١‫ ؽوجٓايؽو‬jāša i (ْ‫ٖوج‬١‫ ؽ‬jayašān) to be excited,
be agitated; to rage, storm; to boil, simmer
II to levy troops, mobilize an army X to
raise, mobilize ( ‫ ٘ و‬an army, also, e.g.,
‫جًث‬ٚٔ‫ ث‬anṣāran followers)
ٔ١‫ ؽو‬jaiš pl. ٓٛ‫و‬١‫ ؽ‬army, troops, armed
forces │‫ي‬٩‫فووض‬٨‫ٔاث‬١‫ اؽوو‬occupation forces;
ٟٟ‫ووج‬١‫ٔاثفض‬١‫ ؽوو‬army reserve; ٠‫ٔاِووٌثد‬١‫ا ؽوو‬
(murābiṭ) territorial army; ‫ٔموجى‬٨‫ٔ ث‬١‫ ؽو‬j. alinqād Salvation Army; ‫ٔاثٌّْج‬١‫ ؽ‬al-masā’
dusk, evening twilight 150
ٓ‫وووج‬١‫ ؽ‬jayyāš agitated, impassioned;
excited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably
excited, happily stimulated
َ‫ فجمج‬ḥāḳām rabbi│ٌ‫وذ‬٨‫ ثٌقجمجَاث‬the chief rabbi
‫ي‬ٚ‫ فؤ‬see ‫ي‬ٛ‫ف‬
ِٝ‫ فج‬ḥāmī Hamitic
ْ‫ فج‬and ‫ فجٔز‬see ٓ١‫ف‬
‫( فجٔذوز‬pronounced ḥamba) pl. ‫ثٔوخ‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawānib2
(formerly Tun.) hamba, palace gendarme
of the Bey of Tunis
‫س‬ٛٔ‫ فج‬see ٕٛ‫ف‬
1
‫ فوخ‬ḥabba i (ḥubb) to love, like II to evoke
(ٌٝ‫ ث‬in s.o.) love or a liking (ٖ, ٘ for s.th. or
s.o.), make (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.o.) love or like (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th.
or s.o.); to endear (ٌٝ‫ ٘ ث‬s.th. to s.o.), make
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) dear, lovable, attractive (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬for
s.o.), make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) palatable, acceptable
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.); to urge (ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. on s.o.),
suggest (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th. to s.o.) IV (‫ فخ‬ḥubb, ‫ِقذوز‬
maḥabba) to love, like ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to
wish, want, or like, to do s.th. (ْ‫ثفوخاثْ│)ث‬
uḥibbu an I should like to ... ; ْ‫ ثفوخاٌوٗاث‬to
like about s.o. that he ... ; ٗ‫وٌاٌو‬١‫قوخاثٌن‬٠‫ا‬٨
(ḳaira) he doesn‘t want him to be happy,
he grudges him everything V to show
love, reveal one‘s affections (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.);
to endear o. s. (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to s.o.), make o.s.
popular, ingratiate o.s. (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with s.o.); to
court, woo (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬a woman) VI to love one
another X to like ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to deem ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) desirable, recommendable; to prefer
(ٍٝ‫ ٘ ع‬s.th. to s.th. else)
‫دوووز‬ٛ‫ ِقذ‬maḥbūba sweetheart, darling,
beloved woman
‫ فووخ‬ḥubb love; affection, attachment
│‫ فووخاثٌوويثس‬ḥ. ad-dāt self-love, amourpropre;
٩ ‫ّوووووووض‬٨‫فوووووووخاث‬
curiosity,
inquisitiveness; ٟٓٛ‫ فوووخاثٌووو‬ḥ. al-waṭan
patriotism; ‫( فذوجاي‬ḥubban) out of love or
affection for, out of friendship for; ٟ‫فذوجاـو‬
in the desire to …
dear friend; ً‫عوج‬٢‫اث‬ٛ‫ ِقذو‬friends of archeology;
ٗ‫( ِقخاٌيثص‬li-datihī) egoist
ٟ‫ فذ‬ḥubbī friendly, amicable, loving; ‫ج‬١‫فذ‬
ḥubbīyan in an amicable manner,
amicably; by fair means (jur.)
‫ فوخ‬ḥibb pl. ‫ ثفذوجح‬aḥbāb darling, dear,
dearest (one)
‫ فذجح‬ḥabāb aim, goal, end 151
2
‫خ‬١‫ فذ‬ḥabīb pl. ‫ ثفذج‬aḥibbā’ , ‫ ثفذز‬aḥibba,
‫ ثفذوجح‬beloved, sweetheart, lover; darling;
dear one, friend; dear (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.); popular;
‫فذجح‬٨‫ ث‬the beloved ones, the dear ones
‫ذووووز‬١‫ فذ‬labība pl. ‫ فذجةووووخ‬ḥabā’ib2
sweet·heart, darling, beloved woman
‫ ثفوووخ‬aḥabb2 dearer, more desirable,
preferable (ٌٝ‫ ث‬to s.o.)
‫ فذوويث‬ḥabbadā (with foll. Nominative)
how nice, how lovely is ... ! how good,
excellent, perfect is …! │ ٛ‫ فذويثاٌو‬how nice
it would be if …; ً‫اـعو‬ٛ‫ فذويثاثٌقوجياٌو‬h. l-ḥālu
lau fa‘ala it would be nice, or he would do
well, if he did it; ‫وجافذويثاثٌقوجي‬٠ (ḥālu) that‘s
just wonderful!
‫ِقذووووووز‬
maḥabba
love;
affection,
attachment │ٟٓٛ‫ ِقذوووزاثٌووو‬m. al-waṭan
patriotism
‫ صقذخ‬taḥabbub courtship, wooing
‫ صقجدووخ‬taḥābub mutual love, concord,
harmony
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ِقذو‬maḥbūb beloved; dear; lovable,
desirable; popular; favorite; beloved one,
lover; (pl. ‫ووخ‬١‫ ِقجد‬maḥābīb2) gold piece,
sequin (in Ottoman times; eg.)
‫ ِقذوووخ‬muḥabbab agreeable, pleasant,
desirable, lovable, dear (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.o.); nice,
likable
‫ ِقوووخ‬muḥibb pl. -ūn loving; lover;
fancier, amateur, fan; friend │ُ‫ِقووخاثٌٕووج‬
philanthropic(al), affable; َ٠َ‫ ِقذٕجاثٌع‬our
‫ ِضقووجح‬mutaḥābb loving one another,
concordant
‫ ِْوووضقخ‬mustaḥabb (re)commendable,
desirable (said of acts whose neglect is not
punished by God, but whose performance
is rewarded; Isl. Law); well-liked, popular
2
‫ فوخ‬II to produce seed, go to seed (plant); to
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become
granulated; to granulate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV to
produce seed
‫ فوخ‬ḥabb (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬grains; seed; -- ‫ا‬
pl. ‫ح‬ٛ‫ فذووو‬ḥubūb grain, cereals, corn;
seed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets;
pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules,
pimples│َ‫ووووو‬٠َ‫ فوووووخاثٌع‬chufa (Cyperus
esculentus L.; bot.); ‫ فووخاثٌفموو‬ḥ. al-faqad
chaste tree (Vitex agous castus L.; bot.); ‫ا‬
croton seeds (seeds of Croton tiglium;
bot.); (magr.) cherries; ‫وجيا‬ٌٙ‫فوخاث‬ḥ. al-hāl
and (ْ‫وج‬ٙ‫وجْ )فذ‬ٌٙ‫ فوخاث‬ḥ. al-hān cardamom
(Amomum cardamomum L.; bot.); ‫فووخا‬
َ‫ ثٌؽّج‬ḥ. al-gamām hail, hail-stones
‫ فذوز‬ḥabba (n. un.; see also ‫ فوخ‬ḥabb) pl.
-āt grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill,
pastille; berry; pustule, pimple; triviality,
trille; a square measure (Eg.; = 58.345
m2); pl. ‫ فذوجس‬beads (of the rosary)│‫فذوزا‬
ٌ١‫ ٕووع‬ḥ. ša‘īr a linear measure (Eg.; =
0.205 cm); ‫ر‬ٛ‫( فذوزافٍو‬ḥulwa) aniseed; ‫فذوزا‬
‫هث‬ٛ‫( ّوو‬saudā’) black caraway (Nigella
sativa L.; bot.); ‫ فذوجساثٌٌِوجي‬grains of sand;
ٓ١‫ فذوزاثٌعو‬ḥ. al-‘ain eyeball; pupil (of the
eye); ‫ فذووزاثٌمٍووخ‬ḥ. al-qalb dearest one,
beloved, darling
‫ فذخ‬ḥabab blister
‫ذوز‬١‫ فذ‬ḥubaiba pl. -āt little grain, small
kernel; small pimple or pustule
ٟ‫ذ‬١‫ فذ‬ḥubaibī granular, granulated│ ‫ثٌٌِوا‬
ٟ‫ذ‬١‫( ثٌقذ‬ramad) trachoma (med.)
‫ فذقخ‬ḥabḥab (coll.) watermelon (hij.)
‫ فذجفخ‬ḥubāḥib firefly, glowworm
‫ فذووي‬II to approve, think wall ( ‫ ٘ و‬of s.th.),
commend ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to applaud, acclaim,
cheer (ٖ s.o., ٘ s.th.)
‫ فذيث‬see 1‫فخ‬
‫وووي‬١١‫ صق‬taḥyīd approval; acclamation,
acclaim, applause, cheering 152
ٌ‫ فذو‬ḥabara u (ḥabr) to gladden, make happy,
delight (ٖ s.o.); -- ḥabira a (ًٛ‫ فذو‬ḥubūr) to
be glad, happy II to embellish, refine,
make workmanlike ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to compose
( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.) in elegant style; to write,
compose ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌ‫ فذ‬ḥibr ink│ٌ‫ ثَاثٌقذو‬umm al-ḥibr squid,
cuttlefish; ‫ًق‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫( فذوٌاعٍو‬waraq) mere ink
on paper, of no effect (e.g., an agreement,
a treaty)
ٌ‫ فذو‬ḥabr, ḥibr pl. ً‫ ثفذوج‬aḥbār a nonMuslim religious authority, 1earned man,
scribe; hishop; rabbi│ُ‫عر‬٨‫ ثٌقذٌاث‬the Pope;
ً‫فذج‬٨‫ ّفٌاث‬sifr al-a. Leviticus (Old Test.)
ٌٞ‫ فذووو‬ḥabrī pontifical │ٌٞ‫لووووثُافذووو‬
(quddās) pontifical mass (Chr.)
‫ووز‬٠ٌ‫ فذ‬ḥabrīya office or dignity of a
bishop, bishopric, pontificate
‫ فذوٌر‬ḥabara, ḥibara pl. -āt silken shawl
or wrap (worn in public by ladies)
ً‫ فذووج‬ḥabār, ḥibār pl. -āt mark, trace
(esp. of blows), welt, wale
ًٛ‫افذ‬ḥubūr joy
ًٞ‫ فذووج‬ḥubārā pl. ‫ووجس‬٠ً‫ فذج‬ḥubārayāt
bustard (zool.)
ًٛ‫قذ‬٠ yaḥbūr bustard chick (zool.)
ٌ‫ ِقذووو‬miḥbara, maḥbara pl. ٌ‫ِقوووجد‬
maḥābir2 inkwell
ِ‫ فووذ‬ḥabasa i (ḥabs) to obstruct, shut off,
confine ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.), block, bar, hold
back, check ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. ٓ‫ عو‬from; also tears,
laughter, etc.); to withhold ( ٘ ٓ‫ ع‬from s.o.
s.th.); to hold in custody, detain (ٖ s.o.) to
apprehend, arrest, jail, imprison (ٖ s.o.); to
keep, keep back, put aside, put away (ٝ‫عٍو‬
٘ s.th. for); to tie up, invent inalienably ( ٘
capital) │ٝ‫ فووذِأفْووٗاعٍوو‬to devote o.s.
entirely to ... ; ٓ‫ووٖاعو‬٠‫( فوذِا‬yadahū) to take
(s.th.) out from under s.o.‘s power; ‫فوذِا‬
ٗ‫ٗاثٔفجّو‬١ٍ‫( ع‬anfāsahū) to make s.o. catch his
breath, take s.o.‘s breath away; ‫فووذِاِوواا‬
ً‫ ثٌٖووووؽ‬ḥubisa ma‘a š-šugl he was
committed to prison under hard labor II to
tie up inalienably ( ‫ ٘و‬funds, ٝ‫ عٍو‬for, esp.
for a pious purpose), make a religious
bequest ( ‫٘و‬, for the benefit of ٝ‫ )عٍو‬VII to
be held back, be held up, stop, be
interrupted, intermit; to restrain o.s., hold
back VIII to block, obstruct, bar, confine
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to detain, hold in custody
( ‫٘ و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to hold back, retain,
suppress ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to be detained,
held up; to be impeded, held back; to
falter, break, fail (voice), stop (breath)
ِ‫ فوذ‬ḥabs (act of) holding or keeping
back, obstruction, check, repression;
blocking off, barring, confinement;
damming up, staving off; safekeeping,
custody, retention; imprisonment, arrest,
detention, jailing; (pl. ُٛ‫ فذو‬ḥubūs) prison,
jail │ٟٟ‫وووج‬١‫( فوووذِاثفض‬iḥtiyāṭī) detention
(pending investigation); ٞ‫فوووووذِاثٔفوووووٌثه‬
(infirādī) solitary confinement; ‫و‬٠‫فووذِإووو‬
penal servitude
ِ‫ فذ‬ḥibs pl. ُ‫ ثفذج‬dam, weir, barrage
ِ‫ فوذ‬ḥubs, ḥubūs pl. ُ‫ ثفذوج‬aḥbās (Tun.,
Alg. Mor. = waqf) inalienable property the
yield of which is devoted to pious
purposes, religious bequest, (Fr. jur.)
―habous‖│َ‫‗( فوذِاعوج‬āmm) public habous,
ٗ‫( فوذِاموج‬ḳaṣṣ) private habous; ‫ووجْافذْوجا‬
ٝ‫ = ( عٍوو‬ٝ‫لفوووجاعٍووو‬ٚ‫ )ووووجْا‬to be entirely
dependent on …
‫ فذْوز‬ḥubsa speech defect, impediment
of speech
ِ١‫ فذوووو‬ḥabīs blocked-off, shut-off,
barred, confined, locked-up; secluded;
bated (breath); choking (voice); (pl. ‫فذْوج‬
ḥubasā’2) hermit
ِ‫ ِقوووذ‬maḥbas, maḥbis pl. ِ‫ِقوووجد‬
maḥābis2 place where s.th. is confined or
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 153
ِ‫ ِقوذ‬miḥbas device for shutting off or
blocking off
‫ ِقذْز‬maḥbasa hermitage
ُ‫ ثٔقذوج‬inḥibās seclusion, confinement;
stoppage, interruption; cessation
ُ‫ ثفضذووووج‬iḥtibās retention, restraint;
inhibition,
impediment,
obstruction,
stoppage │‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثفضذوووجُاثٌذووو‬iḥtibās al-baul
suppression of urine, ischuria
1
ً‫ فذو‬ḥabl pl. ‫ فذوجي‬ḥibāl, ً‫ ثفذو‬aḥbul, ‫ي‬ٛ‫فذو‬
ḥubūl, ‫ ثفذ وجي‬aḥbāl rope, cable, hawser;
cord, string, thread; (pl. ‫ فذوجي‬ḥibāl) beam,
ray (e.g., of the sun, of light), jet (e.g., of
water); vein; sinew, tendon │‫ووو‬٠ًٌٛ‫فذووًاث‬
jugular vein; ٌٞ‫( ثٌقذوًاثٌْو‬surrī) umbilical
cord; ٟ‫و‬ٛ‫( ثٌقذوًاثٌٖو‬šaukī) spine; ‫ز‬١‫ص‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫فذوجيا‬
(ṣautīya) vocal cords; ٓ١‫ فذووًاثٌّْووجو‬ivy
(bot.); ‫ فذوجياثٌّوج‬jets of water; ‫ٍوكةا‬ٟ‫ايث‬ٝ‫ثٌمو‬
‫اثٌؽجًح‬ٍٝ‫ ثٌقذًاع‬alqā (aṭlaqa) l-ḥabla ‘alā lgārib to let things go, slacken the reins,
give a free hand, impose no restraint;
ً‫ ثًصنوووج اثٌقذووو‬slackening of the reins,
yielding; relenting; ٗ‫ و ٌحافذٍ و‬ٝ‫ ث‬iḍṭraba
ḥabluhū to get into a state of disorder, of
disorganization, of disintegration, get out
of control; ٓ١‫اثٌقذٍو‬ٍٝ‫( صعخاع‬la‘iba, ḥablain)
to play a double game, work both side, of
the street
ُٛ‫ ِقذووو‬maḥbūs shut-off (from the
outside world), isolated, secluded,
confined, locked-up; imprisoned, captive;
tied-up (funds); (pl. ِ‫ ِقوووجد‬maḥābis2)
prisoner, prison inmate, convict
ِ‫ ِقوذ‬muḥabbis donor of a habous (see
ِ‫ فذ‬ḥubs)
ٗ‫ووووو‬١ٍ‫ اثٌّقوووووذِاع‬al-muḥabbas ‗alaihi
beneficiary of a habous (see ِ‫ فذ‬ḥubs)
ِ‫ ِٕقذ‬munhabis secluded, shut-off
ٔ‫ ثٌقذ‬al-ḥabaš Abyssinia, Ethiopia; (pl. ٓ‫فذوج‬٨‫ث‬
al-aḥbāš) the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
‫ ثٌقذٖووووز‬al-ḥabaša
Abyssinia, Ethiopia
(and
ٟ‫ ثٌقذٖوووو‬ḥabašī pl.
Abyssinian, Ethiopian
ٔ‫هاثٌقووووذ‬٩‫)دوووو‬
ٓ‫ثفذووووج‬
aḥbāš
‫ٌز‬ٛ‫ ثفذ‬uḥbūla pl. ً‫و‬١‫ ثفجد‬aḥābīl2 snare, net;
rope with a noose; pl. ً‫و‬١‫ ثفجد‬tricks, wiles,
artifices, stratagems (in order to get s.th.)
٠‫ فوذ‬ḥabaṭa i (ٟٛ‫( فذو‬ḥubūṭ) and ḥabiṭa a to
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong;
to be futile, be of no avail, be lost IV to
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat ( ٘ s.th., ٍٝ‫٘ ع‬
in s.th. s.o.; negotiations, efforts, an
attempt, etc.)
‫ فذجٌز‬ḥibāla pl. ً‫ فذجة‬ḥabā’il2 snare, net
ً‫ فجدوو‬ḥābil: ً‫اثٌقجدووًادجٌٕجدوو‬٠ٍ‫( ثمووض‬iḳtalaṭa)
everything became confused, got into a
state of utter confusion; ٍُٙ‫ٔووجد‬ٚ‫ فجدووًا‬all
together, all in a medley 154
٠‫ فذ‬ḥabaṭ scar of a wound, wale, welt
ٟٛ‫ فذ‬ḥubūṭ futility, failure
ٟ‫ ثفذج‬aḥbāṭ frustration, thwarting, foiling
‫ فذووك‬ḥabaq basil (bot.); (eg.) a variety of
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.)
‫ فذوه‬ḥabaka i u (ḥabk) to weave well and tight
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to braid, plait ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to twist,
twine, tighten ( ٘ s.th.); to knit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
devise, contrive ( ‫ ٘و‬a plan, a plot) II to
twist, twine, tighten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) to fasten ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
‫ فذىوووز‬ḥabka fabric, tissue; texture,
structure
‫ فذوه‬ḥubuk: p. َٛ‫ فذوهاثٌٕؾو‬ḥ. an-nujūm the
orbits of the celestial bodies
‫ فذجوز‬ḥibāka weavers trade, weaving
‫ن‬ٛ‫ ِقذو‬maḥbūk tightly woven; tight, taut;
sturdy, strong, robust, husky
‫ ِقضذه‬muḥtabik interwoven, intersecting
ً‫ فذ‬VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare ( ٘ , ٖ s.o.,
s.th.)
2
ً‫ فذوو‬ḥlabila a (ḥabal) to be or become
pregnant, conceive and IV to make
pregnant (‫ا٘ج‬a woman)
ً‫ فذ‬ḥabal conception; pregnancy
ٝ‫ فذٍو‬ḥublā pl. ٌٝ‫ فذوج‬ḥabālā and ‫ٔوز‬٩‫فذ‬
ḥablāna pregnant
ٓ‫ فذ‬ḥabana dropsy
ْ‫ووج‬ٙ‫ووجْ( فذ‬ٌٙ‫ فذ وخاث‬ḥabb al-hān) cardamom
(Amomum cardamomum L.; bot.)
‫ة‬ٛ‫ فذوجايفذوو‬ḥabā u (ḥabw) to crawl, creep: to
present ( ٘ ٖ s.o. with s.th.), give, award ( ‫٘و‬
ٖ to s.o. s.th.) III to be obliging (ٖ to s.o.),
show one‘s good will (ٖ toward s.o.); to
favor (ٖ s.o.); to side (ٖ with s.o.), be
partial (ٖ to s.o.); to show respect,
deference (ٖ to s.o.) VIII to sit with one‘s
legs drawn up and wrapped in one's
garment
‫ر‬ٛ‫ فذ‬ḥibwa, ḥubwa, ḥabwa gift, present
‫ فذج‬ḥibā’ gift, present
‫ِقجدوووووووووجر‬
muḥābāh
complaisance,
courtesy;
favoritism, partiality
‫وووووز‬١ّ‫افض‬٨
(philos.)
obligingness
favor(ing),
ُ‫ ِقوووض‬muḥattam imposed, enjoined,
obligatory;
determined,
definitive,
determinate,
unalterable,
inevitable;
destined, predeotined, ordained (fate)
‫ فضز‬ḥitta pl. ḥitat (eg.) piece, bit, morsel
‫ فضجس‬ḥutāt scraps; morsels, crumbs
‫ صقجس‬taḥāt corrosion
‫ فضو‬ḥatida a (ḥatad) to be of pure origin
‫ ِقضو‬maḥtid descent, origin, lineage
‫ فضٌر‬ḥutra small piece, bit, trifle
ُ‫ ِضقووض‬mutaḥattim absolutely necessary;
imperative (duty)
ٝ‫ فض‬see ‫افش‬
1
‫ فظ‬ḥatta u (ḥatt) to urge, incite, prompt,
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke, 155
impel (ٖ s.o., ٍٝ‫ ع‬to do s.th.) │ٖ‫فظام ج‬
(ḳuṭāhū) to quicken one‘s pace, hurry (ٌٝ‫ث‬
to a place); ‫ك‬٠ٌ ٌ‫( فظاث‬ṭarīqa) to hurry,
hasten; ٗ١ِ‫( فظالو‬qadamaihi) to quicken
one‘s pace, break into a run VIII and X = I
ً‫ فضوج‬ḥitār pl. ٌ‫ فضوو‬ḥutur border, edge,
fringe, surroundings, vicinity
‫ فضؿ‬ḥatf pl. ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ فضو‬ḥutūf death │‫ا‬ٝ‫ْوع‬٠‫ذقوظاعوٓاي‬٠
ٗ‫ةافضفووٗادرٍفوو‬ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬yabḥatu ‘an (yas‘ā ilā)
ḥatfihī bi-ẓilfihī he brings about his own
destruction, digs his own grave; ‫ِوجسافضوؿا‬
ٗ‫ ثٔفو‬māta ḥatfa anfihī he died a natural
death
ُ‫ فض‬ḥatama i (ḥatm) to decree, make necessary,
prescribe (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. for s.o.), make ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) a duty, a necessity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.); ‫ا‬to
impose, enjoin (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. upon s.o.); ‫ا‬to
decide, determine definitely (‫ ح‬s.th.) II to
decree, make necessary, prescribe (ٝ‫٘و عٍو‬
s.th. for s.o.), make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) a duty, a
necessity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.) V to be necessary;
to be s.o.‘s (ٝ‫ )عٍو‬duty, be incumbent (ٝ‫عٍو‬
upon s.o.)
ُ‫ فووض‬ḥatm pl. َٛ‫ فضوو‬ḥutūm imposition,
injunction; final decision, resolution,
determination; ‫ فضّوووج‬ḥatman decidedly,
definitely, neceaoarily, inevitably
ٟ‫ فضّووو‬ḥatmī decided, definite, final,
conclusive,
definitive,
unalterable,
irrevocable, inevitable
‫وز‬١ّ‫ فض‬ḥatmīya decidedness, definiteness,
definitiveness,
determinateness,
unalterableness; necessity
indeterminism
َٛ‫ ِقضوووو‬maḥtūm imposed, enjoined,
obligatory;
determined,
definitive,
determinate,
unalterable,
ineviroble;
destined, predestined, ordained (fate)
‫ فوش‬ḥatta u (ḥatt) to rub off, scrape off, scratch
off ( ٘ s.th.)
ٝ‫ فضو‬ḥattā (prep.) until, till, up to, as far
as; (conj.; with perf.) until, so that; (with
subj.) until, that, so that, in order that; -(particle) even, eventually even; and even;
ٛ‫اٌو‬ٝ‫ فضو‬even if; (with preceding negation)
not even, and be it only…
lā-ḥatmīya
‫ظ‬١‫ فغ‬ḥatīt quick, rapid, quick
‫ فجعز‬ḥātta hormone
2
ٟ‫ فغ‬ḥittī Hittite (n. and adj.)
‫ فغجٌوز‬ḥutāla dregs, lees, sediment; scum (fig.);
offal, discard, scraps │ٌ‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ افغجٌووزاثٌق‬silk
combings
‫ة‬ٛ‫ فغجايفغ‬ḥatā u (ḥatw) to strew, scatter, spread,
disperse ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ فوؼ‬ḥajja u to overcome, defeat (ٖ s.o., with
arguments, with evidence), confute (ٖ s.o.); ‫ا‬to
convince (ٖ s.o.); -- (ḥajj) to make the
pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform the hadj III to
dispute, debate, argue, reason (ٖ with s.o.) VI
to argue against each other, carry on a dispute,
to debate; to take counsel VIII to advance (‫ح‬
s.th.) as an argument, plea, excuse, or pretext;
to allege in support or vindication, plead (‫ح‬
s.th.); to vindicate, justify (‫ ي‬s.th.); to protect,
remonstrate (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬against), object, raise
objections (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to)
‫ فوؼ‬ḥajj and ‫ فؾوز‬ḥijja pl. -āt, ‫ فؾوؼ‬ḥijaj
pilgrimage; hadj, the official Muslim
pilgrimage to Mecca │‫اثٌقؾوز‬ٚ‫ ى‬dū l-ḥijja
Zu‘lhijjah, the last month of the Islamic
calendar
‫ فؾووز‬ḥujja pl. ‫ فؾووؼ‬ḥūjaj argument;
pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence;
document, writ, deed, record; authority
│ْ‫ا دقؾوزاث‬under the pretense that …, on
the plea … on the pretext of …
bar; diaphragm (also َ‫ ;ثٌقؾوجحاثٌقوجؽ‬anat.);
amulet
‫ فؾوجػ‬ḥajāj pl. ‫ ثفؾوز‬aḥijja circumorbital
ring (anat.)
‫ فؾجدز‬ḥijāba office of gatekeeper
‫ ثفضؾوجح‬iḥtijāb concealment, hiddenness,
seclusion; veiledness, veiling, purdah
‫ ِقؼ‬maḥajj destination (of a journey)
‫ ِقؾووووز‬maḥajja pl. ‫ ِقووووجػ‬maḥājj2
destination of a pilgrimage, object of
pilgrimage, shrine; destination (of s
journey); goal; road; way; procedure,
method │‫ثح‬ٛ‫وو‬ٌٚ‫ اِقؾ وزاث‬m. aṣ-ṣawāb the
Right Way, the Straight Path; ‫وو‬٠‫ِقؾوزاثٌقو‬
railroad
‫ فؾجػ‬ḥijāj argument, dispute, debate
‫ صقؾوؼ‬taḥajjuj argumentation, pleading,
offering of a pretext, pretense, excuse
‫ ثفضؾوووجػ‬iḥtijāj pl. -āt argumentation;
pretext, excuse, plea, pretense; protest,
remonstrance (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬against), objection,
exception (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to)
‫ ف وجػ‬ḥājj pl. ‫ فؾووجػ‬ḥujjāj, ‫ؼ‬١‫ فؾ و‬ḥajīj
pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific
title of one who has performed the
pilgrimage to Mecca
‫ فؾوخ‬ḥajaba u (ḥajb) to veil, cover, screen,
shelter, seclude (ٍٝ‫ ٘و ع‬s.th. from); to hide,
obscure (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th. from s.th. else, e.g.,
from sight); to eclipse, outshine,
overshadow
(ٖ
s.o.);
to
make
imperceptible, invisible (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th. to); to
conceal (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th. from s.o.); to make or
form a separation (ٓ١‫دوو‬ٚ‫ا‬--‫ٓا‬١‫ دوو‬between –
and) II to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from
sight, keep in seclusion (‫ ٘وج‬a woman); to
disguise, mask (‫ ٘و ح‬s.th. with) V to
conceal o.s. hide (ٓ‫ عوو‬from), flee from
sight, veil o.s. VII to veil o.s., conceal o.s.;
to be covered up, become hidden be
obscured VIII to vanish, become invisible,
disappear from sight; to veil conceal (ٓ‫عو‬
hide; to become hidden, be concealed (ٓ‫عو‬
from); to withdraw; to elude perception; to
ease or interrupt publication (newspaper,
periodical)
‫ فؾوووخ‬ḥajb seclusion; screening off;
keeping away, keeping off
‫ فؾوجح‬ḥijāb pl. ‫ فؾوخ‬ḥujub, ‫ ثفؾذوز‬aḥjiba
cover, wrap, drape; curtain; woman‘s veil;
screen, partition, folding screen; barrier,
‫ فجؽووووخ‬ḥājib concealing, screening,
protecting; (pl. ‫ فؾوجح‬ḥujjāb, ‫ فؾذوز‬ḥajaba)
doorman,
gatekeeper;
chamberlain;
orderly (Syr., mil.); (pl. ‫ثؽوخ‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawājib2)
eyebrow │ ‫ث‬ٛ‫و‬ٌٙ‫ فجؽوخاث‬ḥ. al-hawā’ airtight,
hermetic
‫ح‬ٛ‫ ِقؾ‬maḥjūb concealed, hidden, veiled
1
ٌ‫ فؾو‬ḥajara u (ḥajr, ḥijr, ḥujr, ْ‫ فؾوٌث‬ḥijrān,
ḥujrān) to deny access (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to s.o.);‫ا‬to
stop, detain, hinder (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬or ٖ s.o.); to
forbid, interdict (ٝ‫ ٘ و عٍوو‬s.th. to s.o.),
prohibit (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.) from doing s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to
place (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬s.o.) under guardianship,
declare (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.) legally incompetent
ٌ‫ فؾووووو‬ḥajr restriction, curb(ing),
check(ing),
obstruction,
impeding,
limitation, curtailing (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of s.th.); barring,
closing, debarment, preclusion; detention;
blocking, confinement, containment,
suppression (as a protective measure);
interdiction, prohibition, ban; revocation,
or limitation, of s.o.‘s (ٝ‫ )عٍووو‬legal
competence │ٟ‫ق‬ٌٙ‫( فؾ‬ṣiḥḥī) quarantine
ٌ‫( فؾوووو‬ḥijr forbidden, interdicted,
prohibited; lap; (pl. ً‫ ثفؾ وج‬aḥjār, ًٛ‫فؾ و‬
ḥujūr, ‫ًر‬ٛ‫ فؾ‬ḥujūra) mare
‫ فؾوٌر‬ḥujra pl. ḥujarāt, ٌ‫ فؾو‬ḥujar room;
cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber
│ً‫ٔضروج‬٨‫ فؾوٌراث‬waiting room; َٛ‫ فؾوٌراثٌٕو‬ḥ.
an-naum
bedroom;
‫ووووووز‬١‫ف‬٩‫ثٌقؾووووووٌراثٌف‬
(fallāḥīya) chamber of agriculture
ٌ‫ فؾو‬maḥjar pl. ٌ‫ ِقوجؽ‬maḥājir2 military
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon
│ٟ‫وق‬ٙ‫( ِقؾٌا‬ṣiḥḥī) quarantine, quarantine
station
ٌ‫ فؾو‬maḥjir, miḥjar, maḥjar pl. ٌ‫ِقوجؽ‬
maḥājir2 (=‫ٓا‬١‫ ِقؾووٌاثٌعوو‬m. al-‘ain) eye
socket; see also below
ٌ‫وو‬١‫ صقؾ‬taḥjīr interdiction, prohibition,
ban; see also below
ًٛ‫ ِقؾو‬maḥjūr pl. ٌ‫ ِقوجؽ‬maḥājir2 (and
ٗ١ٍ‫ًاع‬ٛ‫ )ِقؾ‬one placed under guardianship;
minor; ward, charge
2
ٌ‫ فؾو‬II to petrify, turn into stone ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
make hard as stone ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to turn to
stone, petrify, become petrified
detention,
seizure,
confiscation,
sequestration (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of s.th.); reservation (of
seats) │‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ فؾَاثٌق‬ḥ al-ḥurrīya deprivation
of liberty, unlawful detention duress
(jur.); ٝ‫اثٌقؾوٌاعٍوو‬ٝ‫( ثٌموو‬alqā) to confiscate
s.th.
ٌ‫ فؾو‬ḥajar pl. ً‫ ثفؾوج‬aḥjār, ‫ فؾوجًر‬ḥijāra,
ً‫ فؾ وج‬ḥijār stone; weight (placed as an
equipoise on the scale of a balance)
│ٟ‫ّجّووو‬٨‫( ثٌقؾوووٌاث‬asāsī) the foundation
stone, cornerstone, ٟ‫ّجّووو‬٨‫وووااثٌقؾوووٌاث‬ٝٚ
(waḍ‘) laying of the cornerstone; ٟ٩‫فؾٌاثٌوذ‬
ḥ. al-balāṭ flagstone, paving stone; ‫فؾوٌا‬
ُٕ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ؽ‬ḥ. jahannam lunar caustic, silver
nitrate; ٌ‫و‬١‫ فؾٌاثٌؾ‬ḥ. al-jīr limestone; ‫ثٌقؾوٌا‬
ٟ‫ ثٌْوّجل‬or ٟ‫( فؾوٌاثٌْوّجل‬summāqī) porphyry;
‫ه‬ٛ‫ّو‬٨‫( ثٌقؾوٌاث‬aswad) the Black Stone (of
the Kaaba); ‫ فؾووٌاثٌٖووجهٔز‬hematite (min.);
‫ فؾٌاثٌعغٌر‬ḥ. al-‘atra stumbling block; ‫فؾٌا‬
‫ّوفز‬٩‫ ثٌف‬philosopher‘s stone; O ٌ‫ فؾوٌاثٌمّو‬ḥ.
al-qamar selenite; ُ٠ٌ‫ فؾوٌاوو‬and ‫ٓا‬١‫فؾوٌاعّو‬
precious stone, gem; ٌ‫اثٌقؾو‬ٝ‫ذوااعٍو‬ٟ (tab‘)
lithograph; ٌ‫ذجعزاثٌقؾ‬ٟ Lithography
ٌٞ‫ فؾو‬ḥajarī stony, stone (adj.) │‫وٌا‬ٚ‫ثٌع‬
ٌٞ‫‘( ثٌقؾ‬aṣr) the Stone Age; ‫ا‬ٌٞ‫وٌاثٌقؾو‬ٚ‫ثٌع‬
‫ظ‬٠‫ ثٌقوو‬the Neolithic period; ‫ا‬ٌٞ‫وٌاثٌقؾو‬ٚ‫ثٌع‬
ُ٠‫ ثٌمو‬the Paleolithic period
ٌ١‫ فؾ‬ḥajīr stony, petrified
ً‫ فؾج‬ḥajjār stone mason, stone cutter
2
ٌ‫ ِقؾو‬maḥjir pl. ٌ‫ ِقوجؽ‬maḥājir (stone)
quarry
ٌ‫ووووو‬١‫صقؾ‬
quarrying
taḥjīr
petrification;
stone
ٌ‫ صقؾ‬taḥajjur petrification
ٌ‫ ِضقؾ‬mutaḥajjir petrified
ٌ‫ ِْضقؾ‬mustaḥjir petrified 157
ٍ‫ فؾوو‬ḥajaza u i (ḥajz) to hold back, restrain,
hinder, prevent (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th. from); to keep
away (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th. from); to block (off),
close, bar; to isolate, insulate, confine,
seclude; to make inaccessible; to set apart;
to separate (ٓ١‫ دوو‬two things); to arrest,
detain; to seize, sequester, impound (ٝ‫عٍو‬
or ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., s.o.‘s property, salary); to
confiscate, safeguard ( ‫ا ٘و‬s.th.); to reserve
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to make a reservation ( ‫ ٘و‬for a.
theater seat, a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.)
VIII to retain for o.s., reserve to o.s. ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
َ‫ فؾو‬ḥajz curbing, prevention, restraint;
seclusion, confinement, containment,
isolation, insulation, separation; arrest,
ٍ‫ ثٌقؾووج‬al-ḥijāz Hejaz, region in W
Arabia, on the Red Sea coast
ٍٞ‫ فؾوج‬ḥijāzī of or pertaining to Hejaz;
pl. -ūn) an inhabitant of Hejaz
َ‫ فوجؽ‬ḥājiz and ‫ فوجؽَر‬pl. َ‫ثؽ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawājiz2
obstacle,
hindrance,
impediment,
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing
wall j block, blockade, road block; fence,
gate, railing, balustrade; hurdle; bar,
barrier;
barricade
│َ‫اثٌقؾووووووجحاثٌقووووووجؽ‬
diaphragm (anat.); O ‫ثػ‬ٛ‫ِووووو‬٨‫فوووووجؽَاث‬
breakwater; ‫وووووزة‬١‫وووووزايثٌؾٌّو‬١‫ثؽَاثٌمٌّل‬ٛ‫ثٌقووووو‬
(qumruqīya, gumrukīya) customs barriers;
O ‫ثعك‬ٌٛٚ‫ فجؽَراث‬lightning rod
َ‫ظوووؿافوووجؽ‬ِٛ muwaẓẓaf ḥājiz approx.:
bailiff
1
‫اِقجؽفز‬muḥājafa singlestick fencing
2
‫اثفؾجؾ‬iḥjāf = ‫ثؽقجؾ‬
ً‫ فؾو‬ḥajala u i (ḥajl, ْ٩‫ فؾو‬ḥajalān) to hop,
leap; to skip, gambol
ً‫ فؾو‬ḥajl, ḥijl pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ فؾو‬ḥujūl, ‫ ثفؾوجي‬aḥjāl
anklet
ً‫ فؾوو‬ḥajal (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ْ٩‫فؾوو‬
ḥajlān, ٝ‫ فؾٍ و‬ḥijlā partridge; mountain
partridge, mountain quail
‫ فؾووًا‬ḥajala pl. ‫ فؾ وجي‬ḥijāl curtained
canopy, or alcove, for the bride │‫ا‬ٟ‫اًدووج‬
‫ ثٌقؾجي‬rabbāṭ al-ḥ. the ladies
‫ ٌعذزاثٌقؾٍز‬la‘bat al-ḥajala hopscotch
ً‫ ِقؾووووو‬muḥajjal wearing anklets
(woman); white-footed (horse); bright,
brilliant, radiant; unique, singular, esp. in
the phrase ً‫( أؼٌاِقؾ‬agarr2)
ُ‫ فؾو‬ḥajama u (ḥajm) to cup (ٖ s.o.; med.) IV to
recoil, shrink, flinch (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to desist,
abstain, refrain (ٓ‫ عوو‬from), forbear (ٓ‫عوو‬
s.th.); to withdraw, retreat
ُ‫ فؾو‬ḥajm pl. َٛ‫ فؾو‬ḥujūm, َ‫ ثفؾوج‬aḥjām
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon)
│ُ‫ٌاثٌقؾ‬١‫ وذ‬bulky, sizable, massive
َ‫ فؾج‬ḥajjām cupper
‫ فؾجِوزا‬ḥijāma cupping, scarification, art
of cupping
ُ‫ ِقؾو‬miḥjam, mُ‫ ِقؾو‬miḥjama pl. ُ‫ِقوجؽ‬
maḥājim2 cupping glass
َ‫ ثفؾوووج‬iḥjām desistance,
restraint, aloofness, reserve
abstention;
ٓ‫ فؾو‬ḥajana i (ḥajn) to bend, curve, crook ( ‫ا ٘و‬
s.th.) VIII to snatch up, grab ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) take
hold ( ٘ of s.th.)
ٓ‫ ثفؾ‬aḥjan2 curved, crooked, bent
ٓ‫ا ِقؾو‬miḥjan pl. ٓ‫ ِقوجؽ‬maḥājin2 staff or
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook
‫ة‬ٛ‫وٌثايفؾو‬١‫ فؾجادوٗام‬ḥajā bihī ḳairan to think well
of s.o., have a good opinion of s.o. III to
propose a riddle (ٖ to s.o.); to speak in
riddles, be enigmatic
‫فؾوجا‬, ٝ‫ فؾو‬ḥijan pl. ‫ ثفؾوج‬aḥjā’ intellect,
brains,
understanding,
discernment,
acumen, sagacity, wit, intelligence 158
ٟ‫ فؾو‬ḥajiy appropriate, suitable, proper
(‫ حا‬for)
ٝ‫ ثفؾووو‬aḥjā more appropriate, more
suitable, more proper; more correct, better
‫وز‬١‫ ثفؾ‬uḥjīya pl. ٝ‫ ثفوجؽ‬aḥājīy, ‫ ثفوجػ‬aḥājin
riddle, puzzle, enigma
َ‫ فنج‬ḥaḳām = َ‫( فجمج‬look up alphabetically)
‫ فووو‬ḥadda u (ḥadd) to sharpen, hone ( ‫ ٘ و‬a
knife); to delimit, delineate, demarcate,
mark off, stake off ( ‫ ٘و‬land, ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to
set bounds ( ‫ ٘ و‬to s.th.), limit, restrict,
confine ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to impede, hinder, curb,
check (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- i (‫ فوور‬ḥidda) to
become furious, angry (ٝ‫ عٍو‬at): -- i u (‫فووثه‬
ḥidād) to wear mourning, mourn (ٝ‫ عٍو‬the
deceased) II to sharpen, hone ( ‫ ٘و‬a knife);
to forge ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.; syr.); to delimit,
demarcate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to set bounds ( ‫ ٘و‬to
s.th.), circumscribe, mark off, delineate
sharply; to limit, restrict, confine (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to determine, appoint, assign,
schedule, lay down, set down, establish ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to fix). e.g., prices); to define ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) │ٌٖ‫و‬ٚ‫( فووهاد‬baṣarahū) to dart sharp
glances; to scrutinize (ٟ‫ ـوو‬s.th.), look
sharply (ٟ‫ ـو‬at s.th.) III to oppose ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o.,
s.th.) act contrary ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ to s.o., to s.th.),
contravene, counteract, violate ( ٘ s.th.) IV
to sharpen, make sharp ( ٘ s.th.) │‫اثفواثٌٕرٌا‬
‫ا‬ٝ‫(ثٌو‬naẓar) to look sharply at, stare at; ‫ثفووا‬
ٌٖ‫و‬ٚ‫( د‬baṣarahū) to dart sharp glances; to
scrutinize (ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.), look sharply (ٟ‫ ـو‬at
s.th.); ٌٖ‫وو‬ٚ‫( ثفووواِووٓاد‬baṣarihī) to glance
sharply; -- to put on garments of mourning
V to be delimited, be delineated, be
bounded, be circumscribed; to be
determined, be established, be set down,
be scheduled, be fixed; to by defined, be
definable VIII to be or become angry; to
become infuriated, be furious (ٝ‫ عٍو‬at), be
exasperated (ٝ‫ عٍو‬with); to be agitated, be
upset, be in a state of commotion
‫ فو‬ḥadd pl. ‫ه‬ٚ‫ فو‬ḥudūd (cutting) edge ‫ي‬of
a knife, of a sword); edge, border, brink,
brim, verge; border (of a country),
boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the
utmost, extremity, termination, end,
terminal point, terminus; a (certain)
measure, extent, or degree (attained);
(math.) member (of an equation), term (of
a fraction, of a proportion); divine
ordinance,
divine
statute;
legal
punishment (Isl. Law) │‫ ٌقوو‬li-ḥaddi or ‫ا‬ٝ‫ثٌو‬
‫ فوو‬until, till, up to, to the extent of, ‫افووا‬ٝ‫ثٌو‬
ْ٢‫ث‬, ْ٢‫ ٌقوواث‬li-ḥ. l-āna up to now, so far;
‫افوواِوج‬ٝ‫( ثٌو‬ḥaddin) to a certain degree, to a
certain extent; ٌ‫و‬١‫افوواوذ‬ٝ‫ثٌو‬, ‫وو‬١‫افووادع‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a
considerable
extent
or
degree,
considerably, extensively; ‫افوو‬ٞ‫اأ‬ٝ‫( ثٌوو‬ayyi
ḥaddin) how far, to what degree or extent;
ٗ‫افووووواٌوووو‬٨ (ḥadda) boundless, infinite,
unbounded, unlimited; ‫افو‬٩‫ د‬bi-lā ḥaddin,
‫وووٌافوووو‬١‫اؼ‬ٝ‫ ثٌووو‬ilā gairi ḥaddin boundless,
unlimited, without limits; ‫ث‬ٛ‫افوواّو‬ٝ‫‘ عٍو‬alā
ḥaddin sawā’, ٜٛ‫افووواّ و‬ٝ‫‘ عٍوو‬alā ḥaddin
siwan in the same manner; equally,
likewise; ‫افووو‬ٝ‫( عٍوو‬ḥaddi) according to,
commensurate with; ٗ‫افووواىثصوو‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬fī ḥaddi
dātihī and ٗ‫ دقوواىثصو‬in itself, as such; ‫ثٌقووا‬
ٝ‫عٍووو‬٨‫( ث‬a‘lā), ٝ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ل‬٨‫( ثٌقوووواث‬aqṣā) the
maximum; ٝ‫هٔو‬٨‫( ثٌقواث‬adnā) the minimum;
(ٌٞ‫‘ فووواعّوو‬umrī) age limit; ٓ٠‫افووو‬ٚ‫ ى‬dū
ḥaddain two-edged; ‫ه‬ٚ‫افوووو‬ٟ‫( ـووو‬ḥudūdi)
within, within the framework of; ‫ا‬ٝ‫و‬ٚ‫دٍوػاثل‬
ٖ‫ه‬ٚ‫( فوو‬aqṣā ḥudūdihI) to attain its highest
degree; ‫ها‬ٚ‫ فوو‬the bounds or restrictions
that God has placed on man's freedom of
action
‫ فوور‬ḥidda sharpness, keenness; pitch (of
a tone); distinctiveness, markedness;
vehemence, violence, impetuosity; fury,
rage, wrath, ire, anger;
irascibility, passionateness
excitability,
delimited, determinate, fixed, definite,
definitive │ٝ‫هاثٌّعٕووو‬ٚ‫ ِقوووو‬m. al-ma‘nā
unambiguous; ‫وّجْا‬ٌٞ‫هاث‬ٚ‫ ِقوو‬m. aḍ-ḍamān
of limited liability; ‫زة‬١ٌٛ‫هرايثٌّْووت‬ٚ‫ٕووٌوزاِقووو‬
(širka) limited company, corporation
‫ فووثه‬ḥidād (act of) mourning (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over)
│‫حاثٌقووووثه‬ٛ‫ اعووو‬taub al-h.
garmente of
mourning; ٟ٩‫ فوووثهاثٌووذ‬ḥ. al-balāt court
mourning
‫ ِقووووه‬muḥaddad sharpened, sharp;
determined, fixed, appointed, destined (‫ي‬
for) strictly delimited, clearly defined
‫ فور‬ḥida see ‫فو‬ٚ
‫ فوه‬ḥadad forbidden 159
‫وو‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīd iron; pl. ‫ فوثةوو‬ḥadā’id2 iron
parts (of a structure); forgings, hardware,
ironware │َ‫وواموج‬٠‫ افو‬crode iron, pig iron,
iron ore; O ٚ‫وواِ وج‬٠‫( فو‬mutāwi‘) wrought
iron; ً‫وواؼفو‬٠‫( فو‬gufl) unprocessed iron, pig
iron; ‫وو‬٠‫وٌاثٌقو‬ٙ‫ ظ‬ẓahr al-ḥ. ٌ‫و‬ٙ‫وواثٌر‬٠‫ فو‬cast
iron; ‫وو‬٠‫ ّوىزاثٌقو‬sikkat al-ḥ. railroad; ‫وٌحا‬ٝ
‫و‬٠ٌ‫واد‬٠‫افو‬ٟ‫ ـ‬see ‫ٌح‬ٝ
‫و‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīd pl. ‫ فووثه‬ḥidād, ‫ ثفووث‬aḥiddā’2,
‫ ثفوور‬aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.),
keen (mind)
‫ ثفوووو‬aḥadd2 sharper, keener; more
vehement, more violent
‫وور‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīda pl. ‫ فوثةوو‬ḥadā’id2 piece of
iron; object or tool made of iron │‫ووا‬٠‫افو‬
‫ ثٌقوٌط‬ḥ. al-ḥart plowshare; ‫وور‬٠‫اثٌقو‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬eg.)
in financial straits, pinched for money
ٞ‫ووو‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīdī iron (adj.) │‫ووز‬٠‫و‬٠‫اّووىزافو‬
(sikka) railroad
‫وور‬٠‫ ثٌقو‬al-ḥudaida Hodeida (seaport in
W Yemen)
‫ فوثه‬ḥaddād ironsmith, blacksmith
‫ فوثهر‬ḥidāda smithcraft, art smithing
‫ووووو‬٠‫ صقو‬taḥdīd pl. -āt limitation,
delimitation; delineation, demarcation;
restriction,
curb,
confinement;
determination, fixation, appointment;
definition │‫وو‬٠‫اثٌضقو‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬and ‫وو‬٠‫ؽوٗاثٌضقو‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
(wajh) to be exact …, strictly speaking …
‫ فوجه‬ḥādd sharp (also, fig., of a glance),
keen
(mind);
high-pitched
(tone);
vehement, fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid;
acute (illness) │‫ فوجهاثٌّوَثػ‬ḥ. al-mizāj, ‫فوجها‬
‫ ثٌ ذوا‬ḥ. aṭ-ṭab‘ hot-blooded, hot-headed,
hot-tempered, irascible; ‫وزافوجهر‬٠ٚ‫( ٍث‬zāwiya)
acute angle; ‫ صقشاثٌقو‬subacute
‫ه‬ٚ‫ ِقووو‬maḥdūd bounded, bordered (‫ح‬
by); circumscribed, confined; limited (=
small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.);
‫ِقضووووووو‬
muḥtadd
exasperated
angry,
furious,
‫ فووأر‬ḥid’a, pl. ‫ فووأ‬ḥida‘, ‫ فووث‬ḥidā’, ْ‫ فووآ‬ḥid’ān
kite (zool.)
‫ فوأر‬ḥada’a pl. ‫ فووث‬ḥidā’ double-bladed
axe
‫ فووح‬ḥadiba a (ḥadab) to be convex, domeshaped, cambered, bent outward; to be
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ح‬to s.o.). be solicitous (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ح‬
about s.o.), care (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ح‬for s.o.) ‫ا‬take
care (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ح‬of s.o.) II to make convex,
emboss, camber, vault, curve, crook, bend
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V and XII ‫هح‬ٚ‫ ثفوو‬iḥaudaba to be
crooked, vaulted, cambered, embossed,
convex
‫ فوووح‬ḥadab affection, fondness, love;
kindliness; solicitude, care; (pl. ‫فووووثح‬
ḥidāb, ‫ ثفووووثح‬aḥdāb) elevation of the
ground │‫حا‬ٛ‫و‬ٙٚ‫(آِاوًافووحا‬wa-ṣaubin) or
‫فوووح‬ٚ‫حا‬ٛ‫وو‬ٙ‫ وووًا‬from all sides, from all
directions, from everywhere; ‫حا‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ‫اووًا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
‫فووح‬ٚ everywhere, in every quarter, on all
sides
‫ فووح‬ḥadib curved, cambered, vaulted,
convex; hunchbacked; kindly, friendly
‫ فوح‬ḥadaba hunchback, hump; camber,
vaulting, curvature
‫ ثفووح‬aḥdab2, f. ‫ فوودج‬ḥadbā’, pl. ‫فووح‬
ḥudb hunchbacked, humped; -- (elative)
kindlier, friendlier
‫ ِقووح‬muḥaddab embossed; cambered,
convex 160
‫ فووط‬ḥadata u (‫ط‬ٚ‫ فوو‬ḥudūt) to happen, occur,
take place, come to pass; -- (ḥaduta u
(‫ فوثعووز‬ḥadāta) to be new, recent; to be
young II to tell, relate, report (ٖ to s.o., ‫ح‬
or ٘ s.th., ٟ‫ـ‬, ٓ‫ ع‬about); to speak, talk (ٖ to
s.o., ٓ‫ عوو‬or ٟ‫ ـووو‬about, of) │ٗ‫فوعووٗالٍذووو‬
(ḥaddatahū qalbuhū and ٗ‫فوعضووووٗأفْوووو‬
ḥaddatathu nafsuhū his heart, his
innermost feeling told him (‫ ح‬s.th.); ‫فووطا‬
‫( ٔفْوٗاح‬nafsahū) to talk o.s. into (s.th.), try
to believe s.th. or see s.th. (as factual); to
resolve, make up one‘s mind to do s.th.;
ْ‫ فوطأفْوٗاث‬he said to himself, told himself
that … III to speak, talk (ٓ‫ عو‬or ٟ‫ ٖ ـو‬to s.o.
about s.th.); to discuss (ٓ‫ ع‬or ٟ‫ ٖ ـ‬with s.o‫ا‬.
s.th.), converse (ٓ‫ عوو‬or ٟ‫ ٖ ـوو‬with s.o.
about); to negotiate, confer (ٖ with s.o.) to
address, accost (ٖ s.o.); to call up (ٖ s.o‫ا‬,.by
telephone) IV to bring forth, produce,
create, originate ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to found,
establish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bring about, cause,
occasion, provoke, effect ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to drop
excrement │‫( اثفووطافووعج‬ḥadatan) to bring
about s.th.; to cause or do s.th., esp., s.th.
evil, do mischief V to speak, talk (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to
s.o., ٓ‫عو‬, ‫ ح‬or j about or of s.th.), converse,
chat (ٌٝ‫ ث‬or ‫ ِا‬with s.o., ٓ‫ عو‬to, ‫ ح‬or j about
s.th.) VI to talk with one another,
converse, have a conversation X to renew
( ٘ s.th.) to buy new ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to introduce,
start, invent, originate, create ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
find or deem (ٖ s.o.) to be young
‫ مٌثـوز‬ḥ. ḳurāfa fabulous story, silly talk;
ٟ‫ظالوّوو‬٠‫( فووو‬qudsī) Muslim tradition in
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to
ٞٛ‫ظأذو‬٠‫( فوو‬nabawī) an ordinary Prophetic
tradition; ِ‫ظاثٌووٕف‬٠‫ فوو‬ḥ. an-nafs s.th. one
talks o.s. into; premonition
‫ فوووط‬ḥadat pl. ‫ ثفوووثط‬aḥdāt a new,
unprecedented
thing,
a
novelty,
innovation; event, incident, occurrence,
happening; phenomenon; evil symptom;
misdeed; misfortune; ritual impurity (Isl.
Law); excrement, feces; (pl. ‫ثفووثط‬, ْ‫فووعج‬
ḥudtān) young man, youth; ‫ ثفوثط‬juveniles
‫ ِقجهعوووز‬muḥādata pl. -āt discourse,
conversation, discussion, talk, parley
2
‫ظ‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīt pl. ‫ فوثط‬ḥidāt, ‫ فووعج‬ḥudatā’
new, novel, recent, late; modern; ‫غج‬٠‫فووو‬
ḥadītan recently, lately │ ‫ظاثٌذٕوج‬٠‫ فوو‬ḥ. albinā’ new-built, recently built;ٌْٓ‫ظاث‬٠‫ افو‬ḥ.
as-sinn young; ‫ووو‬ٙ‫ظاثٌع‬٠‫ فووو‬ḥ. al-‘ahd of
recent date, recent, new, young; ‫ووا‬ٙ‫ظاثٌع‬٠‫فوو‬
‫ح‬, ‫وواح‬ٙ‫ظاع‬٠‫( فوو‬ḥ. ‘ahdin) having adopted
or acquired (s.th.) recently; not long
accustomed to (s.th.), inexperienced at
(s.th.), new at (s.th.), newly, e.g., ‫وا‬ٙ‫ظاثٌع‬٠‫فو‬
‫هر‬٨ٌٛ‫( دووج‬bi-l-wilāda) newborn, ‫وووا‬ٙ‫ظاثٌؽ‬٠‫فووو‬
‫ثػ‬ٌَٚ‫( دوج‬bi-z-zawāj) newly wed; ‫ظا‬٠‫ووجْافوو‬
‫ًدوج‬ٚ‫ووادب‬ٙ‫ ثٌع‬he had not known Europe until
recently
‫ظ‬٠‫ فووو‬ḥadīt pl. ‫ووظ‬٠‫ ثفجه‬aḥādīt2, ْ‫فوووعج‬
ḥadtān speech; chat, chitchat, small talk;
conversation, talk, discussion; interview;
prattle, gossip; report, account, tale,
narrative; Prophetic tradition, Hadith,
narrative relating deeds and utterances of
the Prophet and his Companions │‫ظا‬٠‫افوو‬
‫ط‬ٚ‫ فووو‬ḥudūt setting in (of a state or
condition), occurrence, incidence (of a
phenomenon);
occurrence,
incident,
happening
‫ فوثعوز‬ḥadāta newness, recency, novelty;
youth, youthfulness
‫ ثفوثط‬aḥdāt2 newer, more recent
ٌ٘‫ فووعجْاثٌوو‬ḥidtān (or ḥadatān) ad-dahr
misfortune, adversities, reverses
‫عوز‬ٚ‫ ثفو‬uḥdūta pl. ‫وظ‬٠‫ ثفجه‬aḥādīt2 speech;
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter;
fabling, fibbing; topic, subject of a
conversation; gossip, rumor (about a
person) │‫عز‬ٚ‫فو‬٨‫ فْٓاث‬ḥusn al-u. praise (of
s.o.) ‫عوووز‬ٚ‫فو‬٨‫ اث‬ٛ‫ّووو‬
sū’ al-u. slander,
defamation
‫ ثفووووثط‬iḥdāt production, creatuion,
invention,
origination;
causation,
effectuation 161
‫جس‬١‫ا ثفووووثع‬iḥdātīyāt (pl.) co-ordinates
(math.) │‫ووووز‬٠‫ه‬ّٛ‫جساع‬١‫‗( اثفووووووثع‬amūdīya)
ordinates; ‫وز‬١‫جساأـم‬١‫( ثفووثع‬ufuqīya) abscissas
(math.)
‫ ثّوووضقوثط‬istiḥdāt invention, creation,
production, origination
‫ فجهط‬ḥādīt occurring, happening, taking
place; new, recent; fresh; -- (pl. ‫ثهط‬ٛ‫ف و‬
ḥawādit2, also -āt) occurrence, incident,
event, happening; episode; case (jur.)
accident, mishap │ٌ‫وو‬٠َٚ‫ افوجهطاص‬a case of
forgery; ‫ ِىووجْاثٌق وجهط‬makān al-ḥ. site of
action, scene of the crime, locus delicti
‫ فجهعوووز‬ḥādita pl. ‫ثهط‬ٛ‫ فووو‬ḥawādit2
occurrence, event, happening; plot (of a
play) ; incident, episode; accident, mishap
│ًٌٌّٚ‫افجهعزاث‬ḥ. al-murūr traffic accident
‫ا ِقووط‬muḥaddit pl. -ūn speaker, talker;
spokesman;
conversation
partner,
interlocutor; relator, narrator; a transmitter
of Prophetic traditions, traditionary,
ً‫ ِٕقووو‬munḥadir descending; lowered,
dipped; slanting, sloping, declivitous
(terrain); declining, waning, being on the
downgrade, in a state of decadence or
decline; run-down, seedy, down-at-theheels, down-and-out
representative of the science or study of
Hadith (see above); O phonograph,
gramophone
‫ ِضقوط‬mutaḥaddit spokesman, speaker
‫ ِْضقوط‬mustaḥdat new, novel, recent, -(pl. –āt) novelty, innovation; recent
invention, modern product; neologism
‫ فووػ‬ḥadaja i and II to stare, look sharply ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
at s.o., at s.th., often with ٌٖ‫وو‬ٚ‫ دذ‬bibaṣarihī or ٌٖ‫ دٕر‬bi-naẓarihī)
‫ فووػ‬ḥidj pl. ‫ػ‬ٚ‫ فوو‬ḥudūj, ‫ ثفووثػ‬aḥdāj
load, burden, encumbrance
‫ؼ‬٠‫افو‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū ḥadīj stork
‫ فوثؽوز‬ḥidāja pl. ‫ فوووثةؼ‬ḥadā’ij2 camel
saddle
ً‫ فوو‬ḥadara, ḥadura u (ḥadr, ‫ فووثًر‬ḥadāra) to
be thick; -- ḥadara u i (ḥadr, ً‫ فوو‬ḥudūr)
to bring down, lower ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) to cause ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) to descend; to drop ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to shed
( ‫ ٘و‬tears); ‫( فووًافووًث‬ḥadran) to rattle off,
express quickly (an utterance, a thought);
-- (ḥadr) to come down, step down,
descend; to glide down, swoop II to drop
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) to lower, inclines, dip ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V
to descend gradually; to glide down; to
come down, descend; to flow down
(tears); to derive, stem, originate (ِٓ from)
VII to come or go down, descend; to glide
down, sink down; to be in decline, be on
the downgrade, to decline, wane; to flow
down (tears); to slope down, slant down,
be inclined (terrain); to come (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to a
place), arrive (ٌٝ‫ ث‬at)
ً‫ ِٕقو‬munḥadar pl. -āt depression; slope,
talus, incline, descent, declivity; fall (of a
river)
ُ‫ فو‬ḥadata i u (ḥadt) to surmise, guess,
conjecture ( ٘ s.th.)
ُ‫ فو‬ḥadt surmise, guess, conjecture; O
intuition 162
□‫ فوووثؾ‬ḥaddāf (‫)ف ويثؾ‬, ‫ن‬ٛ‫( فوووثؾاثٌّووجو‬syr.)
shuttle (weaving)
□ ‫وووجًرافوثـوووز‬ٟ ṭāra ḥaddāfa (syr.)
flywheel
1
‫ فولوز‬ḥadaqa pl. -āt, ‫ فووق‬ḥadaq, ‫فووثق‬
ḥidāq, ‫ ثفووثق‬aḥdāq pupil (of the eye); pl.
‫ ثفوثق‬glances
‫مز‬٠‫ فو‬ḥadīqa pl. ‫ فوثةك‬ḥadā’iq2 garden │‫ا‬
‫ثٔوجس‬ٛ١‫موزاثٌق‬٠‫ فو‬ḥ. al-ḥayawānāt zoological
garden, zoo
‫ثفوووووووووووثق‬
iḥdāq
encompassment (‫ ح‬of)
ً‫ فوو‬ḥadr rapid recitation of the Koran
(a terminus technicus of tajwīd)
ًٚ‫ فوووووو‬ḥadūr slope,
declivity, declivitous terrain
ً‫ ثٔقوووووث‬inḥidār slant, dip, pitch,
inclination, decent, slope; declivity; fall
(of a river); decline, waning; ruin, decay,
decadence
ً‫ فجه‬ḥādir thick
ً‫ ِضقوو‬mutaḥaddir descending, slanting,
sloping downward
encirclement,
‫ م وووٌاِقووووق‬ḳaṭar muḥdiq imminent
danger
downgrade,
‫ صقوووًا‬taḥaddur descent, slant, slope,
inclination, incline, declivity
‫ افووق‬ḥadaqa i (ḥadq) to surround, encircle,
encompass (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.); (with ٗ‫ٕو‬١‫ دع‬bi‘ainihī) to look, glance (ٖ at s.o.) II to
look, glance, gaze, stare (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ٟ‫ ـو‬at, also
‫│ )ح‬ٟ‫(افوووقاثٌٕرووٌاـوو‬naẓara) to fix one‘s
glance on … IV to surround, encircle,
encompass, enclose (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.); to look,
glance (ٟ‫ـ‬, ٌٝ‫ ث‬or ‫ ح‬at) │ٟ‫اثفوقاثٌٕرٌاثٌٕروٌاـو‬
(naẓara) to fix one‘s glance on …
2
□ ‫ فووق‬II (=‫ )فووق‬to make acid, sour, tart, or
sharp ( ٘ s.th.)
□ ‫ فوجهق‬ḥādiq (= ‫ )فوجىق‬sour, tart, acid,
sharp (taste)
‫ فووي‬ḥadala i to flatten, level, even, roll ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); (ḥadl, ‫ي‬ٚ‫ فوو‬ḥudūl) to treat unjustly
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.)
‫ ِقوٌوز‬miḥdala pl. ‫ ِقّووي‬maḥādil2 roller,
steamroller
َ‫ فوو‬VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up, be
consumed by fire; to flare up, break out
(fight); to be furious, burn with wrath (ٝ‫عٍو‬
at, over), also ‫رج‬١‫( ثفضوَاؼ‬gaiẓan)
َ‫ ثفضوث‬iḥtidām paroxysm
َ‫ ِقّوووو‬muḥtadim furious, infuriated,
enraged
‫ فور‬ḥida see ‫فو‬ٚ
1
2
□ ‫ر‬ٚ‫ فو‬ḥidwa horseshoe
(ٚ‫ فوو‬and ٜ‫ فووث )فوو‬ḥadā u (ḥadw, ‫ فووث‬ḥudā’,
ḥidā’ to urge forward by singing ( ‫٘وو‬
camels); to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt,
instigate, induce, move (‫ ح‬or ٖ s.o., ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to
s.th., to do s.th.); ‫ فووثاح‬to instigate s.th.; to
sway, rock, roll (rider, camel); to swing
along, rock along (in riding) │‫ظا‬٠‫ُاثٌقو‬ٙ‫فوثاد‬
ٌٝ‫ ث‬their conversation led them to …; ‫ا‬ٌٛ‫ؼ‬
‫ووٗاثٌٌوجةووخ‬١ٌ‫اث‬ٜ‫( صقووو‬garaḍun tuḥdā) a goal
much sought after or worth striving for V
to compete, vie (ٖ with s.o.); to challenge,
provoke ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to defy, oppose,
resist, withstand ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.), stand up
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ against s.o., against s.th.) to incite,
stimulate, arouse, animate, sharpen ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.; ٖ ‫ ىوووج‬dakā’ahū s.o.‘s intellect); to
intend ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., to do s.th.), be bent ( ‫ ٘و‬on
doing s.th.)
‫ فووووووث‬ḥudā’ animating
chanting of the caravan leader
singsong,
‫ فوث‬ḥaddā’ camel driver, cameleer
‫ر‬ٚ‫ ثفوو‬uḥduwa, ‫وز‬٠‫ ثفو‬uḥdīya song of the
camel drivers
‫ صقوووو‬taḥaddin pl. ‫جس‬٠‫ صقوووو‬taḥaddiyāt
challenge, provocation
‫ فوجه‬ḥādin pl. ‫ فووثر‬ḥudāh caravan leader
(who urges the camels forward by
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader
‫ ِضقو‬mutaḥaddin challenger, provoker
1
2
3
ٞ‫ فوو‬ḥadiya a to remain, stay (‫ ح‬at a place),
stick (‫ ح‬to a place)
ٌٖ‫اع‬ٜ‫ فجه‬see ‫ثفو‬
□ ‫ز‬٠‫ فوث‬ḥidāya, ḥiddāya = ‫ فوأر‬ḥid’a
ً‫ فووي‬ḥadira a (ḥidr, ḥadar) to be cautious,
wary, to beware (ٓ‫ ِو‬or ‫٘و‬, ٖ of s.o., of
s.th.), be on one‘s guard (ٓ‫ ِوو‬or ‫٘ و‬, ٖ
against) II to warn, caution (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬s.o. of or
about), put (ٖ s.o.) on his guard (ٓ‫ِوو‬
against) III to watch out, be 163 careful;
to be on one‘s guard (ٖ against), be wary (ٖ
of s.o.) V to beware, be wary (ٓ‫ ِو‬of) VIII
=I
ً‫ فوووووي‬ḥidr and ḥadar caution,
watchfulness,
alertness,
wariness,
circumspection; precaution │ًٖ‫ثموووويافووووي‬
(ḥadarahū) to be on one‘s guard; ً‫اؽوي‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
‘alā ḥadarin cautiously, warily; on one‘s
guard (ِٓ against)
ً‫ في‬ḥadir cautious, wary
ًٞ‫ فيث‬ḥadārī beware (ْ‫ ث‬of doing …, ِٓ
of s.th.)! watch out (ٓ‫ ِو‬for)! be careful (ٓ‫ِو‬
of)!
ٌ٠‫ صقوي‬taḥdīr warning, cautioning (ٓ‫ ِو‬of,
against)
‫اِقووجىًر‬muḥādara caution, precaution,
precautionary measure
ًٚ‫ ِقوي‬maḥdūr that of which one should
beware, against which one should guard;
object of caution; -- (pl. -āt) danger, peril;
trouble, difficulty, misfortune
‫ فويؾ‬ḥadafa i (ḥadf) to shorten, clip, curtail ( ‫٘و‬
or ِٓ s.th.); to take s.th. away, cut s.th. off,
clip s.th. off (ٓ‫ ِو‬from s.th.), reduce (ٓ‫ِو‬
s.th.), strike or cross s.th. (ٓ‫ ِو‬off s.th.); to
cancel, strike out, delete, drop, leave out,
omit, suppress ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); (gram.) to elide,
apocopate, drop by aphaeresis; to deduct,
subtract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to throw (‫ ٖ ح‬at s.o.
s.th.), pelt (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. with s.th.); to cast
away, throw away, discard (‫ ح‬s.th.) II to
clip, trim ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to give ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) shape,
to trim, clip, or cut ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) into proper
shape
‫ فويؾ‬ḥadf shortening, curtailing, cutting
off,
trimming,
etc.;
canceling,
cancellation, striking off, crossing off,
deletion; omission, dropping, suppression;
(gram.) elision, ellipsis, apocopation
ٌ١‫ فويثـ‬ḥadāfīr2: ٌٖ١‫ ثمويٖادقويثـ‬he took all of it, he
took it lock, stock and barrel
‫ فويق‬ḥadiqa a, ḥadaqa i (ḥidq, ‫ فيثلوز‬ḥadāqa) to
be skilled, skillful, well-versed, proficient
( ‫ ٘و‬or ٟ‫ ـوو‬in s.th.), master ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -ḥadaqa u (‫ق‬ٚ‫ فوي‬ḥudūq) to turn sour (milk)
V to feign skillfulness, proficiency,
cleverness or smartness
‫ فووويق‬ḥidq and ‫ فيثلوووز‬ḥadāqa skill,
dexterity,
proficiency;
smartness,
cleverness, intelligence;
sagacity, acumen
perspicacity,
‫ ف وجىق‬ḥādiq pl. ‫ فوويثق‬ḥuddāq skillful,
skilled, proficient; well-versed, clever,
smart; intelligent; sour
‫ فويٌك‬II taḥadlaqa to pretend to be clever or
skilful, feign skiIl or knowledge; to be
pedantic
‫ فيٌمز‬ḥadlaqa skillfulness, dexterity
‫ة‬ٚ‫ فيثايفوي‬ḥadā u: ٖٚ‫( فويثافوي‬ḥadwahū) to imitate
s.o., take after s.o., follow s.o.‘s example
III to be opposite s.th. ( ٘) face, parallel ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), run parallel ( ‫ ٘و‬to) VI to be opposite
each other, be parallel VIII to imitate,
copy (‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. s.th., also ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), take
or follow (‫ ح‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., s.th., also ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
as an example or model; to be shod; to
wear ( ٘ s.th.) as footgear
ٚ‫ في‬ḥadwa (prep.) opposite, face to face
with │ً‫ناثٌٕعًادجٌٕعو‬ٚ‫ في‬ḥadwaka n-na‘la bin-na‘li in a completely identical manner,
to a T, like two peas in a pod
‫ فويث‬ḥidā’ pl. ‫وز‬٠‫ ثفي‬aḥdiya shoe; sandal
│‫ز‬٠‫في‬٤‫جٔػاث‬ٙ shoemaker
‫ فويث‬ḥidā’a (prep.) and ‫ دقويث‬bi-ḥidā’i
opposite, face to face with
‫ فيث‬ḥaddā’ shoemaker, cobbler
‫( ِقوجىثر‬ٟ‫ )ـو‬ٝ‫‘ عٍو‬alā (fī) muḥādāti along,
alongside of, parallel to
‫ ثفضيث‬iḥtidā’ imitation, copying
‫ ِقجى‬muḥādin opposite, facing
ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarra u i (ḥarr, ‫ فٌثًر‬ḥarāra) to be hot II to
liberate (ٖ s.o.); to free, set free, 164
release (ٖ s.o.); to emancipate (ٖ s.o.); to
consecrate (ٖ s.o.) to the service of God; to
clarify, clear up, make clear (ٖ s.th.); to
formulate precisely, phrase accurately,
define exactly, pinpoint ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to revise
( ‫ ٘و‬a book); to edit, redact ( ‫ ٘و‬a book, a
periodical); to write, pen, indite, compose,
compile ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to become free; to be
freed, be liberated (ٓ‫ ِووو‬from); to be
emancipated VIII to be kindled, be heated,
flare up
ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarr heat, warmth
ٌ‫ فو‬ḥurr pl. m. ً‫ ثفوٌث‬aḥrār, pl. f. ٌ‫فٌثةو‬
ḥarā’ir2 noble, free-bom; genuine (jewels,
etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in
freedom; freeman; independent; free
unrestrained; liberal (pol.; ً‫فوووٌث‬٨‫ ث‬the
Liberals); frank, candid, open (ٝ‫ عٍو‬toward
s.o.); free, available, uninvested (money)
│ٌ‫اثٌقووو‬ٟ‫وووج‬١‫فض‬٨‫( ث‬ihtiyaṭī) free reserves,
unencumbered reserves; ٗ‫ ِووٓافووٌاِجٌوو‬min
ḥurr mālihī with his own cash, with funds
at his disposal
‫ فوٌر‬ḥarra pl. -āt stony area; volcanic
country, lava field
‫وز‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥurrīya pl. -āt freedom, liberty;
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g.,
poetic) │‫وزاثٌعذوجهر‬٠ٌ‫ اف‬ḥ. al-‘ibāda freedom
of worship; ٌ‫وزاثٌفىو‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥ. al-fikr freedom of
thought; َ٩‫وزاثٌىو‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥ. al-kalām freedom of
speech; ٌ‫وزاثٌٕٖو‬٠ٌ‫( ف‬or‫وقجـز‬ٌٚ‫ )اث‬ḥ. an-našr
(aṣ-ṣiḥafa) liberty of the press
ٌ٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīr silk; pl. ٌ‫ فٌثة‬ḥarā’ir2 (ٌ٠‫)فٌث‬
silken wares, silks │ٌٞ‫وون‬ٙ‫ووٌا‬٠ٌ‫( ف‬ṣaḳrī)
asbestos; ٟ‫ٕجع‬ٙ‫ٌا‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬rayon
ٌٞ٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīrī silken, silky, of silk
ٌٞ‫ فٌثةوووو‬ḥarā’irī silken, silkcompounds), of silk; silk weaver
(in
ً‫ فٌث‬ḥarrār ssailk weaver
‫ فوٌثًر‬ḥarāra heat; warmth; fever heat,
fever; temperature; ardor, fervor (of
emotion), passion; eagerness, enthusiasm,
zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity;
burning (of the skin)
‫ٌر‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥuraira pl. -āt calorie
ًٞ‫ فٌث‬ḥarārī thermal, thermic, thermo-,
heat (used attributively); caloric │‫فووورا‬ٚ
‫ز‬٠ً‫( فٌث‬waḥda) calorie
O ‫ز‬٠ً‫ فٌث‬ḥarārīya pl. -āt calorie
ًٌٚ‫ فو‬ḥarūr f., pl. ٌ‫ فٌثةو‬ḥarā’ir2 hotwind
ْ‫ فوٌث‬ḥarrān2, f. ٌٜ‫ فوو‬ḥarrā, pl. ً‫فووٌث‬
ḥirār, ًٜ‫ فووٌث‬ḥarārā thirsty; passionate,
fervent, hot (fig.) │ٌٜ‫( ٍـووٌرافوو‬zafra) a
fervent sigh; ٌٜ‫ اف‬ِٛ‫ ه‬hot tears
ٌ‫ ثفو‬aḥarr2 hotter, warmer │‫اثفوٌاِوٓا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ٌ‫( ثٌؾّوو‬jamr) on pins and needles, on
tenterhooks, in greatest suspense or
excitement
O ٌ‫ ِقو‬miḥarr heating system, heating
installation
ٌ‫ووووو‬٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥrīr liberation; release;
emancipation;
record(ing),
writing;
editing, redaction; editorship (of a
newspaper, a periodical); (pl. -āt, ٌ٠ً‫صقووج‬
taḥārīr2) piece of writing, record, brief,
document │ ٌ‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ِاثٌضق‬١‫ ًةوو‬editor-in-chief;
ٌ٠ٌ‫ ثهثًراثٌضق‬board of editors, editorial staff
‫ ِقووٌثح‬miḥrāb pl. ‫ ِق وجًح‬maḥārib2 a
recess in a mosque indicating the direction
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab
ٌٞ‫ووووووووو‬٠ٌ‫صق‬
taḥrīrī
emancipational; liberal;
writing, written, in writing
liberational;
recorded in
‫ ِق وجًح‬muḥārib warring, belligerent;
warrior, combatant, fighter; corporal (Eg.
1939)
ً‫ فووج‬ḥār hot; warm; ardent, glowing,
fervent, passionate
ْٛ‫ ثٌّضقوجًد‬al-mutaḥāribūn the belligerents, the
warring parties
ًٌٚ‫ ِقووو‬maḥrūr hot-tempered,
headed, fiery, passionate, furious
hot-
‫ٕووز‬ٛ‫ فٌد‬ḥarbūša pl. ٔ‫( فووٌثد‬ḥarābiš2 (tun.)
pastille, pill
ًٌ‫ ِقوووو‬muḥarrir pl. -ūn liberator,
emancipator; writer, clerk; editor (of a
newspaper, of a periodical)
‫ فوٌط‬ḥarata i u (ḥart) to plow ( ‫ ٘و‬the soil); to
cultivate, till ( ٘ the ground)
ًٌ‫ ِقو‬muḥarrar consecrated to God; let
down in writing, recorded in writing,
written; booked; pl. ‫ ِقوووًٌثس‬booking,
entries
ًٌ‫ ِضقووو‬mutaḥarrir emancipated; an
advocate of emancipation 165
‫ فوٌح‬ḥariba a (ḥarab) to be furious, enraged,
angry III to fight, combat (ٖ s.o.) battle,
wage war (ٖ against s.o.) VI to fight (one
another), be engaged in war VIII = VI
‫( فوٌح‬ḥarb f., pl. ‫ح‬ٌٚ‫ فو‬ḥurūb war, warfare;
fight, combat, battle; enemy, enemies (ٝ‫عٍو‬
or ‫ ي‬of s.o.) │‫وز‬١ٍ٘‫( افوٌحاث‬ahlīya) civil war;
‫ز‬١‫وقجـ‬ٙ‫( فوٌحا‬ṣiḥāfīya) press feud; ‫حا‬ٌٚ‫ثٌقو‬
‫ز‬١‫ذ‬١ٍ‫وو‬ٌٚ‫( ث‬ṣalībīya) the Crusades; ‫ثٌقووٌحا‬
ٝ‫‗( ثٌعرّوو‬uẓmā), ‫ووز‬١ٌّ‫‗( ثٌقووٌحاثٌعج‬ālamīya),
‫‗( ثٌقوٌحاثٌعجِوز‬āmma) World War I; ‫وٖوفشا‬
‫ج‬ٙ‫ ثٌقوٌحاعوٓاّوجل‬kašafat il-ḥarbu ‘an sāqihā
and ‫اّووجق‬ٝ‫ لجِووشاثٌقووٌحاعٍوو‬qāmat il-ḥ. ‘alā
sāqin war flared up, fierce fighting broke
out
ٟ‫ فٌدووووو‬ḥarbī warlike, bellicose,
belligerent, martial, war (adj.), military;
(pl. -ūn) warrior, soldier, military man │‫ا‬
ٟ‫ِاثٌقٌد‬١ٌٛ‫( ثٌذ‬būlīs) military police
‫ فٌدوز‬ḥarba pl. ‫ فوٌثح‬ḥirāb lance, spear;
spearhead; bayonet, sidearm
‫ فٌدووووج‬ḥirbā’
chameleon (zool.)
pl.
ٝ‫فٌثدوووو‬
ḥarābīy
ٖ‫ثافٌدوج‬ٚ wā ḥarabāh! (exclamation of
lament) alas! goodness no! oh my!
‫ ِقجًدوووز‬muḥāraba struggle, combat,
fight, battle; warfare
‫ ثفضٌثح‬iḥtirāb mutual struggle
‫ فوووٌط‬ḥart plowing, tilling, tillage,
cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth;
plantation, culture
‫ فٌعز‬ḥarta (n. un.) arable land, tilth
‫ فٌثعووز‬ḥirāta cultivation of the soil,
farming, agriculture
‫ فٌثط‬ḥarrāt plowman
‫ ِقٌثطا‬miḥrāt pl. ‫ ِقجًط‬maḥārit2 plow
‫ فوجًط‬ḥārit pl. ‫ فوٌثط‬ḥurrāt plowman
│‫اثٌقجًط‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū l-ḥārit lion
‫ فوٌػ‬ḥarija a (ḥaraj) to be close, tight narrow;
to be straitened, be confined, get into a
strait, be cornered, be hard pressed; to be
oppressed, be anguished (heart); to be
forbidden (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.) ‫ا‬to narrow, tighten,
straiten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to complicate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) difficult; to forbid (ٝ‫٘و عٍو‬
s.th. to s.o.); to persist (J in s.th.) IV to
narrow, straiten, confine, cramp. hamper,
impede, restrict ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to complicate,
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardize ( ‫٘و‬
situation, s.o.‘s position); to embarrass (ٖ
s.o.); to coerce, constrain, press (ٝ‫ ٖ ثٌو‬s.o.
to); to forbid (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. to s.o.) V to
refrain from sin or evildoing; to abstain,
refrain (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), avoid (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.); to be
cornered, be forced to the wall; to become
or be oppressed, anguished, distressed; to
become critical, become complicated or
difficult, be aggravated (situation), be
jeopardized (s.o.‘s position) │‫ووًٖا‬ٙ‫صقوٌػا‬
‫( ِوٓايحة‬ṣadruhū) to feel depressed by, feel
annoyed at; ُ‫ صقوٌػادوٗاثٌٕوج‬this made things
difficult for people
‫( فووووٌػ‬ḥaraj closeness, tightness,
narrowness;
confinement,
straitness.
constriction, crampedness; restriction,
impediment; oppression, distress, anguish;
difficulty; critical situation; prohibition,
interdiction;
s.th.
forbidden,
s.th.
interdicted, sin │‫افوٌػ‬٨ (ḥaraja) there is
no 166 objection; ‫ووه‬١ٍ‫افووٌػاع‬٨ nothing
stands in your way, you are at liberty
‫ فوٌػ‬ḥaraj (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. -āt, ‫فوٌػ‬
ḥirāj, ‫ ثفووٌثػ‬aḥrāj thicket; dense forest;
woodland, timberland
‫ فووووٌػ‬ḥarij narrow, close, tight,
confined, straitened; oppressed, hard
pressed, harassed; critical (situation,
position)
‫ ثفووٌػ‬aḥrāj2 narrower, closer, tighter,
more straitened; more critical
‫ فٌثػ‬ḥarāg (eg.) auction
‫ فٌثؽوووز‬ḥarāja seriousness, gravity,
difficulty, complicatedness (of a situation)
‫ؼ‬٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥrīj forestation, afforestation
‫ فوووووٌػ‬taḥarruj restraint, reserve,
aloofness; timidity, diffidence, faintheartedness; critical complication, gravity,
difficulty (of a situation)
‫ فوٌػ‬muḥarrijāt: ْ‫ّوج‬٠٨‫ ِقٌؽوجساث‬m. alaimān binding, committing, or solemn,
oaths
‫ِقوووووووووٌػ‬
embarrassing
muḥrij
disconcerting,
‫ ِضقوٌػ‬mutaḥarrij: ً‫وو‬ٌٚ‫ ِضقوٌػاث‬m. aṣṣadr
annoyed,
vexed,
anguished,
oppressed
‫ فوووٌه‬ḥarida a (ḥarad) to be annoyed,
disgruntled, angry, furious (ٍٝ‫ ع‬at, with)
‫ فوجًه‬ḥārid, ‫ فوٌه‬ḥarid and ْ‫ فوٌهث‬ḥardān
annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious
ْٚ‫ فٌى‬ḥardaun pl. ٓ٠‫ فٌثى‬ḥarādīn2 lizard
ٌٍ‫ فو‬ḥaraza u (ḥarz) to keep, guard, protect,
preserve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), take care ( ‫ ٘ و‬of); -ḥaruza u (‫ فوٌثٍر‬ḥarāza) to be strong be
strongly fortified, be impregnable IV to
keep, preserve, guard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to obtain,
attain, achieve, win ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │‫وٌثا‬ٚٔ‫اثفوٌٍا‬
‫وجًثة‬ٚ‫( يثٔض‬naṣran) to win a victory; ‫ثفوٌٍا‬
‫وووخاثٌْوووذك‬ٚ‫( ل‬qaṣaba s-sabq) to come
through with flying colors, carry the day,
score a great success V to be wary (ٓ‫ ِو‬of),
be on one‘s guard (ٓ‫ ِو‬against) VIII to be
wary (ٓ‫ ِو‬of), guard, be on one‘s guard (ٓ‫ِو‬
against), be careful, take heed, take
precautions
ٌٍ‫ فوو‬pl. ٍ‫ ثفووٌث‬aḥrāz fortified place;
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pl.
ٍ‫ثفٌث‬, ٌٍٚ‫ )ف‬amulet
َ‫و‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīz strongly fortified, guarded;
inaccessible, impregnable
ٍ‫ ثفووٌث‬iḥrāz acquisition, acquirement,
obtainment, attainment, achievement,
winning, gaining
ٍ‫ ثفضوٌث‬iḥtirāz pl. -āt caution, wariness,
prudence, circumspection; reservation,
reserve │ٍ‫فضٌث‬٨‫ دىًاث‬with all reservation
O ‫ فجًٍر‬ḥāriza fuse (el.)
ٌٍ‫ ِقو‬muḥriz obtainer, acquirer, winner,
gainer; possessor, holder (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of s.th.)
ٌُ‫ فو‬ḥarasa u (ḥars, ‫ فٌثّوز‬ḥirāsa) to guard,
watch, control (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th., s.o.); to oversee,
supervise, superintend (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th., s.o.); to
secure, protect, safeguard, preserve, keep
(ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th., s.o.); to watch (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over) V and
VIII to beware, be wary (ٓ‫ ِو‬of), guard, be
on one‘s guard (ِٓ against)
ٌُ‫ فووو‬ḥaras watch; guard, escort;
bodyguard │ً‫ج‬١‫( ثٌقوٌُاثٌْو‬sayyār) militia,
"garde mobile" (syr.) │‫ فوٌُاثٌٖوٌؾ‬ḥ. aššaraf honor guard; ٟ‫( ثٌقووٌُاثٌٍّىوو‬malakī)
the royal guard (formerly Ir., Eg.); ‫ثٌقوٌُا‬
ٟ‫و‬ٛ‫( ثٌٍّو‬mulūkī) (formerly) bodyguard of
the Bey (Tun.); ٟٕٟٛ‫( ثٌقوٌُاثٌو‬waṭanī) the
National Guard
‫ فٌثّووووز‬ḥirāsa guarding, watching,
control; watch, guard, guard duty;
supervision,
superintendence;
guardianship, tutelage, custody, care,
protection;
safe
conduct,
escort;
administration; administration of an estate
(jur.); sequester │ً‫ثف‬ٌْٛ‫ فٌثّزاث‬coast guard
167
ُ‫ ثفضووووٌث‬iḥtirās caution, wariness,
prudence;
(pl.
-āt)
precaution,
precautionary measure │ٓ‫ ثفضٌثّوووجاِووو‬for
protection from or against
ًُ‫ فووج‬ḥāris pl. ‫ فٌّووز‬ḥarasa, ُ‫فووٌث‬
ḥurrās vigilant, watchful; watchman;
sentry,
sentinel,
guard;
overseer,
supervisor, superintendent; administrator;
guardian, custodian, keeper, protector,
tutelary (in compounds) │‫ فووجًُاثٌضٌوووز‬ḥ.
at-tirka administrator of aD estate; ‫فوجًُا‬
ُ‫ثص‬ٛ‫ ثٌن‬keeper of the seal; ٝ‫ فجًُاثٌٌِّو‬ḥ. almarmā goal keeper; ٟ‫وجة‬ٞ‫( فوجًُال‬qaḍā’ī)
sequestrator, receiver (in bankruptcy, in
equity); ًُ‫نافوووج‬٩‫( ِووو‬mal’ak) guardian
angel (Chr.); ً‫وو‬١ٌٍ‫ فووجًُاث‬ḥ. al-lail night
watchman
ٌٛ‫ فو‬II to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, incite,
rouse, provoke (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to s.th. or to do
s.th.); to instigate, abet, stir up, agitate
(ٍٝ‫ ٖ ع‬s.o. to or against); O to induce (el.)
ٌُٚ‫ ِقوو‬maḥrūs guarded, safeguarded,
secured; protected (by God; esp. used ss
an epithet after the names of cities);
ٌّْٛ‫ ثٌّق‬the children, the family
ٟ‫وو‬ٞ٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥrīḍī inciting, instigative,
agitative, inflammatory; provocative
ٌُ‫ ِقض‬muḥtaris cautious, wary, careful
ٌٓ‫ فو‬ḥaraša i (ḥarš) to scratch ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.)
II to instigate, prod, incite, provoke,
incense (ٖ s.o.); to set (ٓ١‫ دو‬people against
each other), sow discord, dissension (ٓ١‫دو‬
among) V to pick a quarrel, start a brawl
(‫ ح‬with s.o.) provoke (‫ ح‬s.o.)
ٌٓ‫ فو‬ḥirš, ḥurš pl. ٓ‫ ثفوٌث‬aḥrāš, ٌٓٚ‫فو‬
ḥurūš forest, wood(s)
ٌٓ‫ فوو‬ḥariš and ٌٓ‫ ثفوو‬aḥraš, rough,
coarse, scabrous
ٌٓ‫ فو‬ḥaraš, ‫ فٌٕوز‬ḥurša, ‫ فٌثٕوز‬ḥarāša
roughness, coarseness, scabrousness
ٔ٠ٌ‫ صقووو‬taḥrīš instigation, prodding,
incitement,
provocation,
agitation,
incensement
ٌٓ‫صقوووووووو‬
taḥarruš
importunity,
obtrusion,
uncalled-for interference
provocation,
meddling,
‫ فٌٕؿ‬ḥaršaf pl. ‫ فٌثٕؿ‬ḥarāšif2 scales (of fish)
ٌٗ‫ فو‬ḥaraṣa i and ḥariṣa a (ḥirṣ) to desire,
want, covet (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to be intent, be
bent (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on); to strive (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for), aspire
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬to)
ٌٗ‫ فوو‬ḥirṣ greed, avidity, cupidity,
covetousness; desire; aspiration, endeavor,
wish (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for); avarice │ٝ‫وجاعٍو‬ٌٙ‫ ف‬in the
desire for …, in the endeavor to …; ‫وجا‬ٌٙ‫ف‬
‫ثؿ‬ًٚ٨‫اث‬ٍٝ‫ ع‬danger! (on warning signs)
٘٠ٌ‫ فوو‬ḥarīṣ pl. ٗ‫ فووٌث‬ḥirāṣ, ‫ووج‬ٌٙ‫ف‬
ḥuraṣā’2 covetous, greedy, avid, eager
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬for); bent (ٍٝ‫ ع‬on), desirous (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of)
ٌٗ‫ ثف‬aḥraṣ more covetous, greedier
ٜ٠ٌ‫ صقو‬taḥrīḍ incitement, provocation;
instigation, abetment, agitation (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to);
inflammatory propaganda (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬against
s.o.); O induction (el.) │ٟ‫اىثصو‬ٜ٠ٌ‫ اصقو‬selfinduction (el.)
ًٛ‫ فج‬ḥāriḍ bad, wicked, evil
ٌٛ‫ ِقو‬muḥarriḍ pl. -ūn inciter, baiter;
instigator, abettor; demagogue, rabble
rouser; agitator, provocator; O inductor
(el.)
ٌٛ‫ ِضق‬mutaḥarriḍ O induced (el.)
‫ فووٌؾ‬II to slant, incline, make oblique ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to bend off, up, down or back, turn
up, down or back, deflect ( ‫٘ و‬s.th.); to
distort,
corrupt,
twist,
pervert,
misconstrue, falsify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │‫فٌـوٗاعووٓا‬
ٗ‫وع‬ِٝٛ (‗an mauḍi‘ihī) to distort the sense
of 168 s.th., rob s.th. of its true meaning V
to turn off, branch off, take a turning; to
deviate, depart, digress (ٓ‫ عوو‬from); to
avoid (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to be or become bent off,
distorted, corrupted, perverted VII to tum
off, branch off, ta.ke a turning; to deviate,
depart, digress, turn away (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to
slope down, slant, be inclined (terrain); to
turn (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to, toward); to be twisted, be
distorted; to be oblique, slanting; to be
cocked, rakish (headgear); with ‫ ح‬to make
s.th. appear oblique, slanted, or distorted;
to be corrupted, perverted │ٓ‫ اثٔقٌؾادٗاعو‬to
dissuade s.o. from; ٗ‫( ثٔقٌؾاَِثؽو‬mizājuhū)
to be indisposed, be ill VIII to do ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
professionally, practice ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.) as a
profession; to strive for success
‫ فوٌؾ‬ḥarf pl. ‫ فوٌؾ‬ḥiraf (cutting) edge
(of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge;
border, edge, rim, brink, verge; -- (pl.
‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ ف‬ḥurūf, ‫ ثفٌؾ‬aḥruf) letter; consonant;
particle (gram.); type (typ.) │‫افووٌؾ‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
irresolute, wavering, on the fence; ‫ثٌفجظوٗا‬
‫ووج‬ٙ‫ـ‬ٌٚ‫ دق‬alfāẓuhū bi-ḥurūfihā his words
literally; ‫ دوجٌقٌؾ‬or ‫ثفوو‬ٌٛ‫ دووجٌقٌؾاث‬literally,
verbatim, to the letter; ‫ فٌـوجادقوٌؾ‬ḥarfan
bi-ḥarfin literally, word for word; ‫لوواا‬ٚ
ٝ‫ٌوو‬ٚ٨‫فٌؾااث‬٨‫( دووج‬waqqa‘a, ūlā) to initial
(e.g., ‫ ِعج٘ور‬mu‘āhadatan a treaty); ‫ؾا‬ٌٚ‫ثٌقو‬
‫ووز‬٠‫دؾو‬٨‫( ث‬abjadīya) the alphabetic letters,
the alphabet; ‫عوز‬ّٛ‫ؾاِؾ‬ٌٚ‫ فو‬matter (typ.);
‫ز‬١‫ؾاثٌّْٖوو‬ٌٚ‫( ثٌقوو‬šamsīya) the sun letters
(i.e., sibilants, dentals, r, l, n to which the l
of the article assimilates), ‫ووز‬٠ٌّ‫ؾاثٌم‬ٌٚ‫ثٌقوو‬
(qamarīya) the moon letters (to which the
l of the article does not assimilate); ‫فوٌؾا‬
ٌ‫ ثٌؾو‬ḥ al-jarr preposition (gram.) ‫فووٌؾا‬
ٜ‫ ثٌنفو‬ḥ al-ḳafḍ do.; ‫وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ فوٌؾاثٌضع‬article
(gram.); ‫ فوٌؾاثٌع وؿ‬ḥ al-‘aṭf coordinating
conjunction
(gram.);
َ‫ج‬ٙ‫ّووووووضف‬٨‫فوووووٌؾاث‬
interrogative particle (gram.); ُ‫ فوٌؾاثٌمْو‬ḥ.
al-qasam particle introducing oaths
(gram.)
ٟ‫ فٌـ‬ḥarfī literal
‫ فوٌؾ‬ḥurf common garden pepper cress
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.)
‫ فٌـ وز‬ḥirfa pl. ‫ فووٌؾ‬ḥiraf profession,
occupation, vocation, business, craft, trade
‫وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīf pl. ‫ فٌـوج‬ḥurafā’2 customer,
patron, client (tun.)
‫ؿ‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥirrīf pungent, acrid (taste); ‫فوجس‬٠ٌ‫ف‬
spicy food, delicacies
‫ فٌثـز‬ḥarāfa pungency, acridity (taste)
‫وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥrīf pl. -āt alteration, change;
distortion; perversion, corruption, esp.
phonetic corruption of a word
‫ ثٔقووووٌثؾ‬inḥirāf pl. -āt deviation,
digression;
obliqueness,
obliquity,
inclination, slant; declination (astrom.);
ailment, indisposition, also ‫ثٔقٌثؾاثٌَّثػ‬
‫ ثفضوٌثؾ‬iḥtirāf professional pursuit (of a
trade, etc.)
‫ ِقٌؾ‬muḥarraf corrupted (word)
‫ ِٕقووووٌؾ‬munḥarif oblique; slanted,
slanting, sloping, inclined; distorted,
perverted, corrupted, twisted; deviating,
divergent; trapezium (geom.)
‫ ِقضوٌؾا‬muḥtarif one gainfully employed
(‫ ح‬in), person doing s.th. (‫)ح‬
professionally; professional, a pro
(sports); professional (adj.), e.g., ‫ا‬ٟ‫ووقجـ‬ٙ
‫( ِقضوووٌؾ‬ṣiḥāfī) professional journalist;
climber, careerist
‫ ِقضٌؾ‬muḥtaraf pl. -āt studio, atelier
‫ فوٌق‬ḥaraqa i (ḥarq) to burn ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to burn,
hurt, sting, smart │ٗ‫( فوٌقالٍذو‬qalbahū), pl.
ُٙ‫د‬ٛ‫( فوٌقالٍو‬qulūbahum) to vex, exasperate
s.o.; -- u (ḥarq) to rub together ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II
to burn ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); ٗٔ‫( فوٌقاثّوٕج‬asnānahū) to
gnash one‘s teeth V to burn ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
destroy by fire ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to singe, scorch,
parch ( ٘ s.th.); to scald ( ٘ s.th.); to kindle,
ignite, set on fire ( ٘ s.th.) │‫ٍوٗا‬١ٌ‫اثفوٌقاـقّوزا‬
ٟ‫(ـوو‬faḥmata lailihī) to spend the night
doing 169 (s.th.), burn the midnight oil
over… V to burn, be aflame, burn up, take
fire, he consumed hy fire, he burned; to be
consumed (by an emotion), pine away ( ‫٘و‬
with), he pained ( ‫ ٘و‬by), eat one‘s heart
out │‫لج‬ٛ‫( صقوٌقإو‬šauqan) to be overcome
with longing or nostalgia VIII to burn, be
aflame, burn up, take fire, be consumed by
fire, he burned
‫ فوووووٌق‬ḥarq burning, incineration,
combustion; kindling, igniting, setting
afire; arson, incendiarism; pl. ‫ق‬ٌٚ‫ فو‬ḥurūq
burn (med.)
‫ فٌق‬ḥaraq fire, conflagration
‫ فٌلوز‬ḥurqa, ḥarqa burning, incineration,
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning
(as a physical sensation); torture, torment,
agony, pain, ordeal
‫ فٌثق‬ḥurāq, ḥurraq tinder
‫ فٌثق‬ḥarrāq hurning, aflame, afire; hot
‫وك‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīq and ‫موز‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬pl. ‫ فٌثةوك‬ḥarā’iq2
fire; conflagration
O‫ افٌثلزا‬ḥarrāqa torpedo
ْ‫ فٌلووووج‬ḥaraqān burning, stinging,
smarting (as a painful sensation; e.g., of
the feet)
O ‫ ِقووٌق‬maḥraq pl. ‫ ِق وجًق‬maḥāriq2
focus (phys.)
‫ك‬٠ً‫ صقووج‬taḥārīq2 (Eg.) season of the
Nile‘s lowest water level, hottest season
of the year
‫ ثفٌثق‬burning, incineration, combustion
‫ صقوووٌق‬taḥarruq buming, combustion;
burning desire
‫ ثفضوٌثق‬iḥtirāq burning, combustion; fire,
conflagration │O ‫فضوٌثق‬٨‫ ؼٌـوزاث‬gurfat al-i.
combustion chamber (techn.); ‫فضوٌثق‬٨‫لجدوًاث‬
qābil al-i. combustible
‫ فجًق‬ḥāriq arsonist, incendiary
‫ق‬ٌٚ‫ ِقووووو‬maḥrūq burned, charred,
scorched, parched; reddish, hronzecolored; pl. ‫لوجس‬ٌٚ‫ ِق‬maḥrūqāt fuel │‫اـنوجًا‬
‫ق‬ٌٚ‫(ِق‬faḳḳār) fired clay
‫ ِقوووٌق‬muḥriq: ‫( لٕذٍوووزاِقٌلوووز‬qunbula)
incendiary bomb
O ‫ ِقٌق‬muḥraq crematory
‫ ِقٌلز‬maḥraqa burnt sacrifice
‫ فٌلو‬ḥarqada pl. ‫ فٌثلو‬ḥarāqid2 Adam‘s apple
‫ فٌلفوز‬ḥarqafa pl. ‫ فٌثلووؿ‬ḥarāqif2 protruding
part of the hipbone
‫ فوٌن‬II to move, set in motion, drive, propel,
operate ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to march, move (ٖ
troops); to stir ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to start, get
started, get underway ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to agitate,
excite, stimulate ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to incite,
instigate, goad, prod, provoke, actuate,
urge (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to do s.th.); to awaken,
arouse, foment, stir up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to vowel,
vowelize (gram., ‫ ٘و‬a consonant) │‫فوٌنا‬
ٌٖ‫( ِٖوجع‬mašā‘irahū) to grip, excite, thrill
s.o.; ‫وؿ‬ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فوٌناثٌع‬to affect the feelings, be
touching, moving, pathetic; ‫قووٌناّووجوٕج‬٠‫ا‬٨
(sākinan) he doesn‘t budge, he doesn‘t
hend his little finger, he remains
immobile, apathetic; ٕٗ‫( فوٌناّوجو‬sākinahū)
to rouse s.o., put s.o. in a state of
excitement, commotion or agitation V to
move, be in motion, stir, hudge; to start
moving, get moving; to start out, get
underway (traveler); to depart, leave
(train); to put out, to sail (fleet); to he set
in motion, be driven, be operated; to be
agitated, be excited, be stimulated; to be
awakened, be roused, be fomented, be
provoked, be caused
‫ فووٌن‬ḥarik lively, active, brisk, agile,
nimble
‫ فٌووز‬ḥaraka pl. -āt movement, motion;
commotion; physical exercise; stirring,
impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy;
action, undertaking, enterprise; military
170 operation; continuation, progress;
traffic (rail, ohipplng, otreet); movement
(as a social phenomenon); vowel (gram.)
│ٗ‫ّووىٕجص‬ٚ‫افٌوجصووٗا‬ٟ‫( ـوو‬sakanātihī) in all his
doings; in every situation; ًٌٚ‫فٌوووزاثٌّوو‬
(through) traffic; ‫ فٌوووزاثٌٌّثوووخ‬shipplng
traffic; ‫ووجةا‬ٞ‫ فٌوووزاثٌذ‬exchange of goods;
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ِو‬٤‫ فٌووزاث‬turnover (com.); ‫ز‬٠ٛ‫ثٌقٌووزاثٌْٕو‬
(niswīya) feminist movement; ‫وؿاثٌقٌووز‬١‫مف‬
nimble, lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit;
‫وًاثٌقٌووز‬١‫ عم‬slow in motion, heavy-handed,
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert,
indolent
O ٟ‫ فٌو‬ḥarakī kinetic (phys.)
‫ فٌثن‬ḥarāk movement, motion
‫ ِقووٌن‬maḥrak path, trajectory (of a
projectile)
‫ ِقٌثن‬miḥrāk poker, fire iron
ٟ‫ى‬٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥrīkī dynamic
‫ صقوووٌن‬taḥarruk pl. -āt movement,
motion; forward motion; start; departure;
sailing (of a fleet)
‫ فجًن‬ḥārik withers
‫ ِقوٌن‬muḥarrik mover, stirrer; rouser,
inciter, fomenter, awakener, agent;
instigator; -- (pl. -M) motive, springs,
incentive, spur, motivating circumstance,
causative factor; motor, engine (tech.)
‫ ِضقووٌن‬mutaḥarrik moving, movable,
mobile; pronounced with following
vowel, voweled, vowelized (consonant;
gram.) │‫ًاِضقٌووووز‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٙ (ṣuwar) movies,
motion pictures
‫ فٌووظ‬ḥarkata (and ٔ‫ فوٌو‬ḥarkaša) to stir up,
agitate, excite, thrill
ٌَ‫ فوو‬ḥaruma u, ḥarima a to be forbidden,
prohibited,
interdicted,
unlawful,
unpermitted (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to s.o.); -- ḥarama i
(ḥirm, ْ‫ فٌِوج‬ḥirmān) to deprive, bereave,
dispossess, divest ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬s.o. of s.th.)
take away, withdraw, withhold ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or ‫٘و‬
ٓ‫ ِو‬or ٖ form s.o. s.th.), deny, refuse ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or
‫ ِوٓ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬to s.o. s.th.); to exclude,
debar, preclude, cut off ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬s.o.
from s.th.); to excommunicate (ٖ s.o.) II to
declare ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.) sacred, sacrosanct,
inviolable, or taboo, to taboo ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
declare ( ٘ s.th.) unlawful, not permissible,
forbid, interdict, proscribe ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., j. to
s.o.); to render (ٖ s.o.) immune or proof
(ٓ‫ ِو‬against), immunize (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬s.o. against)
│ٗ‫أفْو‬ٝ‫ فٌِوٗاعٍو‬to deny o.s. s.th., abstain,
refrain from s.th. IV to excommunicate (ٖ
s.o.; Chr.); to enter into the state of ritual
consecration (esp., of a Mecca pilgrim;
see َ‫ ثفووٌث‬iḥrām) V to be forbidden,
interdicted, prohibited; to be holy, sacred,
sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to honor,
revere, venerate, esteem, respect ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o.,
s.th.) │ٗ‫ ثفضوٌَأفْو‬to be self-respecting X to
deem ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) sacrosanct, sacred, holy,
inviolable; to deem ( ‫ا ٘و‬s.th.) unlawful or
unpermissible
ٌَ‫ ف‬ḥirm excommunication (Chr.)
ٌَ‫ فو‬ḥaram p1. َ‫ ثفوٌث‬aḥrām forbidden,
prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy,
sacred, sacrosanct; s.th. sacred, sacred
object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum,
sanctuary, sacred precinct; ْ‫ ثٌقٌِوج‬the two
Holy Places, Mecca and Medina │‫عجٌووظا‬
ٓ١ٌِ‫ ثٌقوو‬tālit al-ḥaramain the third Holy
Place, i.e., Jerusalem
‫ فٌِوز‬ḥurma pl. -āt, ḥurumāt, ḥuramāt
holiness,
sacredness,
sanctity,
sacrosanctity, inviolability; reverence,
veneration, esteem, deference, respect;
that which is holy, sacred, sacrosanct,
inviolable, or taboo; -- (pl. ٌَ‫ فوو‬ḥuram)
woman, lady; wife
َ‫ فوٌث‬ḥarām pl. ٌَ‫ فو‬ḥurum forbidden,
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; s.th.
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo;
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed │‫ثدوٓا‬
َ‫ فوٌث‬ibn ḥ. illegitimate son, bastard; 171
َ‫اثٌقوووٌث‬ٟ‫ووو‬ٝ‫ًث‬٨‫ ث‬no man‘s land; neutral
territory; َ‫شاثٌقٌث‬١‫( ثٌذ‬bait) the Kaaba; ‫ٌا‬ٙ‫ثٌٖو‬
َ‫( ثٌقوٌث‬šahr) the Holy Month Muharram;
َ‫( ثٌّْوؾواثٌقوٌث‬masjid) the Holy Mosque in
Mecca; ‫ووه‬١ٍ‫ فووٌثَاع‬you mustn‘t do (say)
that! َ‫ دجٌقٌث‬illicitly, illegally, unlawfully
ٌَٚ‫ فوو‬ḥurūm pl. -āt excommunication
(Chr.)
ٟ‫ فٌثِوو‬ḥarāmī pl. -īya thief, robber,
bandit
ْ‫فٌِوووووووووج‬
ḥirmān
deprivation,
bereavement, dispossession (of s.o., ٓ‫ ِو‬of
s.th.) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (ٓ‫ِو‬
from);
excommunication
(CHr.);
privation │‫ًط‬٨‫ فٌِوجْاث‬ḥ. al-irt exclusion
from inheritance, disinheritance (Isl. Law)
ٌَ‫ ِقو‬maḥram pl. ًَ‫ ِقوج‬maḥārim2 s.th.
forbidden. inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct,
holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being in a
degree of consanguinity precluding
marriage (Isl. Law)
‫ ِقٌِووز‬maḥrama pl. ًَ‫ ِقووج‬maḥārim2
handkerchief
ُ٠ٌ‫ صقو‬taḥrīm forbiddance, interdiction,
prohibition, ban
َ‫ ثفوٌث‬iḥrām state of ritual consecration
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the
pilgrim, wearing two seamless woolen or
linen sheets, usually white, neither combs
nor shaves, and observes sexual
continence); garments of the Mecca
pilgrim
َ‫ ثفضوٌث‬iḥtirām pl. -āt deference, respect,
regard, esteem, reverence; honoring (e.g.,
of a privilege); pl. honors, respects,
tributes
ٌَٚ‫ ِقووو‬maḥrūm deprived, bereaved,
bereft (ٓ‫ ِووو‬of); excluded, precluded,
debarred (ٓ‫ ِو‬from); suffering privation (as
opposed to ‫ق‬ٌٍٚ‫ ;)ِووو‬excommunicated
(Chr.)
ٌَ‫ ِقو‬muḥarram forbidden, interdicted;
Muharram, name of the first Islamic
month; َ‫ ِقوٌَاثٌقوٌث‬m. al-ḥarām honorific
name of this month
َ‫ فووٌث‬ḥirām pl. -āt, ‫ ثفٌِووز‬aḥrima a
woolen blanket (worn as a garment around
head and body)
ٌَ‫ ِقو‬muḥrim Mecca pilgrim who has
entered the state of ritual consecration (see
َ‫ ثفٌث‬iḥrām)
ُ٠ٌ‫ فوو‬ḥarīm pl. ٌَ‫ فوو‬ḥurum a sacred,
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary,
sacred, precinct; harem; female members
of the family, women; wife
ٌَ‫ ِقضووو‬muḥtaram honored, revered,
venerated, esteemed, respected; (in the
salutation of letters:) my dear …;
venerable, reverend; notable, remarkable,
considerable
ّٟ٠ٌ‫ ف‬ḥarīmī women‘s (in compounds),
for women
ً‫ فٌِو‬ḥarmal African rue (Peganum harmala
L.; bot.)
ً‫ فٌِو‬ḥarmala pl. ً‫ فٌثِو‬ḥarāmil2 loose
wrap worn over the shoulders (garment of
the dervishes)
ٌْ‫ فو‬ḥarana, ḥaruna u (ٌْ‫ فو‬ḥiran, ḥuran) to
be obstinate, stubborn, headstrong
ٌْٚ‫ فو‬ḥarūn pl. ٌْ‫ فو‬ḥurun obstinate,
stubborn, refractory, reluctant, resistant
ًْٚ‫ فج‬ḥārūn brazior
‫ر‬ٌٚ‫ فوو‬ḥarwa burning; wrath, rage; acridity,
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagreeable
odor
ٌٜ‫ فو‬V to seek, pursue ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), strive ( ‫ ٘و‬for),
asplre ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to examine, investigate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to inquire (ٓ‫ عوو‬or ‫ ٘و‬into), make
inquiries (ٓ‫ عو‬or ‫ ٘و‬about); to be intent ( ‫٘و‬
on s.th.), take cars ( ٘ of s.th.), attend ( ٘ to
s.th., also ٟ‫)ـو‬, look ( ‫ ٘و‬after s.th., also ٟ‫;)ـو‬
to see to it (ْ‫ ث‬that) 172
ٌٜ‫ دجٌق‬bi-l-ḥarā hardly, barely
ٌٜ‫ فو‬ḥarīy pl. ‫وج‬٠ٌ‫ ثف‬aḥriyā’ adequate,
appropriate, suitable (‫ ح‬for), worthy (‫ ح‬of
s.th.) │ٌ‫ادجٌووووويو‬ٌٜ‫( افووووو‬dikr) worth
mentioning, considerable; ‫ك‬٠‫وووو‬ٚ‫ادجٌض‬ٌٞ‫فووو‬
credible, believable; ٌٞ‫ادووجٌق‬ٚ‫ ث‬or to be
exact, or rather
ٌٜ‫ ثفو‬aḥrā more adequate, more proper,
more appropriate │ٌٜ‫ف‬٨‫ادوج‬ٚ‫ اث‬or to tell the
truth, or more explicitly, or put more
exactly, or rather
ٌ‫ صقووو‬taḥarrin pl. ‫وووجس‬٠ٌ‫ صق‬taḥarriyāt
inquiry; investigation │ٌٞ‫زاثٌضقو‬ٌٟٕ‫ ا‬šurṭat
at-t. or ٌٞ‫وٍقزاثٌضقو‬ِٚ maṣlaḥat al-t. secret
police
َ‫ فو‬ḥazza u (ḥazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent
(ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.), make an incision, cut (ٟ‫ ـو‬into
s.th.) II and VIII = I
َ‫ فو‬ḥazz pl. ٍَٚ‫ فو‬ḥuzūz incision, notch,
nick; the right time, the nick of time
‫ فَر‬ḥazza incision, notch, nick; tim; the
right time, the nick of time; predicament,
plight
ٍ‫ فَث‬ḥazāz head scurf, ringworm; tetter,
eruption (med.)
‫ فَثٍر‬ḥazāza rancor, hatred, hate
َ‫ ِقو‬maḥazz notch, nick │َ‫وجحاثٌّقو‬ٙ‫ ث‬to
find the right solution, hit the nail on the
head, hit the mark, strike home
‫ فوَح‬ḥazaba u (ḥazb) to befall (ٖ s.o.), happen,
occur (ٖ to s.o.) │ٌ‫ِوو‬٨‫ افووَحاث‬the matter
became serious II to rally (ٖ s.o.); to form
or found a party 111 to side, take sides (ٖ
with), be an adherent (ٖ of s.o.) V to take
sides; to form a party, make common
cause, join forces
‫ فوَح‬ḥizb pl. ‫ ثفوَثح‬aḥzāb group, troop,
band, gang; party (pol.); the 60th part of
the Koran │ٗ‫اِوٓاثفَثدو‬ٛ‫ ا٘و‬he belongs to his
clique. he is of the ...me breed
ٟ‫ فَد‬ḥizbī party (adj.), factional
‫ووووووز‬١‫فَد‬
ḥizbīya
party
activities;
partisanship, partiality; factionalism
ْٛ‫َد‬١‫ ف‬ḥaizabūn old hag
‫صقووووووووَح‬
factionalism
taḥazzub
factiousness;
‫ فوجٍح‬ḥāzib: ‫ فَدوٗافوجٍح‬ḥazabahū ḥāzib
he met with a mishap
‫ ِضقوووَح‬mutaḥazzib
partisan
partial, biased;
ًَ‫ فوو‬ḥazara i u (ḥazr, ‫ ِقووًَر‬maḥzara) to
estimate, assess, appraise ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
make a rough estimate ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.), guess
( ٘ s.th.)
ًَ‫ فوووو‬ḥazr estimation, assessment,
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise
‫ًر‬َٚ‫ ف‬ḥazūra riddle, puzzle
‫ ِقوًَر‬maḥzara estimation, assessment,
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise
ْ‫ٌث‬٠َ‫ ف‬ḥazīrān June (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
ٟٔ‫ فَلج‬ḥuzuqqānī choleric
‫لز‬َٚ‫ ف‬ḥazūqa, ‫لز‬ٍٚ‫ فج‬ḥāzūqa hiccups
ََ‫ فو‬ḥazama i (ḥazm) to tie up, bundle, wrap
up, pack, do up in a package or bundle ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to girth ( ‫ ٘و‬an animal); to make fast,
fasten, tie ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │ٌٖ‫( افوََاثِو‬amrahū) to
take matters firmly in hand; -- ḥazuma u
(ḥazm, ‫ فَثِز‬ḥazāma, ‫ِوز‬َٚ‫ ف‬ḥuzūma) to be
resolute, firm, stouthearted, intrepid II to
gird (ٖ s.o.) V and VIII to be girded; to
gird o.s. put on a belt
ََ‫افووووووو‬ḥazm
packing,
packaging,
wrapping; determination, resoluteness,
firmness,
energy;
judiciousness,
discretion, prudence
‫ فَِوووز‬ḥuzma pl. ََ‫ فووو‬ḥuzam s.th.
wrapped up or tied up, bundle, fagot,
fascine; beam of rays, radiation beam
(phys.); bunch (of herb., etc.); sheaf;
package, parcel
َ‫ فوَث‬ḥzām pl. -āt, ‫ ثفَِوز‬aḥzima, ََ‫فو‬
ḥuzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund,
173 waistband (worn over the caftan to
fasten it); sword belt │ٓ‫ِو‬٨‫ فوَثَاث‬ḥ. al-amn
wety belt
ََ‫ ثفووو‬aḥzam2 more resolute: more
judicious
ٍَ‫ فوج‬ḥāzim pl. ‫ فَِوز‬ḥazama and ُ٠َ‫فو‬
ḥazīm pl. ‫ فَِوووج‬ḥuzamā’
resolute,
energetic; judicious, discreet, prudent
َْ‫ فو‬ḥazana u to make sad, sadden, grieve (ٖ
s.o.); -- ḥazina a (ḥuzn, ḥazan) to be sad,
grieved (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫ عٍوو‬at or because of): to
grieve. mourn (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬over) II and IV to
make sad, sadden, grieve (ٖ s.o.)
َْ‫ ف‬ḥuzn pl. ْ‫ ثفوَث‬aḥzān sadness, grief,
sorrow, affliction
َْ‫ ف‬ḥazn pl. َْٚ‫ ف‬ḥuzūn rough, rugged,
hard ground
َْ‫ ف‬ḥazin sad, mournful, grieved
ٓ٠َ‫ فوو‬ḥazīn pl. ‫افَٔ وج‬ḥuzanā’2, ٝ‫فَثٔ و‬
ḥazānā sad; mourning (for a deceased
person); sorrowing, mournful, grieved
│‫ٕز‬٠َ‫( ثٌؾّعزاثٌق‬jum‘a) Good Friday (Chr.)
ْ‫ فَٔوج‬ḥaznān2 very sad, very grieved,
worried; in mourning
□ ٟ‫ٕو‬٠‫ فَث‬ḥazāyinī (ٟ‫ فَثةٕو‬ḥazā‘inī) sad,
mournful, melancholic; mourning (in
compounds), mortuary, funereal │‫لّووجٓا‬
ٟ‫ٕوووو‬٠‫( فَث‬qumāš) cloth for mourning
garments
َْ‫ صقو‬taḥazzun sadness; behavior of a
mourner
َْٚ‫ ِقو‬maḥzūn grieved, grief-stricken,
pained, sad, saddened
َْ‫ ِقو‬muḥzin grievous, saddening; sad;
melancholic; tragic: ‫ ِقَٔوووجس‬muḥzināt
grievous things │‫ووزاِقَٔوز‬١ٍ١‫وزاصّغ‬ٚ‫( ال‬qiṣṣa
tamtīlīya) and ‫وزاِقَٔوز‬٠‫ث‬ًٚ (riwāya) tragedy
(theat.)
ِ‫ فو‬ḥassa (1st pers. perf. ḥasastu) u (ḥass) to
curry, currycomb ( ‫ ٘و‬an animal); to feel,
sense ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- ḥassa (1st pers. perf.
ḥasistu) a to feel srry, feel sympathy or
compassion (‫ ي‬for), sympathize (‫ ي‬with),
II to grope, feel IV to perceive, sense,
experience ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬s.th.); to feel ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ح‬
s.th.); to notice ( ‫ ٘و‬or ‫ ح‬s.th.); to hear ( ‫ ٘و‬a
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice (ٖ of
s.o.) V to grope, probe ( ٘ for s.th.), finger,
handle, touch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), run the hand ( ‫٘و‬
over s.th.); to grope about, feel around: to
seek information, make inquiries (ٓ‫ِووو‬
about); to sense, experience, perceive ( ‫٘و‬,
‫ ح‬s.th.); to feel (‫ ح‬s.th.); to be affected, be
deeply touched (‫ ح‬by s.th.)
ِ‫ فو‬ḥass sensation, perception, feeling,
sentiment
ِ‫ فو‬ḥiss sensory perception, sensation;
feeling, sentiment; sense; voice; sound;
noise
ٟ‫فْوووووو‬
ḥissī
sensory;
sensuous;
perceptible; palpable │O ٟ‫ثٌّوووي٘خاثٌقْووو‬
(madhab) sensationalism, sensualism
‫جس‬١ْ‫ ف‬ḥissīyāt sensations
ِ١ْ‫ ف‬ḥasīs faint noise
ُ‫ فْوج‬ḥassās sensitive; sensible; readily
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure)
‫ فْجّز‬ḥassāsa sensory organ
ٟ‫ فْجّو‬ḥassāsī allergic │‫ز‬١‫افْجّو‬ٛ‫اثِوٌث‬
allergic diseases, allergies (med.)
‫ز‬١‫ فْجّوووو‬ḥassāsīya sensitivity (also
techn.); sensibility; faculty of sensory
perception; susceptibility; sensuality │‫ا‬
‫ز‬١ّ‫اثٌقْج‬ٌِٛ maraḍ al-ḥ. allergy (med.)
‫ ِقْز‬miḥassa currycomb
ُ‫ ثفْوج‬iḥsās pl. -āt, ِ١‫ ثفجّو‬aḥāsīs2 feel,
feeling: sensation, sense (‫ ح‬of s.th.)
perception (‫ ح‬of s.th.); sensitivity; pl.
‫ ثفْجّووجس‬feelings, sentiments │O ‫ثفْووجُا‬
ًٌٕٛ‫ دووج‬sensitivity to light; O ُ‫فْووج‬٨‫واث‬٠‫ٕووو‬
174 highly sensitive; ‫ثفْووووجُاِٖووووضٌن‬
(muštarak) feeling of harmony, concord,
unanimity; ُ‫فْوووووج‬٨‫ لٍوووووزاث‬qillat al-i.
insensitivity, dullness, obtuseness
O ‫ز‬١‫فْجّوو‬٨‫ ثٌ جةفووزاث‬aṭ-ṭā’ifa al-iḥsāsīya
the impressionists
‫ فجّوز‬ḥāssa pl. ُ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawāss2 senastion;
sense │ِّ‫ثُاثٌن‬ٛ‫ اثٌق‬the five senses
ُٛ‫ِقْوووووو‬
maḥsūs
felt;
sensed;
perceptible, noticeable, palpable, tangible;
appreciable, considerable (e.g., loss);
ُٛ‫ ثٌّقْو‬that which ill perceptible through
the
senses;
appearance,
evidence;
‫ّوجس‬ْٛ‫ ثٌّق‬things perceptible through the
senses
‫ فْووخ‬ḥasaba u (ḥasb, ‫ فْووجح‬ḥisāb, ْ‫فْووذج‬
ḥisbān, ḥusbān) to compute, reckon,
calculate; to count; to charge, debit (ٝ‫٘و عٍو‬
s.th. to s.o., to s.o.‘s account); to credit (‫ي‬
‫ ٘و‬s.th. to s.o., to s.o.‘s account) │‫افْوخا‬
ٗ‫( فْوجد‬ḥisābahū) to take s.th. or s.o. into
account or into consideration, reckon with
s.th. or s.o., count on s.th. or s.o.; ‫فْوجدجاي‬
‫( فْخ‬ḥisāban) do.; to attach importance to
s.o. or s.th.; ‫( فْخاثٌوؿافْوجحاي‬alfa) to hove
a thousand apprehensions about …; -ḥasiba a i (ْ‫ فْوذج‬ḥisbān, ‫ ِقْوذج‬maḥsaba,
maḥsiba) to regard (ٖ ٖ s.o. as), consider,
deem (ٖ ٖ s.o. to be …); to think, believe,
suppose, assume; to consider, regard (ٓ‫ٖ ِو‬
s.o. as belonging to), count (ٓ‫ ٖ ِوو‬s.o.
among); to see ( ‫ ٘ و‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬in s.o. s.th.); -ḥasuba u (ḥasab, ‫ فْوجدز‬ḥasāba) to be of
noble origin, be highborn; to be highly
esteemed, be valued III to settle an
account, get even (with s.o.); to call (ٖ
s.o.) to account, ask (ٖ s.o.) for an
accounting; to hold (ٖ s.o.) responsible,
make (ٖ s.o.) answerable │ٗ‫أفْو‬ٝ‫افجّوخاعٍو‬
to be careful, be on one‘s guard V to be
careful, be on one‘s guard; to take
precautions; to seek to know, try to find
out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VI to settle a mutual account
VIII to debit or credit; to take into
account, take into consideration (‫ ح‬or ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to reckon (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘وو‬with); (to
anticipate a reward in the hereafter by
adding a pious deed to one‘s account with
God -- such as resigning in God‘s will at
the death of a relative; hence:) ‫ٌووث‬ٚ‫ثفضْوخا‬
waladan) to give a son, be bereaved of a
son; ٟ‫ ثفضْوخاعٕووا اثٌٖو‬to sacrifice s.th. in
anticipation of God‘s reward in the
hereafter; to charge (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. for); to
think, believe, suppose; to take (ٖ ٖ s.o. for
or to be …); to be content, content o.s.(‫ح‬
with); to disapprove (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. in s.o.),
take exception (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍوو‬to s.th. in s.o.),
reject (ٍٝ‫ ٘و ع‬s.th. in s.o.); to call (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.)
to account, ask (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o.) for an accounting
‫ فْووووخ‬ḥasb reckoning, computing,
calculation; thinking, opinion, view;
sufficiency │ُ‫ فْووذهايدقْووذهةاهً٘وو‬ḥasbuka
(bi-ḥasbika) dirhamun one dirham is
enough for you; ْ‫ فْوذهاث‬it suffices to say
that …; you know enough when you hear
that …; you need only ... ; ْ‫دقْوذهاِمٕعوجاث‬
(muqni‘an) it will be enough to convince
you if …; ‫يثاوٍٗإٌث‬ٙ‫فْذهاد‬ٚ (bi-hādā kullihī
šarran) but enough of all these negative
aspect! ‫ ـقْوخ‬fa-ḥasb and that‘s all, and no
more, only (interchangeable with ٠‫)ـم‬
ٟ‫ فْذ‬ḥasbī ٟ‫( ِؾٍِافْذ‬majlis) pl. ‫ِؾجٌِا‬
‫ز‬١‫ا فْووذ‬guardianship court, probate court
(Eg.)
‫ فْوخ‬ḥasab pl. ‫ ثفْوجح‬aḥsāb measure,
extent, degree, quantity, amount; value;
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; noble
descent; ḥasaba (prep.), ‫ دقْوخ‬bi-ḥasabi
and ‫افْوخ‬ٝ‫‘ عٍو‬alā ḥasabi according to, in
accordance with, commensurate with,
depending on
‫ فْووذّج‬ḥasbamā (conj.) according to
what ... , as, depending on how … │‫فْوذّجا‬
‫( ثصفك‬ttafaqa) as chance will have it
‫ فْذزا‬arithmetical problem, sum 175
‫خ‬١‫ فْوووو‬ḥasīb pl.
‫ فْووووذج‬ḥusabā’2
respected, esteemed; noble, of noble birth,
highborn
ْ‫ فْووذج‬ḥusbān calculation, reckoning,
accounnting; computation │ْ‫اثٌقْوذج‬ٟ‫ووجْاـو‬
to be taken into account, be taken into
consideration; to be expected, be
anticipated; ْ‫اثٌقْووووذجْاث‬ٟ‫ وووووجْاـوووو‬it was
expected that ... ; ْ‫اث‬ٟٔ‫ فْذج‬I expect that …
‫ فْوووجح‬ḥisāb arithmetic, reckoning,
calculus;
computation;
calculation,
estimation,
appraisal;
accounting,
settlement;
consideration,
consideratedness; caution; -- (pl. -āt) bill,
invoice; statement of costs (bank)
account; pl. ‫ فْوجدجس‬bookkeeping │‫فْوجحا‬
ً‫ ثٌؾّو‬ḥ. al-jummal (al-jumal) use of the
alphabetic letters according to their
numerical value; ‫‘ عٍووُاثٌقْووجح‬ilm al-ḥ.
arithmetic; ً‫ووو‬ٝ‫ فْوووجحاثٌضفج‬ḥ. al-tafāḍul
differential calculus; ً‫ فْووجحاثٌضىجِوو‬ḥ. attakāmul integral calculus; ٗ‫افْوجد‬ٟ‫ ووجْاـو‬he
reckoned with it, he expected it, he was
prepared for it; ٗ‫ عّوًافْوجدجاٌو‬to take s.o. or
s.th. into consideration; to reckon with s.o.
or s.th.; ِٟ‫( ثٌقْوجحاثٌنضوج‬ḳitāmī) and ‫فْوجحا‬
ٟ‫وجة‬ٙٔ (nihā’ī) final statement of account,
final accounting; ‫اثٌقْجح‬ٌٝ‫( هعجٖاث‬da‗āhū) he
called him to account; ‫َاثٌقْوجح‬ٛ‫و‬٠ yaum alḥ. the Day of Reckoning, Judgment Day;
‫ ثلوجَافْوجدجاي‬to render account to s.o.; ‫ا‬٩‫دو‬
‫ فْجح‬without limit or bounds, to excess, to
an unlimited extent; ‫وٌافْوجح‬١‫ ِوٓاؼ‬blindly,
without forethought, at random; ْ٩‫ٌقْجحاـو‬
to s.o.‘s credit, to s.o.‘s advantage; ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ْ٩‫ فْوجحاـو‬to s.o.‘s debit, at s.o.‘s expense,
to s.o.‘s disadvantage; ‫ اثٌقْوووجح‬ٛ‫اّووو‬ٟ‫ٌمووو‬
laqiya sū’a 1-ḥ. he got a raw deal, he was
in for it; ً‫( فْوجحاؽوج‬jārin) current account;
ٌ١‫ـ‬ٛ‫قاثٌضوو‬ٚ‫ووٕو‬ٙ‫ فْووجدجسا‬ḥ. ṣundūq at-taufīr
savings-bank accounts; ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫لوووو‬ِٛ‫فْووووجحا‬
blocked account; ‫وز‬١‫د‬ٚ‫ فْوجدجساه‬double-entry
bookkeeping; ٟ‫( ثٌقْووجحاثٌٖوووٌل‬šarqī) the
Julian calendar; ٟ‫( ثٌقْوجحاثٌؽٌدو‬garbī) the
Gregorian calendar
ٟ‫ فْجد‬ḥisābī arithmetical, mathematical,
computational
‫ ِقجّووذز‬muḥāsaba pl. -āt accounting;
clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for
accounting; examination of conscience
(theol.) │‫ لُْاثٌّقجّذز‬qism al-m. accounting
department, comptroller‘s office; clearing
house
‫ ثفضْجح‬iḥtisāb computation; calculation,
consideration,
reflection;
debiting;
crediting;
valuation;
contentedness,
satisfaction
‫ فجّوووووخ‬ḥāsib counter, reckoner,
arithmetician, calculator, computer
‫ح‬ْٛ‫ ِق‬maḥsūb pl. -ūn, ‫ ِقجّوخ‬maḥāsib2
protégé,
pet,
favorite;
obedient,
subservient (ٍٝ‫ ع‬to s.o.)
‫ز‬١‫د‬ٛ‫ ِقْو‬maḥsūbīya esteem enjoyed by
s.o., position of distinction; patronage,
favored position, favoritism
‫ ِقجّووخ‬muḥāsib, ٟ‫ ِقجّووذؾ‬muḥāsibgī
(eg.) accountant, bookkeeper; comptroller,
auditor
‫ ِقضْوخ‬muḥtasab that for which one can
expect reward in the hereafter (e.g.,
suffering, loss, etc.)
‫ فْوو‬ḥasada u (ḥasad) to envy, grudge (ٖ s.o.,
ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be envious (ٖ of s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬or
٘ because of s.th.) VI to envy each other
‫ فْو‬ḥasad envy
‫ه‬ْٛ‫ ف‬pl. ‫ فْو‬ḥusud envious
‫ صقجّو‬taḥāsud mutual envy
‫ فجّووو‬pl. ‫ فْ وجه‬ḥussād, ‫ فْووور‬ḥasada
envious; envier, grudger
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ِقْو‬maḥsūd envied; smitten by the
evil eye
ٌ‫ فْو‬ḥasara u i (ḥasr) to pull away or off,
remove (ٓ‫ ٘و عو‬s.th., a cover, a veil, from);
to uncover, lay bare, unveil (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); -(ḥusūr) to become dim (sight); -- ḥasira a
((ḥasar, ‫ فْوٌر‬ḥasra) to regret (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.),
be grieved, be pained (ٝ‫ عٍو‬by 176 s.th.); to
sigh (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over s.th.); -- ḥasara i, ḥasira a
(ḥasar) to become tired, fatigued II to
fatigue, tire, weaken, sap (ٖ s.o.); to
grieve, sadden (ٖ s.o.), cause pain or grief
(ٖ to s.o.); to remove ( ٘ a cover, ٓ‫ عو‬from),
lay bare, unveil (ٓ‫ عووو‬s.th.) V to be
distressed, be pained, be grieved (ٝ‫ عٍو‬by);
to sigh (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over) VII to be pulled away or
off, be removed (ٓ‫ ع‬from); to be rolled up.
be turned back (sleeve, ٓ‫ عو‬from the arm);
to disappear suddenly (ٓ‫ ع‬from)
ٌ‫ فْو‬ḥasar fatigue, debility, weakness
│ٌ‫وو‬ٚ‫ فْووٌاثٌذ‬ḥ. al-baṣar nearsightedness,
myopia
ٌ‫ فْووو‬ḥasir grieved, sad; fatigued,
languid, weary, tired
ٌ‫ فْوو‬ḥasra pl. ḥasarāt grief, sorrow,
pain, distress, affliction; sigh │‫وجاٌٍقْوٌر‬٠ yā
la-l-ḥasrati alas! Unfortunately! ٟ‫وجافْوٌص‬٠
yā ḥasratī and ٖ‫ثافْوٌصج‬ٚ wā ḥasratāh what
a pity! too bad!
ٌ١ْ‫ ف‬ḥasīr pl. ٌْٜ‫ ف‬ḥasrā tired, weary,
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye),
nearsighted │ٌ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ٌاثٌذ‬١‫فْووو‬
ḥ. al-baṣar
nearsighted, myopic
ًْٛ‫ ف‬ḥasūr nearsightedness, myopia
ْ‫ فْوووٌث‬ḥasrān regretful, sorry, sad,
distressed, grieved
ٌْ‫ صق‬taḥassur sighing; regret
ٌ‫ فجّو‬ḥāsir pl. ٌ‫ثّو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāsir2 bared,
denuded │ٌ‫وووو‬ٚ‫ افجّووووٌاثٌذ‬ḥ. al-baṣar
nearsighted, myopic; ُ‫ فجّوٌاثٌوٌأ‬ḥ. ar-ra’s
bareheaded, hatless
‫ فْووه‬ḥasak (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬thorns, spines;
spikes, pricks; fish bones; awns, beard
(bot.); name of several prickly herbs, esp.
of the genus Tribulus
ٟ‫ فْى‬ḥasakī thorny, prickly, spiny
ُ‫ فْو‬ḥasama i (ḥasm) to cut, sever, cut off ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to finish, complete, terminate ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to decide ( ٘ a question); to settle ( ‫٘و‬
an argument); to deduct, discount ( ‫ ٘و‬an
amount from a sum of money) VII to be
severed, be cut off; to be finished, be
completed, be terminated; to be settled
(argument)
ُ‫ فْوووو‬ḥasm finishing, completion,
termination; decision; settling, settlement
(of an argument); discontinuance,
shutdown, closing down; deduction,
discounting (of an amount)
َ‫ فْج‬ḥusām sword, sword edge
َٛ‫ فْو‬ḥasūm fatal, trying, grueling (pl.;
days, nights, also years)
ُ‫ فجّو‬ḥāsim decisive; final, peremptory,
conclusive, definite, definitive
ٓ‫ فْووو‬ḥasana u (ḥusn) to be handsome,
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be
expedient, advisable, suitable, proper,
fitting; to be in a proper state, be in a
desirable condition │‫ه‬٠‫ ثْافْووٓاٌووو‬in ḥ.
ladaika if you like it, if it seems all right
to you; ْ‫قْوٓادوهاث‬٠ it is to your advantage
that you ... ; you ought to …; ‫فْٓاثّوضعوثهٖاي‬
he was all willing to … II to beautify,
embellish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to adorn, decorate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to improve, put into better form,
ameliorate, better ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to make a
better presentation ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.); to present
in a favorable light, depict as nice or
desirable (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. to s.o.;‫ا‬to sugar-coat,
make more palatable ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. unpleasant,
s.th. disadvantageous) III to treat (ٖ s.o.)
with kindliness IV to do right, act well; to
do ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th), well, expertly, nicely; to know
( ٘ how to do s.th.), be able ( ‫ ٘و‬to do s.th.);
to master ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), have command ( ‫ ٘و‬of
s.th.), be proficient ( ‫ ٘و‬in s.th.; a language,
an art, a handicraft, etc.), be conversant ( ‫٘و‬
with s.th.); to do good, be charitable; to do
favors, do good (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ح‬to s.o.), do (‫ ح‬or
‫ ح‬s.o.) a good turn, be nice, friendly (ٝ‫ثٌو‬
or ‫ ح‬to s.o.); to give 177 alms, give charity
(ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to s.o.) │ٕٗ‫ ِووجاثفْوو‬mā aḥsanahū how
good he is! how handsome he is! ‫ثفْووٕش‬
aḥsanta well done! bravo! ‫وووز‬١ٔ‫ٌّج‬٨‫ثفْوووٓاث‬
(almānīya) to master the German language,
know German well; ‫و‬٠‫ ثفْوٓاثٌضْوو‬to aim well
or accurately; ٗ‫ًص‬ٛ‫( ثفْوٓاِٖو‬mašūratahū) to
give good advice; ‫( ثفْووٓاثٌرووٓاح‬ẓanna) to
have a good opinion of ... , judge s.th.
favorably; ٗ‫( ثفْووٓاِعجٍِضوو‬mu‘āmalatahū) to
treat s.o. well V to become nicer, more
handsome, more beautiful; to improve,
ameliorate, get better X to deem ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
nice, etc., or good; to regard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) as
right, advisable or appropriate; to approve
( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.), sanction, condone ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
come to like, to appreciate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), find
pleasure ( ‫ ٘و‬in s.th.); also = IV: ‫ثّضقْووٓا‬
‫وز‬٠َ١ٍ‫ٔؾ‬٨‫( ث‬ingilīzīya) to know English well;
pass. ustuḥsina to be good, commendable,
advisable
ٓ‫ فْوووو‬ḥusn beauty, handsomeness,
prettiness,
loveliness;
excellence,
superiority,
perfection
│ ‫ٌقْووووووٓاثٌقوووووو‬
fortunately; ‫ن‬ٍٛ‫ فْوٓاثٌْو‬good manners, good
behavior; good conduct; ‫ن‬ٍٛ‫ثٌْو‬ٚ‫ٌا‬١ٌْ‫( فْٓاث‬ḥ.
as-sair) an irreproachable life; ‫وٌؾ‬ٚ‫فْوٓاثٌض‬
ḥ. al-taṣarruf
discretion, individual
judgment; ٓ‫ فْوٓاثٌرو‬good opinion, favorable
judgment; ٌ١‫ فْٓاثٌضعذ‬euphemism; ‫ووا‬ٚ‫فْوٓاثٌم‬
‫وزة‬١ٌٕ‫ يث‬ḥ. al-qaṣd (an-nīya) good intention,
good will, good faith; ‫ّوؿ‬ٛ٠‫ فْوٓا‬ḥ. yūsuf
beauty spot, patch; ٓ‫ ّووشاثٌقْوو‬a kind of
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L.; bot.);
deadly nightshade, belladonna
ٓ‫ فْوو‬ḥasan pl. ْ‫ فْ وج‬ḥisān beautiful,
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good,
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite;
‫ فْوٕج‬ḥasanan well, splendidly, excellently,
beautifully; ْ‫ ثٌقْج‬the ladies; -- high sandhill
ْٛ١ٕ‫ ثٌقْو‬al-ḥasanīyūn the Hasanides, the
descendants of ḥasan, son of ‗Alī and
Fāṭima
ٓ‫ ثفْوو‬aḥsan2 pl. ٓ‫ ثفجّوو‬aḥāsin2 better;
nicer, lovelier, more beautiful; more
excellent,
more
splendid,
more
admirable│ُٕٙ‫اِو‬٨‫اثفْوٓافوج‬ٛ‫ ٘و‬he is better off
than they are; ٓ‫اثفْو‬ٟ‫ا٘و‬ٟ‫( دوجٌض‬bi-llatī) in a
friendly manner, amicably, with kindness
ٔ‫ فو‬ḥašša u (ḥašš) to mow, cut ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to
smoke hashish
‫ فْووٕج‬ḥasnā’2 pl. ْ‫ فْووج‬ḥisān (of a
woman) beautiful, a beauty, a belle
ٔ١‫ فٖوو‬ḥašīš (coll.) pl. ٔ‫افٖووجة‬hāšā’iš2
herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Cannabis
sativa L.; bot.), hashish, Cannabis; stillborn
child │ً‫ٕج‬٠‫ٔاثٌو‬١ٖ‫ اف‬ḥ. ad-dīnār hops
ٕٝ‫ ثٌقْو‬al-ḥusnā pl. -āt (f. of ٓ‫فْو‬٨‫ ث‬alaḥsan) the best outcome, the happy ending;
fair means, amicable manner │ٕٝ‫دجٌقْووو‬
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly
manner; ٕٝ‫ّوووّج اثٌقْووو‬٨‫( ث‬asmā’) the 99
attributes of God
‫ فْووووٕز‬ḥasana pl. -āt good deed,
benefaction; charity, alms; pl. ‫فْووووٕجس‬
advantages, merits
ْٛ‫ فْو‬ḥassūn pl. ٓ١‫ فْجّو‬ḥasāsīn2 goldfinch
‫ ِقْووٕز‬maḥsana s.th. nice, s.th. good;
advantage; pl. ٓ‫ ِقجّوو‬maḥāsin2 beauties,
charms, attractions, merits, advantages,
good qualities
ٓ١‫صقْوووووووووو‬
taḥsīn
beautification,
embellishment; improvement, amelioration,
betterment; processing, refining, finishing;
(pl. ٓ١‫ صقجّوو‬taḥāsīn) ornament, decoration
│O ًٌْٕ‫ٓاث‬١ْ‫ صق‬t. an-nasl eugenics
‫ ِقجّوووٕز‬muḥāsana friendly treatment,
kindliness amicability
ْ‫ ثفْوووووج‬iḥsān beneficence. charity,
almsgiving, performance of good deeds
ٓ‫صقْووووووووو‬
taḥassun
improvement,
amelioration │ٓ‫اثٌضقْوو‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬on the way to
recovery
‫ٖز‬١ٖ‫ ف‬ḥašīša (n. un.) herb
ٓ‫ فٖوج‬ḥaššāš pl. -ūn smoker or chewer of
hashish. hashish addict
ٓ‫ فٖوج‬ḥuššāš, ‫ فٖجٕوز‬ḥušāša last breath,
last spark of life
ٟ‫ٖ و‬١ٖ‫ ف‬ḥašīšī (eg.) sap-green, resedacolored
ٔ‫ ِقوو‬miḥašš, ‫ ِقٖ وز‬miḥašša pl. ٓ‫ِق وج‬
maḥāšš2 sickle, scythe; fire iron, poker
‫ ِقٖووز‬miḥašša pl. -āt (eg.) tool for
weeding, weeder
ٖٔ‫ ِق‬maḥšaš, ‫ ِقٖٔامجٔز‬m. ḳāna hashish
den
‫ ِقٖٖز‬pl. ٕٔ‫ ِقج‬maḳāšiš2 hashish den
‫ فٖوو‬ḥašada i u (ḥašd) to gather, concentrate,
mass (ٖ esp. troops), call up, mobilize (ٖ an
army); to pile up, store up, accumulate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., ٝ‫ ثٌو‬at a place) II to amass, accumulate
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), mass, concentrate (ٖ esp. troops) V
and VIII to rally, come together, assemble,
gather, crowd together, throng together; to
be concentrated, be massed (troops); to fall
into line (troops)
ْ‫ ثّضقْووووج‬istiḥsān approval, consent;
acclaim; discretion; application of discretion
in a legal decision (Isl. Law)
‫ فٖوو‬ḥašd pl. ‫ه‬ٛ‫ فٖو‬ḥušūd assembling, rallying;
gathering, assembly, crowd, throng;
concentration, massing (esp. of troops);
mobilization. calling up (of an army)
ٓ‫ ِقْوو‬muḥassin embellisher, beautifier,
improver; pl. ‫ ِقْٕجس‬muḥassināt cosmetics
‫ فٖووو‬taḥaššud pl. -āt concentration (of
troops)
ْٓ‫ ِق‬muḥsin beneficent, charitable
ٓ‫ِْضقْووووووووو‬
mustaḥsan
approved,
commendable; pleasant, agreeable 178
(ْٛ‫ فْج )ف‬ḥasā u (ḥasw), V and VIII to drink, sip
( ٘ s.th.)
ْٛ‫ ف‬ḥasw and ‫ فْج‬ḥasā’ soup, broth
‫ر‬ْٛ‫ ف‬ḥaswa pl. ḥasawāt a sip
‫ر‬ٛ‫ فْو‬ḥuswa pl. ḥusuwāt, ḥusawāt, ‫ز‬١‫ثفْو‬
aḥasiya a sip, small quantity of liquid; soup,
broth; bouillon
‫ ثفضٖوجه‬iḥtišād pl. -āt gathering, crowd;
concentration (of troops)
‫و‬١‫ فٖوووو‬numerous (of an assembly),
crowded (of a public demonstration)
O ‫ فجٕور‬ḥāšida battery (el.)
ٌ‫ فٖو‬ḥašara i u (ḥašr) to gather, assemble, rally
(ٖ people); to cram, crowd, pack, jam
(together); to squeeze. press, force, stuff,
tuck (ٓ١‫ د‬or ٟ‫ ٘ ـ‬s.th. into)
ٌ‫َاثٌقٖووو‬ٛ‫ووو‬٠ yaum al-ḥašr the day of
congregation (of the dead), the Day of
resurrection
‫ فٖووٌر‬ḥašara pl. -āt insect; pl. vermin,
insect pests │‫‘ اعٍووووُاثٌقٖووووٌثس‬ilm al-ḥ.
entomology
ٌٞ‫ فٖو‬ḥašarī insectile, insectival, insect(in compounds); entomologic(al)
‫ فٖوٌػ‬ḥašraja and II taḥašraja to rattle in the
throat
‫ فٌٖؽز‬ḥašraja rattling, rattle in the throat
‫ فٖؿ‬V to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly
‫ فٖؿ‬ḥašaf dates of inferior quality
‫ فٖفز‬ḥašafa glans (penis; anat.)
‫ فٖوه‬ḥašaka i (ḥašk) to cram, jam, squeeze, stuff
(ٟ‫ ٘ ـ‬s.th. into)
ُ‫ فٖو‬ḥašama i (ḥašm) to shame, put to shame (ٖ
s.o.) 11 and IV do. V and VIII to be
ashamed to face s.o. (ٓ‫ ِوو‬or ٓ‫ ;)عوو‬to be
reticent, modest, shy, bashful, diffident
ُ‫ فٖو‬ḥašam servants, retinue, entourage,
suite
‫ فٖوّز‬ḥišma shame, bashfulness, timidity,
diffidence; modesty; decency, decorum 179
ُ١‫ فٖو‬ḥašīm pl. ‫ فٖوّج‬ḥušamā’2 modest,
timid, bashful, shy, diffident
ُٕ‫ ِقج‬maḥāšim2 pubes, genitals
ُ‫ صقٖو‬taḥaššum and َ‫ ثفضٖوج‬iḥtišām shame,
shyness, modesty, reticent, decency,
decorum
ُ‫ ِقضٖوو‬muḥtašim shy, bashful; modest,
reticent, decent, decorous
‫ة‬ٛ‫ فٖوجايفٖو‬ḥaša u (ḥašw) to stuff, fill, dress (‫٘و ح‬
s.th. with; esp. fowl, etc.); to fill in ( ٘ s.th.);
to load ( ‫ ٘و‬a firearm; ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th. with, e.g., a
camera); to fill ( ٘ a tooth); to insert ( ٘ s.th.)
11 to interpalate ( ٘ s.th.); to insert ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to provide ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) with a margin; to hem
( ‫ ٘و‬a dress); to supply ( ‫ ٘و‬a book) with
marginal notes or glosses III to except,
exclude (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬s.o. from) V to keep away,
stand aloof, abstain (ٓ‫ ٖ ِو‬from), avoid, shun
(ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.), beware (ٓ‫ ِو‬of), be on one‘s guard
(ٓ‫ ِو‬against) VI to keep away, abstain (ٓ‫ عو‬or
ٓ‫ ِو‬from), beware ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ عو‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬of), avoid,
shun ( ٘ or ٓ‫ ع‬or ِٓ s.th.)
ٛ‫ فٖو‬ḥašw that with which s.th. is stuffed
or filled; dressing, stuffing (of fowl, .to.);
filling (of tooth); insertion; (gram.)
parenthesis; interpolation
ٛ‫ فٖووو‬ḥašwa pl. -āt filling, stuffing
(cushion, cookery, etc.); load (of a
cartridge), charge (of a min.); panel, inlay,
inserted piece (in paneling, in a door)
‫ فٖوووج‬ḥašan pl. ‫ ثفٖوووج‬aḥšā’ bowels,
intestines; interior, inside │ ‫اثفٖوج‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in the
interior of, within, in
ٖٝ‫ ف‬ḥašan = ‫ فٖج‬ḥašan
‫ز‬١‫ فٖو‬ḥašīya pl. –āt, ‫ج‬٠‫ فٖوج‬ḥašāyā cushion,
pillow; mattress
‫ فجٕوج‬ḥāšā (with genit., acc. or ‫ )ي‬except,
save │‫اهلل‬ٝ‫فجٕو‬, ‫ فجٕوجاهلل‬God forbid! ْ‫فجٕوجاٌوهاث‬
far be it from you that you ...; ‫فجٓاهلل‬, ‫فجٓاٌوه‬
(ḥāša) = ‫فجٕجاهلل‬, ‫ فجٕجاٌه‬180
‫ز‬١ٖ‫ صق‬taḥšya insertion; interpolation
ٓ‫ صقج‬taḥāšin avoidance
‫ز‬١‫ فجٕوو‬ḥāšiya pl. ٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawāšin border;
seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book);
marginal
gives;
marginal
notes;
commentary on certain words and passages
of a book, supercommentary; footnote;
postscript; retinue, entourage, suite,
servants; dependents; pl. ٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فووو‬critical
apparatus │‫ز‬١ٕ‫كاثٌقج‬١‫ اًل‬and ٟٕ‫ث‬ٛ‫كاثٌق‬١‫ ًل‬nice,
polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, kindly,
friendly; ‫ز‬١‫ٖو‬ٙ‫ ًلوزاثٌق‬riqqat al-ḥāš. niceness,
amiability, graciousness
ٛ‫ ِقٖوو‬maḥšūw filled, dressed; stuffed;
loaded (firearm); pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ِقٖووو‬maḥšūwāt
filled, or stuffed, dishes
ٟ‫ ِقٖو‬maḥšīy filled, stuffed (esp. food);
s.th. filled or stuffed
٘‫ فو‬ḥaṣṣa u to fall as a share (ٖ to s.o.) III to
share (ٖ ‫ ٘و‬s.th. with s.o.) IV to allot s.o. (ٖ)
his share
٘‫ ف‬ḥuṣṣ saffron
‫وز‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣṣa pl. ٘‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣaṣ share, portion,
allotment; share (fin.); contingent, quota;
span of time; lesson, class period │‫ا‬ٟ‫وزاـو‬ٚ‫اف‬
‫ثٌووٌدـ‬ḥ. fī r-rabḥ dividend (fin.); O ‫ وزا‬ٚ‫ف‬
ِ١‫ ثٌضبّو‬founders‘ share; O ٘‫و‬ٚ‫ ٔروجَاثٌق‬quota
system, apportionment; ‫وَر‬١‫ؽ‬ٚ‫وزا‬ٚ‫اف‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in a
short time
٘١‫ووووووو‬ٚ‫صق‬
taḥṣīṣ
apportionment
quota
system,
‫وز‬ٙ‫ ِقج‬muḥāṣṣa allotment; sharing (with
s.o.), partaking, participation
ْ‫جٌذج‬ٚ‫ ف‬see ٝٚ‫ف‬
‫وخ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣaba i u to cover or strew with pebbles
or gravel ( ‫ ٘و‬ground); to macadamize ( ‫٘و‬
ground), metal ( ‫ ٘و‬a road); -- ḥaṣiba a and
pass. ḥuṣiba to have the measle II to cover
or strew with pebbles or gravel ( ‫ ٘و‬ground);
to macadamize ( ٘ ground), metal ( ٘ a road)
180
‫وخ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣab road metal, crushed rock,
ballast
‫خ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣbā’2 (coll.) pebbles; gravel
‫خ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣba measles (med.)
‫ذز‬ٙ‫ فج‬ḥāṣiba storm, hurricane
٘‫وق‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣḥaṣa to be or become clear, plain,
manifest; to come to light (truth)
‫وو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣada i u (ḥaṣd, ‫وجه‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣad, ḥiṣad) to
harvest, reap ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to mow ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV,
VIII and X to be ripe
‫ووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣd and ‫ووجه‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣād harvesting,
reaping, harvest; ‫جه‬ٚ‫ ف‬harvest time
‫و‬١‫ و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣid, ‫ور‬١‫وو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīda pl. ‫ووجةو‬ٚ‫ف‬
ḥaṣā’id2 crop, harvest yield │‫و‬١‫ و‬ٚ‫ف‬ٚ‫الووجةُا‬
everything without exception
‫جه‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣṣād reaper; harvester
‫و‬ٚ‫ ِق‬miḥṣad pl. ‫و‬ٙ‫ ِقج‬maḥāṣid2 sickle
O ‫وجهر‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣṣāda and O ‫وور‬ٚ‫ ِق‬miḥṣada
mowing machine, mower │ O ‫وجهراهًثّوز‬ٚ‫ف‬
(darrāsa) combine
‫و‬ٙ‫ فج‬ḥāṣid reaper
O ‫ور‬ٙ‫ فج‬ḥāṣid mowing machine, mower
beleaguer, besiege ( ‫٘وو‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to
blockade ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to detain, deter,
restrain (ٖ s.o.) VII to be straitened,
confined, narrowed in; to be or become
restricted, limited (‫ ح‬or ٟ‫ ـو‬to); to limit o.s.
(‫ ح‬or ٟ‫ ـو‬to); to be condensed (ٟ‫ ـو‬to), be
concentrated (ٟ‫ ـو‬in); to be or become united
(e.g., ٗ‫ صقووشافىّوو‬under s.o.‘s rule); to be
reducible (ٟ‫ ـ‬to), be expressible (ٟ‫ ـو‬in terms
of), consist (ٟ‫ ـ‬in)
ٌٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣr encirclement, encompassment,
enclosure,
corralling;
parenthesizing;
blocking, blockading, beleaguering, siege;
detention, determent; restraint, retention,
containment, check; limitation, restriction,
confinement ~ narrowing; gathering,
collecting (of s.th. scattered), compilation;
enumeration, listing, counting, computing;
centralization, concentration; (tobacco)
monopoly │ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ادجٌق‬strictly speaking; ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ٌف‬ٚ‫ًاثٌق‬١‫ ّوذ‬exhaustively; ٓ٠ٛ‫وٌاثٌضّو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥ.
al-tamwīn rationing; ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ِزاثٌق‬٩‫‘ ع‬alāmat alḥ. parentheses, brackets (typ.); ‫وومًاصقوشا‬٠‫ا‬٨
ٌ‫ووو‬ٚ‫( ثٌق‬yadḳulu) or ٗ‫وووٌاٌووو‬ٚ‫اف‬٨ (ḥaṣra)
boundless,
infinite,
immeasurable,
innumerable; ٌ‫وو‬ٚ‫قاثٌق‬ٛ‫فوو‬٠ yafūqu al-ḥaṣra
do.; O ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ثؽوجٍراثٌق‬ijāzat al-ḥ. patent on an
invention; ‫ثٌضٕذوجن‬ٚ‫وٌاثٌضذوػا‬ٚ‫ ثهثًراف‬idārat ḥ. attibg wa-t-tumbāk Government Tobacco
Monopoly (Syr.)
ٌ‫وووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣr
constipation
retention
(of
urine);
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣar dyslogia, inability to express
o.s. effectively
‫ه‬ٛٚ‫ ِق‬maḥṣūd harvested, reaped, mown
ٌ١ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīr pl. ٌٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣur mat
‫و‬ٚ‫ ِق‬muḥṣid and mustaḥṣid ripe
‫ٌر‬١ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīra pl. ٌ‫جة‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣā’ir2 mat
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣara i u (ḥaṣr) to surround, encircle,
encompass, ring ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to enclose ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to parenthesize ( ‫ ٘ووو‬a word); to
blockade ( ‫٘وو‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to besiege,
beleaguer ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to detain, deter,
restrain, contain, hold back (ٖ s.o.); to limit,
restrict (ٟ‫ ٘و ـو‬or ‫ ح‬s.th. to); to condense,
reduce in scope ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to narrow down,
confine (ٟ‫ ٘و ـو‬s.th. to, also a suspicion to
s.o.); to bring together, compile, arrange (ٟ‫ـو‬
٘ s.th. under a rubric); to enter (ٟ‫ ٘و ـ‬s.th. in
a list); to put together, set up, list, enumerate
( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to comprise, contain, include,
involve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- ḥaṣira a (ḥaṣar) to be in
a fix, be in a dilemma III to encircle,
surround ( ٘, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to shut off, seclude
( ‫٘ و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.); to block ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
ً‫ووج‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣār block, blockage, barrier;
blockade; siege 181
‫ووووٌر‬ٙ‫ ِقج‬muḥāṣara
barrier; blockade; siege
block,
blockage,
ً‫وج‬ٚ‫ ثٔق‬inḥiṣār restrictedness, limitation,
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly
ًٛ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ ِق‬maḥṣūr blocked, blockaded;
beleaguered, besieged; limited, restricted,
confined (ٟ‫ ـ‬to); narrow
ٌَ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣrim (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬unripe and sour
grapes (syr.)
‫وؿ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣufa u (‫وؿ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣāfa) to have sound
judgment, be judicious, discriminating
‫ووووؿ‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣif endowed with
judgment, judicious, discriminating
sound
‫ؿ‬١‫وووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīf endowed with
judgment, judicious, discriminating
sound
‫ووووووجـز‬ٚ‫ف‬
ḥaṣāfa
judiciousness
sound
judgment,
ً‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣala u (‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣūl) to set in; to be
there, be existent, extant; to arise, come
about; to result, come out; to happen, occur,
transpire, come to pass, take place; to
happen, occur (‫ ي‬to s.o.), come (‫ ي‬upon
s.o.), befall, overtake (‫ ي‬s.o.); to originate,
emanate, derive, stem (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), be caused,
be produced (ٓ‫ ِو‬by); to attain, obtain, get,
receive, achieve (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.), win (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o. or
s.th.); to come into possession (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of s.th.);
to seek (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬a permit), apply (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬for a
permit); to collect, recover (ٝ‫ عٍو‬a debt), call
in (ٝ‫ عٍو‬funds); to receive. take in (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.)
II to cause s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬to happen or set in; to
attain. obtain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to acquire ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
also knowledge); to infer, deduce ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to collect ( ‫ ٘و‬a fee, fare, etc.), levy ( ‫ ٘و‬taxes,
fees, etc.), call in ( ‫ ٘و‬money); to summarize,
sum up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to result (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), come
out (sum); to be obtained, be attained; to be
raised, be levied, be required. be demanded;
to be taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds);
to be collected (taxes); to procure for o.s.,
get (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to attain, receive, obtain (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.); to acquire (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to collect (ٝ‫عٍو‬
fees) X to procure for o.s., get (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to
attain. Receive, obtain (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.); to acquire
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.th.)
‫ي‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣūl setting in, occurrence,
incidence. happening (of an event or
process); obtainment. attainment (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬of
s.th.); achievement (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of s.th.); acquisition
(ٍٝ‫ ع‬of s.th.)
‫ٍز‬١‫ و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīla pl. ً‫ وجة‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣā’il2 rest,
remainder; amount collected, proceeds,
returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income,
takings
ً‫ووو‬ٙٛ‫ف‬, ‫وووٍز‬ٙٛ‫ ف‬and ‫وووٍز‬ٚ٠ٛ‫ ف‬look up
alphabetically
‫جٌز‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣāla collection box, alms box
ً‫وو‬ٚ‫ ِق‬maḥṣal result, outcome, upshot,
issue
ً١‫وووو‬ٚ‫ صق‬taḥṣīl pl. -āt attainment,
obtainment, gain; acquisition (also of
knowledge); learning, studying, scientific
studies; collection, raising, levy(ing), calling
in (of funds, taxes); income, revenue,
receipts, returns, proceeds; résumé,
summary, gist (of a speech or opinion); ‫ِوٓا‬
‫موجي‬٠‫وًاثْا‬ٙ‫ًاثٌقج‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ صق‬in summary, it may be
said ...
ٟ‫ٍؾ‬١ٚ‫ صق‬taḥṣīlgī (eg.) = ًٚ‫ ِق‬muḥaṣṣil
ً‫و‬ٙ‫ فج‬ḥāṣil pl. ً‫و‬ٙ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāsil2 setting
in, occurring, taking place, happening;
result, outcome, sum, total, product (also
math.); revenues, receipts, proceeds, gain;
income, returns; crop, harvest; warehouse,
storehouse, granary, depot, magazine; main
content, purport, gist, essence, substance (of
a speech); ً‫وو‬ٙ‫ ثٌقج‬briefly, in short; pl.
‫س‬٩‫ووووو‬ٙ‫ فج‬product(s), yield. produce.
production (econ.)
‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ِق‬maḥsūl pl. -āt, ً‫و‬ٙ‫ ِقج‬maḥāṣīl2
result, outcome, issue; yield, gain; product,
produce; crop, harvest; production 182
ً‫و‬ٚ‫ ِق‬muḥaṣṣil collector; tax collector;
cashier; (bus, streetcar) conductor
ً‫وووو‬ٚ‫ ِضق‬mutaḥaṣṣil yield, revenue,
proceeds, receipts, returns (ِٓ from)
ٓ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣuna u (‫وووجٔز‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣāna) to be
inaccessible, be well fortified; to be chaste
(woman) II to make inaccessible ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to strengthen ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to fortify, entrench
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to immunize, make proof (‫وو‬ٝ
ḍidda against) IV to make inaccessible ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to fortify, entrench ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to be
chaste, pure (woman); to remain chaste,
be of unblemished reputation (woman) V
to strengthen one‘s position, protect o.s.;
to be fortified; to be secure, be protected
ٓٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣn pl. ْٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣūn fortress, fort,
castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification,
entrenchment; protection │ٌ‫وووجة‬ٟ‫وووٓا‬ٚ‫اف‬
Flying Fortress
ْ‫ وج‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥiṣān pl. ٓ‫وو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥuṣun, ‫ووٕز‬ٚ‫ثف‬
aḥsina horse; stallion │ٌ‫وجْاثٌذقو‬ٚ‫ اف‬ḥ. albaḥr hippopotamus; ًٞ‫وجْادنوج‬ٚ‫( ف‬buḳārī)
iron horse; ٓ‫وو‬ٚ‫راف‬ٛ‫ لوو‬qūwat ḥ., or ْ‫وج‬ٚ‫ف‬
alone, horse power
ٓ١‫وووو‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣīn inaccessible, strong,
fortified, firm, secure(d), protected;
immune, proof, invulnerable (‫ووو‬ٝ ḍidda
against) │ٓ١‫و‬ٚ‫وٓاثٌق‬ٚ‫( اثٌق‬ḥiṣn) stronghold
(fig.; e.g., of radicalism)
ٓ١ٚ‫اثٌق‬ٛ‫ ثد‬abū l-ḥuṣain fox
‫وووجٔز‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣāna strength, ruggedness,
forbiddingness,
impregnability,
inaccessibility; shelteredness, chastity (of
a woman); invulnerability, inviolability;
immunity (of deputies, diplomats; against
illness)
ٜ١‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍīḍ, pl. ٜ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍuḍ, ‫وز‬ٞ‫ثف‬
aḥiḍḍa foot of a mountain; lowland;
perigee (astron.); depth; state of decay │‫ا‬
ٜ١‫و‬ٞ‫اثٌق‬ٝ‫ ٔوَياثٌو‬to sink low (fig.); ‫ا‬ٝ‫هووٗاثٌو‬
ٜ١‫ووووو‬ٞ‫( ثٌق‬dakkahū) to ruin s.th.
completely, run s.th. into the ground
ٓ١‫ووو‬ٚ‫ صق‬taḥṣīn pl. -āt fortification,
entrenchment; strengthening, cementing,
solidification; immunization
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍara u (ًٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍūr) to be present ( ‫٘و‬
at), be in the presence (ٖ of s.o.); to 183
attend ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to be present ( ‫ ٘و‬in s.o.‘s
mind), be readily recalled (ٖ by s.o.); to
take part, participate (‫ ِؾٍْوج‬majlisan in a
meeting); to come, get (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫٘و‬, ٖ to s.o.,
to a place), arrive (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ٘و‬at a place); to
visit ( ٘ a place), attend ( ‫ ٘و‬a public event),
go ( ‫ ٘و‬to a performance, etc.); to appear
(َ‫ ثِوج‬before a judge, etc., ٝ‫ ثٌو‬in, at), show
up (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬in, at); to betake o.s., go (ٝ‫ِوٓ ثٌو‬
from ... to); (‫وجًر‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍāra) to be settled,
sedentary (in a civilized region, as
opposed to nomadic existence)
ْ‫ووووووووج‬ٚ‫ثف‬
iḥṣān
blamelessness,
unblemished reputation, integrity (Isl.
Law)
ٓ‫و‬ٚ‫ صق‬taḥaṣṣun securing, safeguarding,
protection, protectedness
ٓ‫و‬ٚ‫ ِق‬muḥaṣṣan fortified; entrenched;
immune, proof (‫و‬ٝ ḍidda against)
‫ووٕز‬ٚ‫ ِق‬muḥṣina, muḥṣana sheltered,
well-protected, chaste; of unblemished
reputation (woman; Isl. Law)
ٝ‫ و‬ٚ‫ ف‬IV to oount, enumerate ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
calculate, compute ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to
debit, charge (ٝ‫ ٘ووو عٍووو‬s.th. to s.o.‘s
account), hold ( ٘ s.th. ٍٝ‫ ع‬against s.o.) │‫ا‬٨
ٝٚ‫ق‬٠ (yuḥṣā) innumerable
ٝٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣan (coll.) pebbles, little stones
‫وجر‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣāh, ‫ر‬ٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣwa pl. ‫جس‬١‫ و‬ٚ‫ف‬
ḥaṣayāt little stone; pebble; calculus,
stone (med.) │‫وز‬١ٌٛ‫وجراد‬ٚ‫( اف‬baulīya) cystic
calculus; ‫ز‬٠ٚ‫وووووفٌث‬ٙ‫وووووجرا‬ٚ‫( ف‬ṣafrāwīya)
gallstone, biliary calculus
ْ‫اٌذوج‬ٝ‫و‬ٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣā lubān, ْ‫وجٌذج‬ٚ‫ ف‬rosemary
(bot.)
ٞٛٚ‫ ف‬ḥaṣawī stony, pebbly, gravelly
‫ووج‬ٚ‫ ثف‬iḥṣā’ pl. -āt count, counting;
enumeration; calculation, computation;
statistics │ْ‫وووج اثٌْوووىج‬ٚ‫ اثف‬i. as-sukkān
census
ٟ‫ووجة‬ٚ‫ ثف‬iḥṣā’ī statistic(al); (pl. -ūn)
statistician
‫ز‬١‫جة‬ٚ‫ ثف‬iḥṣā’īya pl. -āt statistics
ٜ‫ فو‬ḥaḍḍa u (ḥaḍḍ) and II to spur on, incite (ٖ
s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬to), goad, prod (ٖ s.o.• ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do
s.th.)
ٜ‫ فووو‬ḥaḍḍ incitement, inducement,
prodding, prompting, instigation
II to ready, make ready, prepare ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., also,
e.g., as medicine = to compound), make,
produce, manufacture ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to study,
prepare ( ‫ ٘و‬a lesson); to fetch, get, bring (ٖ
s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), procure, supply ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
settle (ٖ s.o), make s.o. (ٖ) sedentary; to
civilize (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to give a lecture,
present s.th. in a lecture (ٖ to s.o.); to
lecture, give a course of lectures IV to
fetch, get, bring ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.), procure,
supply ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to take (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ثٌو‬
to a place) │ٗ‫وٌٖاِعو‬ٞ‫ ثف‬to have s.th. with
one, bring s.th. along V to prepare o.s.,
ready o.s., get ready (‫ ي‬for); to be ready,
prepared; to become settled, be sedentary
in a civilized region; to be civilized, be in
a state of civilization; to become
urbanized, become a town dweller VIII to
come (ٖ to s.o.), be in the presence (ٖ of
s.o.); to live in a civilized region; pass.
ustuḥḍira to die X to have s.th. ( ‫)٘ و‬
brought, to call, send ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ for s.o., for
s.th.), have s.o. (ٖ) come; to summon (ٖ
s.o.); to fetch, procure, supply, get, bring
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to conjure, call up, evoke ( ‫ ٘و‬a
spirit); to visualize, envision, call to mind
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to carry with o.s., bring along ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to prepare ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ e.g., a medicinal
preparation)
ٌ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍar a civilized region with
towns and villages and a settled
population (as opposed to desert, steppe);
settled population, town dwellers (as
opposed to nomads)
ٌٞ‫وووو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍarī settled, sedentary,
resident, not nomadic, non-Bedouin, like
urbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller
‫وٌر‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍra presence │‫وٌر‬ٞ‫اف‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in the
presence of ...; ‫وز‬١ٌ‫وٌراثٌعج‬ٞ‫‘( ثٌق‬āliya) His
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of
Tunis); ُ‫ووٌصى‬ٞ‫ ف‬a respectful form of
address, esp. in letters; ًٛ‫ٌراثٌوووض‬ٞ‫ ف‬cf. Fr.
Monsieur le docteur
ًٛ‫وووووو‬ٞ‫ف‬
ḥuḍūr
presence;
visit,
participation, attendance; (as one pl. of
ٌ‫وو‬ٝ‫ )فج‬those present │ًٖٛ‫وو‬ٞ‫ دق‬in his
presence; ‫ًاثٌقفٍوووووز‬ٛ‫ووووو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥ. al-ḥafla
attendance of the celebration‫ًاثٌي٘ٓا‬ٛٞ‫ ف‬ḥ.
ad-dihn presence of mind; ًٛ‫وو‬ٞ‫ًلووزاف‬ٚ
waraqat ḥ. summons (jur.)
ًٞٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍūrī: ‫ز‬٠ًٛ‫و‬ٞ‫( ثفىووجَاف‬aḥkām)
judgments delivered in the presence of the
litigant parties after oral proceedings
(jur.); ‫ج‬٠ًٛ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍūrīyan contradictorily
(jur.)
‫وووجًر‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍāra civilization; culture;
settledness, sedentariness
2
‫ٌر‬١ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍīra pl. ٌ‫جة‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍā’ir a small
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the
smallest unit of boy scouts = patrol);
section, squad (mil.; Syr.)
ٌ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ِق‬maḥḍar presence; attendance,
coming, appearance (of s.o.); assembly,
meeting, gathering, convention; (pl. ٌٝ‫ِقج‬
maḥāḍir2) minutes, official report,
process-verbal, record of the factual
findings │‫وٌاثٌؾوٌه‬ٞ‫ ِق‬m. al-jard inventory
list; ٗ‫ٌإِو‬ٞ‫ دّق‬bi-maḥḍarin minhu in s.o.‘s
presence
ٌ١‫ووو‬ٞ‫ صق‬taḥḍīr preparing, readying,
making ready; (pl. -āt) preparation (‫ ي‬for;
also e.g., for an examination); making,
preparation, cooking (of food, etc.),
production, manufacture
ٌٞ١‫و‬ٞ‫ صق‬taḥdīrī preparatory, preparative
│ٓ١‫زاٌٍّعٍّوو‬٠ٌ١‫وو‬ٞ‫ثٌّوووثًُاثٌضق‬
(mu‘allimīn)
184 preparatory institutes for teachers,
teachers‘ colleges (Eg.)
‫ٌر‬ٝ‫ ِقج‬muḥāḍara pl. -āt lecture
ً‫ووج‬ٞ‫ثف‬
iḥḍār procurement, supply,
fetching, bringing
ٌٞ‫ صق‬taḥaḍḍur civilized way of life
ً‫ج‬ٞ‫ ثفض‬iḥtiḍār demise, death
ً‫ وج‬ٞ‫ ثّضق‬istiḥḍār making, production,
manufacture; preparation; summoning
│‫ثؿ‬ًٚ٨‫ووووووجًاث‬ٞ‫ثّضق‬
istiḥḍār
al-arwāḥ
evocation of spirits, spiritism
ٌ‫و‬ٝ‫ فج‬ḥāḍir pl. ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍḍar, ًٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ف‬
ḥuḍūr present; attending; ٌ‫ووو‬ٝ‫ ثٌقج‬the
present (time); prepared (‫ ي‬for); ready; (pl.
ً‫ وج‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍḍār, ‫ووٌر‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍara) settled,
sedentary, resident, village or town
dweller, not nomadic │ٌ‫و‬ٝ‫اثٌقج‬ٟ‫ اـو‬or ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ٌ‫و‬ٝ‫لوشاثٌقج‬ٌٛ‫ ث‬at present, now; ٌ‫وٌاثٌفىو‬ٝ‫ فج‬ḥ.
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; ‫ٔمووا‬
ٌٝ‫( فج‬naqd) cash, ready money
‫وووٌر‬ٝ‫ فج‬ḥāḍira pl. ٌ‫ووو‬ٝ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāḍir2
capital city, metropolis; city (as a center of
civilization)
ًٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ ِق‬maḥḍūr possessed, haunted or
inhabited by a jinni; demoniac
ٌ‫ووو‬ٞ‫ ِق‬muḥaḍḍir maker, producer,
manufacturer; dissector (med.)
ٌٝ‫ ِقج‬muḥāḍir lecturer, speaker
ٌٞ‫ ِق‬muḥḍir court usher
ٌٞ‫ ِضق‬mutaḥaḍḍir civilized
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ِقض‬muḥtaḍar dying, in the throes of
death, on the brink of death; a dying
person; haunted or inhatbited by a jinni;
demoniac
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ِْضق‬mustaḥḍar pl. -āt preparation
(chem., pharm.) │ٟ‫ثةو‬ٚ‫وٌاه‬ٞ‫( اِْضق‬dawā’ī)
medicinal preparation
‫س‬ٌِٛٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍramaut2 Hadhramaut
ٌِٟ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍramī pl. ًَ‫ وج‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍārim2
man from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian
(adj.)
ٓ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍana u (ḥaḍn, ‫وجٔز‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥiḍāna) to clasp
in one‘s arms, embrace, hug (ٖ s.o.);
to nurse, bring up, raise (ٖ a child); (ḥaḍn,
ْ‫وج‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥidān, ‫وجٔز‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥiḍāna, ْٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥuḍūn)
to hatch, brood, incubate ( ‫ ٘و‬an egg; of a
bird) VI to embrace one another, cling to
one another, nestle against each other VII
to clasp in one‘s arms, embrace, hug ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th.); to harbor in one,s bosom ( ‫٘و‬
feeling); to hatch, concoct, contrive ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to bring up, raise ( ٘ a child)
ٓ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥaḍn pl. ْ‫ وج‬ٞ‫ ثف‬aḥḍān breast,
bosom (between the outstretched arms);
armful, that which can be carried in one's
arms │ٓ‫و‬ٞ‫( الذٍوٗادجٌق‬qabilahū) he received
him with open arms; ْ‫وج‬ٞ‫ٓاثف‬١‫ دو‬and ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـوو‬
ْ‫وج‬ٞ‫ ثف‬amid, among; with, in the presence
of (s.o.); ‫وقٌث‬ٌٚ‫وجْاث‬ٞ‫اثف‬ٟ‫( ـو‬saḥrā’) in the
heart (or folds) of the desert; ‫ٓا‬١‫ادو‬ٟٕ‫ثمويص‬
‫ج‬ٙٔ‫ج‬ٞ‫ ثف‬she took me in her arms
‫وجٔز‬ٞ‫ ف‬ḥiḍāna, ḥaḍāna raising, bringing
up, nursing (of a child); hatching (of an
egg), incubation │‫وووجٔز‬ٞ‫اهثًاثٌق‬children‘s
home, day nursery, crèche
ٓ١‫و‬ٞ‫ ف‬in embraced, bugged, resting in
s.o.‘s arms
ٓ‫وو‬ٞ‫ ِق‬maḥḍan pl. ٓ‫وو‬ٝ‫ ِقج‬maḥādin2
children‘s home, day nursery, crèche
ْ‫وووج‬ٞ‫ ثفض‬iḥtiḍān embrace, hug(ging),
accolade
‫ووٕز‬ٝ‫ فج‬ḥāḍina pl. ٓ‫ووو‬ٝ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāḍin2
nurse-maid, dry nurse
ٓ‫و‬ٞ‫ ِقض‬muḥtaḍin embracing, hugging;
tender, affectionate
٠‫ فو‬ḥaṭṭa u (ḥaṭṭ) to put, place, put down, set
down ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to take down ( ‫ ٘و‬a load,
burden); to lower, decrease, diminish,
reduce ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.); to depreciate (‫ِوٓا‬
ًٖ‫ لوو‬min qadrihī or ٗ‫ّضو‬١‫ ِوٓال‬min qudratihī
the value of s.th.) │‫اثٌٌفوجي‬٠‫( فو‬riḥāla) to
halt, make a stop, dismount, encamp
(while traveling on horseback, 185
camelback. etc.); -- u (ḥaṭṭ, ٟٛ‫ ف و‬ḥuṭūṭ) to
sink, descend, go down; to alight (bird); to
land (airplane); to drop (price) II to put
down, set down, take off, unload ( ‫ ٘و‬a
load) VII to sink, descend, go down; to
decrease, diminish; to decline, decay,
wane VIII to put down, set down, take
down ( ٘ s.th.)
٠‫ ف‬ḥaṭṭ (act of) putting or setting down;
depreciation,
belittling,
derogation,
disparagement (ٓ‫ ِوو‬of s.th.); reduction,
diminution, decrease (ِٓ of s.th.)
‫ ف وز‬ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation;
abasement,
debasement,
demotion,
degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);
humiliation, insult, indignity
٠‫ ثف‬aḥaṭṭ lower
‫ ز‬١ ‫ ف‬ḥaṭīṭa price reduction
٠‫ ِقو‬maḥaṭṭ place at which s.th. is put
down or deposited; stopping place, stop;
pause fermata, hold, concluding strain,
cadence (mus.) │‫ِوجي‬٢‫اث‬٠‫ ِقو‬object of hope,
that on which one's hopes are pinned; ‫ووجْا‬
ً‫ٔرووج‬٤‫اث‬٠‫ ِقوو‬to attract the glances, draw
attention to o.s.; َ٩‫اثٌىوو‬٠‫ ِقوو‬m. al-kalām
sense, or meaning, of one‘s words
‫ ِق ووز‬maḥaṭṭa pl. -āt stopping place,
stop (also of public conveyances); station,
post; railroad station; broadcasting station,
radio station │ً‫وج‬١‫وًاثٌض‬٠ٛ‫ اِق وزاصق‬m. taḥwīl
at-tayyār transformer station; ‫ىثعوزا‬٨‫ِق وزاث‬
‫زة‬١‫ّووووٍى‬٩ٌ‫ يث‬m. al-idā‘a (al-lāsi1kīya)
broadcasting station, radio station;
transmitter (station); ‫ز‬١‫ْو‬١‫( ِق وزاًة‬ra’īsīya)
(railroad) main station; O ‫ٕوجًثس‬٨‫ ِق وزاث‬m.
al-išārāt signal post; O ‫ًّوجي‬٨‫ ِق وزاث‬m. alirsāl transmitter (station; radio); ‫ِق ووزا‬
‫ووووز‬٠ٛ‫ووووجهاثٌؾ‬ًٙ٩ٌ (li-l-arṣād al-jawwīya)
meteorological station, weather station;
‫وٌؾ‬ٌٚ‫ ِق وزاث‬m. aṣ-ṣarf (Eg.) pump station
(for drainage); power plant; O ‫ِق ووزا‬
‫ّوضمذجي‬٨‫ ث‬receiving station (radio); O ‫ِق وزا‬
‫ثػ‬ٛ‫ِو‬٤‫ٌراث‬١‫و‬ٚ‫زال‬١‫ّوٍى‬٨ (lā-silkīya qaṣīrat alamwāj) short-wave transmitter station;
‫ٌدوج‬ٙ‫واثٌى‬١ٌٛ‫ ِق زاص‬m. taulīd al-kahrabā’ and
‫ز‬١‫ٌدجة‬ٙ‫ ِق زاو‬power plant
ٟ‫ ثٔق وووج‬inḥiṭāṭ decline, fall, decay,
decadence; inferiority │ٟ‫ٔق وووج‬٨‫ثفْوووجُاث‬
iḥsās al-inḥ. sense of inferiority
ٟٟ‫ ثٔق ج‬inḥiṭāṭ postclassical writer
٠‫ ِٕق‬munḥaṭṭ low, base, low-level, lowgrade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean,
vile, vulgar; inferior
‫ ف وخ‬ḥaṭaba i to gather firewood │‫ا‬ٟ‫اف وخاـو‬
ٗ‫(فذٍو‬fī ḥablihī) to support s.o., stand by
s.o., back s.o. up VIII to gather firewood
‫ ف خ‬ḥaṭab pl. ‫ ثف جح‬aḥṭāb firewood
‫ ف وجح‬ḥaṭṭāb wood gatherer; woodcutter, lumberjack; vendor of firewood
‫ووخ‬١ ‫ صق‬taḥṭīb singlestick fencing (a
popular game, esp. in rural areas; eg.)
‫خ‬ٟ‫ فج‬taḥṭīb wood gatherer; woodcutter,
lumberjack; vendor of firewood │‫وخا‬ٟ‫اوقج‬
ً‫وو‬١ٌ ka-ḥāṭibi lailin lit.: like one who
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does
not realize, or think about, what he is
doing)
ُ‫ ف و‬ḥaṭama i (ḥaṭm) to break, shatter, smash,
wreck, demolish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II = I; V to
break. go to pieces; to be broken, b.
smashed, be shattered; to crash (e.g.,
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked
(ship) VII = V
‫ ف ّز‬ḥiṭma pl. ُ ‫ ف‬ḥiṭam particle, small
piece, shred, bit, morsel; s.th. broken
َ‫ ف وج‬ḥuṭām debris, rubble; fragments,
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck
(of a ship) │‫ج‬١ٔ‫ ف وووجَاثٌوووو‬ad-dunyā the
ephemeral things of this world, the
vanities of the world
ُ١ ‫ ف‬ḥaṭīm smashed, shattered, wrecked
186
ُ١‫ صق وو‬taḥṭīm smashing,
shattering,
wrecking,
breaking,
demolition,
destruction, disruption │O ‫وو‬١ٍ‫ُاثٌؾ‬١‫ٕزاصق و‬١‫ّف‬
icebreaker
ُ‫صق وووووووووو‬
taḥaṭṭum
crumbling,
disintegration; crash (of an airplane);
collapse, breakdown
‫ّوز‬ٟ‫ فج‬ḥāṭima: O ‫وو‬١ٍ‫ّوزاثٌؾ‬ٟ‫ فج‬icebreaker
(naut.)
ُ‫ ِق وو‬muḥaṭṭim crashing, thundering,
roaring (of an explosion. etc.) – muḥaṭṭam
broken (language)
‫ ِق ّوز‬muḥaṭṭima: ‫وز‬١‫( ِق ّوزاعٍؾ‬taljīya)
icebreaker (naut.)
‫ ف‬ḥaẓẓa a (ḥaẓẓ) to be lucky, Fortunate IV=I
‫ فو‬ḥaẓẓ pl. ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ فرو‬ḥuẓūẓ part, portion,
share, allotment; lot, fate, destiny; good
luck, good fortune; affluence, wealth,
fortune; prosperity; pleasure │ٓ‫اف و اِوو‬ٚ‫اى‬
endowed with; ‫ ٌقْوٓاثٌقو‬li-ḥusni l-ḥ. and
‫ ِوٓافْوٓاثٌقو‬fortunately, luckily; ‫ اثٌقو‬ٛ‫ّو‬
sū’ al-ḥ. bad luck, misfortune; ‫ اثٌقو‬ٟ‫ّو‬
sayyi’ al-ḥ. unlucky, unfortunate; ‫ ا‬ٛ‫ٌْوو‬
‫ ثٌق‬unfortunately; ٟ‫ ِٓافْوٓافرو‬luckily for
me, fortunately; ْ‫ ووجْاِوٓافْوٓافروٗاث‬he was
lucky in that he ...; ‫وجافروج‬ِٕٙ‫ِاثفْوٓا‬١‫ ٌو‬he is
no better off than she is
١‫ فر‬ḥaẓīẓ lucky, fortunate
‫ظ‬ٛ‫ ِقر و‬lucky, fortunate; content(ed),
happy, glad
ٌ‫ فرو‬ḥaẓara u (ḥaẓr) to fence in, hedge in ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to forbid ( ‫ ٘ و‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to s.o. s.th.),
prohibit ( ٘ ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o. from doing s.th.)
ٌ‫ فرووو‬ḥaẓr forbiddance, interdiction,
prohibition, ban; embargo
ً‫ فروووج‬ḥiẓār, ḥaẓār wall, partition,
screen; fence, palisade, railing
‫ووووٌر‬١‫ فر‬ḥaẓīra pl. ٌ‫ فرووووجة‬ḥaẓā’ir2
enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;
compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral,
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field,
domain, realm (fig.) │‫وٌر‬١‫افر‬ٟ‫( ـو‬with foll.
genit.) inside of, within; ٗ‫ٌصوو‬١‫افر‬ٝ‫ؽيدووٗاثٌوو‬
(jadabahū) to bring s.o. under one‘s
influence; ‫ فروجةٌاثٌ وجةٌثس‬aircraft hangars;
ُ‫ٌراثٌمو‬١‫ فر‬ḥ. al-quds Paradise
ًٛ‫ ِقرو‬maḥẓūr interdicted, prohibited,
forbidden (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to s.o.); embargoed; pl.
‫ًثس‬ٛ‫ ِقر‬forbidden things, restrictions
(ٛ‫ فرو‬and ٟ‫ )فروو‬ٟ‫ فرو‬ḥaẓiya a (‫ر‬ٛ‫فرو‬
ḥuẓwa, ḥiẓwa) to enjoy the favor or good
graces of s.o. (‫)عٕوو‬, be in s.o.‘s (‫ )عٕوو‬favor
or good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain,
gain, win (‫ ح‬s.th.)
‫ر‬ٛ‫ فروو‬ḥuẓwa, ḥiẓwa favored position,
role of favorite; precedence; favor, grace;
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit,
standing, respect, esteem │‫راعٕوووا‬ٛ‫أووجيافروو‬
‫ة‬ٜ‫ يٌو‬to find favor with s.o.
‫وز‬١‫ فر‬ḥaẓīya pl. ‫وج‬٠‫ فرج‬ḥaẓāyā paramour,
mistress, concubine
‫وووز‬١‫ ِقر‬maḥẓīya pl. -āt paramour.
mistress, concubine
‫ فوؿ‬ḥaffa u (ḥaff) to surround (‫٘و ح‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.
with, also ‫ ح‬and ‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬s.o., s.th.), enclose,
encompass, border (‫ح‬, ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to depilate
( ٘ a part of the body), unhair ( ‫ ٘و‬the skin);
to trim, clip ( ‫ ٘و‬the beard); to chafe, rub
off, abrade ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │ٓ١‫اصقوؿادوٗاثٌعو‬he is the
object of admiring glances, he is the
center of attention, all eyes are upon him;
-- i (‫وؿ‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīf) to rustle II and VIII to
surround, (‫ي‬ٛ‫ف‬, ‫ح‬, ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.), enclose,
encompass, border (‫ي‬ٛ‫ف‬,‫ح‬, ٘ s.th.)
‫ ففجؾ‬ḥifāf side
‫ؿ‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīf rustle, rustling
‫ ِقف وز‬miḥaffa (also maḥaffa) pl. -āt
litter, stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan
‫ فوجؾ‬ḥaff: ‫( مذوَافوجؾ‬ḳubz) plain bread
(without anything to go with it; eg.)187
‫ فجـوووز‬ḥāffa pl. -āt enclosure, edge,
margin; brim of a vessel; border, brink,
verge; fringe, hem │‫افجـوزاثٌنوٌثح‬ٍٝ‫’اع‬alā ḥ.
al-ḳarāb on the brink of ruin
‫و‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīd pl. ‫ ثففوجه‬aḥfād, ‫ ففوور‬ḥafada grandson;
descendant, offspring, scion
‫ور‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīda granddaughter
ٌ‫ ففو‬ḥafara i (ḥafr) to dig ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.): to drill (for
oil): to excavate (archeol.): to carve ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.): to engrave, etch ( ‫ ٘و‬metal) │‫اففوٌا‬
‫مٕجهق‬to dig trenches; ‫( ففوٌاففوٌر‬ḥufratan) to
prepare a pitfall, prepare an ambush VII
pass. of I; VIII to dig
ٌ‫ فف‬ḥafr digging, earthwork, excavation
(also archeol.); unearthing; drilling (for
oil): carving, inscribing (e.g., of letters);
engraving, etching; graphic arts (etching,
wood engraving); scurvy (syr.) │‫ووجٍا‬ٙ‫اؽ‬
‫ثٌقفٌا‬jahāz al-ḥ. oil rig; oil derrick
‫ ففووٌر‬ḥufra pl. ٌ‫ ففوو‬ḥufar pit; hollow,
cavity, excavation; hole
‫ووز‬٠ٌ‫ فف‬ḥafrīya digging, excavation; O
gravure; pl. ‫جس‬٠ٌ‫ فف‬excavations (archeol.)
ً‫ فف وج‬ḥaffār digger; engraver; driller;
stone mason │ًٛ‫ اففجًاثٌمذ‬gravedigger
ٌ‫ و‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīr dug, dug out, excavated,
unearthed
‫ووٌر‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīra pl. ٌ‫ ففووجة‬ḥafā’ir2 s.th.
excavated or unearthed; pl. excavations
(archeol.)
ًٛ‫ ثففووو‬uḥfūr pl. ٌ١‫ ثفوووجـ‬aḥāfīr2 s.th.
excavated;
fossil;
pl.
excavations
(archeol.)
ٌ‫ ِقف‬miḥfar pl. ٌ‫ ِقجـ‬maḥāfir2 spade
ٌ‫ فوجـ‬ḥāfir pl. ٌ‫ثـ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawāfir2 hoof │‫لواا‬ٚ
ٌ‫اثٌقووجـ‬ٝ‫ ثٌق وجـٌاعٍوو‬to coincide, happen to
correspond exactly; ٌ‫اثٌقوجـ‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬on the spot,
right away, at once
ٌٞ‫ فجـ‬ḥāfirī ungular, ungulate
‫ فوووووجـٌر‬ḥāfira original condition,
beginning │‫ عٕووواثٌقوجـٌر‬on the spot, right
away, at once; ٗ‫افجـٌصو‬ٌٝ‫ ًؽااث‬to revert to its
original state or origin
ًٛ‫ ِقفو‬maḥfūr dug; inscribed, engraved;
carved
َ‫ ففو‬ḥafaza i (ḥafz) to pierce, stab (ٖ s.o., ‫ح‬
with the spear); to incite, instigate, urge,
prompt, induce (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ ٖ ثٌو‬s.o. to s.th.) V
to prepare o.s. get ready, be ready, be
about to do s.th. (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫)ثٌو‬. set out to do
s.th. (‫ ي‬or ٝ‫ ;)ثٌو‬to get ready to jump, make
a running start; to listen, pay attention
VIII to be about to do s.th., be ready (‫ي‬
for)
َ‫ صقفوو‬taḥaffuz preparedness, readiness;
vim, dash, verve, sweep, élan
َ‫ فوجـ‬ḥāfiz pl. َ‫ثـ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawāfiz2 spur, drive
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to do s.th.), incentive (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to),
initiative
َ‫ ِْضقف‬mutaḥfiz ready, prepared (‫ ي‬for)
‫ ففو‬ḥafiẓa a (ḥifẓ) to preserve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
protect, guard, defend (ٖ s.o.): to observe,
bear in mind ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), comply ( ‫ ٘و‬with
s.th.), be mindful, be heedful ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.);
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain,
uphold ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to hold, have in
safekeeping ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.), take care ( ‫ ٘ و‬of
s.th.); to keep, put away, save, store ( ‫٘و‬
s.th); to conserve, preserve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
retain in one‘s memory, remember, know
by heart ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to memorize, learn by
heart, commit to memory ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., esp. the
Koran); to reserve ( ٘ ٗ‫ ٌٕفْو‬for o.s. s.th.): to
stay, discontinue, suspend (‫وووك‬١‫ ثٌضقم‬a
judicial investigation; jur.) │ ‫ ففروٗا‬may
God protect him! ‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ ففو ادجٌذ‬to hold in care
of general delivery ( ٘ s.th.); ‫ّ ز‬ٛ‫اثٌذ‬ٟ‫قف اـ‬٠
(yuḥfaẓu) in care of general delivery,
poste restante; ‫ـوج اي‬ٌٛ‫( ففو اث‬wafā’a) to be
loyal to s.o., keep faith with s.o. II to have
s.o. (ٖ) memorize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to preserve,
keep up, maintain, uphold, sustain (ٝ‫عٍوو‬
s.th.); 188 to supervise, control (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.),
watch (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over s.th.); to watch out (ٝ‫عٍو‬
for), take care, be heedful, be mindful (ٍٝ‫ع‬
of), look (ٝ‫ عٍو‬after), attend, pay attention
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬to); to keep, follow, observe, bear in
mind (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.), comply (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬with),
conform (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to) ; to protect, guard,
defend ( ‫ ٘و‬and ٝ‫عٍو‬, also ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.) IV to
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, offend (ٖ
s.o.) V to keep up, maintain, preserve (‫ح‬
s.th.); to observe, keep in mind (‫ ح‬s.th.),
be mindful, be heedful, take care (‫ ح‬of
s.th.), be concerned (‫ ح‬with); to be
cautious, be wary, be on one‘s guard; to
be reserved, aloof; to have reservations
VIII to maintain, uphold (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
e.g., ٗ‫لوو‬ٛ‫ دقم‬one‘s rights); to keep up,
maintain, retain (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘ و‬s.th., e.g., a
posture, a characteristic); to take care, take
over custody (‫ ح‬of s.o.), protect, guard (‫ح‬
s.o.); to defend (against encroachment),
hold, maintain (‫ ح‬a possession); to
preserve, sustain, continue, keep up (‫ح‬
s.th.); to hold, possess (‫ ح‬s.th.); to put
away, hold, have in safekeeping (‫ ح‬s.th.),
take care (‫ ح‬of s.th.); to keep, retain (‫ح‬
s.th.); ٗ‫ ثفوووضف إٌفْووو‬to keep for o.s.,
appropriate, reserve for o.s. (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
take complete possession ( ‫ ٘و‬of) X to ask
s.o. (ٖ) to guard or protect ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.);
to entrust (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ ٖ ٘و‬to s.o. s.th.), commit
s.th. (ٍٝ‫ ع‬or ٘) to the charge of s.o. (ٖ)
‫ ففووو‬ḥifẓ preservation; maintenance,
sustentation, conservation, upholding;
protection, defense, guarding; custody,
safekeeping. keeping, storage; retention;
observance,
compliance
(with);
memorizing, memorization; memory;
(jur.) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of
legal action, of a judicial investigation) │‫ا‬
ً‫عوووووووج‬٢‫ففووووووو اث‬preservation
of
ancient
monuments (Eg.); ‫وقز‬ٌٚ‫ ففو اث‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣiḥḥa
hygiene, sanitation; ‫ ًؽجياثٌقف‬police
‫ ففروووووز‬ḥifẓa anger,
resentment, rancor
indignation,
‫ فف وجظ‬ḥifāẓ pl. -āt dressing, ligature,
bandage │ٜ١‫ اففوجظاثٌقو‬ḥ. al-ḥaiḍ sanitary
napkin
١‫ ففو‬ḥafīẓ attentive, heedful, mindful;
preserving, keeping, guarding (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.th.)
‫روز‬١‫ فف‬ḥafīẓa pl.
resentment, rancor
‫ ففوجة‬ḥafā’iẓ2 grudge,
‫ ِقفروز‬maḥfaẓa, miḥfaẓa pl. -āt, ‫ِقوجـ‬
maḥāfiẓ2 folder, bag, satchel, briefcase
dispatch case, portfolio; wallet, pocket,
book
‫ ِقفرز‬miḥfaẓa capsule
١‫ صقفووووو‬taḥfīẓ memorization
inculcation (esp. of the Koran)
drill,
‫ ففوجظ‬ḥifāẓ defense, protection, guarding
(esp. of cherished, sacred things);
preservation, maintenance (ٝ‫ عٍووووو‬of
interests); keeping, upholding (of loyalty),
adherence (to a commitment)
‫ِقجـروووووووووز‬
muḥāfaẓa
guarding;
safeguarding; preservation; protection,
defense;
conservation,
sustaining,
upholding; retention, maintenance (ٝ‫ عٍو‬of
s.th.) conservativism (pol.), conservative
attitude; following, observance (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬of
s.th.), compliance (ٝ‫ عٍوووو‬with s.th.),
adherence (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to); guarding (ٓ‫ ِو‬against
misfortune),
saving
(ٓ‫ِووووووو‬
from
misadventure); garrison (mil.); (pl. -āt)
governorate (one of five administrative
divisions of Egypt, in addition to a
mudīrīyāt); office of the muḥāfiẓ (head of
a governorate); province, anyone of the
larger administrative districts (Syr.) │‫ا‬
ِ‫اثٌووٕف‬ٝ‫ ثٌّقجـروزاعٍوو‬self-preservation; ‫ِووي٘خا‬
‫ ثٌّقجـرووووز‬madhab al-m. conservative
movement, conserativism, Toryism
‫ صقفوووو‬taḥaffuẓ caution, wariness,
restraint, reticence, reserve, aloofness; -189 (pl. -āt) precaution, precautionary
measure; reservation, limiting condition,
conditional stipulation, proviso │ ‫ِوااثٌوضقف‬
with full reservation
ٟ‫صقفرووووووو‬
taḥaffuẓī
precautionary,
preventive │‫وووووز‬١‫( ثؽوووووٌث ثساصقفر‬ijrā’āt)
precautionary measures; ٟ‫وٍـاصقفرو‬ٙ (ṣulḥ)
settlement before action, preventive
settlement (jur.)
‫ ثفضفووجظ‬iḥtifāẓ guarding, safeguarding;
preservation; retention, maintenance,
continuation,
conservation,
defense,
protection,
vindication,
sustaining,
upholding; keeping, holding, safekeeping,
custody (‫ ح‬of s.th.)
‫ فووجـ‬ḥāfiẓ keeper, guarder, guardian,
custodian, caretaker; (pl. ْ‫ ففوجظاثٌموٌآ‬ḥuffāẓ,
‫ ففروز‬ḥafaẓa) one who knows the Koran by
heart (formerly an honorific epithet)
‫ فجـرووز‬ḥāfiẓa memory; -- (pl. ‫ثـ‬ٛ‫فوو‬
ḥawāfiẓ) wallet, pocketbook, money order
(Eg.)
‫ظ‬ٛ‫ ِقفو‬maḥfūẓ kept, held in safekeeping,
deposited,
guarded,
preserved;
memorized, committed to memory, etc.;
conserved, preserved (food); reserved;
ensured, secured, safeguarded; -- pl.
‫ظووووجس‬ٛ‫ ِقف‬canned goods, concerves;
archives; memorized material, what s.o.
knows by heart │‫ز‬٠ٌ‫و‬ٌّٚ‫ظوجساث‬ٛ‫ اهثًاثٌّقف‬the
Egyptian Public Record Office; ‫سا‬٨ٛ‫ِ وبو‬
‫ظ وز‬ٛ‫ ِقف‬concerves, canned goods; ‫وواا‬١ّ‫ؽ‬
‫ظز‬ٛ‫قاِقف‬ٛ‫ ثٌقم‬all rights reserved
‫ ِقوجـ‬muḥāfiẓ supervisory, controlling;
observing (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.th.), complying (ٝ‫عٍوو‬
with), etc.; conservative (pol.), ْٛ‫ثٌّقووجـر‬
the Conservatives, the Tories; keeper,
guarder, guardian, custodian, caretaker,
supervisor,
superintendent;
mayor;
governor (Eg.: title of the chief officer of
a governorate; Syr.: chief officer of a
province); director general, president (=
Brit. governor)
(dīnīya) religious ceremony, Divine
Service; ‫ ففٍوزاّوجٌ٘ر‬and ٌّ‫ ففٍوزاّو‬ḥ. samar
evening party, soirée; ‫ز‬١‫ّٕجة‬١‫ ففٍوزاّو‬motionpicture show; ٞ‫ ففٍزاثٌٖج‬tea party; ‫ففٍزاثٌعٌُا‬
ḥ. al-‘urs wedding;‫ّووضمذجيا‬٨‫( ففٍووزاث‬public)
reception; ‫زا‬١‫م‬١ِّٛ‫ ففٍزا‬concert
ً١‫ فف‬ḥafīl eager, assiduous, diligent
ً‫ ِقفوو‬maḥfil pl. ً‫ ِقجـوو‬maḥāfil2 assembly,
congregation, meeting, gathering; party;
190 body, collective whole; circle, quarter
│ّٟٔٛ‫ ِقفًاِج‬Masonic lodge; ‫زا‬١ٌٌّّ‫ثٌّقجـًاث‬
‫زة‬١‫جّوو‬١ٌْ‫( يث‬rasmīya, siyāsīya) the official
(political) circles or quarters
‫ ثفضفووووجي‬iḥtifāl pl. -āt celebration,
ceremony, festival, festivities
ً‫ فجـو‬ḥāfil pl. ً‫ ففو‬ḥuffal, ً‫ثـو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāfil2
full (‫ ح‬of), filled, replete (‫ ح‬with);
abundant,
copious,
lavish;
much
frequented, well attended (by visitors,
participants,
etc.),
numerous
(of
attendance); solemn, ceremonial, festive
‫ ِوضقف‬mutaḥaffiẓ vigilant, alert, wary,
cautious; reticent, reserved, aloof; staid,
sedate
‫ ِْضقف‬mustaḥfaẓ pl. -āt reserve (mil.)
ً‫ ففووو‬ḥafala i (ḥafl) to gather, assemble,
congregate; to flow copiously; to be
replete, teem, superabound (‫ ح‬with); to
pay attention, attend, give one‘s mind (‫ح‬
or ‫ ي‬to s.th.), concern o.s. (‫ ح‬with), make
much (‫ ح‬of), set great store (‫ ح‬by) │‫ا‬٨‫ا‬
ٗ‫(ففووووًادوووو‬lā ḥafla) indifferent, of no
consequence II to adorn, decorate,
ornament (‫ ٖ ح‬s.th. with) VIII to gather,
rally, throng together; to celebrate (‫ ح‬s.th.,
s.o.); to concern o.s. (‫ ح‬or ‫ ي‬with), attend,
pay attention. give one‘s mind (‫ ح‬or ‫ ي‬to
s.th.); to honor, welcome, receive kindly
(‫ ح‬s.o.)
‫ فجـٍوز‬hāfila pl. -āt, ً‫ثـو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāfil
autobus
O
ً‫ ِقضفو‬muḥtafil: ْٛ‫ ثٌّقضفٍو‬the participants
in a festive event, the celebrators
ً‫ ِقضفووووو‬muḥtafal assembly place,
gathering place; party; ٗ‫ ِقضفًاد‬celebrated
ٓ‫ ففو‬ḥafana u to scoop up with both hands ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to give a little (‫ ي‬to s.o.)
‫ ففٕز‬ḥafna pl. ḥafanāt handful
1
ً‫ففوووووو‬
ḥafl
gathering,
meeting,
assembling; assembly, congregation,
throng, crowd; performance, show, public
event; celebrations; feast, festival
‫ ففٍوز‬ḥafla pl. -āt assembly, gathering,
meeting, congregation; party; (social or
public) event; show, performance (theater,
cinema); concert; festivity, ceremony,
festival, festive event, celebration │‫اففٍوزا‬
ٓ١‫ثٌضووووبد‬commemoration. Commemorative,
ceremony for a deceased person; ‫ثٌقفٍ وزا‬
ٝ‫ٌو‬ٚ٤‫( ث‬ūlā) premiere; ‫ ففٍوزافجـٍوز‬numerous
assembly; ‫وووز‬٠ٌ١‫( ففٍوووزام‬ḳairīya) charity
performance, charity event; ‫ ففٍوزاثٌووـٓا‬addfn funeral ceremony, obsequies; ‫وز‬١ٕ٠‫ففٍوزاه‬
2
(ٛ‫ ففو‬and ٝ‫ )ففو‬ٟ‫ ففو‬ḥafiya a (‫ر‬ٚ‫ ففوج‬ḥafāwa) to
receive kindly and hospitably, to
welcome, receive with honors, honor (‫ح‬
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be
affectionate (‫ ح‬toward) VIII do.; to
celebrate (‫ ح‬an occasion, a festival)
ٟ‫ ففو‬ḥafīy welcoming, receiving kindly,
greeting (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.)
‫ر‬ٚ‫ ففووووج‬ḥafāwa friendly reception,
welcoming, welcome, salutation (‫ ح‬of
s.o.)
‫ ثفضفووووج‬iḥtifā’ reception, welcome,
salutation (‫ ح‬of s.o.); celebration, festivity
2
ٟ‫اففو‬ḥafiya a ( ‫ ففوج‬ḥafā’) to go barefoot; to
have sore feet
‫ فجؾ‬ḥāfin pl. ‫ ففجر‬ḥufāh barefoot(ed)
‫ فوك‬ḥaqqa i u to be true, turn out to be true, be
confirmed; to be right, correct; (also pass.
ḥuqqa) to be necessary, obligatory,
requisite, imperative (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬for s.o.), be
incumbent (ٝ‫ عٍو‬upon s.o.); to be adequate,
suitable, fitting, appropriate (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.);
to be due (‫ ي‬s.o.); ٗ‫قكاٌو‬٠ he is entitled to it,
he has a right to it; ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ فوكاع‬he deserved it
(punishment); -- u to ascertain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
make sure, be sure ( ‫ ٘ووو‬of s.th.); to
recognize. identify (ٖ s.o.) II to make s.th.
( ‫ )٘و‬come true; to realize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., a
hope), carry out ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., a wish), carry into
effect,
fulfill,
put
into
action,
consummate, effect, actualize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
implement ( ‫ ٘وو‬e.g., an agreement); to
produce, bring on, yield ( ‫ ٘و‬results); to
determine, ascertain, find out, pinpoint,
identify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to prove s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬to be
true, verify, establish, substantiate ( ‫٘ووو‬
s.th.); to confirm, assert, aver, avouch,
affirm ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to be exact, painstaking,
meticulous, careful ( ‫ ٘و‬in doing s.th.), e.g.,
ٌ‫( فم وكاثٌٕروو‬naẓara) to look closely; to
study, examine, investigate, explore ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.), look, inquire ( ٘ into s.th.); to verify,
check ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.); to investigate (ٟ‫ـو‬
s.th., police); to make an official inquiry
( ‫ ٘و‬into s.th.), institute an investigation ( ‫٘و‬
of or into; court; jur.); to interrogate (‫ِوا‬
s.o.), conduct a hearing (‫ ِوا‬of s.o.; jur.) III
to contend for a right (ٖ with s.o.), contest
or litigate a right (ٖ against s.o.) IV to tell
the truth; to be right (ٟ‫ ـوو‬in s.th.); to
enforce ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., a legal claim) V to
prove true. turn out to be true, be
confirmed, prove to be correct; to
materialize, become a fact; to be realized,
be effected, come into effect; to be
examined, be explored; to ascertain ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th., also ٓ‫)ِو‬, make sure, reassure o.s.,
gain proof, convince o.s., be convinced,
be sure, be certain ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.); to check,
verify ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ِو‬. s.th.); to be serious (‫ح‬
about s.th.) X to be entitled, have a claim
( ٘ to s.th.); to claim ( ٘ s.th.), lay claim ( ‫٘و‬
to); to deserve, merit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be worthy
( ‫ ٘وووو‬of); to require, demand, 191
necessitate, make requisite ( ٘ s.th.); to fall
due. become payable (sum of money),
mature. become due (note); to be due (‫ي‬
s.o.) │ٌ‫ْوووووضقكاثٌووووويو‬٠ (dikra) worth
mentioning, noteworthy; ُ‫وٗاثٌٌّو‬١ٍ‫ْوضقكاع‬٠‫ا‬٨
(rasmu) not subject to a fee. free of charge
‫ فوك‬ḥaqq truth; correctness, rightness;
rightful possession. property; one‘s due;
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, real;
right, fair and reasonable; correct, sound,
valid; ‫ ثٌقوك‬an attribute of God; (pl. ‫ق‬ٛ‫فمو‬
ḥuqūq) right, title, claim, legal claim (ٟ‫ـو‬
to); ‫ق‬ٛ‫ ثٌقمووو‬law, jurisprudence, legal
science; ‫ فموج‬ḥaqqan really, in reality, in
effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in
truth; justly, rightly, by rights │ ‫ ثفموجاىٌوه‬is
that (really) so? really? ‫ دقوك‬justly, rightly,
by rights; ‫ دوجٌقك‬truly, in reality, actually;
properly, appropriately, in a suitable
manner; ‫ دقوك‬bi-haqqi and ‫افوك‬ٟ‫ ـو‬as to ...,
as for ..., with respect to, concerning,
regarding; ‫افك‬ٍٝ‫اع‬ٛ٘ he is in the right; ‫ثٌقكا‬
ٓ‫ ِع‬you are right; ‫وه‬١ٍ‫ ثٌقوكاع‬you are wrong;
‫ه‬١ٍ‫افكاع‬ٛ٘ it is your duty; ُ‫ى‬١‫اعٍو‬ٟ‫ ٘ويثافمو‬you
owe this to me; ٗ١ٍ‫جاع‬ٙ‫‘( عٌـجٔجاٌقم‬irfānan) in
recognition of what he owed her; ٗ‫ ِٓافمو‬he
is entitled to it, it is his due; ْ‫ووجْاِوٓافموٗاث‬
he should have ..., he ought to have …; ‫ٌوٗا‬
ٟ‫ ثٌقووكاـوو‬he is entitled to ...; ‫مووجي‬٠‫ثٌقووكا‬ٚ
(yuqāl) one may say, it must be admitted,
it‘s only fair to say, say what you will ...,
... though (as a parenthetical phrase); ‫عٌؾا‬
‫( فوووكاثٌّعٌـوووز‬ḥaqqa l-ma‘rifa) to know
exactly, know for certain, know very well,
also ُ‫( عٍوُافوكاثٌعٍو‬ḥaqqa l-‘ilm); ُ‫و‬ٙ‫وُافوكاثٌف‬ٙ‫ـ‬
fahima ḥaqqa l-fahm to understand
precisely, comprehend thoroughly, be
fully aware; ‫( ثٌْوووعجهراثٌقموووز‬sa‘āda) true
happiness; ‫ق‬ٛ‫ووزاثٌقموو‬١ٍ‫ و‬kullīyat al-ḥ. law
school, faculty of law
‫ فووك‬ḥuqq hollow, cavity; socket of a
joint (anat.); also = ‫ فمز‬ḥuqqa
‫ فموز‬ḥuqqa pl. ‫ فموك‬ḥuqaq, ‫ فموجق‬ḥiqāq,
‫ ثفموجق‬aḥqāq small box, case, pot or jar;
receptacle, container; -- (pl. -āt, ‫فموووك‬
ḥuqaq) a weight (Syr., Pal.) = ‫ ثلز‬uqqa; ‫فمزا‬
‫ز‬١ٌٛ‫ = ثّضجٔذ‬1.280 kg (Ir.)
‫ ثفووك‬aḥaqq2 worthier, more deserving
(‫ ح‬of s.th.); more entitled (‫ ح‬to s.th.)
‫وك‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqīq pl. ‫ ثفموج‬aḥiqqā’2 worthy,
deserving (‫ ح‬of s.th.), fit, competent,
qualified; entitled (‫ ح‬to)
‫مووز‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqīqa pl. ‫ فم وجةك‬ḥaqā’iq2 truth,
reality (also philos.); fact; the true state of
affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; real
meaning, true sense; ḥaqīqatan really, in
reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed,
truly, in truth │ٗ‫مضو‬١‫افم‬ٝ‫ضوٗاعٍو‬٠‫ اًأ‬I saw its
true nature, as it really is; ٌ‫ِو‬٤‫موزاث‬١‫افم‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in
reality, really, actually; ‫موز‬١‫ِاٌوٗافم‬١‫ ٌو‬it does
not really exist, it is not real
ٟ‫مو‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqīqī real, true; actual; proper,
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic;
positive
ٟ‫ل‬ٛ‫ فم‬ḥuqūqī juristic(al); (pl. -ūn) jurist,
jurisprudent, lawyer
‫ز‬١‫ ثفم‬aḥaqqīya legal claim, title, right
ٟٔ‫ فم وج‬ḥaqqānī correct, right, proper,
sound, valid, legitimate, legal
‫ وز‬١ٔ‫ فمج‬ḥaqqānīya justice, law │‫ٍثًرا‬ٚ‫ا‬
‫ز‬١ٔ‫ ثٌقمج‬Ministry of Justice (formerly Eg.)
‫ووك‬١‫ صقم‬taḥqīq realization, actualization,
effectuation, implementation; fulfillment
(of a claim, of a wish, etc.); achievement,
accomplishment,
execution;
ascertainment,
determination,
identification, verification; substantiation;
assertion,
affirmation,
confirmation;
pinpointing,
precise
determination;
exactness, accurateness, precision; (= ‫كا‬١‫صقم‬
‫ ثٌٕ وك‬t. an-nuṭq) precise pronunciation; -(pl. -āt) verification, check, checkup,
investigation; official or judicial inquiry,
192 inquest │ْ‫وكاث‬١‫ ثٌضقم‬it is a matter of fact
that ..., it is certain that ...; ‫ وك‬١‫اثٌضقم‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
properly speaking, strictly speaking,
actually; exactly, precisely; positively,
definitely; ‫ وك‬١‫ عٕووواثٌضقم‬properly speaking,
strictly speaking, actually; ‫ز‬١‫و‬ٚ‫وكاثٌٖن‬١‫ صقم‬t.
aš-šaḳšīya identification (of a person),
proof of identity; ‫ز‬١‫ووو‬ٚ‫وووكاثٌٖن‬١‫جهراصقم‬ٙ‫ٕووو‬
šahādat t. aš-šaḳšīya identity card; ‫كا‬١‫لٍُاصقم‬
‫ز‬١‫وووو‬ٚ‫ ثٌٖن‬qalam t. aš-š. bureau of
identification; ‫وووز‬١‫وووكاثٌيثص‬١‫ صقم‬t. ad-dātīya
identification; ‫ووووك‬١‫اثٌضقم‬ٟ‫وووو‬ٝ‫ لج‬examining
magistrate; ‫ًدوووجؿ‬٤‫وووكاث‬١‫ صقم‬realization of
profits (stock market)
‫ ثفمجق‬iḥqāq: ‫ ثفمجلوجاٌٍقوك‬iḥqāqan li-l-ḥaqq
(so) that truth may prevail
‫ صقموك‬taḥaqquq ascertainment, making
sure; conviction, certainty, certitude;
verification, check, checkup
‫ ثّوووضقمجق‬istiḥqāq pl. -āt worthiness,
deservingness, merit; one‘s due or desert;
maturity, payability, falling due (of a sum
of money); reclaiming or calling in of s.th.
due, demand of a right; vindication (1.1.
Law), replevin, detinue│‫عوووووٓاثّوووووضقمجق‬
deservedly, justly, by rights; ‫ْاثّوضقمجق‬ٚ‫دوو‬
undeservedly; ‫ّووووضقمجق‬٨‫لاث‬٠ً‫ صووووج‬date of
maturity (e.g., of a bond); ٟٔ‫ّوضقمجقاثٌٍذٕوج‬٨‫ث‬
(lubnānī) name of a Lebanese order
‫ق‬ٛ‫ ِقمو‬maḥqūq worthy, deserving (‫ح‬, ‫ي‬
of), fit, competent, qualifying (‫ح‬, ‫ ي‬for);
wrong, at fault, on the wrong track
‫ ِقموك‬muḥaqqiq investigator; inquirer;
examining magistrate
‫ ِقموك‬muḥaqqaq sure, certain, beyond
doubt,
unquestionable,
indubitable;
assured, established, accepted, recognized
│ْ‫آِاثٌّقموكاث‬it is certain that ..., it is a fact
that …
‫ ِقووك‬muḥiqq telling the truth, in the
right, being right
‫ ِقموووك‬mutaḥaqqiq convinced, sure,
certain, positive
‫ ِْووضقك‬mustaḥiqq entitled; claiming;
beneficiary (of a wakf); deserving, worthy
│‫ ِْضقكاثٌوـا‬m. ad-daf‘ due, payable (sum)
‫ فمخ‬VITI to put into one's bag, to bag ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ فموخ‬ḥuqb pl. ‫ ثفموجح‬aḥqāb, ‫ فموجح‬ḥiqāb
long stretch of time, long period
‫ فمذوز‬ḥiqba pl. ‫ فمووخ‬ḥiqab long time,
stretch of time; period, age │ْ‫افمذزاِوٓاثٌَِوج‬
ḥiqbatan min az-zamān for quite a time,
for some time
‫ فموخ‬ḥaqab pl. ‫ ثفموجح‬aḥqāb a kind of
ornamental belt
‫ فموجح‬ḥiqāb pl. ‫ فمووخ‬ḥuqub a kind of
ornamental belt
‫ذوز‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqība pl. ‫ فمجةوخ‬ḥaqā’ib2 valise,
suitcase, traveling bag; leather bag │‫ذوزا‬١‫افم‬
‫ز‬١‫ِجّووو‬ٍٛ‫ هد‬diplomatic pouch; ‫ه‬ٛ‫ذوووزاثٌٕمووو‬١‫فم‬
portemonnaie, change purse; ‫و‬١ٌ‫ذزاث‬١‫ فم‬ḥ. alyad ladies‘ purse, handbag
‫ فموو‬ḥaqida a, ḥaqada i (ḥaqd, ḥiqd) to harbor
feelings of hatred (ٍٝ‫ ع‬against) IV to incite
to hatred or resentment, embitter,
envenom (ٖ s.o.) V = I; VI to hate one
another
‫ فمووو‬ḥiqd pl. ‫ ثفموجه‬aḥqād, ‫ه‬ٛ‫ فمو‬ḥuqūd
hatred, malice, spite, resentment, rancor
field; oil area; ‫ياثٌضؾوجًح‬ٛ‫ فمو‬experimental
fields; ٟ‫ٌدجة‬ٙ‫( فمًاو‬kahrabā’ī) electric field
‫وور‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqida pl. ‫ فمجةوو‬ḥaqā’id2 hatred,
malice, spite, resentment, rancor
‫ه‬ٛ‫ فم و‬ḥaqūd full of hatred, spiteful,
resentful,
malicious,
malevolent,
rancorous
‫ فجلوووو‬ḥāqid full of hatred, spiteful,
resentful,
malicious,
malevolent,
rancorous; pl. ‫ فمووور‬ḥaqada malevolent
people
ٌ‫ فمو‬ḥaqara i (ḥaqr) to despise, scorn,
disdain (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to look down ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
on), have a low opinion ( ‫٘ و‬, ٖ of); -ḥaqura u 193 to below, base,
contemptible, despicable; to be despised,
degraded, humiliated II to disparage,
decry, depreciate (ٖ s.o.), detract, derogate
(ٖ from s.o.); to degrade, debase, humble,
humiliate; to regard with contempt,
despise, scorn, disdain (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VIII
to despise, scorn, disdain (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
look down ( ‫٘ و‬, ٖ on) X to regard as
contemptible or despicable, disdain,
despise (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), look down ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
on)
ٍٟ‫ فم‬ḥaqlī field- (in compounds)
‫ ِقجلٍوز‬muḥāqala sale of grain while still
in growth, dealing in grain futures (Isl.
Law)
ٓ‫ فمو‬ḥaqana u (ḥaqn) to hold back, withhold,
keep back, detain, retain ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
suppress, repress, restrain ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
keep to o.s. (ٌ‫ ثٌْو‬as-sirra the secret); to
spare (ٗ‫ هِو‬damahū s.o.‘s blood or life); to
give (ٖ s.o.) an injection (med.) VIII to
become congested (esp. blood); to suffer
from strangury; to take an enema, a
clyster; to be injected │ٗ‫وووو‬ٙ‫ؽ‬ٚ‫ثفووووضمٓا‬
(wajhahū) his face was flushed, his face
turned red
ٓ‫ فموووو‬ḥaqn retention, withholding;
sparing; injecting. injection (med.) │‫افمٕوجا‬
ُٙ‫ ٌوووِجة‬ḥaqnan li-dimā’ihim in order to
spare their blood; ‫وووو‬٠ًٌٛ‫افذوووًاث‬ٟ‫فموووٓاـووو‬
intravenous injection (med.)
‫ فمٕ وز‬ḥuqna pl. ٓ‫ فموو‬ḥuqan injection
(med.); hypodermic; clyster; enema
‫ ِقمٕوووز‬miḥqana pl. ٓ‫ ِقوووجل‬maḥāqin2
syringe (med.)
ٌ‫و‬١‫ فم‬ḥaqīr pl. ‫ فموٌث‬ḥuqarā’2 low, base,
mean, vulgar, vile; little, small, paltry,
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable;
despised; despicable, contemptible
ٌ‫ ثفموووو‬aḥqar
contemptible
2
lower,
baser,
ْ‫ ثفضمج‬iḥtiqān congestion │ َ‫ ثفضمجْاثٌوو‬iḥt.
ad-dam vascular congestion
ٓ‫ ِقووضم‬muḥtaqan reddened by blood
congestion, flushed, red (face)
more
‫ فمووووجًر‬ḥaqāra lowness, vulgarity,
baseness, vileness, meanness; smallness,
paltriness,
insignificance,
poorness,
wretchedness,
miserableness;
despicability,
contemptibleness;
ignominy, infamy
ٛ‫ فمو‬ḥaqw pl. ‫ فموج‬ḥiqā’, ‫ ثفموج‬aḥqā’ loin, groin
│ٗ‫و‬٠ٛ‫ ٕوهافم‬šaddada ḥaqwaihi to gird one‘s
loins
1
ً‫ ثفضمج‬iḥtiqār contempt, disdain, scorn │‫ا‬
ً‫فضموج‬٨‫ٓاث‬١‫وٗادعو‬١ٌ‫(ٔرٌاث‬bi-‘aini l-iḥt.) to regard
s.o. with contempt, look down one‘s nose
at s.o.
‫ فوه‬ḥakka u (ḥakk) to rub, chafe; to scrape; to
scratch; to rub off, scrape off, scratch off,
abrade ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │ًٖ‫وو‬ٙ‫ا‬ٟ‫( افوهاـو‬ṣadrihī) it
impressed him, affected him, touched s.th.
inside him IV to itch V to rub o.s., scrape,
chafe (‫ ح‬against); to pick a quarrel (‫ح‬
with s.o.) VI to rub or scrape against each
other VIII to rub o.s. scrape, chafe (‫ح‬
against); to be in contact, in touch (‫ح‬
with) │ًٖ‫و‬ٙ‫ا‬ٟ‫( اثفضهاـ‬ṣadrihī) it impressed
him, affected him, touched s.th. inside him
ٌ‫ ِقضمو‬muḥtaqar despised; contemptible,
despicable
‫ فووه‬ḥakk rubbing, chafing; friction;
scratching
ٌ‫ صقمضو‬taḥqīr contempt, disdain, scorn;
degradation, humiliation, abasement
ً‫ فم و‬ḥaql pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ فم و‬ḥuqūl field (also fig. =
domain); column │‫ي‬ٌٚ‫ياثٌذضو‬ٛ‫افمو‬oil fields;
‫وش‬٠ٌَ‫ فموًاث‬ḥ. az-zait, ٠‫ فموًاثٌوٕف‬ḥ. an-nafṭ oil
‫ فه‬ḥakka itching; scabies, itch (med.)
‫ فىجن‬ḥakkāk lapidary 194
‫ ِقوه‬miḥakk touchstone; test │‫ا‬ٝ‫عذوشاعٍو‬
ٌ‫ ِقهاثٌٕر‬tabata ‘alā m. in-naẓar to stand a
critical test
‫ ِقىز‬miḥakka currycomb
‫ صقجن‬taḥākk (reciprocal) friction
‫ ثفضىوووجن‬iḥtikāk pl. -āt (reciprocal)
friction; close touch or contact; friction
(fig., = dissension, controversy) │‫وٌا‬١‫ِوٓاؼ‬
‫ ثفضىجن‬min gair ḥt. frictionless
‫ ِقىه‬muḥakkak chafed, worn away
2
‫ فىز‬ḥukka (tun., = ḥuqqa) pl. ‫ فىوه‬ḥukak small
box, case, pot or jar
ٌ‫ فىو‬VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, corner
( ‫ ٘و‬a commodity); to monopolize ( ‫ ٘و‬a
commercial article); to have exclusive
possession ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.), hold a monopoly
( ٘ over s.th.)
ٌ‫ فىو‬ḥikr, ḥukr and ٌ‫ ثؽوٌراثٌقىو‬ujrat al-ḥ.
ground rent, quitrent
ٌ‫ فى‬ḥakar, ḥukar hoarded
‫ فىوووٌر‬ḥukra hoarding (of goods);
monopoly
‫ًر‬ٛ‫ فجو‬ḥākūra small vegetable garden
ً‫ ثفضىوج‬iḥtikār pl. -āt cornering, buying
up; monopoly; preferential position;
supremacy, hegemony │ٓ‫اثفضىجًاصؾوجًراثٌوذ‬albunn coffee-trade monopoly; ٌ‫ثفضىووجًاثٌْووى‬
iḥ. as-sukkar sugar monopoly
ًٞ‫ ثفضىووج‬iḥtikārī rapacious, grasping,
greedy
ُ‫ فىوو‬ḥakama u (ḥukm) to pass judgment,
express an opinion (ٍٝ‫ع‬, ٟ‫ ـو‬on s.th.), judge
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th., ‫ ح‬by, from); to decide, give a
decision, pass a verdict, pass sentence (ٍٝ‫ع‬
on); to sentence (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o., ‫ ح‬to a penalty;
said of the judge), impose, inflict (‫ ح‬a
penalty) on s.o. (ٝ‫ ;)عٍوو‬to pronounce a
verdict or judgment, deliver judgment,
rule (‫ ي‬in s.o.‘s favor); to adjudicate,
adjudge, award (‫ ي ح‬to s.o. s.th.); to take
(‫ ح‬s.th.) as a standard or norm; to have
judicial power, have jurisdiction, have
authority (ٝ‫ عٍو‬and ٖ over), govern, rule,
dominate, control (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٖ s.o.); to order,
command (‫ ح‬s.th.); to bridle, check, curb
(ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬s.th., s.o.) │َ‫عووث‬٨‫وٗادج‬١ٍ‫( افىوُاع‬ḥukima,
i‘dām) he was sentenced to death; ‫فىووُا‬
ٗ‫( دئهثٔضوو‬bi-idānatihī) to convict s.o., find
s.o. guilty (jur.); ٗ‫( فىوُادذٌث صو‬bi-barā’atihi)
to acquit s.o. (jur.) II to appoint (ٖ s.o.) as
ruler; to choose (ٖ s.o.) as arbitrator, make
(ٖ s.o.) the judge (ٟ‫ ـو‬over or in s.th., ٓ١‫دو‬
between) III to prosecute (ٖ s.o.); to
arraign, bring to trial, hale into court (ٖ
s.o.); to interrogate, hear (ٖ s.o.) IV to
make ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) firm, strong, sturdy, solid;
to fortify ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to strengthen,
consolidate ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to do well, do
expertly, master ( ‫ ٘ووو‬field, work), be
proficient ( ٘ in) │ٌِٖ‫( اثفىُاث‬amrahu) to do
s.th. thoroughly, carefully, properly; ‫ثفىوُا‬
‫( لفووًاثٌذووجح‬qafla l-bāb) to lock the door
firmly; ‫( ثفىووُاٌؽووز‬lugatan) to master a
language V to have one's own way (ٟ‫ ـو‬in),
proceed (ٟ‫ ـوو‬with) at random, at will,
handle (ٟ‫ ـووو‬s.th.) arbitrarily; to pass
arbitrary judgment (ٟ‫ ـو‬on); to make o.s.
the judge (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of), pass judgment (ٍٝ‫ ع‬on);
to decide (‫ ح‬on); to rule, reign, hold sway
(ٟ‫ ـو‬over); to dominate, control (ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.),
be in control, be in command (ٟ‫ ـو‬of) VI to
bring one another before the judge (‫ا‬ٝ‫ثٌو‬
ُ‫ ;)ثٌق وجو‬to appeal (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to) for a legal
decision; to be interrogated, be heard (in
court) VIII to have one‘s own way (ٟ‫ ـو‬in),
proceed (ٟ‫ ـوو‬with, in s.th.) at will, at
random, handle (ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th.) arbitrarily, judge
arbitrarily; to rule, reign, hold sway (ٝ‫عٍو‬,
ٟ‫ ـو‬over); to be in control, be in possession
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬of); to appeal (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to) for a legal
decision, seek a decision (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬from), have
s.o. (ٝ‫ )ثٌو‬decide X to be strong, sturdy,
solid, firm; to become stronger, be
strengthened, be 195 consolidated; to take
root, be or become deep-rooted, deepseated, ingrained, inveterate, marked,
pronounced (feeling, trait)
ُ‫ فىوو‬ḥukm pl. َ‫ ثفى وج‬aḥkām judgment,
valuation, opinion; decision, (legal)
judgment,
verdict,
sentence;
condemnation, conviction; administration
of justice; jurisdiction, legal consequence
of the facts of a case (Isl. Law);
regulation,
rule,
provision,
order,
ordinance, decree; judiciousness, wisdom,
judgeship, command, authority, control,
dominion, power; government, regime; pl.
َ‫ ثفىوج‬statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules,
provisions,
stipulations,
principles,
precepts; ‫ فىّ وج‬ḥukman virtually; legally
│ُ‫ دقىوو‬bi-ḥukmi by virtue of, on the
strength of, pursuant to, by force of; ُ‫افى‬ٟ‫ـ‬
as good as, all but, e.g., ُ‫افىو‬ٟ‫اـو‬ٛ‫( ٘و‬fī ḥukm
l-‘adam) it is as good as nothing, it is
practically nonexistent; ًٌ‫افىوُاثٌّمو‬ٟ‫وذـاـو‬ٙ‫ث‬
aṣbaḥa fī ḥukmi l-muqarrar it is all but
decided, ٌٟٖ‫افىُاث‬ٟ‫ وجْاـ‬also: to be subject
to s.th.; ٗ‫افىّو‬ٝ‫ ٔوَياعٍو‬to give in, yield to
s.o., ‫ فىوُاثٌذوٌث ر‬ḥ. al-barā’a acquittal, ‫فىوُا‬
ًٞٛٞ‫( ف‬ḥuḍūrī) judgment delivered in the
presence of the litigant parties, after oral
proceedings (jur.), َ‫عوووث‬٨‫( ثٌقىووُادج‬i‘dām)
death sentence; ٟ‫ووووجد‬١‫( فىووووُاؼ‬giyābī)
judgment by default (jur.); ٟ‫( ثٌقىُاثٌيثص‬dātī)
self-determination, autonomy (pol.); ‫ثٌقىوُا‬
ًٞٛ‫و‬ّٙ‫( ثٌؾ‬jumhūrī) the republican form of
government, the republican regime; ‫ثٌقىوُا‬
‫( ثٌّ ٍووووك‬muṭlaq) the absolute, i.e.,
authoritarian, regime, ٟ‫وجة‬ٌٕٙ‫( ثٌقىوُاث‬niyābī)
the
parliamentary
regime,
parliamentarianism; ُ‫ ٌؾٕووزاثٌقىوو‬lajna al-ḥ.
board of examiners, review board; ‫فىوجَا‬٨‫ث‬
‫ووز‬١‫‘( ثٌعٌـ‬urfīya) martial law; ‫ووز‬١ٌ‫ثفى وجَاثٔضمج‬
(intiqālīya) provisional regulations (jur.);
‫وووز‬١ِ‫( ثفىووجَامضج‬ḳitāmīya) final regulations
(jur.); ‫وووووز‬ٙ‫( ثفىوووووجَامج‬ḳāṣṣa) special
regulations; ٗ‫( ٌىوًاّوٓافىّو‬sinn) every age
has its own set of rules, must be judged by
its own standards, َ‫ًراثفىووج‬ٌٚ‫وو‬ٌٍٞ (li-ḍḍarūra) necessity has its (own) rules,
(approx.: necessity knows no law)
ّٟ‫ فى‬ḥukmī legal
ً‫( فىّووووث‬eg.; pronounced ḥikimdār)
commandant; chief of police
‫وز‬٠ً‫( فىّوث‬eg.; pronounced ḥikimdārīya)
commandant‘s office
ُ‫ فىو‬ḥakam pl. َ‫ فىوج‬ḥukkām arbitrator,
arbiter; umpire, referee
‫ فىّ وز‬ḥikma pl. ُ‫ فىوو‬ḥikam wisdom;
sagacity; philosophy, maxim, rationale,
underlying reason │‫( اٌقىّوووز‬with foll.
genit.) on account of, because of
ٟ‫ فىّووووو‬ḥikmī gnomic, aphoristic,
expressing maxims │ٟ‫( اثٌٖووعٌاثٌقىّ و‬ši'r)
gnomic poetry
‫ فىّوز‬ḥakama pl. -āt bit (of a horse‘s
bridle)
ُ١‫ فى و‬ḥakīm pl. ‫ فىّ وج‬ḥukamā’2 wise,
judicious; wise man, sage; philosopher;
physician, doctor
ٟ‫ّذجٕوو‬١‫ فى‬ḥakīmbāšī senior physician,
chief surgeon
‫ِز‬ٛ‫ فى‬ḥukūma pl. -āt government
ِٟٛ‫ فىووووو‬ḥukūmī of government,
governmental; official, state-owned, statecontrolled of the state, state- (in
compounds)
ُ‫ ثفى‬aḥkam2 wiser
‫ ِقىّ وز‬maḥkama pl. ُ‫ ِق وجو‬maḥākim2
court, tribunal │‫ّووضتٕجؾ‬٨‫ اِقىّووزاث‬m. alisti’nāf court of appeal, appellate court;
‫وز‬١ٍ٘‫( ِقىّوزاث‬ahlīya) indigenous court (Eg.;
jurisdiction limited to Egyptian nationals),
‫وووز‬١‫( ِقىّوووزاثدضوثة‬ibtidā’īya) court of first
instance, ‫ووز‬١ٍ‫ووزاو‬١‫( ِقىّووزاثدضوثة‬kullīya) civil
court with jurisdiction in cases of major
importance, at the same time appellate
instance of ‫وز‬١‫( ِقوجوُاؽَة‬Eg.); 196 ‫ِقىّوزا‬
‫وز‬١‫( ؽَة‬juz‘īya) in Eg., lowest court of both
‫وز‬١ٍ٘‫( ِقوجوُاث‬approx.: district courts) and of
‫ز‬١‫ ِقووووجوُإووووٌع‬canonical courts (with
jurisdiction in marital and family matters);
summary court; ‫وجس‬٠‫ ِقىّوزاثٌؾٕج‬m. al-jinīyāt
criminal court; ‫ز‬١‫وووو‬ٚ‫ثياثٌٖن‬ٛ‫فوووو‬٤‫ِقووووجوُاث‬
(šaḳṣīya) courts dealing with vital
statistics; ‫( ِقىّووزاِنضٍ ووز‬muḳtaliṭa) mixed
court (with jurisdiction over residents of
foreign nationality); ‫ز‬١‫( ِقىّوزإوٌع‬šar’īya)
canonical court (administering justice on
the basis of the Sharia), court dealing with
family matters of Muslims; ‫ووز‬٠َ‫ِقىّوزاٌِو‬
(markazīya) county court, dealing with
minor offenses, esp. misdemeanors (Eg.);
ًٞ‫هث‬٨‫ووج اث‬ٞ‫ ِقىّووزاثٌم‬m. al-qaḍā’ al-idārī
administrative court; َ‫دوٌث‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ا‬ٜ‫ ِقىّزاثٌوٕم‬m.
an-naqḍ wa-l-ibrām Court of Cassation,
the highest court of appeal in Egypt; ‫ا‬
َ‫و‬١١ّ‫ ِقىّوزاثٌض‬Court of Cassation (Syr., Leb.
= َ‫دوٌث‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ا‬ٜ‫ ِقىّوزاثٌوٕم‬in Eg.); ُ‫ّوجفزاثٌّقوجو‬
tribunals
ُ١‫ صقىوووو‬taḥkīm appointment of an
arbitrator; arbitration; arbitral decision,
award; pl. ‫ّ وجس‬١‫ صقى‬fortifications │‫ُا‬١‫اصقىوو‬
‫ ثٌقوجي‬starting from the present state of a
court‘s findings (Isl. Law); ُ١‫تووزاثٌضقىوو‬١٘
hai’at at-t. board of arbitration; jury,
committee of judges, committee of
umpires (in sports), committee of referees
(in mil. maneuvers); ‫ز‬١ّ١‫( ٌؾٕزاصقى‬lajna) do.
‫ ِقجوّوز‬muḥākama judicial proceeding;
trial, hearing (in court); legal prosecution
َ‫ ثفىووووج‬iḥkām perfection; accuracy,
exactness, exactitude, precision; exact
performance, precise execution │‫ا‬
َ‫فىج‬٨‫دج‬accurately, exactly, precisely; ‫ا‬ٟ‫دجٌػاـ‬
َ‫فىج‬٨‫ ث‬of highest perfection
resemble ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be attuned, adjusted,
adapted ( ‫ ٘و‬to), be in harmony ( ‫ ٘و‬with)
197 ‫وووز‬٠‫ فىج‬ḥikāya pl. -āt story, tale,
narrative,
accountj
(gram.)
literal
quotation (of the words of others)
ُ‫ صقىوو‬taḥakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary
powers or action; despotism; domination,
dominion, rule, sway, power; control (ٟ‫ـو‬
of, over)
‫ ِقجوووجر‬muḥākāh imitation; similarity,
resemblance; harmony
ّٟ‫ صقى‬taḥakkumī arbitrary; despotic
ٟ‫ ِقى‬maḥkīy imitated, imitation (adj.)
َ‫ثّووووووضقىج‬
istiḥkām
intensification,
increase, strengthening; consolidation,
stabilization; fortification; pl. ‫ثّووضقىجِجس‬
fortifications
ُ‫ فوجو‬ḥākim ruling, governing; decisive;
--(pl. -ūn, َ‫ فىوج‬ḥukkām) ruIer, sovereign;
governor;
judge
│ُ‫(افووووووجو‬bi-amrihī)
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; َ‫فوووجوُاعوووج‬
(‘āmm) governor general; ‫ فووجوُاثٌّذووجًثر‬almubārāh umpire, referee (athlet.); ‫فووجوُا‬
‫وٍـ‬ٌٚ‫ ث‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣulḥ (Syr.) justice of the peace;
‫ووز‬١‫ فووجوُاثٌٕجف‬ḥ. an-nāḥiya (Tun.) district
magistrate
‫وز‬١ّ‫ فجو‬ḥākimīya domination, dominion,
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature,
jurisdiction (ir.)
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫َاع‬ٛ‫ ِقىو‬maḥkūm ‗alaih sentenced (‫ح‬
to) │َ‫عوووووث‬٨‫ُادج‬ٙ١‫َاعٍوووو‬ٛ‫(اِقىوووو‬i‘dām) those
sentenced to death; ً‫وٗادجٌفٖو‬١ٍ‫َاع‬ٛ‫( ِقىو‬fašal)
doomed to fail
ُ‫ ِقىووو‬muḥakkam pl. -ūn arbitrator,
arbiter; umpire, referee (ٟ‫ ـ‬in, over)
ُ‫ ِقىو‬muḥkam strengthened, reinforced;
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfect,
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow,
hit); accurate, precise, exact │ٌ١‫اِقىوُاثٌضوود‬
well-planned, well-contrived
ُ‫ ِْوضقى‬mustaḥkam reinforced, fortified;
strengthened,
consolidated,
strong;
inveterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted,
ingrained (custom, trait, etc.); pl. ‫ِْوضقىّجس‬
defenses, fortifications
ً‫فىّوث‬, ‫ز‬٠ً‫ فىّوث‬see ُ‫فى‬
ٝ‫ فىو‬ḥakā i (‫وز‬٠‫ فىج‬ḥikāya) to tell, relate
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), report, give an account ( ‫ ٘و‬of); to
speak, talk (syr., leb.); to imitate, copy ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to resemble ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) III to
imitate, copy ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), assimilate o.s. ( ‫٘و‬
to); to be similar ( ‫ ٘و‬to), be like s.th. ( ‫)٘و‬,
‫ فوووووجن‬ḥākin narrator, storyteller;
phonograph; O loudspeaker, radio
ٟٕ‫ّذج‬١‫ فى‬see ُ‫فى‬
1
ً‫ فو‬ḥalla u (ḥall) to untie ( ‫ ٘و‬a knot),
unbind, unfasten, unravel, undo ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to solve ( ‫ ٘ و‬a problem, a puzzle); to
decipher, decode ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.): to dissolve in
water ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; chem.); to resolve ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.
into its components), analyze ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
melt ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to decompose, disintegrate
( ٘ s.th.); to disband, break up, dissolve ( ‫٘و‬
an organization or party, parliament); to
open, unpack ( ‫ ٘و‬a package, and the like);
to loosen, relax ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to release, set
free, let go ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th., ٖ s.o.); to clear,
exonerate, exculpate (ٓ‫ ٖ ِوو‬s.o. from),
absolve (ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ ِوو‬from his sins; Ch,.);
pass. ḥulla to be free; to be relaxed; -- i u
(‫ي‬ٛ‫ فٍو‬ḥulūl) to dismount, alight, stop, halt;
to settle down, stay (‫ ح‬at a place, also ٟ‫ـو‬
and ٘; ٍٝ‫ ع‬with s.o., at s.o.‘s house), come
(for a visit, ٍٝ‫ ع‬to); to take up residence ( ٘
in a place or country); to descend, come
down; to descend (ٝ‫ عٍو‬upon s.o.; wrath);
to overcome, overwhelm (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.; sleep);
to befall (‫ ح‬and ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.; punishment,
suffering), occur, happen (‫ ح‬to s.o.); to
become incarnate (ٟ‫ ـو‬in s.o.; God); to set
in, arrive, begin (time, season); -- i to pass
into solution, dissolve: to fade (color); -- i
(ḥill) to be allowed, permitted,
permissible, lawful; to be due, payable
(debt) │‫وخ‬ِٕٚ‫ا‬ٟ‫( فوًاـو‬manṣib) to take over
or hold an office; ٗ‫( فوًاِقٍو‬maḥallahū) to
be in the right place; ْ٩‫فوًاِقوًاـو‬, ‫فوًاِقوًا‬
ٟ‫( ثٌٖو‬maḥalla) to take the place of s.o. or
s.th., replace, supersede s.o. or s.th.,
substitute for s.o. or s.th.; ٩‫الٍذوٗاِقو‬ٟ‫فٍوشاـو‬
(qalbihī) she held a place in his heart; ‫فوًا‬
ٗ‫و‬٠‫ٌاٌو‬٠‫( ِقًاثٌضمو‬maḥalla t-taqdīri ladaihi) to
enjoy s.o.‘s. high esteem; ‫ُاثٌموٌث ا‬ٛ‫فًآِأف‬
ً‫( ِقوو‬min nufūsi l-qurrā’i maḥalla listiḥsān) to appeal to the readers, meet
with the readers' approval II to dissolve,
resolve (into its component parts), break
up, decompose, analyze ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.): to make
a chemical analysis ( ‫ ٘ و‬of s.th.): to be
dissolvent, act as a solvent ( ‫ ٘و‬on; med.):
to discharge, absolve, clear, exonerate,
exculpate (ٖ s.o.); (‫ صقٍوز‬taḥilla) to expiate
an oath: to make permissible or lawful,
legitimate, sanction, justify, warrant ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to declare permissible or lawful,
allow, permit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV to discharge,
release, absolve, disengage (ٓ‫ ٖ ِوو‬s.o.
from); to declare ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) lawful, legally
permissible, permit, allow ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
cause to set in or occur, bring about,
produce, cause to take root, establish,
stabilize ( ٘ s.th.): to cause ( ٘ s.th.) to take
or occupy the place ( ‫ ٘و‬of), shift, move,
translocate ( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬s.th., e.g., a tribe, to a
place); to settle (ٓ١‫ ٘و دو‬s.th. among) │‫ثفٍوٗا‬
ً‫( ِقو‬maḥallahū) to cause s.o. or s.th. to
take the place of s.o. or s.th. else, replace
s.o. or s.th. by, substitute s.o. or s.th. for,
take s.o. or s.th. as substitute for; ‫ ا‬ٌٟٖ‫أفًاث‬
‫وووز‬٠‫( ِقوووًاثٌعٕج‬maḥalla l-‘ināya) to pay
attention to s.th., make s.th. one‘s concern
V to dissolve, melt, disintegrate; to
disengage o.s., disassociate o.s., extricate
o.s., free o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬from) VII to be untied
(knot); to be solved, be unraveled
(problem); to be dissolved, be broken up,
be disbanded (also, of an organization, a
party, etc.); to dissolve, melt; to become
.lock, limp, weak, loose, relaxed; to
disintegrate; to melt away VIII to settle
down ( ‫ ٘و‬at a place); to occupy (mil., ‫ ٘و‬a
territory); to assume, take over, occupy,
hold, have ( ‫ ٘ و‬a place, 198 a rank, an
office) │‫ي‬ٚ٤‫( ثفضوووًاثٌّىوووجْاث‬al-makāna lawwala) to occupy the foremost place;
ٗ‫( ثفضوًاأعّجٌو‬a‘mālahū) to take over s.o.‘s
functions X to regard ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.) as
permissible or lawful, think that one may
do s.th. ( ٘); to regard as fair game, as easy
prey, seize unlawfully, misappropriate,
usurp ( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ فووو‬ḥall pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫ فٍووو‬ḥulūl untying,
unfastening, undoing (of a knot); solution
(of a problem, of a puzzle, etc.);
unriddling,
unraveling,
explanation;
solution
(chem.);
dissolution,
disbandment, breaking up (of all
organization, etc.), abolition, cancellation,
annulment; release, freeing, liberation;
decontrol, release, unblocking (e.g., of a
blocked sum); discharge. clearing,
exoneration,
exculpation;
absolution
(Chr.) │ً‫ لجدوًاٌٍقو‬soluble, solvable; O ‫ثٌقوًا‬
ٟ‫ف‬١ ٌ‫( ث‬ṭaifī) spectral analysis; ‫ثٌعموو‬ٚ‫ثً٘اثٌقًا‬
ahl al-ḥ. wa-l-‘aqd or ٠‫ثٌوٌد‬ٚ‫( ثً٘اثٌقوًا‬rabṭ)
influential people, those in power; ‫افٍوٗا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ٗ‫صٌفجٌوو‬ٚ (tarḥālihī) in all his doings, in
everything he did
ً‫ ف‬ḥill: (ٓ‫افًآِ )ع‬ٟ‫( وجْاـ‬ḥillin) he was
free to …, he was at liberty to ...; he had
free disposal of ...; ِٓ‫افًا‬ٟ‫ ثٔشاـ‬you‘re free
to ..., you may readily ...
‫ فٍووز‬ḥalla pl. ً‫ فٍوو‬ḥilal low copper
vessel; cooking pot (eg.)
‫ فٍوز‬ḥilla way station, stopping place,
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution
(Chr.); dispensation (Chr.)
‫ فٍوز‬ḥulla pl. ً‫ فٍو‬ḥulal clothing, dress,
garb; vestments (ecclesiastic; Chr.);
(complete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit
│‫ز‬١ّ‫( فٍزاًّو‬rasmīya) uniform; ‫ٌر‬ٙ‫ فٍوزاثٌْو‬ḥ.
as-suhra formal dress
‫ي‬٩‫ فووو‬ḥalāl that which is allowed,
permitted or permissible; allowed,
permitted,
permissible,
allowable,
admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;
lawful possession │‫ي‬٩‫ ثدوووٓافووو‬ibn ḥ.
legitimate son; respectable man, decent
fellow
‫ي‬ٍٛ‫ ف‬ḥulūl stopping, putting up, staying;
descending, coming on, befalling,
overtaking; incarnation; setting in, advent,
arrival (of a time, of a deadline),
beginning, dawn; substitution (for s.o.)
ً١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīl pl. ٩‫ ثف‬aḥillā’2 husband
‫ٍز‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīla pl. ً‫ة‬٩‫ ف‬ḥalā’il2 iI' wife
ً‫و‬١ٍ‫ ثف‬iḥlīl outer opening of the urethra;
urethra (anat.)
ً‫ ِقو‬maḥall pl. -āt, ‫ ِقوجي‬maḥāll2 place,
location, spot, site, locale, locality, center;
(place of) residence; business; business
house, firm, commercial house; store,
shop; object, cause (e.g., of dispute,
admiration, etc.); gear (automobile) │‫فوًا‬
ٗ‫ ِقٍو‬and ٗ‫ ثفٍوٗاِقٍو‬see ً‫ فو‬I and IV; ٗ‫ِقٍو‬
(maḥallahū) in his (its) place; ٗ‫اِقٍو‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in
his (its) place, in his (its) stead, instead of
him; ٗ‫اِقٍو‬ٟ‫ ووجْاـو‬to be in the right place; to
be appropriate, expedient, advisable; to be
justified, warranted; ٗ‫وٌاِقٍو‬١‫اؼ‬ٟ‫ ـو‬improper,
misplaced, unsuitable, ill-suited; out of
place;
inappropriate,
inexpedient,
inopportune; ٗ‫وجهؾاِقٍو‬ٙ ṣādafa maḥallahū
to be convenient, be most opportune; ‫ا‬٨
ٗ‫( ِقًاٌو‬maḥalla) there is no room for ... ; it
is out of place, quite déplacé; ً‫ ِقوًاثٌعّو‬m.
al-‘amal place of employment; ‫لجِوز‬٨‫ِقوًاث‬
m. al-iqāma (place of) residence, address;
ًٞ‫( ِقووووًأؾووووج‬tijārī) business house,
commercial house; ‫وووووز‬١ِّٛ‫ساثٌع‬٩‫ثٌّقووووو‬
(‘umūmīya, tijārīya) public utilities and
commercial houses; ً‫ ثّ وُاثٌّقوو‬ism al-m.
firm; ‫ٔووجس‬ًٛ٘‫ ِقووًا‬m. ruhūnāt pawnshop;
‫جفز‬١‫ساثٌْو‬٩‫ ِقو‬m. as-siyāḥfa travel agencies;
‫ذوووجس‬ٌِٟ‫ ِقوووًا‬m. muraṭṭibāt refreshment
parlor; ٛ‫و‬ٌٍٙ‫ ِقًاث‬m. al-lahw and ٟ‫٘و‬٩ٌّ‫ِقوًاث‬
m. al-malāhī (pl. ‫ )ِقوجي‬amusement center;
‫ِقووووًأووووَث ا‬m. nizā‘ object 199 of
controversy, controversial matter; ‫ا‬ًٜ‫اث‬٨
‫اٌعؾوخ‬٩‫ ِقو‬lā arā m. li-‘ajabin I don‘t see
any reason for amazement, there is
nothing to be astonished about; ً‫ ِقوو‬m.
naẓar s.th. deserving attention, a striking,
remarkable thing
ٟ‫ ِقٍو‬maḥallī local; native, indigenous;
parochial; pl. ‫وجس‬١ٍ‫ ِق‬local news, local page
(of a newspaper)
ً‫ ِق‬maḥill due date; date of delivery
‫ ِقٍوووز‬maḥalla pl. -āt way station,
stopping
place,
stop,
stopover,
encampment; camp; section, part, quarter
(of a city) │ٌٜ‫( ثٌّقٍزاثٌىذو‬kubrā) Mahalla el
Kubra (city in N Egypt)
ً‫ووو‬١ٍ‫ صق‬taḥlīl dissolution, resolution,
breaking up, decomposition, specification,
detailing, analyzation; (pl. ً‫و‬١ٌ‫ صقج‬taḥālīl2)
analysis (chem.); absolution (Chr.)
│ً‫وو‬١ٍ‫ دجٌضق‬in detail; ً‫وو‬١ٍ‫ ِعّووًاصق‬ma‘mal t.
laboratory for chemical analyses; ‫ووًا‬١ٍ‫صق‬
ٟ‫ٌدووجة‬ٙ‫( و‬kahrabā’ī) electrolysis; ‫وووًا‬١ٍ‫ثٌضق‬
‫ة‬ٟٔ‫ايثٌٕفْج‬ْٟ‫( ثٌٕف‬nafsī) psychoanalysis
ٍٟ١ٍ‫ صق‬taḥlīlī analytic(al)
putrefaction; slackening, exhaustion,
prostration, weakness, impotence
‫ي‬٩‫ ثفوض‬iḥtilāl occupation (mil.) │‫ٓا‬ٛ‫و‬١‫ؽ‬
‫ي‬٩‫فض‬٨‫ ث‬occupation forces
ٟ‫ٌ و‬٩‫ ثفض‬iḥtilālī occupying, occupation
(used attributively); advocate of foreign
occupation
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِقٍوووو‬maḥlūl solved; dissolved,
resolved, broken up; loose; untied,
unfastened, unfettered, free, at large;
weakened, prostrate, exhausted, languid;
solution (liquid; chem.) │ٌ‫ياثٌٖع‬ٍٛ‫ ِق‬m. ašša‘ar with loose, disheveled hair
ًٍ‫ ِق‬muḥallil analyzer
ً‫ ِٕقوووو‬munḥall solved; dissolved,
resolved, broken up; disbanded; languid,
prostrate, weak; permitted, allowed
‫ٓاِقضٍووز‬ٛ‫وو‬١‫ ؽ‬juyūš muḥtalla occupation
forces
2
‫ٌز‬ٍٛ١‫ ف‬see ‫ي‬ٛ‫ف‬
2
‫ فٍوخ‬ḥālaba i u (ḥalb) to milk ( ‫ ٘و‬an animal)
│ٌٖ ‫ فٍخاثٌووٌ٘اثٕو‬ḥalaba d-dahra ašṭurahū
he has seen good and bad days V to run,
drip, trickle, ooze, seep, leak; to water.
drool (mouth, with appetite) │‫صضقٍووخاٌووٗا‬
ٖ‫ث‬ٛ‫ـوو‬٤‫( ث‬afwāh) making the mouth water,
appetizing; ٟ‫اـّو‬ٟ‫( صقٍوخاثٌٍعوجحاـو‬al-lu‘ābu fī
famī) my mouth was watering VIII to milk
( ‫ ٘و‬an animal) X do.; to squeeze juice ( ‫٘و‬
from)
‫ فٍخ‬ḥalb milking
‫ فٍخ‬ḥalab milk
‫ فٍذوز‬ḥalba pl. ḥalabāt race track; arena;
dance floor; race horses │٘‫ فٍذوزاثٌوٌل‬ḥ. arraqṣ dance floor; ‫ِاِوٓاصٍوهاثٌقٍذوز‬١‫ ثٔوٗاٌو‬he is
not made for that, he doesn‘t belong there,
it is not in his line; ‫ ـجًُافٍذزاح‬a master of,
excelling or outstanding in
‫ فٍذووووز‬ḥulba fenugreek (Trigonella
foenum-graecum; bot.); tonic, prepared of
yellowish grains, for women in childbed
(eg., syr.)
ً‫ صقٍووو‬taḥallul dissolution, breakup;
separation, disengagement, disassociation
‫ووخ‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīb milk │‫ووخ‬١ٍ‫ ٌووذٓاف‬laban ḥ.
cow‘s milk (eg.)
‫ي‬٩‫ ثٔقووو‬inḥilāl dissolution, breakup,
decomposition; disintegration; decay,
‫ح‬ٛ‫ فٍووو‬ḥalūb lactiferous │‫ح‬ٛ‫دموووٌرافٍووو‬
(baqara) milk cow; ‫ح‬ٛ‫زاثٌقٍو‬١‫( ثٌّجٕو‬māšiya)
dairy cattle
‫ح‬٩‫ ف‬ḥallāb milker
‫دوووز‬٩‫ ف‬ḥallāba milkmaid, dairymaid;
dairywoman; milk cow 200
‫ ِقٍوخ‬maḥlab mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb;
bot.)
‫ فجٌخ‬ḥālib ureter
‫ ِْضقٍخ‬mustaḥlab emulsion│ٍٛ‫ِْضقٍخاثٌٍو‬
m. al-lauz almond milk
2
‫ فٍخ‬ḥalab2 Aleppo
‫وش‬١‫ فٍض‬ḥiltīt, ḥaltīt asafetida (Ferula assafoetida;
bot.)
‫ فٍووؼ‬ḥalaja i u (ḥalj, ‫ؼ‬١‫ فٍوو‬ḥalīj) to gin ( ‫٘ و‬
cotton)
‫ فٍؼ‬ḥalj ginning (of cotton)
‫ؼ‬١‫ فٍوو‬ḥalīj ginning (of cotton); ginned
(cotton)
‫ؽووز‬٩‫ ف‬ḥilāja cotton ginner‘s work or
trade
‫ػ‬٩‫ ف‬ḥallāj cotton ginner
‫ ِقٍووؼ‬miḥlaj, ‫ ِقٍؾووز‬miḥlaja pl. ‫ِقووجٌؼ‬
maḥālij2 cotton gin
‫ ِقٍووؼ‬maḥlaj pl. ‫ ِقووجٌؼ‬maḥālij2 cotton
ginnery
ً‫ فٍقو‬ḥalḥala to remove, drive away, shove
away II taḥalḥala to stir from one‘s place;
to move, stir, budge
ٍَْٚ‫ ف‬ḥalazūn snail; spiral
‫ فٍؿ‬ḥalf, ḥilf swearing, oath│ٓ١‫ّو‬١ٌ‫افٍؿاث‬
taking the oath
‫ فٍوؿ‬ḥilf sworn alliance, confederacy,
league; federation; (pl. ‫ؾ‬٩‫ ثفو‬aḥlāf) ally│‫ا‬
ٌٜ‫‘( فٍووؿاعْووى‬aakarī) military alliancc;
ٝ ٍٕٟ٨‫( ثٌقٍؿاث‬aṯlanṯī) the Atlantic Pact
‫وؿ‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥaīf pl. ‫ فٍفوج‬ḥulafā’2 confederate;
ally; allied │ ‫ ثٌقٍفج‬the Allies (pol.)
‫فز‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīfa pl. -āt f. of ‫ؿ‬١ٍ‫ف‬
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ فٍو‬ḥallūf pl. ‫وؿ‬١ٌ٩‫ ف‬ḥalālīf2 (magr.,
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine
‫ فٍفوج‬ḥulafā’ and ‫ فٍفوز‬ḥalfa (bot.) alfa,
esparto
‫ؿ‬١ٍ‫ صق‬taḥlīf swearing in │‫ؿ‬١ٍ‫ٌؾٕزاثٌضق‬
lajnat at-t. the jury (in court)
‫ ِقجٌفز‬muḥālafa alliance
‫ صقجٌؿ‬taḥāluf state of alliance; alliance,
treaty of alliance
‫ ِقٍؿ‬muḥallaf sworn, bound by oath;
(pl. -ūn) juror (in court)
‫ ِضقجٌؿ‬mutaḥālif interallied, allied
‫ٔز‬ٍَٚ‫ ف‬ḥalazūna (n. un.) snail; spiral
ٝ‫ٔو‬ٍَٚ‫ ف‬ḥalazūnī spiral, helical, volute,
winding
ِ‫ فٍو‬ḥalisa a to remain, stay permanently (‫ ح‬at
a place), stick (‫ ح‬to a place)
ِ‫ فٍوو‬ḥi1s pl. ُ٩‫ ثفوو‬aḥlās (with foll.
genit.) one addicted or given to s.th., one
adhering to s.th.│ٛ‫وو‬ٌٍٙ‫ُاث‬٩‫ ثفوو‬a. al-lahw
people given to pleasure and amusement,
bons vivants, playboys
ِ‫ فٍو‬ḥils pl. ُ٩‫ ثفو‬aḥlās, ُٛ‫ فٍوو‬ḥulūs
saddle blanket
ِ‫ ثفٍوو‬aḥlas2, f.
chestnut (horse)
in (ٖ s.o.); to adjure, entreat earnestly (ٖ
s.o.) III to enter into a confederation, into
an alliance (ٖ with s.o.), become an ally (ٖ
of s.o.) VI to commit one another by oath
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬to do s.th.), join in alliance; to ally,
makc an alliance (‫ ِوا‬with) X to make (ٖ
s.o.) swear, exact an oath (ٖ from s.o.); to
adjure, entreat earllestly (ٖ s.o.)
‫ فٍْووج‬ḥulasā’2 bay,
‫ فٍؿ‬ḥalafa i (ḥalf, ḥilf) to swear (‫ دجهلل‬by God)│
‫ٕوج‬١ّ٠‫( فٍوؿا‬yamīnan) to take an oath II to
make (ٖ s.o.) swear; to put to oath, swear
‫ فٍوك‬ḥalaqa i (ḥalq) to shave ( ‫ ٘و‬the head, the
face); to shave off ( ‫ ٘ و‬the beard) II to
circle in the air, hover; to fly, soar (bird;
airplane; ٍٝ‫ ع‬and ‫ق‬ٛ‫ )ـو‬over or above s.th.);
to round, make round, circular or ringshaped ( ‫ ٘و‬Sotho); to 201 ring, surround,
encircle (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o., s.th.); to clothe V to
form a circle, sit in a circle; to gather in a
circle (ٍٝ‫ ع‬around s.o.)
‫ فٍك‬ḥalq shaving, shave; (pl. ‫ق‬ٛ‫ فٍو‬ḥulūq,
‫ق‬٩‫ ثف‬aḥlāq) throat, gullet, pharynx
ٝ‫ فٍم‬ḥalqī guttural, pharyngeal
‫ فٍك‬ḥalaq rings, earrings
‫ فٍموز‬ḥalqa, ḥalaqa pl. ‫ افٍوك‬ḥalaq, ‫فٍموجس‬
ḥalaqāt ring (also earring, etc.); link (of a
chain); circle (also of people); group of
students studying under a professor,
hence: lecture, course (e.g., at Al Azhar
University); part of a sequence or series;
ringlet; disk; decade; market│‫ افٍموزاثٌٕؾوجر‬ḥ.
an-najāh life buoy, life preserver; Jl-‫افٍموزا‬
‫وجي‬ٚ‫ص‬٨‫ ث‬ḥ. al-ittiṣāl and ً‫و‬ٌٙٛ‫ فٍموزاث‬ḥ. alwaṣl connecting link (ٓ١‫ دو‬between; fig.);
‫هر‬ٛ‫ ثٌقٍمووووزاثٌّفموووو‬the missing link, the
intermediate form; ٌٖ‫اثٌقٍموزاثٌْجهّوزاِوٓاعّو‬ٝ‫ـو‬
(‘umrihī) in the sixth decade of his life, in
his fifties; ‫ّّجن‬٨‫ فٍمزاث‬fish market; ٓ ‫فٍمزاثٌم‬
ḥ. al-quṯn cotton market
ٟ‫فٍموووو‬
circular
ḥalaqī
annular,
ring-shaped,
‫ق‬٩‫ فو‬ḥallāq pl. -ūn barber │ٟ‫وق‬ٙ‫قا‬٩‫فو‬
(ṣiḥḥī), ‫ووقز‬ٌٚ‫قاث‬٩‫ فوو‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣiḥḥa barbersurgeon
‫ك‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīq shaved, shaven, shorn
‫لوز‬٩‫ ف‬ḥallāqa shaving, shave; barber‘s
trade │‫لوز‬٩‫ْاثٌق‬ٛ‫وجد‬ٙ‫ ا‬ṣābūn al-ḥ. shaving
soap; ‫لوز‬٩‫ْاثٌق‬ٌٛ‫وج‬ٙ barbershop; ‫لوز‬٩‫لجعوزاثٌق‬
qā‘at al-ḥ. do.; O ‫لز‬٩‫ٕزاف‬١‫ ِجو‬and O ‫لوز‬٩‫آٌوزاف‬
safety razor
‫ ِقٍوك‬miḥlaq pl. ‫ ِقوجٌك‬maḥāliq2 straight
razor
‫وك‬١ٍ‫ صق‬taḥlīq flying, flight (of all aircraft;
ٝ‫ عٍو‬and ‫ق‬ٛ‫ ـو‬over a country); take-off (of
an airplane)
‫ ِٓافجٌك‬min ḥāliq from above
َٛ‫ فٍمو‬ḥulqūm pl. ُ‫لو‬٩‫ ف‬ḥalāqim2 throat, gullet
│َٛ‫ ًثفوزاثٌقٍمو‬rāḥat al-ḥ. a kind of sweet
made of cornstarch, sugar, mastic and
pistachios (eg.)
‫ فٍوه‬ḥalika a (ḥalak) to be pitch-black, deepblack XII ‫ٌه‬ٍٛ‫ ثف‬iḥlaulaka do.
‫ فٍه‬ḥalak intense blackness
‫ فٍىز‬ḥulka intense blackness
‫ فٍووووه‬ḥalik pitch-black,
gloomy, murky
deep-black;
‫ووووز‬ٍٛ‫ ف‬ḥulūka gloominess, darkness;
blackness
‫ فجٌوووه‬ḥālik pitch-black, deep-black;
gloomy, murky
ُ‫ فٍو‬ḥalama u to dream (‫ ح‬or ٓ‫ عو‬of; ْ‫اث‬ٝ‫ ـو‬of
being, becoming, doing, etc., in the
future); to muse, reflect, meditate (‫ ح‬on
s.th.); to attain puberty; -- ḥaluma u to be
gentle, mild-tempered VIII to attain
puberty
ُ‫ فٍوو‬ḥulm, pl. َ٩‫ ثفوو‬aḥlām, dream; pl.
irreality, utopia
ٟ‫ فٍّو‬ḥulmī dream- (in compounds), of
or pertaining to dreams
ٍُ‫ ف‬ḥulum sexual maturity, puberty │‫ادٍوػا‬
ٍُ‫ثٌق‬to attain puberty
ُ‫ فٍوو‬ḥilm, pl. َٛ‫ فٍو‬ḥulūm, َ٩‫ ثفوو‬aḥlām
gentleness,
clemency,
mildness;
forbearance, indulgence; patience; insight,
discernment, understanding, intelligence,
reason │َ٩‫فووو‬٨‫وووؽجًاث‬ٙ‫ا‬
simpleminded
people, simple souls
ُ‫ فٍوو‬ḥalam (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬tick; mite;
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female
breast)
ٟ‫ فٍّووو‬ḥalamī parasitic; mammillary,
nipple-shaped
ُ١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥalīm, pl. ‫ فٍّج‬ḥulamā’ 2 mild, mildtempered, gentle; patient 202
َٛ‫افٍوو‬ḥālūm, ٌَٛ‫ فووج‬ḥālūm a kind of
Egyptian cheese
ٌُ‫ فج‬ḥālim pl. -ūn dreamer
ٍُ‫ ِقووووض‬muḥtalim sexually
pubescent, marriageable
mature,
(ٛ‫ فٍو‬and ٝ‫ )فٍو‬ḥaluwa u, ḥaliya a, ٩‫ فو‬ḥalā u
(‫ر‬ٚ٩‫ فو‬ḥalāwa, ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فٍو‬ḥulwān) to be sweet;
to be pleasant, agreeable (‫ ي‬to s.o.) │‫اٌٗا‬٩‫ف‬
ٟ‫ ثٌٖوو‬he enjoyed the thing; ْ‫اٌووٗاث‬٩‫ فوو‬it
pleased him that ..., he was delighted that
...; ٗ‫اٌووو‬ٛ‫قٍووو‬٠‫( فْوووذّجا‬ḥasabamā) at his
discretion, as he pleases; -- ٝ‫ فٍو‬ḥalā i to
adorn, grace; -- ٝ‫ فٍو‬ḥaliya a to be adorned
(‫ ح‬with) II to sweeten (II s.th., e.g., a
beverage with sugar); to adorn, bedeck,
embellish, attire, furnish, provide ( ‫٘ و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th., ‫ ح‬with) V to adorn o.s., be
adorned, decked out, embellished, graced,
endowed, furnished, provided (‫ ح‬with) X
to find sweet or pleasant, like ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), be
delighted ( ٘ by)
٩‫ ف‬ḥalan sweetness, pleasantness
ٛ‫ فٍوووو‬ḥulw sweet; pleasant, nice,
charming, delightful, pretty │‫ظ‬٠‫اثٌقوو‬ٛ‫ فٍو‬a
gifted raconteur, amusing, entertaining;
‫ر‬ٍٛ‫( ثٌؽوراثٌق‬gudda) pancreas (anat.)
ٟ‫ فٍو‬ḥaly pl. ٟ‫ فٍو‬ḥulīy piece of jewelry,
trinket
‫ فّز‬ḥamma hot spring
‫ فّوووز‬ḥumma blackness, swarthiness,
dark coloration; fever
‫وووز‬١ٍ‫ ف‬ḥilya pl. ٝ‫ فٍووو‬ḥilan, ḥulan
decoration,
embellishment,
finery;
ornament
ُ‫ فّو‬ḥumam (n. un. ‫ )ر‬charcoal; anything
charred or carbonized; ashes, cinder; lava
ٜٛ‫ فٍوو‬ḥalwa pl. ٜٚ٩‫ فوو‬ḥalāwa candy,
confection, confectionery, sweetmeats
ٝ‫ فّ و‬ḥumma f., pl. ‫ووجس‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥummayāt
fever, fever heat │‫وز‬٠‫ه‬ٛ‫ف‬١‫اثٌض‬ٝ‫ ثٌقّو‬and ‫ا‬ٝ‫ثٌقّو‬
‫وز‬١‫ف‬١‫( ثٌض‬tīfīya) typhoid fever, typhus fever;
‫اثٌوق‬ّٝ‫ ف‬ḥ. d-diqq hectic fever; ‫اثٌٌدوا‬ٝ‫ فّو‬ḥ.
r-rib‘ quartan fever; ‫اثٌٌثؽعوز‬ٝ‫ ثٌقّو‬relapsing
fever; ‫وووفٌث‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫ ثٌقّووو‬or ‫ز‬٠ٚ‫وووفٌث‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫ثٌقّووو‬
(ṣafrā’, ṣafrāwīya) yellow fever; ‫اثٌؽوخ‬ٝ‫فّو‬
ḥ. l-gibb tertian fever; ‫وووز‬١ّ‫اثٌفق‬ٝ‫ثٌقّووو‬
(faḥmīya)
anthrax;
‫وووووووز‬٠ٌَِ‫اثٌم‬ٝ‫ثٌقّووووووو‬
(qirmizīya) scarlet fever; ٔ‫اثٌم‬ّٝ‫ ف‬ḥ. l-qašš
hayfever; ‫وز‬١‫ع‬٩‫اثٌم‬ٝ‫( ثٌقّو‬qulā‘īya) foot-andmouth disease; ‫ز‬١‫و‬ٛ‫وووووزاثٌٖووووو‬١‫اثٌّن‬ٝ‫ثٌقّووووو‬
(mukkīya,
šaukīya)
cerebrospinal
meningitis; ‫ؽووز‬ّٛ‫اثٌّض‬ٝ‫( ثٌقّوو‬mutamawwija)
undulant fever, Malta fever, brucellosis;
‫ز‬١‫اثٌٕفجّوو‬ٝ‫( ثٌقّوو‬nifāsīya) puerperal fever,
childbed fever; O ‫ز‬١‫اثٌّٕٖو‬ٝ‫( ثٌقّو‬namašīya)
spotted fever
‫ث‬ٍٛ‫ ف‬fi.alwa'2 candy, confection, con·
fectionery, sweetmeats
‫ووجس‬٠ٍٛ‫ ف‬ḥalwayāt (and eg. ḥalawīyāt)
sweets (in general); sweet pastry; candies,
confectionery, sweetmeats
‫ر‬ٚ٩‫ فوووو‬ḥalāwa sweetness; candies,
confectionery,
sweetmeats;
grace,
gracefulness,
charm,
refinement,
wittiness, wit; present of money; ransom
│‫ز‬١‫و‬ّٚ‫راف‬ٚ٩‫( افو‬ḥummuṣīya) a sweet made
of roasted chick-peas; ‫ووووز‬١ٕ١‫ق‬ٟ‫را‬ٚ٩‫فوووو‬
(ṭahīnīya) a sweet made of sesame-seed
meal; ‫وز‬٠ٌٍٛ‫را‬ٚ٩‫( فو‬lauzīya) a sweet made of
almonds
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فٍووو‬ḥulwān
gratuity, tip
present
of
money,
ٟ‫ فّو‬ḥummī feverish, febrile, fever- (in
compounds)
ٟٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فٍووو‬ḥalwānī and ٟ‫ثة‬ٛ‫ فٍووو‬ḥalwā’ī
confectioner, candy dealer; pastry cook,
fancy baker
َ‫ فّوج‬ḥamām (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. -āt, ُ‫فّوجة‬
ḥamā’im2 dove, pigeon │ً‫ فّجَاثٌَثؽو‬carrier
pigeon; َ‫ ّوووجقاثٌقّوووج‬bugloss, oxtongue
(Anchusa officinalis; bot.)
ٝ‫ٍو‬١‫ ِوجاثف‬mā uḥailā oh, how sweet is ...,
ٖ٩١‫ ِجاثف‬oh, how sweet he is!
َ‫ فّج‬ḥimām (fate of) death
‫وز‬١ٍ‫ صق‬taḥliya decoration, embellishment,
ornamentation
َ‫ فّوج‬ḥammām pl. -āt bath; swimming
pool; spa, watering place │ِّ‫ فّووجَإوو‬ḥ.
šams sunbath; ‫وووز‬٠ٌ‫( فّجِوووجسادق‬baḥrīya)
seaside resorts
ٝ‫ ِقٍ و‬muḥallan sweetened; decorated,
embellished, adorned, ornamented (‫ح‬
with)
1
ُ١‫ فّوو‬ḥamīm pl. ‫ ثفّوج‬aḥimmā’2 close
friend; close, intimate; -- hot water
ُ‫ افوو‬ḥam pl. ‫ ثفّووج‬aḥmā’ father-in-law; pl.
relatives of the wife by marriage, in-laws
of the wife
ُ‫ ثفو‬aḥamm2, f. ‫ فّوج‬ḥammā’2, pl. ُ‫فوو‬
ḥumm black
‫ فّوجر‬ḥamāh pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ فّو‬ḥamawāt motherin-law; see also 1ّٝ‫ اف‬and 2ّٝ‫ف‬
2
ُ‫ ف‬ḥuma see 2ّٛ‫اف‬
3
ُ‫ فو‬ḥamma u (ḥamm) to heat, make hot ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); pass. ḥumma to be feverish, have a
fever │‫( فُاٌوٗاىٌوه‬ḥumma) that was decreed
to him, that is his lot, his destiny II to
heat, make hot ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bathe, wash ( ‫٘و‬
or ٖ s.o. or s.th.) IV to heat, make hot ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) X to bathe, take a bath
ُ‫ ِقو‬miḥamm hot-water kettle, caldron,
boiler
َ‫ ثّضقّج‬istiḥmām bathing, bath
َٛ‫ ِقّووو‬maḥmūm feverish, having a
fever; frantic, hectic
1
‫ فّب‬ḥama’a a to clean out, dredge ( ٘ a well)
‫ فّب‬ḥama’, ‫ فّبر‬ḥam’a mud, mire, sludge
2
‫ فّوب‬ḥami’a to be or become angry, furious,
mad (ٍٝ‫ ع‬at s.o.)
ُ‫ فّقوو‬ḥamḥama (‫ فّقّووز‬ḥamḥama) to neigh,
whinny (horse)
‫ فّقّوز‬ḥamḥama neigh(ing), whinnying,
whinnies
ُ‫ فّقوووو‬ḥimḥim oxtongue,
(Anchusa officinalis; bot.)
bugloss
‫ فّووو‬ḥamida a (ḥamd) to praise, commend,
laud, extol (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. for, ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) II to
praise highly (ٖ s.o.)
‫ فّووووو‬ḥamd commendation, praise,
laudation │‫ ثٌقّوواهلل‬al-ḥamdu lillāh thank
God! praise be to God! praised be the
Lord!
‫وووو‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥamīd praiseworthy, laudable,
commendable; benign, harmless (disease)
‫ه‬ٛ‫ فّوو‬ḥamūd praiseworthy, laudable,
commendable, praised
‫ ثفّوووو‬aḥmad2 more laudable, more
commendable
‫ووز‬٠‫فّو‬٤‫عزاث‬٠ٌ‫ ثٌٖوو‬aš-šarī‘a al-aḥmadīya
Mohammedan Law
‫ ِقّووور‬maḥmada pl. ‫ ِقجِووو‬maḥāmid2
commendable act; pl. ‫ ِقجِوووو‬praises,
encomiums
ً‫ فّوج‬ḥimār pl. ٌ‫و‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥamīr, ٌ‫ فّو‬ḥumur,
‫ ثفّوٌر‬aḥmira donkey, ass │ٔ‫ف‬ٛ‫ فّوجًاثٌو‬ḥ.
al-waḥš and ٟ‫فٖو‬ٚ‫( فّوجًا‬waḥšī) wild ass,
onager; ً‫ ّووُاثٌقّووج‬samm al-ḥ. oleander
(Nerium oleander; bot.)
‫ فّوجًر‬ḥimāra pl. ٌ‫ فّوجة‬ḥamā’ir2 she-ass,
female donkey
ًٛ‫ فّووو‬ḥumūr red, red color(ation),
redness
‫ٌر‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥumaira redstart (zool.)
ً‫ فّج‬ḥammār pl. ‫ ر‬donkey driver
ٌ‫ ثفّو‬aḥmar2, f. ‫ فّوٌث‬ḥamrā’2, pl. ٌ‫فّو‬
ḥumr red, red-colored, ruddy; rosy, pink
│ٌّ‫ف‬٤‫صقشاث‬, ٌّ‫ف‬٤‫ْاث‬ٚ‫ ه‬infrared; ٌ‫فّو‬٤‫ثٌذقوٌاث‬
the Red Sea; ٌ‫فّو‬٤‫خاث‬١ٍ‫و‬ٌٚ‫ ث‬the Red Cross;
ٌ‫فّوو‬٤‫ساث‬ٛ‫( ثٌّوو‬maut) violent death; ‫ا‬ٜٛ‫وو‬ٌٙ‫ث‬
ٌ‫فّو‬٤‫( ث‬hawā) sexual intercourse; ْ‫فّوٌث‬٤‫ث‬
(―the two red ones‖, i.e.) wine and meat;
ٌ‫فّو‬٨‫ث‬ٚ‫ها‬ٛ‫ّو‬٨‫―( ث‬the black and the red‖, i.e.)
all mankind; ٖ‫ ثفٌّاثٌٖفج‬lipstick
‫ فّوووٌث‬ḥamrā’2 smut, rust (disease
affecting cereals); ‫ ثٌقّووٌث‬Alhambra, the
Citadel of Granada
ًٛ‫قّو‬٠ yaḥmūr red; deer, roe, roebuck;
wild ass; hemoglobin (physiol.)
‫ه‬ٛ‫ ِقّو‬maḥmūd praised; commendable,
laudable, praiseworthy
ً‫ ثفّووٌث‬iḥmirār reddening, blush(ing),
redness, red coloration; erythema (med.)
‫ِقّووووووووووو‬
muḥammad
commendable, laudable
ٌ‫ ِقّو‬muḥammar roasted │‫ِاِقّوٌر‬ٟ‫د وج‬
(baṭāṭis) fried potatoes
praised;
ٞ‫ ِقّووووو‬muḥammadī pertaining
attributable to Mohammed
or
َ‫ فّوو‬ḥamaza i (ḥamz) to bite, or burn, the
tongue (taste)
‫ فّوي‬ḥamdala to pronounce the formula ‫ثٌقّواهلل‬
"Praise be to God!‖
ِ‫ فّو‬ḥamisa a to work with zeal, be zealous,
eager, ardent, be or become enthusiastic,
get all worked up, get excited, be filled
with fanatic enthusiasm V = I; to be
overzealous or over-enthusiastic (ٟ‫ ـوو‬in
s.th.); to advocate fervently (‫ ي‬s.th.),
throw o.s. wholeheartedly behind s.th. (‫)ي‬
‫ فّوٌوز‬ḥamdala the formula ‫( ثٌقّوواهلل‬see
above)
ٌ‫ فّو‬II to redden, color or dye red ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
roast ( ٘ s.th.); to fry ( ٘ s.th.); to brown ( ‫٘و‬
flour in preparing a roux) IX to turn red,
take on a reddish color, redden, blush 204
ٌّ‫ ف‬ḥumar asphalt
ٌٞ‫ فّوو‬ḥumarī asphaltic, asphalt, tar,
tarry
‫ فّوٌر‬ḥumra redness, red color(ation),
red; rouge (cosm.); brick dust, brick
rubble; erysipelas, St. Anthony's fire
(med.)
ِ‫ فّوووو‬ḥamis and ِ‫ ثفّوووو‬aḥmas2
unflinching, staunch, steadfast, ardent,
eager, zealous, stout, hearty; fiery,
enthusiastic, full of enthusiasm
ُ‫ فّوووج‬ḥamās, and ‫ فّجّوووز‬ḥamāsa
enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal,
fanaticism
ٟ‫ فّجّووو‬ḥamāsī enthusiastic, ardent,
fiery, zealous, fanatic; stirring, rousing,
thrilling, electrifying
ِ‫ صقّووو‬taḥammus unflinching zeal,
enthusiasm (‫ ي‬for), fanaticism
ِّ‫ ِوووووضق‬mutaḥammis enthusiastic,
ardent, fiery, zealous, fanatic; an ardent
follower, a fanatic adherent, a fanatic
ٔ‫ فّو‬ḥamaša u to excite, irritate, infuriate,
enrage (ٖ s.o.)
‫ فّٖز‬ḥamša catgut (med.)
1
ّ٘‫ ف‬II to roast; to fry, broil (A s.th.)
٘‫ فّووو‬ḥimmiṣ, ḥimmmaṣ; (colloq.)
ḥummuṣ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬chick-pea
2
٘‫ فّو‬Mm,' Homs (the ancient Emesa, city in
oentral Syria)
ٜ‫ فّوو‬ḥamuḍa u (‫ووز‬ّٝٛ‫ ف‬ḥumūḍa) to be or
become sour II to make sour, sour,
acidify, acidulate ( ٘ s.th.); to develop ( ‫ ٘و‬a
photographic plate, a film; phot.); to cause
( ٘ s.th.) to oxidize
ٜ‫ فّوو‬ḥamaḍa pl. ٛ‫ ثفّووج‬aḥmāḍ acid
(chem.) │ٌٟٛ‫اد‬ّٜ‫( ف‬baulī) uric acid
ّٟٞ‫ ٕؾٌاف‬šajar ḥamḍī citrus trees
‫ز‬١ّٞ‫ ف‬ḥamḍīya pl. -āt citrus fruit 205
‫ز‬ّٝٛ‫ ف‬hummūḍa sourness, acidity
│‫ز‬ّٝٛ‫ٌواثٌق‬ِٛ muwallid al-ḥ. oxygen
(chem.)
ٛ‫ فّوج‬ḥammāḍ, ٜ١‫ فّو‬ḥummaiḍ sorrel
(bot.)
ٜ١‫ صقّوو‬taḥmīḍ souring, acidification;
development (phot.)
ٛ‫ ثفّوج‬iḥmāḍ jocular language, joking
remark
ِٜ‫ فوج‬sour, acid; acidulous; (pl. ِٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫فو‬
ḥawāmiḍ) acid (chem.) │ُ‫اثٌفقو‬ِٜ‫ فوج‬ḥ. alfaḥm carbonic acid: ٟ‫ضو‬٠ٌ‫اوذ‬ِٜ‫( فوج‬kibrītī)
sulphuric acid
‫ فّووك‬ḥamiqa a and ḥamuqa u (ḥumq, ‫فّجلووز‬
ḥamāqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish,
fatuous; to become angry or furious II and
IV to regard (ٖ s.o.) as a fool, consider (ٖ
s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic n pretend to be
stupid VII to become angry or furious X
to consider (ٖ s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic
‫ فّوووووك‬ḥumq
foolishness, folly
stupidity,
silliness,
‫ فّجلووووز‬ḥamāqa stupidity, silliness,
foolishness, folly; anger, wrath ‫فّوووجق‬
ḥumāq, ḥamāq smallpox, variola (med.)
‫ فّوك‬aḥmaq2, f. ‫ فّموج‬ḥamqā’2, pl. ‫فّوك‬
ḥum(u)q, ٝ‫ فّموو‬ḥamqā, ٝ‫ فّووجل‬ḥamāqā
dumb, stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool,
simpleton, imbecile
‫ فّوووك‬ḥamqān dumb, stupid, silly,
foolish; angry, furious
ً‫ فّو‬ḥamala i (ḥaml) to carry, bear ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
lift, pick up ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. in order to carry it),
load up and take along ( ٘ s.th.): to hold ( ٘
s.th., in one‘s hand); to carry on or with
one. take or bring along ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
transport, carry, convey ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bring,
take (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. to s.o.); to take upon
o.s. (ٓ‫ عو‬instead of or for s.o., ‫ ٘و‬a burden),
carry, assume ( ‫ ٘و‬the burden, ٓ‫ عو‬of s.o.
else), relieve ( ‫ عوٓ ٘و‬s.o. from s.th.), take
( ‫ ٘و‬a burden, a grievance, etc.) from s.o.
(ٓ‫ ;)عوو‬to extend, show, evince, cherish,
ha.rbor ( ‫ ٘و‬a feeling, ‫ ي‬toward s.o.); to
become or be pregnant (ٓ‫ ِوو‬by s.o.): to
bear fruit (tree); to induce, cause, prompt,
get (ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. to do s.th.), make s.o. (ٖ) do
s.th. (ٝ‫ ;)عٍو‬to convert, bring around, win
over (ٗ‫وو‬٠‫اًأ‬ٝ‫ ٖ عٍوو‬s.o. to one‘s opinion),
convince (ٗ‫و‬٠‫اًأ‬ٝ‫ ٖ عٍو‬s.o. of one‘s opinion);
to attack (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.), also ٝ‫فّووًافٍّووزاعٍوو‬
(ḥamlatan) to launch or make an attack
on; to know by beart ( ‫ ٘و‬a book); to relate,
refer (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. to). bring ( ‫ ٘و‬s. th.) to
bear (ٝ‫ عٍو‬upon s.th.), link, correlate, bring
into relation ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ عٍو‬with); to trace,
trace back (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍوو‬s.th. to); to ascribe,
attribute, impute (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. to s.o.); to
make ( ٘ a word) agree grammatically (ٍٝ‫ع‬
with another) │ٗ‫أفْوووو‬ٟ‫افّووووًاـوووو‬to feel
annoyed, be in a melancholy mood, feel
blue; ٗ‫أفْوو‬ٝ‫ فّووًاعٍوو‬to pull o.s. together,
brace o.s.; ً‫اِقّو‬ٝ‫( فٍّٗاعٍو‬maḥmali) to take
s.th. to mean …, interpret or construe s.th.
in the sense of …, as if it were ...; ‫ا‬ٍٝ‫فٍّٗاع‬
ً‫ٌاِقّو‬١‫ ؼ‬to misinterpret, misconstrue s.th.;
‫( فٍّٗاِقًّاثٌؾو‬maḥmala l-jidd) to take s.th.
seriously, take s.th. at face value II to have
or make (ٖ s.o.) carry or bear ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
load, burden, charge, task ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o. or s.th.
‫ ٘و‬with), impose ( ‫ ٖ ٘و‬on s.o. s.th.) V to
hear, assume, take upon o.s. ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g.,
‫ ثٌٕفمجس‬an-nafaqāt the expenses, ‫ز‬١ٌٚ‫ ثٌّْوؤ‬almas’ūlīya the responsibility); to bear up
( ‫ ٘ و‬under), bear, stand, sustain, endure,
tolerate, stomach ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to undergo,
suffer ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to be able to stand (ٖ s.o.)
or put up (ٖ with s.o.); to set out, get on
one‘s way; to depart VI to maltreat, treat
unjustly (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬s.o.), be prejudiced, be
biased, take sides (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬against s.o.); to
struggle to 206 one‘s feet, rise with great
effort │ٗ‫أفْوو‬ٝ‫( اصقجِووًاعٍوو‬nafsihi) to brace
o.s.; to pull o.s. together, take heart, pluck
up courage VIII to carry, bring ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
carry away, take away, haul off, lug off ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to suffer, undergo, bear, stand,
endure, sustain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to allow, permit,
suffer, tolerate, brook, stomach ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
acquiesce ( ‫ ٘و‬in), put up, bear ( ‫ ٘و‬with
s.th.); to hold ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), have capacity ( ‫٘و‬
for); to imply that s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬is possible,
permissible, or conceivable; ً‫قضّووووو‬٠
yaḥtamilu and (pass.) yuḥtamalu (it is)
bearable, tolerable; (it is) conceivable,
possible, probable, likely
ً‫فّوووووو‬
ḥaml
carrying,
bearing;
inducement, prompting, encouragement
(of s.o., ٝ‫ عٍووو‬to); delivery; transport,
transportation,
conveyance;
portage,
carrying charges; -- (pl. ‫ ثفّوجي‬aḥmāl, ‫فّوجي‬
ḥimāl) foetus; pregnancy │ًّ‫‘ عوَاثٌق‬adam
al-ḥ. sterility (of a woman)
ً‫ فّو‬ḥiml, ḥaml pl. ‫ ثفّوجي‬aḥmāl cargo,
load, burden │ٟ‫ فًّاف‬ḥaml ḥayy pay load,
commercial load, live load; ‫وووش‬١ِ‫فّوووًا‬
mayyit) dead load; dead weight (arch.);
ٍْ‫ث‬ٛ‫( فّوووووًاِووووو‬muwāzin) counterpoise,
counterweight
ً‫ فّوو‬ḥamal pl. ْ٩‫ فّوو‬ḥumlān, ‫ثفّ وجي‬
aḥmāl lamb; (unconsecrated) Host
(Chr.Copt.); Aries, Ram (astron.)
‫ فٍّوز‬ḥamla pl. ḥamalāt attack (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on);
offensive; campaign; military expedition;
expeditionary force │‫وز‬١‫ذ‬٠‫( فٍّزاصبه‬ta’dībīya)
punitive expedition; mٟ١‫وووووقجـ‬ٙ‫فٍّوووووزا‬
(ṣiḥāfīya) press campaign; ‫ز‬١‫فٍّ وزاثّضىٖووجـ‬
(istikšāfīya) reconnaissance raid (mil.);
‫وز‬١‫ى‬١ٔ‫ىج‬١ِ‫ فٍّوزا‬motorized detachment (mil.);
‫ز‬١‫( فٍّزاثٔضنجد‬intikābīya) election campaign
ٟ‫ فٍّ و‬ḥamalī pl. -īya ambulant water
vendor
ً‫وووو‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥamīl
warrantor
foundling;
guarantor,
ٝ‫ٍووزاعٍوو‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥamīla ‘alā a burden to,
completely dependent upon
‫ي‬ٛ‫ فّووو‬ḥamūl long-suffering; gentle,
mild-tempered
‫ فّجي‬ḥamnāl pl. -ūn, ‫ ر‬porter, carrier
‫ فّجٌوز‬ḥimāla work and trade of a porter
or carrier
‫ فّجٌوز‬ḥammāla (carrier) beam, girder,
support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspenders
│ً‫و‬ٌٚ‫( فّجٌزاث‬ṣadr) brassiere
‫ٌوز‬ّٛ‫ ف‬ḥumūla pl. -āt load capacity, load
limit, capacity; tonnage (of a vessel);
portage, freightage, transport charges; (pl.
ً‫ فّجة‬ḥamā’il2) family (Ir.)
ً‫ ِقّو‬maḥmal see ً‫ فّو‬ḥamala; also ‫أمويا‬
‫اِقّوًاثٌؾوو‬ٝ‫تجاعٍو‬١‫( ٕو‬m. il-jidd) to take s.th.
seriously
ًّ‫ ِق‬maḥmil (colloq. maḥmal) pl. ً‫ِقجِو‬
maḥāmil2 camel-borne litter; mahmal, a
richly decorated litter sent by Islamic
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their
independence, at the time of the hadj
ً‫و‬١ّ‫ صق‬taḥmīl burdening; encumbrance;
imposition; loading, shipping, shipment
‫ٍوووز‬١ّ‫ صق‬taḥmīla pl. ً‫ صقجِووو‬taḥāmil2
suppository (med.)
ً‫ صقّو‬taḥammul taking over, assumption
(of
burdens);
bearing,
standing,
sufferance,
endurance;
durability;
strength,hardiness, sturdiness, solidity (of
a material)
ًِ‫ صقج‬taḥāmul prejudice, bias, partiality;
intolerance
‫ ثفضّووووجي‬iḥtimāl bearing, standing,
suffering,
sufferance,
toleration;
probability, likelihood, potentiality │‫عخا‬ٙ
‫فضّجي‬٨‫( ث‬ṣa‘b) hard to bear, oppressive
ً‫ فجِوو‬ḥāmil pl. ‫ فٍّووز‬ḥamala porter,
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc.;
of an order or decoration); holder (of an
identification paper, of a diploma, of a
207 certificate); holding device, holder,
clamp, fastener, hold, support (tech.);
fighter (ٝ‫ عٍو‬against), (pl. ً‫ثِو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāmil2)
pregnant │‫وو‬٠ٌ‫ فجِوًاثٌذ‬courier, ُٙ‫ّو‬٤‫ فٍّوزاث‬ḥ.
al-ashum shareholders; َ٩‫لووو‬٤‫ فٍّوووزاث‬the
publicists, the writers; ‫َا‬٩‫ فجًِاو‬ḥ. kalām
allāh one who knows the Koran by heart;
ً‫ووجًافجِوو‬١‫( ص‬tayyār) carrier current (el.),
‫ؽجسافجٍِز‬ِٛ (maujāt) carrier waves (el.)
‫وووووج‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥumayyā heat; excitement,
agitation; enthusiasm; fire, passion,
impetuosity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine
‫ر‬ٚ‫ فّج‬ḥamāwa heat
ٝ‫ ِقّو‬maḥman fire chamber, furnace (of
a stove, oven, etc.)
‫ فجٍِوز‬ḥāmila pl. -āt device for carrying,
carrier │‫ وز‬٠ٌ‫افجٍِزام‬map case; ‫وجةٌثس‬ٟ‫فجٍِوزا‬
ḥ. ṭā’irāt aircraft carrier
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِقّو‬maḥmūl carried, borne, bearable,
tolerable; load weight, service weight,
cargo; tonnage (of a vessel); predicate,
attribute (logic), ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ياع‬ٛ‫ ِقّو‬subject (logic)
│‫ٌووز‬ّٛ‫( ِٖووجراِق‬mušāh) motorized infantry
(mil.); ‫ث‬ٛ‫ْاؽوو‬ٛ‫ٌ و‬ّٛ‫هاِق‬ٛ‫ ؽٕوو‬airborne troops
(mil.)
ً‫ ِقّو‬muḥammal loaded, laden, heavily
charged, burdened (‫ ح‬with), encumbered
(‫ ح‬by)
ً‫ ِقضّوو‬muḥtamal bearable, tolerable;
probable, likely
‫ فٍّوك‬ḥamlaqa (‫ فٍّموز‬ḥamlaqa) to stare, gaze
(ٟ‫ ـ‬or ‫ ح‬at)
‫ج‬٠٩ّ‫ ف‬ḥimalāyā Himalaya
1
ٛ‫ فّو‬ḥamū (construct state of ُ‫ فو‬ḥam) and ‫فّوجر‬
ḥamāh see 1ُ‫اف‬
2
‫ة‬ٛ‫ فّو‬and ٝ‫ )فّو‬ٟ‫ فّو‬ḥamiya a to be or become
hot; to glow (metal); to flare up; to fly into a
rage, become furious (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬at) │‫ا‬ٝ‫افّووو‬
ِ١ٟٛ‫ثٌو‬fierce fighting broke out II to make hot,
heat ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), to heat to glowing ( ‫ ٘و‬metal); to
fire up ( ‫ ٘و‬a stove); to kindle, inflame, stir up,
excite ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bathe (= 3ُ‫ افو‬II) IV to make
hot, heat ( ٘ s.th.)
ٛ‫ فّ و‬ḥamw heat │ً‫ و‬١ٌٕ‫اث‬ٛ‫ فّ و‬ḥ. an-nīl
prickly heat, heat rash, lichen tropicus
(eg.)
ّٛ‫ ف‬ḥumūw heat
‫ فّوز‬ḥuma pl. -āt, ٝ‫ فّ و‬ḥuman sting,
stinger (of insects); prick, spine (of plants)
ّٟ‫ ف‬ḥamīy hot, glowing; heated, exited
ّٝ‫ ف‬ḥummā see 3ُ‫اف‬
‫ووووز‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥamīya zeal, ardor, fervor;
enthusiasm, ardent zeal, fanaticism;
violence, vehemence; passion, rage, fury;
heat of excitement; temper, temperament
│‫ز‬١ِٛ‫زاثٌم‬١ّ‫(اثٌق‬qaumīya) chauvinism
َ‫ فوج‬ḥāmin hot; heated, violent, fierce
(e.g., a battle); glowing, passionate, fiery;
burning
1
ٝ‫ افّو‬ḥamā i (ḥamy, ‫وز‬٠‫ فّج‬ḥimāya) to defend,
guard ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th., ٓ‫ ِو‬against), protect,
shelter, shield (ٓ‫٘و ِو‬, ٖ s.o., s.th. from); to
deny (ٜ٠ٌٌّ‫ ث‬the patient) harmful food ( ‫;٘و‬
= to put him on diet); to forbid (ْ‫ ٖ ث‬s.o. to
do s.th.) III to defend (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.o. or s.th., also,
of a lawyer in court); to shield, protect,
support (ٓ‫ عو‬s.o. or s.th.), take up the cause
of (ٓ‫)عو‬, stand up for (ٓ‫ )عو‬VI to keep away
( ‫ ٘و‬from), shun, avoid ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VIII to
protect o.s. (ٖ, ‫ ٘و‬from s.th., from s.o.),
defend o.s., cover o.s. (‫ ح‬with s.th.), seek
protection, seek shelter or refuge (‫ ح‬with
s.o., also ‫ ِٓ ;عٕو‬from)
ٝ‫ فّوووو‬ḥiman
sanctuary
protection;
defense;
‫وز‬١ّ‫ ف‬ḥimya that which is defended; diet
208
‫ووووز‬٠‫ فّج‬ḥimāya pl. -āt
patronage,
sponsorship,
protectorate (pol.)
protection,
auspices;
‫ ِقجِ وجر‬muḥāmāh defense (jur.); legal
profession, practicing of law │‫وبراثٌّقجِوجر‬١٘‫ا‬
ḥai’at al-m. the bar
‫ ثفضّ وج‬iḥtimā’ seeking cover, seeking
protection; cover, shelter, protection
َ‫ فووج‬ḥāmin pl. ‫ فّووجر‬ḥumāh protector,
defender, guardian; patron │‫ووز‬١ِ‫ٌووزاثٌقج‬ٚ‫اثٌو‬
(daula)
protecting
power
(of
a
protectorate)
‫ووووز‬١ِ‫ فج‬ḥāmiya pl. -āt
protectress; garrison (mil.)
patroness,
ٟ‫ ِقّو‬maḥmīy protected (‫ ح‬by); being
under a protectorate, having the status of a
protectorate │‫وووووز‬١ّ‫( ِٕ موووووزاِق‬minṭaqa)
protectorate (country)
‫وووز‬١ّ‫ ِق‬maḥmīya pl. -āt protectorate
(country; pol.)
َ‫ ِقووج‬muḥāmin pl. ْٛ١ِ‫ ِق وج‬muḥāmūn
defense counsel, counselor-at-law, lawyer,
barrister, attorney (at law), advocate
‫ز‬١ِ‫ ِقج‬muḥāmiya woman lawyer
‫ فجٔذز‬look up alphabetically
ُ‫ ِقووووض‬muḥtamin one who seeks
protection; protégé; being under a
protectorate, having the status of a
protectorate
2
‫افّجر‬, ٖ‫ فّج‬ḥamāh Hama (city in W Syria)
‫ فٕووز‬ḥanna sympathy; commiseration,
compassion, pity; favorable aspect,
advantage
ْ‫ فٕوج‬ḥanān sympathy, love, affection,
tenderness; commiseration, compassion,
pity; ‫ووه‬١ٔ‫ فٕج‬ḥanānaika have pity! have
mercy!
compassion,
ٍٟ‫ فٕذ‬ḥanbalī Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the
madhab of Aḥmad ibn ḥanbal; puritanical,
strict in religious matters; (pl. ‫فٕجدٍوووز‬
ḥanābila) Hanbalite
‫س‬ٛٔ‫فج‬, ٟ‫ص‬ٛٔ‫ فج‬see ٕٛ‫ف‬
ٓ‫ فو‬ḥanna i (ٓ١‫ فٕو‬ḥanīn) to long, yearn, hanker
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬for), crave (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.th.); -- (‫ فٕوز‬ḥanna,
ْ‫ فٕوج‬ḥanān) to feel tenderness, affection,
sympathy (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬for s.o.); to sympathize,
commiserate (ٝ‫ عٍو‬with), feel compassion
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬for); to pity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.), have mercy
(ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on) II to move, touch, fill with
tenderness, soften, fill with compassion
(ٗ‫ لٍذوو‬qalbahū s.o.‘s heart); to blossom,
flower, be in bloom (tree) V to feel
sympathy, feel pity, feel compassion (ٝ‫عٍو‬
for s.o.), commiserate (ٝ‫ عٍو‬with s.o.); to
be tender, affectionate
‫ فٕجٔوووووز‬ḥanāna
commiseration
(redbreast); ‫( صّووٌاثٌقٕووج‬colloq. tamr elḥinna) henna plant (Lawsonia inermis;
bot.)
pity,
‫ فٕوظ‬ḥanita a (ḥint) with ٗ‫ٕو‬١ّ٠‫ا‬ٟ‫ ـو‬or ٗ‫ٕو‬١ّ١‫د‬: to
break one‘s oath V to practice piety,
perform works of devotion; to seek
religious purification; to scorn sin, not
yield to sin
‫ فٕظ‬ḥint pl. ‫ ثفٕجط‬aḥnāt perjury; sin 209
‫ فٕؾٌر‬ḥanjara pl. ٌ‫ فٕجؽ‬ḥanājir2 larynx, throat
ًٛ‫ فٕؾو‬ḥunjūr pl. ٌ١‫ فٕوجؽ‬ḥanājīr 2 larynx,
throat
ً‫ فٕؾوو‬ḥanjala to prance (horse); to caper,
gambol II taḥanjala to dance, caper,
gambol, frisk
ُ‫ فٕو‬ḥindis pl. ُ‫ فٕجه‬ḥanādis2 dark night
‫ق‬ٛ‫ فٕوول‬ḥandaqūq (bot.) melilot, (yellow) sweet
clover (Melilotus)
ٕٔ‫ ف‬ḥanaš pl. ٓ‫ ثفٕج‬aḥnāš snake
٠ٕ‫ فو‬II to embalm (ٖ a corpse); to stuff ( ‫ ٘و‬a
carcass)
‫ فٕ ز‬ḥinṭa wheat
ٓ١‫فٕووووو‬
ḥanīn longing, yearning,
hankering, nostalgia, craving, desire
‫ز‬ٟ‫افٕج‬ḥināṭa embalming
ْٛ‫ فٕو‬ḥanūn affectionate, loving, softhearted, tenderhearted, compassionate,
merciful; tender, soft, gentle, kind,
moving, touching (voice)
٠ٕ‫ ِق‬muḥannaṭ mummified
ْ‫ فٕووووج‬ḥannān affectionate, loving,
tender; compassionate, sympathetic
ْ‫ صقٕوووج‬tiḥnān attachment, devotion,
loyalty
ٕٓ‫ صقوو‬taḥannun tenderness, affection,
sympathy
‫ فٕب‬II to dye red ( ٘ s.th., with henna)
‫ فٕووج‬ḥinnā’ henna (a reddish-orange
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks of
the henna plant) │ ‫اثٌقٕوج‬ٛ‫ ثدو‬abū l-ḥ. robin
٠ٕ‫ صق‬taḥannuṭ mummification
ًٛ‫‗ عٌدوزاثٌقٕ و‬arabat al-ḥanṭūr, victoria, light
carriage. designed for two passengers
ً‫ فٕرووو‬ḥanẓal (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬colocynth
(Citrullue colocynthis; bot.)
‫ فٕؿ‬ḥanafa i to turn or bend sideways
‫ووؿ‬١ٕ‫ ف‬ḥanīf pl. ‫ فٕفوووج‬ḥunafā’2 true
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the
false creeds surrounding him and
professes the true religion; true (religion)
│‫وؿ‬١ٕ‫ٓاثٌق‬٠‫( ثٌوو‬din) the True (i.e., Islamic)
Religion, also ‫فزاثٌّْقج‬١ٕ‫( ثٌق‬samḥā’)
ٟ‫ فٕف و‬ḥanafī pagan, heathen, idolater
(Chr.); Hanafitic (see ‫فووز‬١ٕ‫( ;)ف‬pl. -ūn)
Hanafi
‫ووز‬١‫ فٕف‬ḥanafīya paganism, heathendom
(Chr.); Hanafitic madhab (an orthodox
school of theology founded by Abu
Hanifah); -- (pl. -āt) faucet, tap; hydrant
‫وووز‬١‫ف‬١ٕ‫ ثٌق‬al-ḥanīfīya the True (i.e.,
Islamic) Religion
‫ ثفٕوؿ‬aḥnaf2 afflicted with a distortion
of the foot
‫ فٕ وك‬ḥaniqa a (ḥanaq) to be furious, mad,
angry; to be annoyed, exasperated,
peeved, irritated (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬or ٓ‫ ِوو‬at, by), be
resentful (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬of) IV to infuriate,
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate (ٖ
s.o.)
‫ فٕوك‬ḥanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger,
exasperation, resentment, rancor
‫ فٕووووك‬ḥaniq furious, mad, angry;
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed,
exasperated, peeved
‫ فووووجٔك‬ḥāniq furious, mad, angry;
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed,
exasperated, peeved │‫ووووجر‬١‫اثٌق‬ٝ‫فووووجٔكاعٍوووو‬
(ḥayāh) weary of life, dispirited, dejected;
‫اثٌْٕج‬ٍٝ‫( فجٔكاع‬nisā’) misogynist
‫ِقٕووووووك‬
muḥannaq
infuriated,
enraged;
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated,
resentful
‫ فٕوه‬ḥanaka i u, II and IV to sophisticate, make
experienced or worldly-wise through
severe trials (said of fate, time, age)
‫ فٕه‬ḥanak pl. ‫ ثفٕجن‬aḥnāk palate
ٟ‫ فٕى‬ḥanakī palatal
‫ فٕوه‬ḥunk, ḥink and ‫ فٕىوز‬ḥunka worldly
experience, worldly wisdom gained
through experience, sophistication
‫ ِقٕووه‬muḥannak experienced, worldly wise,
sophisticated │‫( ِقٕووووهاِذٕووووه‬mubannak)
shrewd, smart, sharp
(ٛ‫ فٕو‬and ٝ‫ فٕوج )فٕو‬ḥanā u and ٝ‫ فٕو‬ḥanā i to
bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٝ‫ ثٌو‬toward s.o.); to feel for s.o.
(ٝ‫)عٍوووو‬, sympathize (ٝ‫ عٍوووو‬with s.o.),
commiserate, pity (ٝ‫ عٍوووو‬s.o.), feel
compassion, feel pity (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬for s.o.); to
bend, bow, flex, curve, crook ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV
to bend, bow, tilt, incline ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; e.g.,
ٗ‫ ًأّو‬ra’sahū one‘s head); to sympathize
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬210 with s.o.), feel compassion, feel
pity (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.), commiserate, pity (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o.) VII to bend, curve, twist, turn; to be
winding, be tortuous, wind, meander (e.g.,
a road); to turn, deviate, digress (ٓ‫عوو‬
from); to bow (‫ ي‬to s.o.); to lean, incline
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ‫ق‬ٛ‫ ;ـو‬over s.th., ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬toward s.o.,
toward s.th.); to devote o.s. eagerly (ٝ‫ عٍو‬to
s.th.); to contain, harbor (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.) │‫ثْا‬
ٓ‫ووؽ‬ٝ‫ا‬ٝ‫اعٍوو‬ٟ‫اصٕقٕوو‬٨‫ا‬ٟ‫ع‬ٍٛ‫وو‬ٝ (ḍulū‘ī, ḍign) I
harbor no grudge, I feel no resentment
ٛ‫ فٕو‬ḥanw bending, deflection, flexing,
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting,
turning
ٕٛ‫ ف‬ḥinw pl. ‫ ثفٕج‬aḥnā’ bend, bow, turn,
twist, curved line, curve, contour; pl. ribs
│‫ج‬ٙ‫ٓاثفٕجة‬١‫ د‬in her bosom
ٛ‫ فٕووو‬ḥunuw sympathy, compassion,
tenderness, affection
ٟ‫ فٕو‬ḥanīy bending, deflection, flexing,
flexure, curving, ourvature, twisting,
turning
‫ز‬١ٕ‫ ف‬ḥanya bend, turn, curve
‫ز‬١ٕ‫ ف‬ḥanīya pl. ‫وج‬٠‫ فٕج‬ḥanāyā arc; camber,
curvature │ًٖ‫وو‬ٙ‫وجا‬٠‫افٕج‬ٟ‫ ـو‬in his bosom; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ْٗ‫جأف‬٠‫ فٕج‬in his heart, deep inside him
‫وووووز‬٠‫ فٕج‬ḥināya curving,
twisting, turning, bending
curvature,
‫س‬ٛٔ‫ فج‬see below
ٝ‫ ِقٕووو‬maḥnan pl. ْ‫ ِقوووج‬maḥānin
curvature, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve
‫ ثٔقٕوووووج‬inḥinā’ bend, deflection,
curvature; curve; arc; inclination, tilt;
how, curtsy
‫ ثٔقٕج ر‬inḥinā’a (n. vic.) bow, curtsy
ٟٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثٌقو‬al-ḥawānī the longest ribs; (fig.)
breast, bosom │ُٙ١ٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ دّووً افوو‬bi-mil’i ḥ.
(they shouted) at the top of their lungs,
with all their might
ٝ‫ ِقٕوو‬maḥnīy bowed, inclined (head);
bent, curved, crooked
‫ ِوٕقٓا‬munḥanin bent, curved, crooked,
twisted; inclined, bowed
ٕٝ‫ ِٕق‬munḥanan pl. ‫وجس‬١ٕ‫ ِٕق‬munḥanayāt
bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; turn,
twist, break, angle; curve (of a road, end
math.); slope
‫س‬ٛٔ‫ فوج‬ḥānūt pl. ‫وش‬١ٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawānīt2 store, shop;
wineshop, tavern
ٟ‫ص‬ٛٔ‫ فووج‬ḥānūtī pl. -īya (eg.) corpse
washer;
undertaker,
mortician,
gravedigger
‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawwā’2 Eve
‫ح‬ٛ‫ فو‬V to abstain from sin; to lead ٓ pious
life; to refrain, abstain (ِٓ from s.th.)
‫دوووز‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥauba sin, offense, misdeed,
outrage
2
‫دج‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥaubā’ soul
‫س‬ٛ‫ فو‬pl. ْ‫ضوج‬١‫ ف‬ḥītān, ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwāt fish; whale;
Pisces, Fishes (astron.) │ْ‫ّج‬١ٍ‫ساّوو‬ٛ‫ فوو‬ḥ.
sulaimān salmon
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ فو‬IV aḥwaja to have need, stand in need, be
in went (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬of s.th.), need, require, went
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.th.); to put (ٖ s.o.) in need of (ٝ‫)ثٌو‬,
make necessary (ٝ‫ ٖ ثٌو‬for s.o. s.th.), require
(ٌٝ‫ ٖ ث‬of s.o. s.th.), compel, oblige (ٌٝ‫ ٖ ث‬s.o.
to); to impoverish, reduce to poverty (ٖ
s.o.) │ٝ‫ؽوٗاثٌو‬ٛ‫( اِوجاثف‬aḥwajahū) how much
he .tends in need of ...! how urgently he
needs ...! VIII to have need, stand in need,
be in went (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬of; also ‫)ي‬, need, want,
require (ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th. s.o.)
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥauj need, want, lack, deficiency,
destitution
‫ فجؽوز‬ḥāja pl. -āt need (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ح‬of);
necessity,
requirement,
prerequisite;
natural, bodily need; pressing need,
neediness, poverty, indigence, destitution;
object of need or desire; desire, wish,
request; necessary article, requisite;
matter, concern, business, job, work;
thing, object; -- pl. ‫ثةؼ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawā’ij2 needs
211 necessities, necessaries; everyday
objects, effects, belongings, possessions,
stuff; clothes, clothing │‫ايية‬ٝ‫افجؽوزاثٌو‬ٟ‫وجْاـ‬
to stand in need, be in want of (s.th.),
need, require (s.th.); ‫ايية‬ٝ‫افجؽزاثٌو‬٨ (ḥājata)
… is not necessary, not required, there is
no need of ...; ٗ‫ادو‬ٟ‫افجؽوزاٌو‬٨ I don‘t need it;
‫ عٕوواثٌقجؽوز‬if (or when) necessary, if need
be, in case of need; ‫ووٌافجؽووز‬١‫اؼ‬ٟ‫( ـوو‬gairi
ḥājatin) unnecessarily; ‫ ِوووجادوووٗاثٌقجؽوووز‬the
essentials; ‫ ِقووًاثٌقجؽووز‬maḥall al-ḥ. the
essential passage, the gist, the substance,
the crux, the interesting part (of an
exposition); ٗ‫ ّوووافجؽضوو‬sadda ḥājatahū to
meet s.o.‘s needs, provide for s.o.‘s needs;
ٗ‫افجؽضو‬ٝ‫و‬ٞ‫ ل‬qaḍā ḥājatahū to fulfill s.o.‘s
wish; ‫اثٌقجؽز‬ٝٞ‫ ل‬to relieve nature
‫وجس‬١‫ فجؽ‬ḥājīyyāt everyday commodities,
utensils, utilities, necessaries, necessities
‫ػ‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬in greater need (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬of s.th.); more
necessary
‫وجػ‬١‫ ثفض‬iḥtiyāj want, need, requirement,
(pre)requisite, necessity; pl. -āt needs,
necessities, necessaries
‫ؼ‬٠ٚ‫ ِقوج‬maḥāwīj2 (pl. of ‫ػ‬ٛ‫ ِقو‬muḥwij)
needy, poor, destitute people
‫ ِقضوجػ‬muḥtāj in need, in want (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬of
s.th.), requiring (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.th.); poor, destitute,
indigent
‫ؽٍز‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥaujala pl. ً‫ثؽ‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawājil2 phial (chem.)
‫هة‬ٛ‫ فووجهايفوو‬ḥāda u (ḥaud) to turn aside, turn
away (ٓ‫ عو‬from), turn (ٓ‫ عو‬off) II to turn
off, take a turning
‫هر‬ٛ‫( ف‬ḥauda) turn, turning
‫ىة‬ٛ‫ فوجىايفو‬ḥāda u (ḥaud) to urge on, spur on ( ‫٘و‬
animals) IV do. X ‫ى‬ٛ‫ ثّووضق‬istaḥwada to
overwhelm, overcome, overpower (ٝ‫عٍوو‬
s.o.; esp. emotions), get the better of (ٍٝ‫)ع‬,
gain mastery (ٝ‫ عٍو‬over); to seize (ٝ‫ عٍو‬on),
take possession (ٍٝ‫ ع‬of), usurp (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.th.)
ٞ‫ى‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥūdī coachman, cabman, driver
‫ز‬٠‫ى‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥūdīya coachman‘s work or trade
‫ًة‬ٛ‫ فوجًايفو‬ḥāra u to return (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to); to recede,
decrease, diminish, be reduced (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to) II
to change, alter, amend, transform,
reorganize, remodel, modify ( ‫ ٘ و‬or ٓ‫ِوو‬
s.th.); to roll out ( ‫ ٘ و‬dough); to make
white, whiten ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to bleach ( ‫ ٘و‬a
fabric) III to talk, convene, have a
conversation (ٖ with s.o.); to discuss,
debate, argue IV (with ‫ثدوج‬ٛ‫ ؽ‬jawāban) to
answer, reply (with negations only) V to
be
altered,
changed,
amended,
transformed, reorganized, remodeled,
modified VI to carry on & discussion
ًٛ‫ فوووو‬ḥawar white poplar (also
pronounced ḥaur); bark-tanned sheepskin,
basil; marked contrast between the white
of the cornea and the black of the iris
‫ فوجًر‬hāra pl. -āt quarter, part, section
(of & city); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, side
street (with occasional pl. ًٞ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawārī
│‫ فوجًراثٌْوو‬ḥ. as-sadd blind alley, dead-end
street
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwār2, f. ‫ًث‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥaurā’2, pl. ًٛ‫فو‬
ḥūr having eyes with a marked contrast of
white and black, (also, said of the eye:)
intensely white and deep-black
‫ثًر‬ٛ‫ فووو‬ḥawāra (ḥawarāt) cretaceous
rook; chalk
ًٞ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawārī pl. -ūn disciple, apostle
(of Jesus Christ); disciple, follower
ًٜ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawārā cretaceous rock; chalk
‫ووز‬٠ًٛ‫ ف‬ḥūrīya pl. -āt, ًٛ‫ فوو‬ḥūr houri,
virgin of paradise; nymph; (pl. -āt) young
locust │ ‫زاثٌّج‬٠ًٛ‫ ف‬water nymph, nixie
ْ‫ًث‬ٛ‫ فووووو‬ḥaurān2 the Hauran, a
mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N
Jordan 212
ًٛ‫ ِق‬miḥwar pl. ًٚ‫ ِقج‬maḥāwir2 rolling
pin; pivot, core, heart, center; axis; axle,
axletree
ً‫ ِق وج‬maḥār (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬oysters;
shellfish, mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre
‫ ِقوجًرا‬maḥāra (n. un.) oyster; oyster
shell, mussel; trowel
ٌ٠ٛ‫ صقوووو‬taḥwīr alteration, change,
transformation, reorganization, reshuffle,
remodeling, modification
ً‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥiwār talk, conversation, dialogue;
argument, dispute; text (of a play); script,
scenario (of a motion picture)
‫ًر‬ٚ‫ ِق وج‬muḥāwara talk, conversation,
dialogue; argument, dispute
ًٚ‫ صقج‬taḥāwur discussion
(ٍٛ‫ ف‬and َ١‫ فجٍ )ف‬ḥāza u (ḥauz, ‫جٍر‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāza) to
possess, own, have ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to gain, win,
get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th., e.g., success, victory, etc.); to gain
pos....ion. gain control ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.), seize,
monopolize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- ḥāza i (َ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥaiz)
to drive on, urge on ( ‫ ٘وو‬camels) V
taḥawwaza and taḥayyaza to writhe, twist,
coil; -- taḥayyaza to stay away, keep
away, seclude o.s., isolate o.s. (ٓ‫ عو‬from);
to be disposed, incline, tend, lean (ٝ‫ثٌوو‬
toward); to join (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬s.o. or s.th.); to side
(‫ي‬, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with), take sides (‫ي‬, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬in favor of)
VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s. separate,
segregate,· disengage o.s., dissociate o.s.,
stay away, keep away, retire, withdraw
(ٓ‫ عو‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to join (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬S.o. or s.th.);
to unite (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬with); to side (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ‫ ي‬with),
take sides (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or J in favor of) VIII to
possess, own, have ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to take
possession ( ‫ ٘و‬of s.th.); to keep, prevent,
hinder (ٓ‫ ٖ ع‬s.o. from)
ٍٛ‫ فو‬ḥauz possession, holding, tenure;
obtainment,
attainment,
acquisition;
taking possession, occupation, occupancy;
(jur.) tenancy; -- (pl. ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثفووو‬aḥwāz)
enclosed area, enclosure; precinct(s),
boundary, city limits
ٍٞٛ‫ ف‬ḥauzī possessor, tenurial
‫ٍر‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥauza possession, holding, tenure;
property; area, territory │ٍٖٛ‫افو‬ٟ‫ ـو‬or ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ٖ‫و‬٠‫ٍرا‬ٛ‫ ف‬fī ḥ. yadihī in his possession; ‫ثٌوـج ا‬
ٌ‫وو‬ِٚ‫ٍرا‬ٛ‫ عووٓافوو‬the defense of Egyptian
territory
َ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayyiz, ḥaiz pl. ٍ‫وج‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyāz scope, ‫ا‬
range, reach, extent, compass, confines,
field, domain, realm; sphere │‫ا‬ٟ‫وومًاـو‬٠‫ا‬٨
‫ي‬ٛ‫ووَاثٌّعموو‬١‫( ف‬yadkul) it is not within the
bounds of reason; ‫ي‬ٛ‫ووَاثٌّعموو‬١‫اف‬ٝ‫( دووٌٍاثٌوو‬to
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to
become a reality; ْ‫ِىووج‬٨‫ووَاث‬١‫اف‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬fī ḥ. ilimkān within the realm of possibility,
quite possible
‫ووووجٍر‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāza possession, holding,
tenure; taking possession, occupation,
occupancy; acquisition of title, acquisition
of the right of possession; obtainment,
attainment, acquisition
َ١‫ صق‬taḥayyuz partiality; prejudice, bias
ٍ‫وووج‬١‫ ثٔق‬inḥiyāz isolation, seclusion,
retirement; partiality; prejudice, bias
َ‫ فجة‬ḥā’iz possessor, holder, tenant
َ‫وو‬١‫ ِضق‬mutaḥayyiz partial, prejudiced,
biased
ٍ‫ ِٕقوووووج‬munḥāz secluded, retired,
withdrawn, removed (ٓ‫ عووو‬from); an
outsider, a stranger (ٓ‫ ع‬to)
ُٛ‫ فو‬VIII (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver,
hesitate
1
‫ٓة‬ٛ‫ فوجٓايفو‬ḥāša u (ḥauš) to round up, drive
into a trap ( ‫ ٘ و‬game); to stop, check,
prevent, hinder ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), stand in the way
( ‫ ٘و‬of); to hold back, stem, stave off ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) II to gather, collect, amass,
accumulate, pile up, hoard ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
save, put by ( ‫ ٘و‬money); to find ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.)
213
ٓٛ‫ ف‬ḥauš p1. ٓ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwāš, ْ‫ٖوج‬١‫ ف‬ḥīšān
enclosure, enclosed area; courtyard
ٓٛ‫ ف‬ḥawaš mob, rabble, riffraff
ٟ‫ٕو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥūšī wild; unusual, odd, queer,
strange
ٓ‫ اثٌقوج‬ٛ‫ ثّوذ‬usbū‗ al-ḥāš Passion Week
(Chr.)
2
‫فجٕج‬, ٕٝ‫ فج‬see ٖٛ‫ف‬, ‫ فجٓاهلل‬ḥāša lillāh = ‫اهلل‬ٕٝ‫فج‬
ٗٛ‫ فو‬ḥawaṣ squinting of the eye (caused by
constant exposure to glaring light)
ٗٛ‫ ثفوو‬aḥwaṣ2 f. ‫ وج‬ٙٛ‫ ف‬ḥauṣā’2, pl.
ٗٛ‫ ف‬ḥūṣ having narrow, squinting eyes
‫ز‬ٙ‫ج‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāṣa girth
ً‫و‬ٙٛ‫ ف‬ḥauṣa, ‫وٍز‬ٙٛ‫ ف‬ḥauṣala craw (of a bird);
bladder; pelican
│‫ووووووز‬٠ً‫ووووووٍزاثٌٌّث‬ٙٛ‫اثٌق‬
(marārīya) gall bladder, bile (anat.)
ً‫و‬ٚ٠ٛ‫ ف‬ḥuwaisil blister, bleb, vesicle;
water blister
‫وٍز‬ٚ٠ٛ‫ ف‬ḥuwaisila pl. -āt blister, bleb,
vesicle
ٛٛ‫ فو‬ḥauḍ pl. ٛ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwāḍ, ٛ‫ووج‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāḍ
basin; water basin; trough, tank, cistern,
reservoir, container; basin of a river or
sea; pool; (in the Egyptian irrigation
system) a patch of land surrounded by
dikes, flooded by high water of the Nile;
pond; pelvis (anat.); (garden) bed; dock;
pl. ٛ‫وج‬١‫( ف‬ḥiyāḍ) ground, area, domain (to
be protected), sanctum │‫اؽوجؾ‬ٛٛ‫( افو‬jāff)
dry dock; َ‫افّووج‬ٛٛ‫ فوو‬ḥammām bathtub;
َ‫ث‬ٛ‫اعو‬ٛٛ‫‘( فو‬awwām) floating dock; ‫ىثهاعوٓا‬
ٗ‫و‬ٝ‫ج‬١‫ ف‬to assume the defense of s.o., make
o.s. the champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.;
ٓ٠‫اثٌووو‬ٛ‫ووج‬١‫( ىحافووٓاف‬dabba) to defend the
faith; ‫وووو‬٠‫ثٌقو‬ٚ‫اثٌفوووُا‬ٛ‫ث‬ٛ‫ ثفووو‬coal and iron
deposits
O ‫ز‬ٞ٠ٛ‫ ف‬ḥuwaiḍa renal pelvis (anat.)
‫ة‬ٟٛ‫ايفوو‬ٟ‫ فووج‬ḥāṭa u (ḥauṭ, ‫ ووز‬١‫ ف‬ḥaiṭa, ‫ووز‬ٟ‫ج‬١‫ف‬
ḥiyāṭa) to guard, protect ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.),
watch ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ over s.o., over s.th.), have the
custody ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ of); to attend ( ‫ ٘و‬to), take
care ( ‫ ٘وو‬of), look after s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘وو‬to
surround, encircle, enclose, encompass (‫ح‬
s.o., s.th.) II to build a wall ( ‫ ٘و‬around
s.th.), wall in ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to encircle,
surround ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), close in from all sides
( ‫ ٘و‬on s.th.) III to try to outwit, dupe, or
outsmart (ٖ s.o.); to mislead, lead astray,
seduce (ٖ s.o.) IV to surround (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.,
also ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th., y with); to encompass,
enclose, embrace, comprise, contain (‫ح‬
s.th., also ‫ ;)٘و‬to ring, encircle (‫ ح‬s.o.,
s.th., also ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th., ‫ ح‬with s.th.),
close in from all sides (‫ ح‬on); to know
thoroughly,
comprehend,
grasp
completely, understand fully (‫ ح‬s.th.), be
familiar, be thoroughly acquainted (‫ح‬
with) │‫ادوٗاعٍّوج‬ٟ‫’( ثفوج‬ilman) to know s.th.
thoroughly,
have
comprehensive
knowledge of s.th.; to take cognizance,
take note of s.th.; ‫وٗاعٍّوجاح‬ٟ‫ ثؽج‬he informed
him of ..., he let him know about ... ; he
brought ... to his notice V to guard, protect
(.., 6 s.o., s.th.); to take precautions ( ‫٘و‬
with regard to), attend ( ‫ ٘ و‬to); to be
careful, be cautious, be on one‘s guard
VIII to be careful, be cautious, watch out,
be on one‘s guard; to take precautions,
make provision (‫ ي‬for, so as to ensure ... );
to surround (‫ ح‬s.o., s.th.); to guard,
protect, preserve (ٝ‫ ح عٍو‬s.th. from), take
care (‫ ح‬of), attend (‫ ح‬to), look after (‫)ح‬,
see to it (ْ‫ دب‬that)
‫ وووووز‬١‫ ف‬ḥīṯa, ḥaṭa, ‫وووووز‬ٟٛ‫ ف‬ḥauṭa
cautiousness, caution, provident care,
prudence,
circumspection
│‫اأمووووووويا‬
ٗ‫ ضو‬١‫(ف‬ḥīṭatahu) to be on one‘s guard, take
precautions; ‫ وووووز‬١‫اف‬٩‫ دووووو‬thoughtlessly,
unthinkingly, inadvertently
‫وووووز‬ٟ‫ج‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāṭa guarding,
protection, care 214
custody,
٠٠ٛ‫ صق‬taḥwīṭ encirclement
‫ووووووووووز‬ٟ‫ثفج‬
iḥāṭa
encirclement,
encompassment; comprehension, grasp,
understanding, knowledge, cognizance (‫ح‬
of s.th.), acquaintance, familiarity (‫ح‬
with); information, communication
ٟٛ‫ صقوووو‬taḥawwuṭ provision, care,
attention, precaution, prudence; pl. -āt
precautionary measures, precautions
‫قة‬ٛ‫ فوجقايفو‬ḥāqa u (ḥauq) to surround, enclose,
infold, embrace (‫ ح‬s.o.. s.th.) II = I (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o., s.th.)
ٟ‫وووج‬١‫ ثفض‬iḥtiyāṭ caution, cautiousness,
prudence, circumspection, carefulness;
provision, care, attention, precaution,
prevention;
pl.
-āt
precautionary
measures, precautions │‫ًاثٌّغوجي‬١‫اّوذ‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬as a
precaution, out of precaution, to be on the
safe side
1
ٟٟ‫وووووووج‬١‫ثفض‬
ihṭiyāṭī
precautionary;
prophylactic; preventive; replacement;
spare- (in compounds); reserve- (in
compounds); stand-by; reserve funds,
capital reserves (fin.); reserve (mil.) │‫فوذِا‬
ٟٟ‫وووووج‬١‫( ثفض‬ḥabs) detention pending
investigation; ‫ وز‬١ٟ‫ج‬١‫ٌاثفض‬١‫ صوووثد‬precautionary
measures, precautions ‫وز‬١ٟ‫ج‬١‫ثساثفض‬ٛ‫( ل‬quwāt)
reserves (mil.); ٟٟ‫وج‬١‫ ِوجياثفض‬capital reserve,
reserve fund; َ‫وشاثٌنوج‬٠ٌَ‫اث‬ٟٝ‫وج‬١‫( ثفض‬crude-)oil
reserves
٠‫ فوجة‬pl. ْ‫ وج‬١‫ ف‬ḥīṭān, ٟ‫وج‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāṭ, ٠‫ثة‬ٛ‫فو‬
ḥawā’iṭ2 wall │ٝ‫اثٌّذىوو‬٠‫ فووجة‬ḥ. al-mabkā
Wailing Wall (in Jerusalem); ‫ووٌحةادووٗا‬ٝ
٠‫اثٌقووجة‬ٌٛ‫ عوو‬or) ٝ‫ ثٌموو‬alqā (ḍaraba) bihī
‘urḍa l-ḥā’iṭ to make little of s.th., scorn,
disdain, despise s.th.; to reject s.th.,
discard s.th., throw s.th. overboard; to
ruin, thwart, foil s.th.
٠٠ٛ‫ ف‬ḥāwiṭ (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd
٠١‫ ِقووو‬muḥīṭ surrounding (‫ ح‬s.th.);
comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (‫ح‬
with); -- (pl. -āt) circumference,
periphery; extent, range, scope, compass,
reach, domain, area; milieu, environment,
surroundings;
ocean;
pl.
‫ ووووووجس‬١‫ِق‬
surroundings, environment │‫ا‬٠١‫اثٌّقووووو‬
ٟ ٍٕٟ٨‫(ث‬aṭlanṭī) the Atlantic Ocean; ‫ا‬٠١‫ثٌّقو‬
‫جها‬ٌٙ‫( ث‬ḥādi’) the Pacific Ocean
ٟ‫ ِقج‬muluiJ surrounded (‫ ح‬by)
ٟٛ‫ ِضق و‬mutaḥawwiṭ cautious, prudent,
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥauf edge, rim, brim, brink; border, hem,
fringe
‫ فجـوز‬ḥāfa pl. -āt, ‫ثؾ‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥawāfin border,
rim, brim, brink, verge; edge; fringe, hem
│ٗ١‫ثـ‬ٛ‫ٓاف‬١‫ د‬within it, in it, therein
ً‫لو‬ٛ‫ اف‬ḥauqala (‫لٍوز‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥauqala) to pronounce
the formula: ‫ادوجهلل‬٨‫راث‬ٛ‫الو‬٨ٚ‫يا‬ٛ‫افو‬٨ (see ‫ي‬ٛ‫فو‬
ḥaul)
2
‫لٍوز‬ٛ‫اف‬ḥauqala pl. ً‫ثلو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāqil2 phial
(chem.), Florence flask
‫نة‬ٛ‫ فووجنايفوو‬ḥāka u (ḥauk, ‫ووجن‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāk, ‫جوووز‬١‫ف‬
ḥiyāka) to weave ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to interweave
( ٘ s.th.); to knit ( ٘ s.th.); to braid, plait ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to contrive, devise, hatch, concoct
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.; e.g., ruses, intrigues, pretexts),
think up, fabricate, create ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. in one‘s
imagination)
‫جووووووز‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāka
braiding, plaiting
weaving;
knitting;
‫ فجةووه‬ḥā’ik pl. ‫ فجوووز‬ḥāka weaver; -(mor.) an outer garment made of a long
piece of white woolen material, covering
body and head
(‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬and ً‫و‬١‫ فوجي )ف‬ḥāla u to change, undergo a
change, be transformed; to shift, turn,
pass, grow (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬into s.th., also ‫)٘و‬, become
(ٌٝ‫ ث‬s.th.); to deviate, depart (ٓ‫ ع‬from, e.g.,
a commitment), dodge, evade, fail to meet
(ٓ‫ عو‬s.th.); to elapse, pass go by (time); -(‫ٌوز‬ٍٛ١‫ ف‬ḥailūla) to prevent (ْٚ‫ ه‬s.th.); to
intervene, interfere, interpose, come (ٓ١‫دوو‬
between) │‫وو‬ٙ‫‗( فوجياعوٓاع‬ahd) to withdraw
from a contract; ٌ‫ِو‬٤‫ٓاث‬١‫دو‬ٚ‫ْا‬٩‫ٓاـو‬١‫ فوجيادو‬215
to make s.th. inaccessible to s.o.,
impossible for s.o.; to bar or obstruct
s.o.‘s way to s.th.; to prevent s.o. from
s.th., deny s.o. s.th.; ‫ٕوفجق‬٦‫ٓاث‬١‫دو‬ٚ‫ٓأفْوٗا‬١‫فجياد‬
(išfāq) to resist compassion, deny o.s. any
sympathy II ḥawwala to change (ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬or
‫ ٘ووو ٘ووو‬s.th. to s.th. else), transform,
transmute, convert, turn, make (ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬or ‫٘و‬
‫ ٘و‬s.th. into s.th. else); to transplant (s.th.);
to transfer ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to convert ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
mathematically); to switch commutate ( ‫٘و‬
current; el.); to convert, transform ( ‫٘ و‬
current; el.); to shunt ( ‫ ٘و‬a railroad car); to
switch ( ‫ ٘و‬a railroad track); to remit, send,
transmit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., money by mail, ٝ‫ثٌو‬
to s.o.); to pass on, hand on (ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. to
s.o.); to forward (ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. to s.o. or to an
address); to endorse ( ‫ ٘و‬a bill of exchange,
a promissory note); to direct, turn ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
also ‫ ٔرووٌر‬naẓratan a glance, ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to or
toward); to divert, distract, keep (ٓ‫ ٘و ع‬or ٖ
s.o. or s.th. from); to turn away, avert
(ٓ‫وٌٖاعو‬ٚ‫ د‬baṣarahū one's eyes from); to
turn off, switch off, disconnect ( ‫ ٘و‬current;
el.) │‫ياثٌوـووز‬ٛ‫( فوو‬daffa) to turn the helm,
change the course III (ḥāwala to try,
attempt, endeavor ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ْ‫ ث‬to do s.th.),
make an attempt, make an effort (ْ‫ ث‬to do
s.th.); to seek to gain ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) by artful
means; to deceive by pretenses, make
excuses, hedge, dodge IV to change ‫٘و ٘و‬
or ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. to), transform, transmute,
turn, make ( ‫ ٘و ٘و‬or ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. into); to
convert, translate ( ٘ ‫ ٘و‬or ٝ‫ ٘و ثٌو‬s.th. into);
to transfer ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to remit, send ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.
ٌٝ‫ ث‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.); to assign ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.,
ٝ‫ ثٌو‬or ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.); to turn over, hand over,
pass on (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬or ٖ s.o. or s.th. to); to
forward (ٝ‫ ٘و عٍو‬s.th. to); to refer (ٝ‫ ٖ ثٌو‬s.o.
to); to cede, transfer ( ‫ ٘و‬a debt, ٝ‫ عٍو‬to s.o.;
jur.) │ٓ‫ةاثٌّعوج‬ٝ‫ايثٌو‬ٝ‫وًاعٍو‬١‫( ثف‬uḥīla, ma‗āš)
and ‫اثٌضمجعوووو‬ٝ‫وووًاثٌووو‬١‫( ثف‬taqā‘ud) he was
pensioned off; ٛ‫صْوض‬ٌٚ‫اثٌذ‬ٝ‫جٌوزاثٌو‬١‫ٍشاثٌىّذ‬١‫ ثف‬the
bill was protested (fin.) V taḥawwala to
change, undergo a change; to be changed
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), be transformed, be transmuted, be
converted (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬into), become (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬s.th.),
turn, grow (ٌٝ‫ ث‬into), transform (ٝ‫اثٌو‬--ٓ‫ ِو‬or
ٓ‫ عو‬from -- into), change, develop, evolve
(ٝ‫اثٌو‬--‫ ِوٓا‬from to); to withdraw, go away,
leave; to move (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a residence); to turn
away (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), turn one‘s back (ٓ‫ عو‬on);
to deviate (ٓ‫ عو‬from); to depart, digress,
stray (‫وووك‬٠ٌ ٌ‫ عوووٓاث‬from the way); to
renounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim
(s.th.); to proceed slyly or cunningly
│‫ٍوز‬١‫ياوًاف‬ٛ‫ صق‬to employ every conceivable
trick; -- taḥayyala to employ artful means;
to ponder ways and means (‫ ي‬to an end, in
order to attain s.th.) VI taḥāwala to try,
endeavor, take pains (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to do s.th.),
strive (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for); -- taḥāyala and VIII to
employ artful means, resort to tricks, use
stratagems (ٝ‫ عٍو‬against s.o.); to deceive,
beguile, dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.o.); to be out (ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.th.) or achieve
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.) by artful means, by tricks VIII
to work or strive (on one‘s own
resources), make efforts (on one‘s own)
IX ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwala to be cross-eyed, to squint
X to change (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to, into), turn, be
transformed, be converted (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬into); to be
transubstantiated (bread and wine, ٝ‫ ثٌو‬into
the body and blood of Christ; Chr.); to
proceed, pass on, shift, switch (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to s.th.
new or s.th. different); to be impossible
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o.); to be inconceivable, absurd,
preposterous
‫ فووجي‬ḥāl m. and f., pl. ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ثفوو‬aḥwāl
condition, state; situation; position, status;
circumstance; case; present, actuality (as
opposed to future); circumstantial
expression or phrase (gram.); pl.:
conditions, circumstances; matters, affairs,
concerns; cases; ḥāla (prep.) during;
immediately upon, right after; just at; in
case of …, in the event of …; ٨‫ فوج‬216
ḥālan presently, immediately, at once,
right away, without delay; now, actually,
at present │‫اثٌقجي‬ٟ‫ ـ‬and ‫ ٌٍقجي‬on the spot, at
once, immediately; ‫اوًافوجي‬ٍٝ‫( ع‬kulli ḥālin)
and ‫افوجي‬ٞ‫اأ‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬ayyi ḥ.) in any case, at any
rate, anyhow; ٗ‫افجٌوو‬ٝ‫اعٍوو‬ٝ‫ذموو‬٠ (yabqā) it
remains unchanged, just as it is; ‫افوجياِوٓا‬ٟ‫ـ‬
‫ثي‬ٛ‫فو‬٤‫ ث‬in some case or other, anyway, if
occasion should arise, possibly; (with
neg.) by no means, under no
circumstances, not at all, in no way; ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
‫فوجي‬, ‫دقوجي‬, ‫افوجي‬ٞ‫ دوب‬bi-ayyi ḥ. with neg.: by
no means, not at all, in no way; ‫وويٌهاثٌقوجيا‬
ٟ‫ ـو‬the same goes for ..., it is the same with
…; it is also the case with ...; ٟ‫اثٌقجياـ‬ٛ٘‫وّجا‬
as is the case with; ‫وؿافجٌوه‬١‫ و‬how are you?
ٗ‫ ادقجٌ و‬ٟ‫ ٕوو‬a thing in itself, a separate,
independent thing; ‫وز‬٠ٛ‫ثياثٌؾ‬ٛ‫فو‬٤‫( ث‬jawwīya)
atmospheric conditions; ‫ثيا‬ٛ‫فوووو‬٤‫ِقووووجوُاث‬
‫ز‬١‫و‬ٚ‫( ثٌٖن‬šakṣīya) courts dealing with vital
statistics; ‫ز‬١‫وو‬ٚ‫ثياثٌٖن‬ٛ‫فوو‬٤‫ ٔرووجَ( ث‬or) ْٛٔ‫لووج‬
personal statute; ‫وجفخاثٌقوجي‬ٙ noun referent
of a circumstantial phrase (gram.); ‫ا‬ٌٛ‫عو‬
‫‘ فجي‬arḍ ḥ. application, memorial, petition;
‫ٌْجْاثٌقجي‬, ٌٗ‫ ٌْجْافج‬see ْ‫ٌْج‬
‫ فجٌّج‬ḥālama (conj.) as soon as
‫ فجٌوووز‬ḥala pl. -āt condition, state;
situation; (possible, actual) case; ḥālata
(prep.) during │ْ‫ فجٌوزاث‬ḥālata an (conj.)
whereas; ٖ‫ثٌقجٌوووووزا٘وووووي‬ٚ under these
circumstances, such being the case, things
being as they are; ‫افجٌوز‬ٟ‫( ـو‬ḥālati) in (the)
case of ..., in the event of …, e.g., ‫افجٌوزا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ٗ‫جدو‬١‫( ؼ‬giyābihī) in case of his absence, ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
‫ـوجر‬ٌٛ‫( فجٌوزاث‬wafāh) in case of death; ‫ا٘ويٖا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
‫ ثٌقجٌوز‬in this (that) case; ْ‫ ٌقجٌوزاث‬li-ḥālati an
in case that …, in the event that …; ‫افجٌزا‬ٟ‫ـ‬
‫ ِجاثىث‬if; ٟ‫اثٌقجٌوزاـو‬ٟ٘‫ وّجا‬if as is the case with
…; ‫وز‬١‫( فجٌوزاثؽضّجع‬ijtimā‘īya) marital status;
‫وووووز‬٠ٛ‫( ثٌقجٌوووووزاثٌؾ‬jawwīya) atmospheric
conditions; ٌ‫ فجٌوزاثٌن و‬ḥ. al-kaṭar stand-by,
alert, state of alarm; ‫ ثٌقجٌوزاثٌٌثٕ٘وز‬the status
quo; ‫ثًا‬ٛ‫ فجٌ وزاثٌ وو‬ḥ. aṭ-ṭawāri’ state of
emergency; ِ‫افجٌووووزاثٌضٍووووذ‬ٟ‫( ـوووو‬talabbus)
flagrante delicto (jur.); ‫ووووز‬١ٔ‫ثٌقجٌووووزاثٌّو‬
(madanīya) civil status, legal status; ‫ ا‬ٛ‫ّو‬
‫ ثٌقجٌز‬sū’ al-ḥ. predicament, plight
ٌٟ‫ فوووج‬ḥālī present, current, actual,
existing; momentary, instantaneous; ‫ووج‬١ٌ‫فج‬
ḥālīyan at present, actually │‫ووز‬١ٌ‫ًرافج‬ٛ‫وو‬ٙ
(ṣūra) snapshot (phot.)
‫ووووز‬١ٌ‫ فج‬ḥālīya
timeliness
actuality,
topicality,
‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥaul pl. ‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwāl year; might,
power │‫ادوجهلل‬٨‫راث‬ٛ‫الو‬٨ٚ‫يا‬ٛ‫افو‬٨ lā ḥaula wa-lā
quwata illā bi-llāh there is no power and
no strength save in God; ‫ٍوز‬١‫اف‬٨ٚ‫ياٌوٗا‬ٛ‫افو‬٨
(wa-lā ḥīlata) he is completely powerless,
he can do nothing, he is at the end of his
resources
‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥiwal change of place, change │‫ا‬٨
٨ٛ‫ْاعٕوٗافو‬ٛ‫ذضؽ‬٠ (yabtagūna) they don‘t want
it otherwise, they ask for it
‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬ḥaula (prep.) around, about; circa,
about, some, approximately, roughly (with
following number); about (esp. in news
headings, approx. = re, concerning) │‫اِوٓا‬
ٗ‫ٌو‬ٛ‫( ف‬ḥaulihī) (= ٗ‫ٌو‬ٛ‫ )ف‬around him (or it),
about him (or it); ‫ّوج‬ٙ١ٌٛ‫( ِوٓاف‬ḥaulaihimā)
around the two of them, about them; from
their vicinity, from their surroundings
(dual)
ٌٟٛ‫ ف‬ḥaulī periodic, temporary, interim;
one year old (animal), yearling; young
animal; lamb, wether
O ‫وجس‬١ٌٛ‫ ف‬ḥaulīyāt yearbook, annals (=
Fr. annales, as a scientific publication)
ً١‫ ف‬ḥail strength, force, power, vigor │‫ا‬
ٍٗ١‫اف‬ٍٝ‫(ع‬standing) upright, erect; ‫ا‬٨ٚ‫راٌٗا‬ٛ‫ال‬٨
ً‫وو‬١‫( ف‬qūwata) completely helpless and
paralyzed
‫ٍوز‬١‫ ف‬ḥīla pl. ً‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyal, ً‫و‬١٠‫ ثفج‬aḥāyīl2 artifice,
ruse, stratagem, maneuver, subterfuge,
wile, trick; device, shift; a 217 means to
accomplish an end; expedient, makeshift,
dodge, way-out; legal stratagem (for the
purpose of in fraudem legis agere) │‫ِوجا‬
‫ٍز‬١‫ ثٌق‬what‘s to be done! ٟ‫ٍزاٌٗاـ‬١‫اف‬٨ (ḥīlata)
I have no possibility to …, I am in no
position to …; ‫ٍوز‬١‫اف‬ٞ‫وو‬١‫( ِوجاد‬bi-yadī) I can
do nothing, I can get nowhere; ٨‫ٍوزاث‬١‫ؾواف‬٠‫ٌُا‬
lam yajid ḥīlatan illā he couldn‘t do
anything except …, he had no other
choice than …; ‫ٍوز‬١‫ضٗاثٌق‬١‫( ثع‬a‘yathu) he was
at a loss, he was at the end of his wits
ٟ‫ٍو‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyalī cunning, crafty, wily, sly,
tricky, foxy
ً١‫ ثف‬aḥyal2 craftier, wilier
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawal squinting, strabismus
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ثفو‬aḥwal2, f. ḥaula’2 ḥaulā2, pl. ‫ي‬ٛ‫فو‬
ḥūl squinting, squint-eyed, wall-eyed,
walleyed
‫ي‬ٚ‫ فوووؤ‬ḥu’ūl change, transformation,
transmutation; prevention (ْٚ‫ ه‬of s.th.)
‫ثي‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥiwāl obstacle; partition, screen
‫وجي‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāla (prep.) in view of ..., with
regard to …, in the lace of, opposite, in
front of, before
‫ثٌوز‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāla pl. -āt assignment, cession
(jur.); bill of exchange, (promissory) note,
check, draft │‫و‬٠ٌ‫ثٌزاثٌذ‬ٛ‫ف‬, ‫وز‬٠‫و‬٠ٌ‫ثٌوزاد‬ٛ‫ ف‬money
order; ٌ‫ثٌزاثٌْف‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥ. safar traveler‘s check
ٌٝ‫ث‬ٛ‫ فوو‬ḥawālā (prep.) around, about;
circa, approximately, roughly, about,
some (with following number)
‫ٌووز‬ٍٛ١‫ ف‬ḥailūla separation, interruption,
disruption; prevention (ْٚ‫ ه‬of s.th.)
‫اِقجي‬٨ lā maḥalla = ‫اِقجٌز‬٨ (see below)
‫ ِقجٌوز‬muḥāla roller, wheel (of a draw
well)
ٗ‫اِقجٌووزإِوو‬٨ lā maḥālata minhu it is
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; (also
‫اِقجٌووز‬٨ alone) most certainly, positively,
absolutely, by all means
ً‫وووووووو‬٠ٛ‫صق‬
taḥwīl
transformation,
transmutation, conversion (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬into s.th.);
change,
alteration,
modification;
transplantation; transposition, reversal,
inversion,
translocation,
dislocation,
displacement;
transfer,
assignment;
conversion (e.g., of currency); conversion,
transformation (of electric current); O
transfer (fin.; also ٓ٠‫وًاثٌوو‬٠ٛ‫ صق‬t. ad-dain);
remittance (of money), transmittal,
sending, forwarding; bill of exchange,
promissory note, draft (com.); check;
endorsement (com.); c.o.d., cash on
delivery │‫ز‬١‫ؽٕذ‬٨‫ساث‬٩ّ‫اثٌع‬ٌٝ‫ًاث‬٠ٛ‫زاثٌعٍّزاٌٍضق‬١ٍ‫لجد‬
(qābilīyal
al-’mla,
ajnabīiya)
convertibility of currency
frequently changing; feeble, languid, wan,
pallid
‫ٍز‬٠ٛ‫ صق‬taḥwīla pl. ً‫و‬٠ٚ‫ صقج‬taḥāwīl2 branch,
offshoot; siding, sidetrack (railroad); side
canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch (railroad)
ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫ياع‬ٛ‫ ِق‬muḥawwal ‘alaihi c.o.d., cash
on delivery; ٗ‫ياد‬ٛ‫ ِق‬collected on delivery
‫ٌووز‬ٚ‫ ِقج‬muḥāwala pl. -āt attempt, try;
effort, endeavor;. recourse to expedients,
shifts, or dodges, dodging, hedging │‫ا‬
ٗ‫جصو‬١‫اف‬ٝ‫ٌوزاعٍو‬ٚ‫(ِقج‬ḥayātihī) attempt on s.o.‘s
life, murderous assault
‫ ثفجٌووووز‬iḥāla transfer, conveyance,
assignment;
remittance;
forwarding,
referring (ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬or ٝ‫ عٍوو‬to a competent
authority); transmission, transmittal; O
transfer (fin.); cession, assignment (Isl.
Law); absurdity │ٝ‫فجٌووووزاعٍوووو‬٨‫ ادج‬with
reference to; ‫فجٌوز‬٨‫اث‬ٟ‫و‬ٝ‫ لج‬magistrate sitting
at defendant‘s arraignment, trial judge;
ٓ‫ةاثٌّعوج‬ٝ‫ايعٍو‬ٝ‫( ثفجٌوزاثٌو‬ma‘āš) and ‫ا‬ٝ‫ثفجٌوزاثٌو‬
‫( ثٌضمجعو‬taqā‘ud) pensioning off
‫ي‬ٛ‫ صقو‬taḥawwul change, transformation,
transmutation; abrupt change, sudden turn,
reversal; shift, transition; departure,
deviation, digression (ٓ‫عووووو‬
from);
renunciation (ٓ‫ ع‬of) │‫ي‬ٛ‫ ٔم زاثٌضق‬nuqṭat att. turning point
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِقووو‬muḥawwil pl. -āt converter,
transformer (el.); endorser
‫ٌز‬ٛ‫ ِق‬muḥawwila switch (railroad)
ً‫ و‬١‫ ِق‬muḥīl transferor, assignor (Isl.
Law)
‫ ِقوجي‬muḥāl inconceivable, unthinkable,
impossible,
absurd,
preposterous,
unattainable
‫ي‬ٛ‫ِضقوووووو‬
mutaḥawwil
changeable,
variable, changing │‫ٌوز‬ٛ‫وجهاثٌّضق‬١‫ع‬٤‫(اث‬a‘yād)
the movable feasts (Chr.)
‫ ِقضوجي‬muḥtāl artful, cunning, deceitful,
treacherous,
perfidious,
fraudulent;
swindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook,
scoundrel; assignee (Isl. Law) │ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫اِقضوجياع‬
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee (Isl.
Law)
ً١‫ ِْووضق‬mustaḥīl impossible, absurd,
preposterous; ‫س‬٩١‫ ِْوضق‬impossible things,
impossibilities, absurdities
ً‫و‬٠‫ صقج‬taḥāyul and ‫وجي‬١‫ ثفض‬iḥtiyāl use of
tricks, trickery; cunning, craft, subtlety,
artfulness; malice, treachery, perfidy;
deception, fraud
(َٛ‫ فوجَ )فو‬ḥāma u (ḥaum, َٛ‫ فو‬ḥawamān) to
circle, hover. glide (in the air; of a bird,
also of an aircraft); to hover, swarm, buzz
(‫ي‬ٛ‫ فو‬and ٝ‫ عٍو‬around) │ٖ‫ووو‬ٝ‫زا‬ٙ‫افجِوشاثٌٖوذ‬
(šubha, ḍiddahū) suspicion concentrated
on him, he was suspected II to circle in the
air; to hover in circles, to circle; to go
around, revolve (thoughts and images, in
one‘s head or mind); to browse (ٟ‫ ـو‬in a
book)
ٍٟ٠‫ صقوووج‬taḥāyulī and ٌٟ‫وووج‬١‫ ثفض‬iḥtiyālī
fraudulent, e.g., ٌٟ‫ووووج‬١‫ُاثفض‬٩‫( ثـوووو‬iflās)
fraudulent bankruptcy
‫ِوز‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥauma pl. -āt turmoil of battle,
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, main
body; (tun.) quarter, section (of a city)
ً١‫ صق‬taḥayyul use of tricks, trickery 218
‫ ثّوضقجٌز‬istiḥāla change, transformation,
transmutation, turn, shift, transition;
transubstantiation (Chr.); impossibility,
inconceivability,
absurdity,
preposterousness
ً‫ فجةوو‬ḥā’il pl. ً‫ثةوو‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawā’il obstacle,
obstruction, impediment (ْٚ‫ ه‬on the way
to s.th., ٚ‫ا‬--‫ٓا‬١‫ دو‬see ‫ فوجي‬ḥāla I); barrier;
partition, screen, folding screen; -- (pl.
‫ي‬ٛ‫ فوووو‬ḥuwwal) changeable, variable,
ْ‫ فج‬and‫افجٔزا‬see ٓ١‫ف‬
‫س‬ٛٔ‫ فج‬see ٕٛ‫اف‬
ٜٛ‫ فو‬ḥawā i to gather, collect, unite ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold,
enclose, comprise, include ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
possess, own, have ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to clasp ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up)
VIII to encompass, embrace, contain,
hold, enclose, comprise, include ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٝ‫عٍو‬
s.th.); to possess, own, have ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٝ‫عٍوو‬
s.th.)
‫ووز‬٠ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawīya convolution, coil, curl,
roll; pl. ‫ووج‬٠‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥawāyā intestine, bowels,
entrails
‫وز‬٠‫ث‬ٛ‫ ف‬ḥiwāya pl. -āt (eg.) wase round
pad to support a burden on the head or on
the back
ٚ‫ فوووج‬ḥāwin pl. ‫ثر‬ٛ‫ فووو‬ḥuwāh snake
charmer; juggler, conjurer, magician
‫ووجس‬٠ٛ‫ ِقض‬muḥtawayāt content(s) (of a
book. of a receptacle) │ُٛ‫وجساثٌٕفو‬٠ٛ‫ ِقض‬the
innermost thoughts. the secrets of the
heart
(ٝ‫ف‬, ٛ١‫ )ف‬ٟ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayiya, ٟ‫ فو‬ḥayya ‫وج‬١‫ق‬٠ yaḥyā (‫وجر‬١‫ف‬
ḥayāh) to live; ٟ‫ فو‬ḥayya to live to see,
experience, witness ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.), live ( ‫٘وو‬
through a time) ‫اثٌٍّوه‬ٟ‫قو‬١ٌ li-yaḥyā 219 lmalik long live the king! ٟ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayiya ‫وج‬١‫ق‬٠
yaḥyā ( ‫وج‬١‫ ف‬ḥayā’) to be ashamed (ٓ‫ ِو‬of;
because of) II ‫وج‬١‫ ف‬ḥayyā to keep (ٖ s.o.)
alive, grant (ٖ s.o.) a long life; to say to
s.o. (ٖ): ‫ووجنا‬١‫ ف‬may God preserve your
life!; to greet, salute (ٖ s.o.) IV ‫وج‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyā to
lend life ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ to s.o., to s.th.), enliven,
animate, vitalize, endow with life, call
into being ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), give birth ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to
revive, reanimate, revivify ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), give
new life ( ‫ ٘و‬to); to put on, produce, stage,
arrange ( ٘ e.g., a theatrical performance, a
celebration, and the like); to celebrate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., also a festival) │ٌٜ‫وجاثٌويو‬١‫( ثف‬dikrā) to
commemorate (a deceased person),
observe the anniversary (of s.o.‘s death);
ً‫و‬١ٌٍ‫جاث‬١‫( ثف‬lail) to burn the midnight oil, ‫وجا‬١‫ثف‬
‫ر‬٩‫و‬ٙ‫وًا‬١ٌٍ‫( ث‬ṣalātan) to spend the night in
prayer; ‫ٌر‬ٙ‫وجاثٌْو‬١‫( ثف‬sahrata) to perform in
the evening (of an artist); ‫وووجاففٍوووز‬١‫ثف‬
(ḥaflatan) to give a performance; to
perform at a celebration (artist); ‫وشا‬١‫لوواثف‬
‫وجي‬١ٌ‫طا‬٩‫ ثٌفٌلوزاعو‬qad aḥyat il-firqatu talāta
layālin the theatrical troupe gave three
evening performances X ‫ج‬١‫ ثّوضق‬istaḥyā to
spare s.o.‘s (ٖ) life, let live, keep alive (ٖ
s.o.); ‫ج‬١‫ ثّووضق‬istaḥyā, ٝ‫ ثّووضق‬istaḥā to be
ashamed (ٖ to face s.o.; ِٓ of s.th., because
of s.th.); to become or feel embarrassed
(ٓ‫ ِو‬in front of s.o.), be embarrassed (ٓ‫ِو‬
by); to be bashful, shy, diffident
ٟ‫ فوو‬ḥayy pl. ‫ووج‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyā’ living, live,
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active,
energetic,
unbroken,
undaunted,
undismayed; living being, organism; tribe,
tribal community; block of apartment
houses; section, quarter (of a city) │‫عٍوُا‬
‫وج‬١‫ف‬٤‫‘ ث‬ilm al-aḥyā’ biology; ٌُ‫اثٌعوج‬ٟ‫‘ فو‬ilm
al-‘ālam houseleek tree (Sempervivum
arboreum L.; bot.)
ٟ‫ فو‬ḥayya: ‫ر‬٩‫و‬ٌٚ‫اث‬ٝ‫اعٍو‬ٟ‫ فو‬ḥayya ‘alā ṣṣalāh come to prayer!
‫ز‬١‫ ف‬ḥayya pl. -āt snake, serpent, viper
O ٟ‫وجة‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyā’ī biologic(al); (pl. -ūn)
biologist │‫وووز‬١‫جة‬١‫وووج اثف‬١ّ١‫( و‬kīmiyā’) biochemistry
ٟ‫ووو‬١‫ ف‬ḥayīy bashful, shy, diffident,
modest
‫وووووج‬١‫ف‬
ḥayā’
shame,
diffidence,
bashfulness, timidity; shyness │ ‫وج‬١‫وًاثٌق‬١ٍ‫ل‬
shameless impudent; ‫وج‬١‫ لٍوزاثٌق‬qillat al-ḥ.
shamelessness, impudence
‫وجر‬١‫ ف‬ḥayāh pl. ‫ثس‬ٛ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayawāt life; lifeblood; liveliness animation │‫وؿ‬٠ٌٌ‫وجراث‬١‫ ف‬ḥ.
ar-rīf country life, rural life; ‫ وجراثٌعجِووز‬١‫ثٌق‬
(‘āmma) public life; ‫ز‬١ٍ‫جراثٌعجة‬١‫ ثٌق‬family life;
‫وجر‬١‫اثٌق‬ٜٛ‫ضو‬١ِ mustawā l-ḥ. living standard; O
‫جر‬١‫‘ عٍُاثٌق‬ilm al-ḥ. biology
ٞٛ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayawī lively, full of life, vital,
vigorous; vital, essential to life
‫ز‬٠ٛ١‫ ف‬ḥayawīya vitality, vigor, vim
‫ووجس‬٠ٛ١‫ ف‬ḥayawīyāt: ‫ووجس‬٠ٛ١‫ووجهراٌٍق‬ِٞ‫ثها‬ٛ‫ِوو‬
(mawādd muḍādda) antibiotics
ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ و‬١‫ ف‬ḥayawān pl. -āt animal, beast;
(coll.) animals, living creatures │‫ثٔوجسا‬ٛ١‫ف‬
‫وووز‬٠‫( عو‬tadyīya) mammals; ‫ثٔوووجساِؾضوووٌر‬ٛ١‫ف‬
(mujtarra) ruminants; ٟ‫ٍو‬١‫ف‬ٟ‫ثْا‬ٛ‫و‬١‫( ف‬ṭufailī)
parasite; ْ‫ث‬ٛ١‫‘ عٍُاثٌق‬ilm al-ḥ. zoology
ٟٔ‫ث‬ٛ‫ووووو‬١‫ ف‬ḥayawānī
zoologic(al)
animal
(adj.);
‫وز‬١ٔ‫ث‬ٛ١‫ ف‬ḥayawānīya bestiality; animality,
animal nature
ٓ٠ٛ‫ فو‬ḥuwayyin pl. -āt minute animal,
animalcule
ٝ‫و‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyā livelier; more vigorous, more
vital
‫وز‬١‫ صق‬taḥīya pl. –āt, ‫وج‬٠‫ صقج‬taḥāyā greeting,
salutation; salute; cheer (= wish that God
may give s.o. long life) │ٖ‫وووزاٌووويوٌث‬١‫صق‬
taḥīyatan li-dikrāhu in order to keep his
memory alive, in remembrance of him;
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫زاثٌعْى‬١‫‘( ثٌضق‬askarīya) military salute
‫وووج‬١‫ ثف‬iḥyā’ animation, enlivening; revival,
revitalization, revivification; arranging,
staging. conducting, putting on, 220
holding (of a celebration) │ٌٜ‫وج اثٌويو‬١‫ ثف‬i.
ad-dikrā commemoration (of a deceased
person); ٌٜ‫وج اٌويو‬١‫ ثف‬I (iḥyā’an) (with foll.
gen.) in commemoration of …, in
memoriam ...; ‫ثس‬ٛ‫ووج اثٌّوو‬١‫ ثف‬i. al-mawāt
cultivation of virgin land
‫ج‬١‫ ثّوووضق‬istiḥyā’ shame; diffidence,
bashfulness, timidity; shyness
‫ج‬١‫ ِق‬mūḥayyan face, countenance
‫ز‬١‫ ثٌْوووووشاثٌّْوووووضق‬as-sitt al-mustahīya
sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica; bot.)
1
‫وظ‬١‫ ف‬ḥaitu (conj.) where (place and direction);
wherever; since, as, due to the fact that;
whereas; inasmuch as │ْ‫ووظاث‬١‫( ف‬anna)
since, as, because, due to the fact that ... ;
in that ... ; ْ‫وظاووج‬١‫ ف‬wherever it be; in any
case, at any rate; ‫وظ‬١‫اف‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬ilā ḥaitu where
(direction); to where …, to the place
where ...; ‫وظ‬١‫ ِوٓاف‬min ḥaitu from where,
whence, wherefrom; where (place);
whereas; (with foll. nominative) as to, as
for, concerning, regarding, with respect to,
in view of, because of; ‫وظاثٌغمجـوز‬١‫ ِٓاف‬min ḥ.
taqāfatu with regard to education, as far as
education is concerned; ‫ا‬٨ٚ‫ا‬ًٞ‫ووو‬٠‫ووظا‬١‫ِووٓاف‬
ًٞ‫ووو‬٠ (yadrī wa-lā yadrī) whether he
knows it or not, knowingly or without his
knowledge; ٨‫ووظا‬١‫( ِووٓاف‬with foll. perf.)
without (being, doing, etc.); ٛ‫ووظا٘وو‬١‫ِووٓاف‬
such, in itself, ٛ‫وظا٘و‬١‫‘( ثٌعوجٌُاِوٓاف‬ālam) the
world in itself, the world as such; ‫وظا‬١‫ِوٓاف‬
ْ‫( ث‬anna) inasmuch as; in view of the fact
that; since, as, due to the fact that; ‫وظ‬١‫ دق‬biḥaitu inasmuch as; in such a manner that
..., so as to ...; so that ...; such as ...; (he
found himself) at a point or degree where,
e.g., ٌٜ‫اصو‬٨‫وظا‬١‫( وجْآِاثٌذوٌث رادق‬barā’a, tarā)
= she was so naive that she couldn't see ...;
٨‫وظا‬١‫ دق‬insofar as ... not, provided that …
not; ْ‫وظاث‬١‫( دق‬anna) in such a manner that
..., so as to ..., so that ...
‫غّووج‬١‫ ف‬ḥatumā wherever, wheresoever
(place); wherever, no matter where ...
(direction) │‫غّوجاثصفوك‬١‫( ف‬ittafaqa) anywhere,
wherever it was (or he), haphazardly, at
random
‫ووز‬١‫غ‬١‫ ف‬ḥaitīya pl. -āt standpoint; view,
point, point of view, approach; aspect,
respect, regard, consideration; high social
standing, social distinction, dignity; pl.
also: considerations, legal reasons on
which the judgment is based, opinion
(jur.) │‫زايثٌذوجًٍرة‬١‫غ‬١‫اثٌق‬ٚٚ‫( ى‬dawū) or ‫وقجحا‬ٙ‫ث‬
‫ووز‬١‫غ‬١‫ثٌق‬, ‫ووجس‬١‫غ‬١‫ووقجحاثٌق‬ٙ‫ ث‬people of (high)
social standing, prominent people, people
of
distinction;
‫ووووووز‬١ٔ‫ث‬ٛ١‫ووووووزاثٌق‬١‫غ‬١‫ِووووووٓاثٌق‬
(ḥayawānīya) from a zoological viewpoint
2
ْٛ١‫غ‬١‫ ثٌق‬al-hātīyūn the Hittites
(‫ووو‬١‫ فووجه )ف‬ḥāda i (ḥaid, ‫ه‬ٛ‫وو‬١‫ ف‬ḥuyūd, ْ‫وووث‬١‫ف‬
ḥayadān, ‫وو‬١‫ ِق‬maḥīd) to deviate, swerve,
depart, desist (If from); to leave, quit, give
up, abandon, relinquish (ٓ‫ ع‬s.th.); ٓ‫فجهادٗاع‬
to dissuade or get s.o. away from ... ; to
incline, tend (ٝ‫ثٌو‬, ٛ‫ ٔقو‬to, toward), sbade,
blend (ٝ‫ثٌو‬, ٛ‫ ٔقو‬into) II to keep aside, put
aside ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III to stay away, keep apart
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ from s.o., from s.th.); to avoid, shun
( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) VII to depart, deviate,
digress, swerve (ٓ‫ ع‬from)
‫ووو‬١‫ ف‬ḥaid, ْ‫وووث‬١‫ ف‬ḥayadān deviation,
digression, departure, swerving, turning
aside, turning away
‫ووووور‬١‫ ف‬ḥaida deviation, digression,
swerving, departure (from a course);
neutrality; impartiality │‫ووور‬١‫اف‬ٝ‫ عٍوو‬aside,
apart, to one side
‫وو‬١‫ ِق‬maḥīd avoidance (ٓ‫ عو‬of s.th.) │‫ا‬٨
‫و‬١‫( ِق‬maḥīda) it is unavoidable
‫وو‬٠‫ فج‬ḥiyād neutrality (pol.) │‫وجه‬١‫اثٌق‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
neutral; ٠‫وووجهاعوووٓاثٌنووو‬١‫( ف‬kaṭṭ) derailment
(railroad) 221
ٞ‫جه‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyādī neutral (pol.)
‫ور‬٠‫ ِقج‬muḥāyada neutrality (pol.)
‫ فجةو‬ḥā’id neutral (pol.)
‫ووو‬٠‫ ِقج‬muḥāyid neutral (pol.); ْٚ‫ووو‬٠‫ثٌّقج‬
the neutrals (pol.)
‫و‬٠‫ ِضقج‬mutaḥāyid neutral (pol.)
‫وًثدجه‬١‫ ف‬ḥaidarābād2 Hydarabad
‫وٌة‬١‫ فوجًايف‬ḥāra (1st pers. perf. ‫ )فوٌس‬a (‫وٌر‬١‫ف‬
ḥaira, ْ‫ٌث‬١‫ ف‬ḥayarān) to become confused;
to become or be helpless, be at a loss,
know nothing (ٟ‫ ـوو‬of, about); to waver,
hesitate, be unable to choose (ٓ١‫دو‬ٚ‫ا‬--‫ٓا‬١‫دو‬
between - and) │ٌٖ‫اثِو‬ٟ‫( فوجًاـو‬amrihi) to be
confused. baffled, bewildered, dismayed
to be at a loss, be at one‘s wit‘s end II to
confuse, baffle, bewilder, nonplus,
embarrass (ٖ s.o.) V to become confused;
to be or become dismayed, startled,
baffled, perplexed (ٟ‫ ـو‬by), be at a loss (ٟ‫ـو‬
to); to waver (uncertainly) (ٓ١‫ دو‬between)
│ٌٖ‫اثِوو‬ٟ‫ووٌاـوو‬١‫( صق‬amrihi) to be confused,
baffled, bewildered, disconcerted, be at a
loss, be at one‘s wit‘s end VIII = V
٘١‫ ِقوو‬maḥīṣ flight, escape; place of
refuge, retreat, sanctuary │٘١‫ ِوجاعٕوٗاِقو‬it
is unavoidable; ٘١‫ووُاِووٓاِقوو‬ٌٙ‫ىووٓا‬٠‫ ٌووُا‬they
couldn‘t but ..., they had no other
alternative but to ...
(ٜ١‫ووش )فوو‬ٝ‫ فج‬ḥāḍat i (ḥaiḍ, ٜ١‫ ِقوو‬maḥīḍ,
ٛ‫ ِقوج‬maḥāḍ) and V to menstruate, have a
monthly period
ٌ‫وو‬١‫ ف‬ḥair fenced-in garden, enclosure
│ْ‫ث‬ٛ‫ووو‬١‫وووٌاثٌق‬١‫ ف‬ḥ. al-ḥayawān zoological
garden, zoo
‫ووووٌر‬١‫ ف‬ḥaira confusion, perplexity,
bewilderment,
embarrassment,
helplessness ‫ٌر‬١‫اف‬ٟ‫ ـ‬embarrassed, at a loss,
helpless
ٜ١‫ ف‬ḥaiḍ (n. un. ‫ز‬ٞ١‫ )ف‬and ٛ‫ج‬١‫ ف‬ḥiyāḍ
menstruation, monthly period
ٜ‫ فجة‬ḥā’iḍ (f.) and ‫ز‬ٞ‫ فجة‬menstruating
‫ ز‬١‫ف‬, ‫ز‬ٟ‫ج‬١‫ف‬, ْ‫ ج‬١‫ف‬, ٟ‫ج‬١‫ اف‬see ٟٛ‫اف‬
1
ْ‫وٌث‬١‫ ف‬ḥairān2, f. ٌٜ‫و‬١‫ ف‬ḥairā, pl. ًٜ‫وج‬١‫ف‬
ḥayārā, ḥuyārā confused, perplexed,
startled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled,
Nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken
aback, stunned; embarrassed, at a loss, at
one‘s wit‘s end; uncertain, helpless,
sheepish
(smile,
etc.),
confused,
incoherent (words, and the like)
ٌ‫وو‬١‫ صق‬taḥayyur confusion, perplexity,
bewilderment, dismay; embarrassment,
helplessness
ٌ‫ فوووجة‬ḥā’ir disconcerted, perplexed,
startled. dismayed; embarrassed, helpless,
at a lost, at one‘s wit‘s end; baffled,
bewildered, confused, uncertain (ٟ‫ـوووو‬
about); straying, astray │ٌٖ‫اثِووو‬ٟ‫فوووجةٌاـووو‬
(amrihī) confused, baffled, bewildered,
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
ٌ‫و‬١‫ ِق‬muḥayyar embarrassed, at a loss,
helpless
ٌ١‫ ِق‬muḥayyir and ً‫ ِقضج‬muḥtār = ٌ‫فجة‬
َ١‫ ف‬see ‫ٍا‬ٛ‫اف‬
‫وؿة‬١‫ فوجؾايف‬ḥāfa i (ḥaif) to deal unjustly (ٝ‫عٍو‬
with s.o.), wrong, injure, harm (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.o.);
to restrict, limit, curtail, impair (ٝ‫ عٍو‬s.th.),
encroach (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬upon) V to 222 impair,
injure, prejudice, violate ( ‫ ٘و‬or ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.),
encroach, infringe ( ٘ or ِٓ upon)
‫وووؿ‬١‫ ف‬ḥaif wrong, injustice; harm,
damage, prejudice │ٗ‫و‬١ٍ‫وؿاع‬١‫اف‬what a pity!
too bad! ٗ‫وؿادو‬١‫اف‬٨ (ḥaifa) it is not out of
place, it is quite appropriate
2
‫فج‬١‫ اف‬ḥaifā’ Haifa (seaport in NW Israel)
‫وكة‬١‫ فوجقايف‬ḥāqa i to surround, beset from all
sides (‫ ح‬s.o.); to fall, descend, come (‫ح‬
upon s.o., punishment), befall, overtake,
grip, seize, overcome (‫ ح‬s.o.), happen,
occur (‫ ح‬to); to penetrate, pierce (ٟ‫ ـو‬the
body; of a sword); to affect, influence (ٟ‫ـو‬
s.o., s.th.) IV to surround, beset from all
sides (‫ ح‬s.o.); to bring down ( ‫ ح ٘و‬upon
s.o. s.th.), cause s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬to descend ( ‫ح ٘و‬
upon s.o.)
‫وووك‬١‫ ف‬ḥaiq consequence, effect (of a
misdeed redounding upon the evildoer)
‫ه‬١‫ ف‬II to weave
ْٛ‫َد‬١‫ ف‬see ‫افَحا‬
‫جوز‬١‫ ف‬see ‫ن‬ٛ‫ف‬
‫٘ة‬١‫ فوجٗايفو‬ḥāṣa i (ḥaiṣ, ‫وز‬ٚ١‫ ف‬ḥaiṣa, ٘١‫ِقو‬
maḥīṣ) to flee, escape (ٓ‫ عو‬s.th. or from
s.th.), run away (ٓ‫ عو‬from), turn one‘s back
(ٓ‫ ع‬on) VII do.
‫ه‬١‫ ف‬ḥaik = ‫ فجةه‬see ‫ن‬ٛ‫ف‬
٘١‫ ف‬ḥaiṣ, ‫ز‬ٚ١‫ ف‬ḥaiṣa flight, escape
٘١‫٘ادو‬١‫افو‬ٟ‫لوااـو‬ٚ waqa‘a fī ḥaiṣa baiṣa
to get into a bad fix, meet with difficulties
‫ز‬ٙ‫ج‬١‫ ف‬see ٗٛ‫ف‬
1
ً‫و‬١‫ اف‬V, ‫ٍوز‬١‫ف‬, ً‫و‬١‫ثف‬, ‫وجي‬١‫ف‬, ‫ٌوز‬ٍٛ١‫ف‬, etc., see ‫ي‬ٛ‫;فو‬
ٍٟ١‫ ثف‬see ٍٛ‫ف‬
2
ً٠‫افج‬ḥāyil2 Hail (town and oasis in N Nejd)
‫ٓة‬١‫ فجْايفو‬ḥāna i to draw near, approach, come,
arrive (time); to happen accidentally │‫فوجْا‬
‫لوش‬ٌٛ‫ ث‬the (right) time has come; now is the
time; ‫لوش‬ٌٛ‫ فوجْاٌوٗاث‬the time has come for
him to …; ‫ث‬ٛ‫ّوو‬ٙ‫ف‬٠‫ووُاثْا‬ٌٙ‫( ثِووجافووجْا‬amā, an
yafhamū) haven‘t they understood yet ...?;
‫اثٌضفجصوز‬ِٟٕ‫( فجٔشا‬minnī iltifāta) I happened to
turn around (ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to), it just happened that
my eyes fell on (ٝ‫ )ثٌو‬II to set a time (ٖ for
s.o.) IV to destroy, wipe out (ٖ s.o.) V to
watch, wait ( ‫ ٘ووو‬fur a time or an
opportunity) │‫وز‬ٌٙ‫ٓاثٌف‬١‫( صقو‬furṣata) to wait
for an opportunity, bide one's time X
ٓ١‫ ثّضق‬istaḥyana to wait for the right time
ْ‫ فج‬ḥān bar; cabaret
‫ فجٔوز‬ḥāna pl. -āt bar, wineshop, wine
tavern; pub, tavern, taproom
ٓ١‫ ف‬ḥain death, destruction
ٓ١‫ فو‬ḥīn pl. ْ‫وج‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyān, ٓ١٠‫ ثفوج‬aḥāyīn2
time; propitious time, good time,
opportunity; ḥīna (prep.) at the time of ...,
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when;
as soon as; ‫ٕوج‬١‫ ف‬ḥīnan for some time; once,
one day; ‫جٔوج‬١‫ ثف‬aḥyānan occasionally, from
time to time, sometimes │‫ٕوووج‬١‫اف‬--‫ٕوووجا‬١‫ف‬
sometimes -- sometimes, at times -- at
times; ٓ١٠‫فوج‬٨‫اث‬ٟ‫ ـ‬at times, sometimes, once
in a while; ‫ٓة‬١٠‫فوج‬٤‫وجْايث‬١‫ف‬٤‫اث‬ٜ‫ادعو‬ٟ‫ ـو‬fī ba‘ḍi
l-a. and ْ‫وج‬١‫ف‬٤‫اث‬ٜ‫ دعو‬ba‘ḍa l-a. sometimes,
occasionally, now and then, once in a
while, from time to time, at times; ‫اثؼٍوخا‬ٟ‫ـ‬
ْ‫وج‬١‫ف‬٤‫ ث‬fī aglabi l-a. mostly, most of the
time, in most cases; ٓ١‫افو‬ٝ‫ ثٌو‬for some time;
meanwhile, for the time being; ٗ‫ٕوو‬١‫اف‬ٟ‫ـوو‬
then, at the time, in his (its) time; in due
time, at the appointed time; ٓ١‫ ىثاثٌقو‬dā lḥīna just now, right now; ٓ١‫ ِٓاىٌوهاثٌقو‬from
that time on, from then on; ٓ١‫اىٌوهاثٌقو‬ٝ‫ثٌو‬
until that time, till then; ٓ١‫افو‬ٟ‫( ـو‬with foll.
verb) whereas; ْ‫ٓاث‬١‫افوو‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬and ْ‫ٓاث‬١‫اف و‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
(ḥīni) at the same time when ..., while;
whereas, also without ْ‫ث‬, e.g., ‫ٓا٘وُا‬١‫افو‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ْٛ‫َعّو‬٠ ‘alā ḥīni hum yaz‘umūna whereas
they, on the other hand, claim; ‫ا‬ٝ‫ٓاثٌو‬١‫ِوٓافو‬
ٓ١‫ف‬, ٓ١‫ف‬ٚ‫ٓا‬١‫ٓاف‬١‫د‬, ٓ١‫ٕجادعواف‬١‫ف‬, ٌ‫م‬٢‫ٓا‬١‫( ِٓاف‬liākara) and ٌ‫مو‬٢ٚ‫ٓا‬١‫ٓافو‬١‫( دو‬wa-ākara) from
time to time, now and then, once in a
while
‫ٕتوي‬١‫ ف‬ḥīna’idin at that time, then, that
day
‫ٕويثن‬١‫ ف‬ḥīnadāka at that time, then, that
day
‫ّٕج‬١‫ ف‬ḥīnamā (conj.) while; when, as
ْ‫ث‬ٛ١‫ف‬, ٞٛ١‫ ف‬and ‫زا‬٠ٛ١‫ ف‬see ٟ‫ ف‬223
‫خ‬
‫ مج‬ḳā’ name of the letter ‫ك‬
ْٛ‫ موجص‬ḳātūn pl. ٓ١‫ثص‬ٛ‫ مو‬ḳawātīn2 lady, socially
prominent woman│ْٛ‫ ٍ٘وٌراثٌنوجص‬zahrat alḳ. little blue flower of the steppe (syr.)
َ‫ مجمج‬ḳāḳām (=َ‫ )فجمج‬rabbi
ٓ١ًٙ‫ مج‬ḳāriṣīn and ٕٝ١ًٙ‫ مج‬ḳāriṣīnī (eg.) zinc
‫ق‬ٍٚ‫ موج‬ḳāzūq pl. ‫وك‬٠ٍ‫ث‬ٛ‫ م‬ḳawāzīq2 post, stake,
pole; dirty trick│‫ق‬ٍٚ‫ ا٘وويثامووج‬that‘s tough
luck!
ْ‫ مجلوج‬ḳāqān pl. ٓ١‫ثل‬ٛ‫ مو‬ḳawāqīn2 overlord, ruler,
sovereign, monarch, emperor
ٝ‫ مجو‬ḳākī earth-colored, khaki
‫ي‬ٚ‫مؤ‬, ‫ٌز‬ٚ‫ مؤ‬see ‫ي‬ٛ‫م‬
َ‫مووووج‬
ḳām raw, unworked, unprocessed;
untanned; linen; calico; (pl. -āt) raw
material; inexperienced, green, untrained,
unskilled, artless, uncouth, boorish; pl.
‫ مجِوجس‬raw materials│َ‫هاموج‬ٛ‫ ؽٍو‬raw leather;
َ‫اموج‬ٟٛ‫و‬١‫ م‬raw fibers; َ‫وشاموج‬٠ٍ (zait) crude
oil; َ‫( ّوىٌاموج‬sukkar) raw sugar; َ‫ثهاثٌنوج‬ٛ‫ثٌّو‬
(mawādd) the raw materials
ْ‫ موج‬ḳān pl. -āt hostel, caravansary; inn, pub,
tavern│ٝ‫ٍو‬١ٍ‫( ثٌنجْاثٌن‬ḳalīlī) district of Cairo
(center of art trade and market activity);
ِٔٛ‫وو‬٠‫ مووجْا‬Khan Yunis (town in Gaza
sector)
‫ مجٔوووز‬pl. -at column (e.g., of a
newspaper); square (e.g., on a chessboard)
‫ موخ‬ḳabba u (ḳabb, ‫ مذوخ‬ḳabab, ‫وخ‬١‫ مذ‬ḳabīb) to
amble (animal); to trot (horse); to jog,
saunter (person), to sink (ٝ‫ ـو‬in sand); -- u
(ḳabb) to surge, heave, be rough (sea) V
and VIII to amble (animal); to trot (horse)
‫ مذخ‬ḳabab amble; trot
‫ موخ‬ḳabb, ḳibb heaving, surging (of the
sea,‫ا‬rough sea
‫ مخ‬ḳabb impostor. swindler
‫ مخ‬ḳaba’a a and II to bide, conceal ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th) V
to hide, conceal o.s.; to be hidden, be
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to
disappear; to be hidden, be concealed
‫ مخ ا‬ḳib’ that which is hidden, a hidden thing
‫تووز‬١‫ مذ‬ḳabī’a pl. ‫ووج‬٠‫ مذج‬ḳabāyā that which is
hidden; a hidden, secret thing; a cache│
ًٛ٨‫وجاث‬٠‫ مذج‬ḳ. l-arḍ that which is hidden in
the earth; natural resources
‫ ِنذوب‬maḳba‘ pl. ‫ ِنوجدب‬maḳābi‘2 hiding place;
hide-out, refuge, haunt, retreat; cellar,
shelter, air-raid shelter
‫ مذوج‬ḳibā’ pl. ‫ ثمذتوز‬aḳbi’a, ‫وز‬١‫ ثمذ‬aḳbiya tent;
husk, hull (of grain)
‫ مجدتز‬ḳābi’a, ‫ز‬١‫ مجد‬ḳāiya pl. ‫ثدب‬ٛ‫ م‬ḳawābī‘2, ‫ثح‬ٛ‫مو‬
ḳawābin large vessel, cask, jar
‫ ِنذووو س‬muḳabba’āt hidden, secret things;
secrets
‫ ِنضذب‬muḳtabi’ hidden, concealed
‫ مذش‬IV to be humble (ٌٝ‫ ث‬before God‫ي‬
‫ مذوظ‬ḳabuta u (ḳubt, ‫ )مذجعوز‬to be bad; to be
wicked,
evil,
malicious,
vicious,
malignant VI to behave viciously, display
malice; to feel awkward, feel embarrassed
‫ امذووووظ‬ḳubt badness, wickedness;
malignancy (e.g., of a disease); malice,
malevolence, viciousness
‫ مذظ‬ḳabat refuse, scum, dross, slag
‫وظ‬١‫ مذ‬ḳabīt pl. ‫ مذوظ‬ḳubut, ‫ مذغوج‬ḳubatā’2,
‫ ثمذوجط‬aḳbāt, ‫ مذغوز‬ḳabata bad, evil, wicked;
malicious, vicious, spiteful; noxious,
injurious, harmful; malignant (disease);
offensive,
repulsive,
nauseating,
disgusting (odor)
‫ ثمذظ‬aḳbat worse; more wicked
‫ مذجعووووز‬ḳabāta badness
malice,
malevolence,
malignancy
wickedness;
viciousness,
ٌ‫ مذو‬ḳabara u (ḳubr, ‫ مذوٌر‬ḳibra) to try, test ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to experience ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to have
tried, have experienced, know by
experience ( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to get to know
thoroughly, know well ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٖ s.o.);
ḳabura u to know thoroughly (‫ ح‬or ‫٘ و‬
s.th.), be fully acquainted (‫ ح‬or ‫ ٘و‬with
s.th.) II to notify, advise, apprise, inform,
tell (ٖ s.o., ‫ ح‬of or about) III to write (ٖ to
s.o.). address (ٖ s.o.), turn, appeal (ٖ to
s.o.), contact (ٖ s.o.) in writing; to
negotiate, treat, parley (ٖ with s.o.) IV to
notify, inform, apprise, advise (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o.
of), let know, tell (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. about); to
communicate, report, relate (‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o.
s.th.), tell (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. s.th.) V to inquire (ٖ of
s.o.), ask (ٖ s.o.) VI to inform one another,
notify one another; keep one another
informed; to correspond, write each other;
to negotiate, treat, parley (‫ ِوا‬with s.o., ٟ‫ـو‬
about) VIII to explore ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), search ( ‫٘و‬
into), seek information ( ‫ ٘و‬about); to test,
examine (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to try, put to the
test (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to have tried, have
experienced, know by experience ( ‫٘ووو‬
s.th.); to know well ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) X to inquire
(ٓ‫ ٖ ع‬of s.o. about), ask (ٓ‫ ٖ ع‬s.o. about)
ٌ‫ مذووو‬ḳabar pl. ً‫ ثمذوووج‬aḳbār news;
information,
intelligence:
report,
communication, message; notification;
rumor; story; matter, affair; (gram.)
predicate of a nominal clause; pl. annals
│ًٖ‫ ّوبٌٗاعوٓاأمذوج‬to inquire of s.o. about s.o.
else; ْ‫امذووٌاوووج‬ٟ‫ وووجْاـوو‬or ْ‫امذووٌاوووج‬ٟ‫همووًاـوو‬
(ḳabari kana) to belong to the past, be
passé, be no longer existent
‫ مذوووٌر‬ḳibra, ٌ‫ مذووو‬ḳubr experience;
knowledge
ٌ‫و‬١‫ مذ‬kabīr experienced, expert (‫ ح‬in);
familiar, conversant, well-acquainted (‫ح‬
with), cognizant (‫ ح‬of); ٌ١‫ ثٌنذ‬the Knowing
(one of the attributes of God); (pl. ‫مذوٌث‬
kubarā’2) expert, specialist │‫ووووٌا‬١‫امذ‬
‫ٌثةخ‬ٌٞ‫ث‬tax expert, tax adviser
ًٛ‫ مجد‬kābūr pl. ٌ١‫ثد‬ٛ‫ م‬kawābīr2 peg; pin;
wedge
ٌ‫ِنذوووووو‬
makbar
significance; (pl:
laboratory
sense,
intrinsic
ٌ‫ ِنوووووجد‬makābir2)
ً‫ ِنذووج‬mikbār pl. ٌ١‫ ِنوجد‬makābīr2 test
tube (chem.)
‫ ِنجدٌر‬mukābara pl. -āt correspondence,
(esp. written) information (in classified
ads: ‫ ثٌّنوجدٌراح‬please write to ..., please
contact
...),
notice,
notification,
communication │‫ووز‬١ٔٛ‫ اِنووجدٌراصٍف‬telephone
call, telephone conversation; ‫وز‬١‫ِنوجدٌرامجًؽ‬
(kārijīya) long-distance call; ‫ز‬٠ٌ‫ِنووجدٌراّوو‬
(sirriya) secret communiqué; ‫اثٌّنوجدٌثس‬ٛ‫لٍو‬
qalam al-m. intelligence bureau; ‫ثٌّنوجدٌرا‬
‫ج‬٠ًٛ‫وو‬ٞ‫( ف‬ḥuḍūrīyan) apply in person (in
classified ads)
ً‫ ثمذووج‬ikbār notification, information,
communication, note, message; report;
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.)
ًٞ‫ ثمذووج‬ikbārī news-, information- (in
compounds)
ٌ‫صنووووووووووجد‬
takābur
correspondence
negotiation;
ً‫ ثمضذوج‬iktibār pl. -āt exploration, study;
examination; test; test item (of an
examination); trial, testing; (scientific)
investigation,
research,
experiment;
experience,
empirical
knowledge;
practical experience │‫ووووز‬٠ٌ٠ٌ‫ثمضذووووجًثساصق‬
(taḥrīrīya) written examination items;
ٟ‫ ثمضذوجًاىثصو‬225 (dātī) personal experience;
ً‫مضذج‬٨‫ًاث‬١‫اّذ‬ٍٝ‫ ع‬experimentally; ً‫مضذوج‬٨‫صقوشاث‬
on probation, on trial; ً‫مضذوووج‬٨‫ياث‬ٛ‫فمووو‬
experimental fields
ًٞ‫ثمضذوووووووج‬
iktibārī
experiential; empirical
experimental;
‫ز‬٠ً‫ ثمضذج‬ihtibārīya empiricism
ً‫ ثّوضنضذج‬istikbàr pl. -āt inquiry │‫اهثةوٌرا‬
‫ّضنضذجًثس‬٨‫ث‬information bureau
ٌ‫ ِنذ‬mukbir pl. -ūn reporter; detective
ٌ‫ ِنضذ‬muktabar pl. -āt laboratory
َ‫ مذ‬kabaza i (kabz) to bake ( ٘ bread) VIII do.
َ‫ مذ‬kubz pl. ٍ‫ ثمذج‬akbāz bread
‫ مذَر‬kubza loaf of bread
ٍ‫ مذج‬kubza pl. -ūn, ‫ مذجٍر‬baker
ٍ‫ مذوووج‬kubbaz, َ‫ووو‬١‫ مذ‬kubbaiz, ٍٜ‫مذوووج‬
kubbazā mallow (bot.)
‫ مذجٍر‬kibāza baker‘s trade, art of baking
َ‫ ِنذو‬makbaz, ‫ ِنذوَر‬pl. َ‫ ِنوجد‬makābiz2
bakery
٘‫ موذ‬kabaṣa i (kabṣ) to mix, mingle, intermix
(‫ ٘وو ح‬s.th. with) II to mix, mingle,
intermix ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to muddle, jumble,
confuse ( ٘ s.th.), make a mess ( ٘ of)
٘١‫ مذووو‬kabīl, ‫وووز‬ٚ١‫ مذ‬medley, mess,
mishmash, hodgepodge; ‫وز‬ٚ‫ مذ‬a jellylike
sweet
ٗ‫ مذووووج‬kabbāṣ one who causes
confusion, who messes things up; an
irresponsible, light-minded person
٠‫ موذ‬kabaṭa i (kabṭ) to beat, strike ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
against s.th.); to knock, rap ( ‫ ٘و‬on, ‫ ثٌذوجح‬on
the door); to stamp (ًٛ٨‫ ث‬the ground; of
animals) │ ‫ث‬ٛ‫اعٖو‬٠‫اموذ‬٠‫نوذ‬٠‫( ا‬kabṭa ‘ašwā’)
he acts haphazardly, he proceeds rashly or
at random V to beat, strike, hit (ٖ s.o.); to
bring down, fell, knock out, throw to the
ground (ٖ s.o.); to bump, hit ( ‫ ٘و‬against),
collide ( ‫ ٘و‬with), stumble ( ‫ ٘و‬over); to be
lost, wander about, stray; to grope about,
fumble about; to struggle, resist; to clatter
over the ground, gallop (horse) VIII to
bump (against); to struggle, resist; to
grope about, fumble about; to be lost,
wander around, stray; to stir, bustle
‫ مذ وز‬kabta blow, stroke; rap, knock;
noise, din, uproar
ٟ‫ مذوج‬kubāṭ insanity, madness, mental
disorder
ً‫ مذ و‬kabala u (kabl) to confound, confuse,
mess up, complicate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to hinder,
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (ٖ s.o.);
to befuddle (ٖ s.o.), confuse s.o.‘s (ٖ) mind,
rob (ٖ s.o.) of his senses make (ٖ s.o.)
crazy; -- kabila a (kabal, ‫ مذوجي‬kabal) to get
confused; to be or become mentally
disturbed, crazy, insane II to confound,
confuse ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٖ s.o.); to complicate,
entangle, mess up, muddle, throw into
disorder ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to rob of his senses,
drive insane (ٖ s.o.) VIII to become
muddled, disordered (mind)
ً‫ مذووو‬kabl, kabal confusion; mental
disorder, insanity
ً‫ مذوووو‬kabil mad, crazy,
feebleminded, dim-witted
insane;
ً‫ ثمذو‬akbal 2 mad, crazy, insane; feebleminded, dim-witted
‫ ثمضذجي‬iktibāl mental disorder
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِنذووو‬makbūl mad, crazy, idiotic,
imbecilic, mentally deranged, insane;
muddlehead, dolt, fool
ً‫ ِنذووووو‬makbal confused. baffled,
perplexed, dismayed; muddled, confused,
mixed up
(ٛ‫ مذوج )مذو‬kabā u (kabw, kubūw) to go out, die
(fire)
‫ج‬٠‫ مذج‬and ‫ مذج‬pl. ‫ز‬١‫ ثمذ‬see ‫مذب‬
‫ز‬١‫ مجد‬pl. ‫ثح‬ٛ‫ م‬see ‫ مذب‬226
ًٞ‫ج‬١‫ مذ‬kibyārī caviar
ٌ‫ مضوو‬katara i (katr) to betray (ٖ s.o.), act
perfidiously, disloyally (ٖ toward s.o.); to
deceive, cheat, dupe (ٖ s.o.)
ٌ‫ مضوووو‬katr disloyalty, breach of
confidence, perfidy, treachery, betrayal,
deception
َ‫ ثمضضووج‬iktitām end, close, conclusion,
termination
‫ مجصّوز‬kātima pl. ُ‫ثص‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawātim2, ُ١‫ثص‬ٛ‫مو‬
kawātīm2
end,
close,
conclusion,
termination; epilogue (of a book); ُ١‫ثص‬ٛ‫مو‬
final stage
ً‫ مضووج‬kattār traitor, disloyal person,
cheat, swindler
ٌ‫ موووجص‬kātir
disloyal
treacherous,
perfidious,
ً‫ مضو‬katala i u (katl, ٩‫ موض‬katalan) to dupe, gull,
cheat, double-cross, deceive (ٖ s.o.) III to
deceive, cheat, dupe (ٖ s.o.); to behave
hypocritically VIII = I
ُ‫ ِنوض‬mukattam ringed, adorned with a
ring or rings (hand)
ُ‫ ِنضوض‬muktatam end, close, conclusion,
termination
1
ً‫ مضو‬katl and ً‫ ِنجصو‬mukātala deception,
trickery,
double-dealing,
duplicity,
duping, gulling
ٓ‫ مض‬katn circumcision
ٓ‫ مووض‬katan pl. ْ‫ ثمضوج‬aktān son-in-law‫ا‬
bridegroom
ً‫ ِنجصوو‬mukātil deceitful, crafty, wily,
foxy
ُ‫ موض‬katama i (katm, َ‫ مضوج‬kitām) to seal, provide
with a seal or signet ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to stamp,
impress with a stamp ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to seal off,
close, make impervious or inaccessible ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.; also ٝ‫ عٍو‬the hearts, said of God); to
put one‘s seal ( ‫ ٘و‬on), conclude, terminate
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to wind up, finish, complete ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to close, heal, cicatrize (wound) V
to put on or wear a ring (‫اصنوضُادجٌوي٘خ│ )ح‬
(dahab) to wear a golden ring VIII to
conclude, finish, terminate, wind up ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.)
ُ‫ مض‬katm sealing; -- (pl. َ‫ ثمضج‬aktām, َٛ‫مضو‬
kutūm) seal, signet, seal imprint; stamp,
stamp imprint; also = ‫( مضّوز‬see below) │‫ا‬
‫وووو‬٠ٌ‫موووضُاثٌذ‬postmark, (postal) cancellation
stamp; ُ‫ ّٕااثٌنض‬šam‘ al-k. sealing wax
‫ مضّوز‬katma pl. katamāt recital of the
entire Koran, esp. on festive occasions
ُ‫ موجص‬kātam, kātam pl. ُ‫ثص‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawātim2
seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring;
seal, signet; stamp │‫ثػ‬َٚ‫ موجصُاثٌوو‬k. zawāj
wedding ring; ٓ١‫و‬١‫ موجصُاثٌٕذ‬k. an-nabīyīn the
Seal (i.e., the last) of the Prophets =
Mohammed
َ‫ مجصوج‬kātām pl. ُ١‫ثص‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawātīm2 seal ring,
signet ring; ring
َ‫ مض وج‬kitām sealing wax; end, close,
conclusion, termination │َ‫اثٌنضوج‬ٟ‫ ـوو‬at the
end, at last, finally, eventually
ِٟ‫ مض وج‬kitāmī final, concluding │‫وٍّووزا‬
‫ز‬١ِ‫( مضج‬kalima) concluding speech
ٓ‫اموض‬katana i (katn) to circumcise (ٖ a boy)
VIII pass
ْ‫ مضج‬kitān, ‫ مضجٔز‬kitāna circumcision
2
ْٛ‫ امجص‬look up alphabetically
ٌ‫ مغو‬katara u and katira a to become solid,
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or
become viscous, syrupy; to clot, coagulate
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate ( ٘
liquid); to curdle ( ٘ milk) V = I
O ‫ مغٌر‬katra thrombosis (med.)
ً‫ مغوج‬kutar dregs (of a liquid); scum of
the earth, riffraff, mob
‫مغووجًر‬
kutāra dregs (of a liquid);
sediment, lees 227
ٌ‫ صنغو‬takattur coagulation │O ‫( صنغوٌاثٌّول‬mukk)
cerebral thrombosis
ٌ‫ موجع‬kātir thickened, inspissated, condensed;
viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, coagulated,
clotted; yoghurt, curd
ٌ‫ ِنغووووو‬mukattar thickened, inspissated,
condensed; viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled,
coagulated, clotted
ً‫ مؾ‬kajila a (kajal) to become embarrassed; to
be ashamed (ٓ‫ ِو‬of s.th. or to face s.o.), be
abashed ( by s.th.), feel embarrassed (ٓ‫ِو‬
about s.th. or in front of s.o.) II and IV to
shame (ٖ s.o.); to embarrass, abash, put to
shame (ٖ s.o.)
ً‫ مؾو‬kajal shame (ٓ‫ ِو‬at); bashfulness
diffidence, timidity, shyness; abashment;
disgrace, shame, ignominy │ً‫وجاٌٍنؾو‬٠ (la-lkajal) O disgrace! the shame of it!
ً‫ مؾوووو‬kajil abashed, embarrassed;
bashful, diffident, shy, timid; overgrown
with luxuriant, profuse vegetation; long
and flowing (garment)
ً‫ مووو‬kadir numb (limb); benumbed,
torpid, dazed
‫ي‬ٛ‫ مؾو‬kajūl abashed, ashamed, shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, timid
ً‫ م وجه‬kādir limp, languid; benumbed,
torpid, dazed; hidden in his den, lurking
(lion)
ْ٩‫ مؾوووو‬kajalān abashed, ashamed,
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, timid;
bewildered with shame, embarrassed
‫ي‬ٛ‫ ِنؾ‬makjūl ashamed, shamefaced
ً‫ ِنؾو‬mukjil arousing shame, shameful;
shocking,
disgraceful,
ignominious
│‫ج اثٌّنؾٍز‬ٞ‫( ثع‬a‘ḍā’) the pudenda
‫ مو‬kadda u to furrow, plow (a the ground) V to
be furrowed; to become wrinkled (akin)
‫ مو‬kadd pl. ‫ه‬ٚ‫ مو‬kudūd cheek; lateral
portion, side │ٖ‫عٌامو‬ٙ ṣa‘‘ra kaddahū to
put on a contemptuous mien
‫ مو‬kadd and ‫ مور‬kudda pl. ‫ موه‬kudad
furrow, ridge, groove, rut
‫ه‬ٚ‫ ثمو‬ukdūd pl. ‫و‬٠‫ ثمجه‬akādīd2 furrow,
ridge, groove, rut; trench, excavation
‫ مو‬mikadda pl. ‫ ِنجه‬makadd2 cushion,
pillow; seat cushion
‫ؼ‬٠‫ مو‬kadīj premature child
‫ موثػ‬kidāj abortion, miscarriage
ً‫موووووووووو‬
takdīr
narcotization
anesthetization,
‫ موجهًر‬kādira chrysalis (of a caterpillar;
zool.)
ً‫ ِنوو‬mukaddir anesthetic, painkilling,
tranquilizing; (pl. -āt) an anesthetic; a
narcotic, drug, dope
ً‫ ِنوووووو‬mukaddar numb, torpid,
insensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk
‫ ِنووًر‬mukaddira girl kept in seclusion
from the outside world 228
ٓ‫ موو‬kadaša i (kadš) to scratch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
maul, lacerate, tear to pieces ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
violate ( ‫ ٘ و‬the rules of decency, s.o.‘s
honor, and the like); to disturb ( ٘ the
peace); to ruin, sully, run down (ٗ‫ّوووّعض‬
sum‘atahū s.o.‘s reputation) II to scratch
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) j to maul, lacerate, tear to pieces
( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.); to violate ( ‫ ٘وو‬the rules of
decency, s.o.‘s honor, etc.); to ruin, sully,
run down (ٗ‫ ّووووّعض‬sum‘atahū s.o.‘s
reputation)
ٓ‫ موو‬kadš pl. ٓٚ‫ موو‬kudūš, ٓ‫ ثمووث‬akdāš
scratch, scratch mark; graze, abrasion
ً‫ مووو‬kadira a (kadar) to be numb, prickle,
tingle (leg, arm); to be or become limp,
benumbed, paralyzed; -- kadara u to
confine to women‘s quarters, keep in
seclusion (‫ ٘وج‬a girl) II to numb, benumb,
stupefy (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬a s.th.); to anesthetize,
narcotize, put to sleep (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.;
med.); to confine to women‘s quarters,
keep in seclusion (la a girl) IV to make
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of
sensation, narcotize (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to be
numbed. be stunned, be stupefied, be
deprived of sensation; to come to rest,
calm down
‫ موو‬kada‘a a to cheat (ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ عو‬out of s.th.);
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (ٖ s.o.);
pass. kudi‘a to be mistaken, be wrong (ٓ‫عو‬
about); to fail to see clearly (ٓ‫ عوو‬with
regard to), get the wrong impression (ٓ‫عو‬
of s.th.) III to cheat, dupe, deceive, take in
(ٖ s.o.); to try to deceive or double-cross (ٖ
s.o.) VII to let o.s. be deceived, be
deceived, deluded, misled (‫ ح‬by); to be
mistaken, be wrong
ً‫ موو‬kidr pl. ًٚ‫ موو‬kudūr, ً‫ ثمووث‬akdār,
ٌ٠‫ ثم وجه‬akādīr2 curtain, drape; women‘s
quarters of a tent; boudoir, private room
(of a lady)
‫ موعوز‬kuda‘a impostor, swindler, cheat,
sharper
ً‫ موو‬kadar and ‫ مووًر‬kudra numbness,
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to sleep);
daze. torpor, stupor
‫ موو‬kud‘a pl. ‫ موو‬kuda‘, -āt deception,
cheating, swindle
‫امووو‬ٜٛ‫ ّوو‬sawwā akda‘ahū to crush
s.o.‘s pride, humble s.o.
‫عز‬٠‫ مو‬kadī‘a pl. ‫ موثةا‬kadā’i‘2 deception,
deceit, betrayal, treachery, perfidy,
trickery, imposture
‫ موووووث‬kaddā‘ impostor, swindler,
sharper, cheat, crook; deceptive, delusive
‫و‬١‫ م‬kaida‘ fata morgana, mirage
‫ا‬٠‫ ثموووجه‬akādi‘2 swindles, underhand
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms,
phantasms, delusions
‫ ِنوو‬mika‘, mukda‘, makda‘ pl. ‫ِنوجه‬
makādi2 small room, chamber, cabinet;
bedchamber
‫ مووث‬kidā‘ deception, deceit, swindle,
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy,
trickery, duplicity
ٟ‫ مووووثع‬kidā‘ī deceitful, fraudulent;
deceptive, delusive, fallacious
‫ ِنوووجه‬mukādi‘ swindler, impostor,
cheat, sharper, crook
‫ موووي‬kadala a to stiffen, become rigid; to
become numb, torpid, limp
َ‫ موو‬kadama i u (َ‫ موو‬kidma) to serve, be at
service, do service; to have a job; to work;
to wait (ٖ on s.o.); to serve (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to render a service (ٖ to s.o., ‫ ٘و‬to s.th.),
stand up (ٖ for s.o.) │ًٛ٤‫ امووَاث‬to till or
cultivate the soil; ‫ووووٌر‬١‫موِووووٗاموووووِجساوغ‬
(kidamātin katīratan) he rendered him
many services; ْ٩‫( موَاًووجحاـو‬rikāba) to be
at s.o.‘s beck and call; ْ٩‫ووجٌـاـوو‬ِٚ‫موووَا‬
(maṣāliḥa) to serve s.o.‘s interests; ‫موووَا‬
ُ‫( ثٌمووث‬quddāsa) to celebrate Mass (Chr.)
II to employ, hire (ٖ s.o.), engage the
services (ٖ of s.o.); to give work (ٖ to s.o.),
provide work (ٖ for) X to employ, hire,
take on (ٖ s.o., ‫ ي‬for s.th.), engage the
services (‫ ٖ ي‬of s.o. for s.th.); to put in
operation, operate ( ٘ e.g., a public utility);
to employ, use ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ‫ ي‬for), make use,
avail o.s. ( ٘ of s.th., ‫ ي‬for a purpose)
َ‫ مو‬kadam servants, attendants
‫ اموِوز‬kidma pl. َ‫ موو‬kidam, -āt a service
(rendered); attendance, service; operation;
office, employment, occupation, job; work
│ ٟ‫اموِوزإو‬ٟ‫اـو‬in the service of s.th.; ‫ا‬ٟ‫ـو‬
ُ‫ موِضى‬at your service; ‫مز‬١‫( موَاٌٍقم‬kidmatan)
in the interest of truth, for the sake of
truth; ‫ز‬٠ٌ‫'( موِوووزاعْوووى‬askarīya) military
service;
‫ووووووز‬٠ً‫ؽذج‬٨‫ثٌنوِووووووزاث‬
(ijbārīya)
conscription, compulsory service; ‫ثٌنوِ وزا‬
‫ز‬٠ٌ‫( ثٌْو‬sirrīya) secret service (pol.); ‫موِوزا‬
ُ‫ ثٌموووث‬k. al-quddās celebration of Mass
(Chr.) 229
َ‫ مووث‬kaddām pl. ‫ ر‬manservant, servant,
attendant; woman servant, female
domestic servant, maid
َ‫ موووووث‬kadāma attendance, service;
employment, occupation, office, job
َ‫ مووث‬kaddāma pl. -āt woman servant,
female domestic servant, maid
ُ٠‫ صنوو‬takdīm work, occupation or duty
of an employment agent (َ‫ ِنوو‬mukaddim
see below) │ُ٠‫ اِىضخاثٌضنوو‬maktab at-t. labor
office, employment bureau
َ‫ ثّضنوث‬istikdām (putting into) operation;
use, utilization; employment, hiring (of an
employee); service, occupation, position,
job
َ‫ مووجه‬kādim pl. َ‫ موووث‬kuddām, ‫موِوووز‬
kudama
domestic
servant,
help;
manservant; woman servant; employee;
attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.)
‫ مجهِوز‬kādima woman servant; female
domestic servant, maid; woman attendant
‫ز‬١ِ‫ مجه‬kādimīya status of a servant
َٚ‫ ِنوو‬makdūm pl. -ūn, ُ٠‫ ِنوجه‬makādīm2
master, employer
‫ِوز‬ٚ‫ ِنو‬makdūma mistress, lady (of the
house), woman employer
‫وز‬١ِٚ‫ ِنو‬makdūmīya status of the master
or employer
َ‫ ِنووو‬mukaddim pl. -ūn employment
agent
َ‫ ِْوضنو‬mustakdim pl. -ūn employer; -mustakdam (colloq. mustakdim) pl. -ūn
employee, official
ْ‫ موو‬III to befriend (ٖ s.o.), make friends (ٖ with
s.o.); to associate socially (ٖ with)
ْ‫ مووو‬kidn pl. ْ‫ ثموووث‬akdān (intimate)
friend, companion, confidant
ٓ٠‫مووووووو‬
kadīn
(intimate)
companion, confidant
ٛ٠‫ مو‬kidīw, ٞٛ٠‫ مو‬kudaiwī khedive
ٞٛ٠‫ مو‬kidīwī khedivial
friend,
‫ ميأ‬X to submit, subject o.s.
‫ ِْووضنيا‬mustakdi’ submissive, servile,
subservient, obedient
ْ‫ مٌثّووج‬kurāsān2 Khurasan (province in NE
Iran)
1
2
‫ؾ‬ًٚ‫ موي‬kūdrūf pl. ‫ؿ‬٠ً‫ مويث‬kadārīf (spinning)
top
ٟ‫ـ‬ًٚ‫ مي‬kudrūfī turbinate, toplike
‫ ميؾ‬kadafa i (kadf) to hurl away ( ٘, ‫ ح‬s.th.)
‫ ِنيـز‬mikdafa sling, slingshot, catapult
‫ موويي‬kadala u (kadl, ْ٨‫ مووي‬kidlān) to leave,
abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the
lurch (ٖ or ٓ‫ عوو‬s.o.); to stay behind; to
disappoint; pass. kudila to fail, suffer a
setback, meet with disappointment III to
leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in
the lurch (ٖ s.o.) VI to let up, flag, grow
slack, languish, wane, decrease, fade,
grow feeble VII to be left in the lurch; to
be helpless; to be defeated; to meet with
disappointment
‫ مٌح‬karb destruction, devastation
‫ مٌح‬kurb hole; eye of a needle; anus
‫ موووٌح‬karib destroyed, demolished,
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated,
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruined,
out of order
‫ مٌدز‬kirba pl. ‫ مٌح‬kirab (site of)
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure
‫ ميي‬kidlān disappointment
‫مٌدووووووز‬
karba,
lawlessness
‫ صنضووووويي‬ta!:d4u.l fatigue, languor,
weakness,
feebleness;
relaxation,
lessening of tension; disagreement,
dissent, disunion
‫ مووٌثح‬karàb ruin, ruination; state of
destruction or dilapidation; desolation; (pl.
‫ ثمٌدز‬akriba) (site of) ruins
‫ مٌثدووز‬karāba pl. -āt, ‫ مٌثة وخ‬karā’ib2
disintegrating structure, ruin, ruins
ٚ‫ مي‬X to submit, subject o.s.
ْ‫ مٌدووووج‬karbān, kirbān destroyed,
wrecked, demolished, devastated, waste;
ruined, broken, out of order
subservience,
‫ ِْووضني‬mustakdin submissive, servile,
subservient, obedient
‫وووخ‬٠ٌ‫ صن‬takrīb pl. -āt
destruction,
wrecking,
sabotage
ٌ‫ مو‬karra i (ٌ‫و‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karīr) to murmur, bubble,
gurgle, purl (of running water); to ripple,
trickle; to snore; -- (karr, ًٌٚ‫ م‬230 kurūr)
to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to the
ground, prostrate o.s. │ًٛ٤‫اث‬ٝ‫اموٌاعٍو‬fall
to the ground; ٗ‫و‬٠‫و‬٠‫ٓا‬١‫( موٌادو‬baina yadaihi)
he prostrated himself before him; ‫موٌاصقوشا‬
ٗ١ِ‫( لو‬taḥta qadmnaihi) he fell at hill feet
‫ مووٌا‬kari’a a ( ٌ‫ موو‬kar’) to evacuate the
bowels, defecate
ٌ‫ موو‬kur’ and ‫ مووٌث‬karā’ excrement,
feces
irreligion,
‫ مٌدز‬kariba (site of) ruins
‫ مووويي‬mutakādil languid, weak, exhausted,
spent, effete
ٌ٠ٌ‫ م‬karīr purl, murmur, ripple (of water)
kurba
‫ مٌدز‬kurba pl. ‫ موٌح‬kurab hole; eye of a
needle; anus
‫ثٔنووووووووويثي‬
inkidāl
forsakenness,
desertedness, abandonment; defeat
‫ثّووووووووضنيث‬
istikdā’
submissiveness, servility
‫ مووٌح‬karaba i (karb) to destroy, wreck,
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); -- kariba a (‫ موٌثح‬karāb) to be or
become destroyed, ruined, waste, go to
ruin, fall apart, disintegrate II to devastate,
lay waste, destroy, wreck, demolish, ruin,
lay in ruins ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV = II; V to be or
become destroyed, ruined, waste, go to
ruin, Call apart, disintegrate
devastation,
demolition;
ٟ‫ذ‬٠ٌ‫‘ عًّاصن‬amal takrībī act of sabotage
‫ مجًح‬kārib annihilator, destroyer
‫ ِنووٌح‬mukarrib pl. -ūn annihilator,
destroyer; saboteur
‫ ِنٌح‬mukrib annihilator, destroyer
2
‫ح‬ٌٚ‫ مو‬karrūb (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬carob, locust;
carob bean, locust pod, St.-John‘s-bread
‫دوز‬ٌٚ‫ م‬karrūba pl. -āt kharouba, a dry measure
(Eg.; = 1/16 ‫ = لوؿ‬.291 l)
ٔ‫ مٌد‬karbaša to scratch; to scrawl, scribble
ٓٛ‫ مٌدو‬karbuš pl. ٔ١‫ موٌثد‬karābīš (syr.)
tent
O ‫ ِنٌدٖجس‬mukarbašāt graffiti
٠‫ مووووٌد‬karbaṭa to throw into
disarrange, confuse ( ٘ s.th.)
disorder,
‫ مٌدوك‬karbaqa to perforate, riddle ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
spoil, mar ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ مٌدك‬karbaq hellebore (bot.)
‫ موٌس‬karata u (kart) to pierce, bore, perforate
( ٘ s.th.), make a hole ( ٘ in)
‫ موٌس‬kurt, kart pl. ‫ ثموٌثس‬akrāt, ‫س‬ٌٚ‫مو‬
kurūt hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye,
eyelet
‫وووش‬٠ٌ‫ ف‬kirrīt experienced, practiced,
skilled; guide
‫ش‬١‫ مٌص‬kartīt rhinoceros
‫ مٌػ‬karaja u (‫ػ‬ٌٚ‫ مو‬kurūj) to go out, walk out;
to come out (ٓ‫ ِو‬of), emerge (ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to
drive or ride out, go out (in a vehicle); to
flow out, exude, effuse; to go away,
depart, leave, retire; to protrude, 231
project, stick out; to leave (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.); to
dismount, alight, disembark (ٓ‫ ِو‬from), get
out, step out (ٓ‫ ِو‬of); to emanate, issue,
arise, originate, result (ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to draw
away, segregate, separate, secede, dissent
(ٓ‫ عو‬from), disagree (ٓ‫ عو‬with); to deviate,
depart (ٓ‫ عو‬from an arrangement, from a
principle); to be an exception (ٓ‫ عو‬to); to
be outside a given subject (ٓ‫)عو‬, go beyond
a topic (ٓ‫)عو‬, exceed (ٓ‫ عو‬a topic); to be
alien (ٓ‫ ع‬to), be extraneous (ٓ‫ عو‬from), not
to belong (ٓ‫ عو‬to), be not included (ٓ‫ عو‬in),
have nothing to do with (ٓ‫نوٌػاعوٓ ;)عو‬٠‫ا‬٨ it
is limited to ..., it is nothing but ... ; to go
forth (into battle); to attack (ٍٝ‫ ع‬s.o., s.th.),
rise, fight (ٝ‫ عٍو‬against); to rebel, revolt
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬against); to violate, break, infringe
(ٝ‫ عٍو‬a rule, a regulation); ‫وٗاح‬١ٍ‫ موٌػاع‬to
come up to s.o. with …, confront s.o. with
... ; to get out, bring out, take out (‫ ح‬s.o.);
to turn out, oust, dislodge (‫ ح‬s.o.); to lead
away, dissuade (ٓ‫ ح عو‬s.o. from); to find
out, discover (‫ ح‬s.th.) │٠‫( موٌػاعوٓاثٌنو‬kaṭṭ)
to be derailed, run off the track (train) II to
move out, take out, dislodge (ٖ s.o., ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to turn out, oust, expel, evict, drive
out (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to remove, eliminate (ٖ
s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to exclude, except ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to train (ٖ s.o., ٟ‫ ـو‬in a skill, and the like);
to educate, bring up (ٖ s.o.); to distill ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to pull out, extract ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
gather, deduce, infer ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to explain,
interpret, expound, elucidate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) IV
to move out, take out, get out, bring out,
dislodge (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to unload ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.), disembark, detrain, etc. (ٖ s.o., e.g.,
troops); to turn out, oust (ٖ s.o.); to emit,
send out ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., electric waves); to
stick out ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., the tongue); to fish out
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th. from the pocket); to bring out into
the open, make public ( ٘ s.th.); to remove,
extract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to eliminate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
expel, evict, exile, expatriate (ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ِوو‬
from a country); to dismiss, fire, remove (ٖ
s.o., ٓ‫ ِوو‬from an office); ٗ‫صوو‬ٌٚ‫ثمٌؽ وٗاِووٓاع‬
(tarwatihī) to rob s.o. of his property,
dispossess, expropriate s.o.; to give off,
sound, emit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., e.g., a tone; said of a
musical instrument); to set forth, state,
express, utter, voice ( ‫ ٘و‬an opinion); to
break (‫قوج‬٠ً rīḥan wind); to educate, bring
up (ٖ s.o.); to train (ٖ s.o.); to stage,
produce ( ‫ ٘و‬a play; theat.); to bring out,
make, shoot (‫وز‬٠‫ث‬ًٚ riwāyatan a film, said
of a director); to except, exclude ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.,
ٓ‫ عو‬from); to pull out, extract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
select ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V to be educated; to be
trained (ٟ‫ ـ‬in a school, college, also ٓ‫ ;ِو‬ٟ‫ـو‬
in a field); to graduate (ٟ‫ ـو‬from a school,
from a college, also ٓ‫ )ِوو‬VI to part
company,
separate;
to
disengage,
disassociate, withdraw from one another;
to cede, assign, transfer, make over (‫عوٓ ي‬
s.th. to s.o.) X to get out, move out,
remove ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to take out,
draw ( ٘ s.th., ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to pull out, extract
( ‫ ٘وو‬s.th., ٓ‫ ِوو‬from); to mine, extract,
recover ( ‫ ٘ و‬mineral resources); to win,
gain, make ( ‫ ٘و‬a product, ٓ‫ ِو‬from); to
copy, excerpt (A s.th., ٓ‫ ِو‬from a book or
document); to derive, draw, deduce, figure
out, compute (ِٓ ٘ s.th. from); to elicit ( ‫٘و‬
s.th., e.g., astonishment, ٓ‫ ِو‬from s.o.); to
find out, discover ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ موووووٌػ‬karj expenditure, outlay,
expense(s), costs; land tax; s.th.
appropriate or suitable, that which is s.o.‘s
due, which s.o. deserves, which s.o. needs;
(eg.) ration (food); (pl. ‫ؽوجس‬ٌٚ‫ م‬kurūjāat)
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pl. lace;
trimmings │‫ ٘وويثامٌثؽ وه‬that‘s what you
need, what you deserve; ‫ موٌػاثٌّٖوٕمز‬k. almašnaqa one who deserves to be hanged
pictures, theater); ...‫ ِوٓاثموٌثػا‬directed by ‫ا‬
(motion picture)
‫ مووٌػ‬kurj pl. ‫ مٌؽ وز‬kiraja saddlebag,
portmanteau 232
‫ صنوووٌػ‬takarruj graduation (from a
school or college)
‫ مٌؽوز‬karja pl. karajāt exit, departure;
protrusion,
protuberance,
projection,
salient part; (eg.) funeral
‫ صنجًػ‬takāruj separation, disassociation,
disengagement, (mutual) withdrawal
‫ ثّوضنٌثػ‬istikrāj taking out, moving out,
pulling out, removal; withdrawing;
extraction, derivation, gaining (of
industrial products, etc.), mining, recovery
(of mineral resources); preparation of an
extract; excerpting, copying; deduction,
inference; solution (of a problem)
‫ مووٌثػ‬karāj tax; kharaj, land tax (Isl.
Law)
ٟ‫ مٌثؽو‬karājī of or pertaining to land
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and
cultivable area
‫ موٌػ‬kurāj (coll.; n. un. ‫ر‬, pl. -āt) skin
eruption; tumor, abscess
‫ مووجًػ‬kārij outer, outside, outward,
exterior; external, foreign j outside,
exterior (n.); foreign country or countries;
quotient (arith.); karija (prep.) outside,
out of ‫ مجًؽوج‬kārijan outside │ٓ‫مجًؽوجاعوو‬
outside of, apart from; ‫اثٌنوجًػ‬ٟ‫ ـو‬abroad, in
foreign countries; outside; ‫اثٌنوووجًػ‬ٝ‫ثٌووو‬
abroad, to foreign countries; to the
outside, outward, out
‫ػ‬ٌٚ‫ مو‬kurūj exit; egression, emergence;
departure; exodus; emigration; raid,
foray, sortie (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬against), attack,
assault (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬on) │٠‫ػاعووٓاثٌنوو‬ٌٚ‫( اموو‬kaṭṭ)
derailment (of a train)
‫ؼ‬٠ٌ‫ م‬kirrīj pl. -ūn graduate (of a school,
college, or university) │‫ٓا‬١‫ؾ‬٠ٌ‫ِووؤصٌّاثٌنوو‬
‫ ثٌعوٌح‬mu’tamar al-k. al-‘arab Congress of
Arab
Graduates
(a
supra-national
organization of university graduates
advocating a unified Arab world)
‫ ثٌنجًؽ وز‬El Khārga (town in central
Egypt, in Khārga oasis)
ٟ‫ موووووجًؽ‬kārijī outer, out- (in
compounds), outside, outward, exterior,
external; foreign; nonresident │‫ز‬١‫جهرامجًؽ‬١‫ع‬
(‗iyāda) policlinic; ‫وز‬١‫ٍثًرامجًؽ‬ٚ ministry of
foreign (external) affairs, foreign ministry;
ٟ‫ياموجًؽ‬١ٍّ‫( ص‬tilmīd) a student not living at a
boarding school, a day student
‫ ِنوٌػ‬makraj pl. ‫ ِنوجًػ‬makārij2 (place
of) exit; way out (of a difficult situation),
outlet, escape, loophole, shift, dodge,
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O
cathode (el.) │‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ عٍُاِنجًػاثٌق‬phonetics
‫ؼ‬٠ٌ‫ صنووو‬takrīj education, training (in
schools, colleges); raising, upbringing,
rearing
(of
children);
extraction;
derivation, deduction; interpretation,
exegesis
‫ثًػ‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawārij2 the Khawarij, Kharijites
(the oldest religious sect of Islam);
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels
‫ ثمووٌثػ‬ikrāj taking out, moving out,
removal; unloading, disembarkment,
detrainment; emission; moving, carting
away,
hauling
off;
evacuation;
publication, publicizing, bringing before
the
public;
extraction,
removal;
elimination; dismissal, removal (from an
office); ousting, expulsion, eviction,
expatriation, banishment (from a country);
excretion (biol.); finding out, discovery,
figuring
out;
training,
formation,
education; direction, production, staging
(motion pictures, theater) │‫مووٌثػ‬٨‫اث‬ٌٝٛ‫صوو‬
(tawallā) to have the, direction (motion
‫ ِنوٌػ‬mukraj excerpt, extract (from a
book); ‫ ِنٌؽجس‬excretions (biol.) 233
‫ ِنوٌػ‬mukrij pl. -ūn (screen or stage)
director
‫ ِضنٌػ‬mutakarrij pl. -ūn graduate (ٟ‫ ـو‬or
ِٓ of a school or college)
‫ ِْوووضنٌػ‬mustakraj pl. -āt extract;
excerpt (ِٓ from), partial copy (ِٓ of)
ٌ‫ مٌم‬karkara to snore
1
‫ موٌه‬karida a to be a virgin, be untouched,
innocent, chaste
‫ وور‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karida pl. ‫ مٌثةووو‬karā’id2, ‫مووٌه‬
kurud virgin; unbored pearl
2
‫ موٌهر‬kurda scrap metal, scrap iron; pl. ‫ثس‬ٚ‫موٌه‬
kardawāt notions, smallwares; small
goods, smalls, miscellaneous small
articles; (eg. also) novelties, fancy goods
for ladies
ٟ‫ مٌهؽوووو‬kurdajī
smallwares
dealer
in
miscellaneous
‫ مٌهق‬kurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot
‫ موٌهي‬kardal (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬mustard seeds;
mustard
ٌٍ‫ م‬karaza I u to pierce, bore ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌٍ‫ م‬karaz (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pearls
ٌٍ‫ ِنوو‬mikraz pl. ًٍ‫ ِنوج‬makāriz2 awl;
punch
ٍ‫ ِنٌث‬mikrāz awl; punch
1
ٌُ‫ امو‬karisa a (karas) to be dumb mute; to
become silent, keep silent, hold one‘s
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence,
gag (ٖ s.o.)
ٌُ‫ م‬karas dumbness, muteness
ٌُ‫ ثمو‬akras2, f. ‫ مٌّوج‬karsā’2 pl. ٌُ‫مو‬
kurs, ْ‫ مٌّج‬kursān dumb, mute
2
ْ‫ مٌّج‬karsān dumb, mute
2
ْ‫ امٌّ وج‬karasān, ‫ مٌّ وجٔز‬karasāna concrete
(béton) │O ‫( مٌّوووجٔزاِْوووٍقز‬musallaḥa)
armored (or reinforced) concrete
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ مٌٕوو‬kuršūf (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ‫ؿ‬١‫مٌثٕوو‬
karāšīf artichoke
ٌٗ‫ مو‬karaṣa u (karṣ) to guess estimate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to conjecture, surmise ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.),
form conjectures ( ‫ ٘ و‬about); to tell an
untruth, a falsehood, to lie V to fabricate
lies (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬against s.o.); to raise false
accusations (ٍٝ‫ ع‬against s.o.)
ٌٗ‫ موو‬kirṣ, kurṣ, pl. ْ‫ وج‬ٌٙ‫ م‬kirṣān,
kurṣān earring
ٗ‫ موٌث‬karrāṣ pl. -ūn Ii&!', slanderer,
calumniator
ٌٟ‫ موو‬karaṭa u i (karṭ) to pull off, strip ( ‫٘و‬
leaves from a tree); to turn, lathe, shape
with a lathe ( ‫ ٘ووو‬wood, metal); to
exaggerate, boast, brag, lie; -- u (eg.) to
cut into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice
( ‫ ٘و‬meat, carrots, etc.) II (eg.) to cut into
small pieces, mince, chop ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VII to
be turned. be lathed. be shaped with a
lathe; to join, enter (ٟ‫ـو‬, ‫اّوٍه‬ٟ‫ ـو‬fī silk an
organization, a community), affiliate (ٟ‫ـو‬,
‫اّوووووٍه‬ٟ‫ ـووووو‬with an organization, a
community); to penetrate (ٟ‫ ـو‬s.th. or into);
to plunge headlong (ٟ‫ ـوو‬into), embark
rashly (ٟ‫ ـوو‬upon); to labor, slave, toil
│ ‫اثٌذىج‬ٟ‫اـ‬ٌٟ‫( ثٔن‬bukā’) to break into tears
ٌٟ‫ م‬karṭ pulling-off (of leaves); ‫ْاىٌها‬ٚ‫ه‬
‫اثٌمضجه‬ٌٟ‫ م‬see ْٚ‫ ه‬turning, turnery
ٟ‫ مووٌث‬karrāṭ pl. -ūn turner, lather;
braggart, bluffer, storyteller
‫وز‬ٟ‫ مٌث‬kirāṭa turner‘s trade, turnery, art
of turning
‫ز‬ٟ‫ مٌث‬karrāta skirt (syr.)
‫ ز‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karīṭa pl. ٠‫ مٌثة‬karā’iṭ, ٌٟ‫ م‬kuruṭ
map, chart
‫وووز‬ٌٟ‫ ِن‬mikraṭa, makraṭa pl. ًٟ‫ِنوووج‬
makāriṭ2 lathe
‫ز‬ًٟ‫ مج‬kāriṭa pl. -āt map, chart
ٌٟٚ‫ ِن‬makrūṭ cone (math.); conic 234
ٌٟٟٚ‫ ِن‬makrūṭī conic
ٓٛ‫و‬ٌٟ‫ م‬karṭūš, ‫ٕوز‬ٌٟٛ‫ م‬karṭūša pl. ٔ١ٟ‫موٌث‬
karāṭīš 2 cartridge; lead (of a pencil);
cartouche (arch.); daybook
‫جي‬ٌٟ‫ م‬karṭāl oats
َٛ‫و‬ٌٟ‫ م‬karṭūm pl. ُ١ٟ‫ موٌث‬karāṭīm2 proboscis,
trunk (of the elephant); hose
َٛ‫و‬ٌٟ‫ ثٌن‬al-karṭūm Khartoum (capital of
the Sudanese Republic)
ٓ١ٟ‫ مٌث‬karāṭīn2 a kind of earthworm
ٟٕ١ٟ‫ مٌث‬karāṭīnī wormlike, vermiform
٠١ٌٟ‫ م‬karṭīṭ rhinoceros
ٌ‫ مو‬karu‘a u (kur‗, ‫ مٌثعوز‬kurā‘a) and kari‘a a
(kara‘) to droop, be or become slack,
limp, flabby; to be or become languid,
soft, spineless, yielding VII do. VIII to
invent, devise, contrive ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to create.
originate ( ٘ s.th.)
ٌ‫ مو‬kari‘ and ‫وا‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karī‘ soft, languid,
yielding, spineless, devoid of energy,
nerveless
ٌٚ‫ موو‬kirwa‘ castor-oil plant, palma
Christi (Ricinus communis; bot.)
‫ ثمضٌث‬iktirā‘ pl. -āt invention
ٌ‫ ِنض‬muktari‘ pl. -ūn inventor
ٌ‫ ِنض‬muktara‘ pl. -at invention
‫ موٌؾ‬karifa a (karaf) to dote, be senile and
feeble-minded; to drivel, talk foolishly
‫ موٌؾ‬karaf feeble-mindedness, dotage,
senility; childishness (of an old man)
‫ مووٌؾ‬karif and ْ‫ مٌـ وج‬karfān feebleminded, doting; childish; dotard
‫ؿ‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karīf autumn, fall
ٟ‫ف‬٠ٌ‫ م‬karīfī autumnal
‫ؾ‬ٌٚ‫ م‬karūf pl. ‫ موٌثؾ‬kirāf, ‫ ثمٌـوز‬akrifa,
ْ‫ مٌـوج‬kirfān young sheep, lamb, yearling;
wether
‫ مٌثـوز‬kurāfa pl. -āt superstition; fable,
fairy tale
‫ مٌق‬karq tearing, rending, laceration; piercing,
boring,
perforation;
penetration;
disruption; breakthrough; traversion,
crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pl.
‫ق‬ٌٚ‫ م‬kurūq) hole, aperture, opening │‫مٌقا‬
َ‫ِٓآِاثٌعج‬٤‫ ث‬k. al-amn al-‘āmm violation of
public security; ‫ موٌقاثٌعوجهر‬offense against
common usage, violation of mores; ‫ثصْواا‬
‫اثٌٌثلا‬ٍٝ‫( ثٌنٌقاع‬ittasa‘a) the rent is beyond
repair 235
‫ مٌق‬kurq and ‫ مٌلوز‬kurqa awkwardness,
clumsiness; stupidity │ٞ‫اثٌوٌأ‬ٟ‫( امٌقاـ‬ra’y)
stupidity; folly, madness; ‫ا‬ٞ‫اثٌوٌأ‬ٟ‫ِٓاثٌنٌقاـ‬
...‫ ثْا‬it would be very unwise to ...
‫ مٌلوز‬kirqa pl. ‫ موٌق‬kiraq tatter, shred;
rag; scrap (of paper); polishing cloth;
eraser (cloth)
fictitious,
‫ ثموٌق‬akraq2 f. ‫ مٌلوج‬karqā’2, pl. ‫موٌق‬
kurq clumsy, awkward; stupid; irregular;
illegal, illicit, unlawful
‫ ِنٌـوز‬makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle,
bosh
‫ ِنٌلز‬makraqa trickery, sleight of hand,
legerdemain, hocus-pocus, swindle
‫ وؿ‬٠ٌ‫ صن‬takrīf folly, delusion; foolish
talk, drivel, twaddle, bosh, buncombe
‫ ِنجًق‬makāriq2 a kind of pastry (tun.)
ٟ‫ مٌثـوووو‬kurāfī
legendary
fabulous,
‫ ِنوٌؾ‬mukarrif childish, foolish; (pl. ūn) prattler,
chatterbox, windbag;
charlatan
ٔ‫ مٌـ‬kartaša to shuffle, mix ( ٘ s.th.)
‫ٕوز‬ٛ‫ مٌـ‬karfūša pl. ٔ١‫ موٌثـ‬karāfīš2 card
of low value, discard (in card playing)
‫ موٌق‬karaqa I u (karq) to tear, rend, tear apart
( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to make a hole ( ‫ ٘ و‬in); to
perforate, pierce, bore ( ‫ ٘ووو‬s.th.); to
penetrate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), break, pass ( ‫ ٘و‬through
s.th.); to traverse, cross, transit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., a
country); to violate, impair, infringe ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.), encroach ( ‫ ٘و‬upon); to break ( ‫ ٘و‬a
vow, and the like), commit a breach of
( ‫ ;)٘و‬to exceed the ordinary, be unusual,
extraordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of
│‫ موٌقاثٌعوجهر‬to go beyond what is ordinary
or customary IV to lurk, lie in wait V and
VII to be torn, be rent, be pierced, be
broken VIII to pierce ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to cut,
break, pass' ( ‫ ٘و‬through s.th.), penetrate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to traverse, cross, transit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
travel through s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to exceed ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g.,
a limit), go beyond s.th. ( ‫ثمضوٌقاِْوجِعٗ│ )٘و‬
(masāmi‘ahū) to shrill in s.o.‘s ears
‫ ثمضوووٌثق‬iktirāq penetration; piercing,
disruption; traversion, crossing, transit
‫ م وجًق‬kāriq and (‫ ٌٍعووجهر‬or) ‫مووجًقاثٌعووجهر‬
exceeding the customary, unusual,
extraordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of;
pl.
‫ثًق‬ٛ‫مووووو‬
kawāriq2
preternatural
phenomena.
miracles;
that
which
transcends the conceivable or the rational
│‫عز‬١‫ امجًقاثٌ ذ‬supernatural; ‫وجهـجس‬ٌّٚ‫ثًقاث‬ٛ‫م‬
k. al-muṣādafāt miraculous coincidences
‫ ِنضٌق‬muktaraq passage, passageway
ٌَ‫ مو‬karama i (karm) and II to pierce ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.),
make a hole or holes ( ‫ ٘و‬in); to perforate
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) VII to be pierced, be riddled, be
torn; to be deranged, unsettled,
disorganized; to come to an end, run out,
peter out, get lost VIII to destroy,
annihilate (ٖ s.o.); to carry off, carry away
(ٖ s.o., of death); to break (‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ووف‬ٌٚ‫ ث‬the
ranks), pass through s.th. ( ٘)
ٌَ‫ مو‬karm pl. ٌَٚ‫ مو‬kurūm gap, blank
(e.g., in a manuscript, or the like)
ٌَ‫ م‬kurm hole │‫دوٌر‬٨‫ امٌَاث‬k. al-ibra eye
of the needle
‫ مٌثِوز‬karāma drill, bit, auger, gimlet;
punch, perforator
2
ٌَ‫ مو‬akram having a perforated nasal
septum
ُ٠ٌ‫ صنو‬takrīm piercing, boring, drilling;
perforation; punching; lace-making, lacework
‫ّوووووز‬٠ٌ‫ صن‬takrīma
openwork, filigree
lace,
lace-work,
َ‫ ثٔنووٌث‬inkirām state of unsettlement,
disturbance, disorganization, derangement
│ٍْ‫ث‬ٛ‫اثٌضو‬ٟ‫( ثٔنوٌثَاـو‬tawāzun) disturbance of
equilibrium
ٌَٚ‫ ِنوو‬makrūm defective, incomplete
(e.g., a manuscript)
ٌَ‫ ِنوو‬mukarram perforated; done in
openwork, in filigree
‫ مٌِجٕز‬kurmāša pl. -āt (ir.) harrow
‫ح‬ٛ‫ مٌٔو‬kurnūb carob, locust; carob bean, locust
pod, St.-John‘s-bread
‫ مٌٔووك‬kirniq pl. ‫ مٌثٔووك‬karāniq2 young hare,
leveret
ٌٚ‫ موو‬kirwa‘ castor-oil plant, palma Christi
(Ricinus communis; bot.)
1
َ‫ امو‬kazza u to pierce, transfix (ٖ s.o.); to stab
(ٖ s.o., ‫ ح‬with) VIII to pierce, transfix (ٖ
s.o., ‫ ح‬with)
2
َ‫ م‬pl. ٍَٚ‫ م‬kuzūz silk fabric
1
ًَ‫ مو‬kazara uto look askance (ٖ at s.o.), give
s.o. (ٖ) a sidelong glance
2
ًَ‫ دقٌاثٌن‬baḥr al-kazar the Caspian Sea
ْ‫وًَث‬١‫ م‬kaizurān pl. ًٍ‫وج‬١‫ م‬kayāzir2 cane, reed;
rattan; bamboo
‫ًَثٔز‬١‫ م‬kaizurāna cane, stick
َ‫ م‬kaza‘a a (kaz‘) to cut, sever ( ٘ s.th.)
ً‫ مَعذ‬kuza‘bal idle talk, bosh
ً‫ مَعذو‬kuza‘bala pl. -āt idle talk, bosh; joke,
jest, hoax; fib, yarn; cock and bull story
236
‫ مووَؾ‬kazaf pottery, earthenware; porcelain,
china; ceramics
ٟ‫ مَـووو‬kazafī (made of) porcelain;
porcelaneous, porcelain, china (adj.)
‫ مَثؾ‬kazzāf dealer in chinaware; potter
‫ مَثـز‬kizāfa potter‘s trade, pottery
‫ موَق‬kazaqa i to pierce, stab, transfix ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o.,
s.th.); to drive, ram ًٛ٤‫اث‬ٟ‫ ٘و اـو‬s.th. into
the ground); to tear, rend, rip apart ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.) II to tear, rend, rip apart ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) V
and VII pass of I and II
‫ مَق‬kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a garment)
‫ق‬ٍٚ‫ موج‬kāzūq pl. ‫ثٍق‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawāziq2 post, stake,
pole; dirty trick │‫ق‬ٍٚ‫ ٘ويثاموج‬that‘s tough
luck!
2
‫ٍق‬ٛ‫ م‬look up alphabetically
‫ مَي‬kazala i (kazl) to cut off, sever ( ٘ s.th.); to
hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, keep
(ٖ s.o., ٓ‫ عو‬from) VIII to cut off, cut short,
end abruptly ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to shorten, abridge,
abbreviate ( ٘ s.th.); to stand alone (‫ ح‬with
an opinion)
‫ ثمضوَثي‬iktizāl abridgment, abbreviation;
shorthand, stenography
‫ ِنضَي‬muktazil stenographer
ََ‫ موو‬kazama i (kazm) to string, thread ( ‫٘ و‬
pearls) │ٗ‫( امووََاثٔفوو‬anfahū) to pierce the
nasal septum (of a camel) and insert the
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o.
subservient to one‘s will
َ‫ مووَث‬kizām, ‫ مَثِووز‬kizāma pl. ُ‫مووَثة‬
kazā’im2 nose ring
ِٝ‫ مَث‬kuzāmā lavender (bot.)
َْ‫ مو‬kazana u (kazn) to store, stock, lay up,
hoard, amass, accumulate; to keep secret,
keep ( ‫ ٘و‬a secret) II and VIII to store,
stock, lay up, warehouse ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to store
up, accumulate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to dam ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to put in safekeeping, keep ( ٘ s.th.)
َْ‫ موووو‬kazn storing; accumulation,
hoarding, amassing; storage, warehousing
‫ مَٔوز‬kazna treasure house; safe, coffer,
vault; wardrobe, locker; cupboard
‫ مَثٔ وز‬kizāna pl. -āt, ٓ‫ مووَثة‬kazā’in2
treasure house; vault, coffer, safe;
treasury, treasury department (of an
official agency), any office for the deposit
and disbursement of funds; locker,
wardrobe, closet; cupboard; library │‫مَثٔزا‬
‫ٌوز‬ٚ‫ ثٌو‬k. ad-daula and ‫‘( مَثٔوزاعجِوز‬āmma)
public treasury, exchequer; ‫ مَثٔوزاثٌوغٍؼ‬k. attalj icebox, refrigerator; ‫ مَثٔوزاثٌىضوخ‬k. al-
kutub bookcase; library; ‫ز‬١‫وو‬ٙٛٚ‫مَثٔووزام‬
(kuṣūṣīya) private library; ِ‫دووو‬٩ٌّ‫مَثٔووزاث‬
wardrobe, closet, locker
‫ٕوز‬٠َ‫ م‬kazīna pl. ٓ‫ موَثة‬kazā’in2 treasure
house; public treasury, exchequer;
treasury, treasury department (of an
official agency), any office for the deposit
and disbursement of funds; cashier‘s
office; vault, coffer, safe; cashbox, till (of
a merchant) │‫ووووز‬ٙ‫ٕووووزاثٌنج‬٠َ‫( اثٌن‬kāṣṣa)
(formerly) the Royal Privy Purse (Ir.);
‫ٌووز‬ٚ‫ٕووزاثٌو‬٠َ‫ م‬k. ad-daula public treasury,
exchequer; ‫ووور‬ٙ‫ٕووزاًث‬٠َ‫م‬, ‫ووور‬ٙ‫هاًث‬ٛ‫ٕووزأموو‬٠َ‫م‬
cash register
ْ‫ مووَث‬kuzzān pl. -āt, ٓ٠ٍ‫ مووَث‬kazāzīn2
dam; reservoir; basin, sump, pool; storage
tank (also for oil); - (pl. -ūn)
storehouseman, warehouseman
َْ‫ ِنووو‬makzan pl. ٍْ‫ ِنوووج‬makāzin2
storeroom, storehouse; depository; stockroom, storage room; depot, magazine,
warehouse; store, shop, department store;
َْ‫ ثٌّنووو‬al-makzan the Makhzan, the
Moroccan
government
(formerly:
govemmental finance department; Mor.) │‫ا‬
‫ووز‬٠ٚ‫ ِنووَْاثه‬m. adwiya drugstore; ‫ِنووَْا‬
ً‫ووث‬ٙ٨‫ ث‬m. al-iṣdār shipping room (com.);
ٔ‫ ِنوووَْاثٌعفووو‬m. al-‘afš trunk (of an
automobile) 237
َٟٔ‫ ِن‬makzanī being under government
control or administration. belonging to the
government (Mor.) │‫وز‬١َٔ‫ناِن‬٩‫( ثِو‬amlāk)
government land (Mor.)
ٍٟٔ‫ ِنووووج‬makāzinī
gendarme (Mor.)
pl.
-īya
native
ٍْ‫ ِنج‬makāzin2, ‫ك‬٠ٌ ٌ‫ ِنجٍْاث‬m. aṭ-ṭarīq
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut
ٟ‫ ِنَٔؾووووو‬makzanjī
warehouseman
storehouseman,
ً‫ مَٔوث‬kazandār, kaznadār treasurer
ٓ٠َ‫صنوووووو‬
takzīn
storage,
storing,
warehousing; storing up, accumulation;
damming
ٍْ‫ مج‬kāzin pl. ‫ مَٔوز‬kazana, ْ‫ موَث‬kuzzān
treasurer
َْٚ‫ ِنووو‬makzūn stored, stored up,
deposited, warehoused; (pl. -āt) stock,
supply, stock in trade
َٞ‫ مو‬kaziya a (kizy, kazan) to be or become
base, vile, despicable, contemptible; (‫وز‬٠‫مَث‬
kazāya) to be ashamed (ٓ‫ ِو‬of); -- kazā i to
disgrace, dishonor, discredit, put to shame
(ٖ s.o.); to shame, abash, embarrass (ٖ s.o.)
IV to humiliate, degrade, dishonor (ٖ s.o.);
to shame, put to shame (ٖ s.o.) X to be
ashamed
َٜ‫ مووو‬kizy, kazan shame, disgrace,
ignominy │!َٜ‫وجاٌٍنو‬٠ yā la-l-kazā what a
shame!
ْ‫وج‬٠َ‫ م‬kazayān2 f. ‫وج‬٠َ‫ م‬kazyā, pl. ‫وج‬٠‫مَث‬
kazāya ashamed, shamefaced, abashed;
shameful,
disgraceful,
scandalous,
infamous, base, mean, vile
‫ ِنوووَثر‬makzāh pl. ٍ‫ ِنوووج‬makāzin a
shameful thing, a disgrace; reason for
shame; pl. shameful things, disgraceful
acts, infamies
َٞ‫ ِنوو‬makzīy ashamed, shamefaced,
abashed; embarrassed, confused; َٞ‫ثٌّنوو‬
the Devil
َ‫ ِنووو‬mukzin disgraceful, shameful,
scandalous, infamous
‫وز‬٠َ‫ ِن‬mukziya pl. -at disgraceful act,
infamy
ِ‫ مو‬kassa (1st pers. perf. kasistu) a (‫ مْوز‬kissa,
‫ مْجّوز‬kasāsa) to be mean, base, vile; to
become
less,
decrease,
diminish,
depreciate, fall in value; -- kassa u to
lessen, reduce, diminish ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) II to
lessen, reduce, diminish ( ٘ s.th.)
ِ‫ م‬kass lettuce (Lactuca sativa; bot.)
ِ‫ م‬kassa (n. un.) head of lettuce
ِ‫ مو‬kissa and ‫ مْجّوز‬kasāsa meanness,
baseness, vileness
ِ١‫ مْوو‬kasīs pl. ‫ ثمْ وج‬akissā’2 mean,
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible,
miserable
‫ْوز‬١ْ‫ م‬kasīsa pl. ِ‫ مْوجة‬kasā’is mean
trick, infamy
‫ مْوب‬kasa’a a (kas’) to chase away (ٖ s.o.); -‫ مْوب‬kasi’a a to be driven away, make off
│‫ مْووتش‬kasi’ta beat it! scram! ‫ووه‬١ٌ‫ثمْووباث‬
iksa’ ilaika do.
‫ ثمْوووب‬aksa’2 baser, meaner, more
despicable; weaker
‫ مجّوب‬kāsi’ spurned, rejected, outcast;
low,
base,
vulgar,
despicable,
contemptible;
disgraceful,
shameful,
scandalous, infamous; futile, vain
(attempt); weak, feeble, languid
‫ مْضىز‬kastaka indisposition
‫ ِنْووضه‬mukastak indisposed, unwell,
sickly
ٔ‫ م‬kašša i u (kašš) to enter (ٟ‫ ـ‬s.th.)
ٓ‫ مٖج‬kišāš vermin, insects
‫ مٖوخ‬II to lignify, become woody or woodlike;
to line, face or cue with wood, to panel,
wainscot ( ‫ ٘و‬8.tb.) V to lignify, become
woody or woodlike; to become bard, still,
firm, rigid; to stiffen, freeze (e.g., with
panic)
ٌ‫ مْو‬kasara a (kusr, ً‫ مْوج‬kasār, ‫ مْوجًر‬kasāra,
ْ‫ مْووٌث‬kusrān) to incur a loss, suffer
damage; to lose, forfeit ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to go
astray, lose one‘s way, get lost; to perish
II to cause loss or damage ( ‫ ٘و‬to s.o.); to
do harm (ٖ to s.o.); to destroy, 238 ruin ( ‫٘و‬
s.o.); to corrupt, deprave (ٖ s.o.)
‫ مٖووخ‬kašab pl. ‫ مٖووخ‬akšāb wood,
lumber, timber │ ‫وج‬١‫ٔذ‬٤‫ مٖوخاث‬k. al-anbiyā’
guaiacum wood, lignum vitae
‫ مٖوذز‬kašaba pl. –āt, ‫ ثمٖوجح‬akšāb piece
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, board
│‫وش‬١ٌّ‫ مٖوخاث‬al-mayyit coffin; ‫مٖوذزاثٌّْوٌؿ‬
al-masraḥ stage (of a theater), ‫امٖوذزا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
‫ ثٌٌّْؿ‬on the ―boards‖
IV to cause a loss (ٖ to s.o.); to shorten, cut,
reduce ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) X to grudge (ٝ‫ عٍو‬or ٟ‫ـو‬
s.o., s.th.), envy s.o. (ٝ‫ عٍوو‬or ٟ‫ )ـوو‬the
possession of ( ٘)
ٟ‫ مٖوذ‬kašabī wooden, woody, ligneous,
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in
compounds)
ٌْ‫ م‬kur loss, damage
‫ مٖجح‬kaššāb pl. ‫ ر‬lumber merchant
ْ‫ مْوٌث‬kusrān loss, damage, forfeiture;
decline,
deterioration;
depravity,
profligacy
‫خ‬١ٖ‫ صن‬takšīb paneling, wainscoting
‫ذز‬١‫ صنٖو‬takšība pl. -āt, ‫خ‬١‫ صنجٕو‬takāšīib2
barrack, wooden shed
‫ مْوجًر‬kasāra pl. ٌ‫ مْوجة‬kasā’ir2 loss,
damage; pl. losses, casualties (ٟ‫ ـو‬in; mil.)
│‫جامْجًر‬٠‫ ا‬what a pity! too bad!
‫ صنٖوخ‬takaššub stiffness, rigor, rigidity;
stiffening
‫ ِضنٖوخ‬mutakaššib frozen, rigid; stiff,
bard, firm
ْ‫ مْوٌث‬kusrān (eg.) loser; affected by
damage or loss
ٌ‫ مجّوو‬kāsir lost, hopeless; involving
substantial losses; loser; depraved,
corrupted; profligate, disreputable person,
scoundrel
ٌ‫ ِنْوووو‬mukassir causing damage,
harmful, noxious, injurious, detrimental
‫ مْوؿ‬kašafa i (kasf, ‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ مْو‬kusūf) to sink, sink
down, give way, cave in, disappear, go
down; to be eclipsed (moon); -- i (kasf) to
cause to sink, cause to give way │‫امْؿا ا‬
ًٛ٤‫ دوٗاث‬k. llāh bihī l-arḍa God made him
sink into the ground, God made the
ground swallow him up VII to sink, sink
down, go down
‫ مْؿ‬kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace,
shame; inferiority │‫ اّوجَامْوفج‬sāma kasfan
to humiliate, abase, degrade (.s.o.)
‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ مْو‬kusūf occultation (astron.); lunar
eclipse
‫ مٖش‬kušt pl. ‫س‬ٖٛ‫ م‬kušūt javelin
1
ٓ‫ مٖ ونج‬kaškāš (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬pl. ٔ١‫مٖووجم‬
kašākīš2 poppy
ٔ‫ مٖن‬kaškša to clank, clatter, rattle; to rustle
‫ مٖنٖ وز‬kaškaša pl. -āt noise; clank,
clatter, rattle; rustle, rustling; crash
‫ز‬١ٖ‫نز =( مٖن‬١ٖ‫ )ٕن‬rattle (toy)
‫ مٖوجًر‬kušāra leftover (of a meal); offal, refuse;
a discard, a worthless thing
‫ مٖوا‬kaša‘a a ( ٛ‫ مٖو‬kušū‘) to be submissive,
be humble; to humble o.s.; to fade (voice)
│ٌٖٚ‫( امٖاادذ‬baṣarihī) to lower one‘s eyes
II to humble, reduce to submission (ٖ s.o.)
V to display humility; to be humble; to be
moved, be touched
ٛ‫مٖوووووووو‬
kušū‘
submission, humility
submissiveness,
‫ مجٕوا‬kaši‘ pl. ‫ مٖوعز‬kaša‘a submissive,
humble 239
‫ مٖوجؾ‬kušāf various fruits, stewed and waked
in syrup or rose water, compote
ً‫ مٖىج‬kuškār coarsely ground grain, grits
‫ٖز‬٠ٌ‫ مٖى‬kaškarīša scab, slough, scurf
ُٖ‫ م‬II to intoxicate, make drunk (ٖ s.o.)
ُٖ‫ م‬kašm nose; mouth; vent, outlet
َٛ‫ٖو‬١‫ م‬kaišūm pl. ُ‫جٕو‬١‫ م‬kayāšim2 nose;
gills; also pl. ُ١ٕ‫ج‬١‫ م‬nose
ٓ‫ مٖوو‬kašuna u (‫ٔز‬ٛ‫ )مٖو‬to be rough, coarse,
crude; to be raw, uncut, unpolished II to
roughen, coarsen, make crude ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) III
to be rude, uncivil, boorish (ٖ to s.o.) V to
display rough, rude, or coarse, manners; to
be rough, uneven; to lead as rough life XII
ٓ‫ٕوو‬ٖٛ‫ ثم‬ikšaušana to be rough, coarse,
crude; to lead a rough life
ٓ‫ مٖو‬kašin pl. ْ‫ مٖوج‬kišān rough, crude;
coarse (as opposed to ُ‫ ٔوجع‬nā‘im); rude,
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life);
hoarse, raucous (voice) │ِ‫ مٖوٓاثٌٍّو‬k. allams coarse to the touch, rough, uneven,
wrinkled; ‫ مٖووٓاثٌنٍووك‬k. al-kulq uncouth,
boorish; ‫ مٖوووٓاثٌمٖوووٌر‬k. al-qišra thickshelled; ٖٓ‫( ثٌؾِٕاثٌن‬jins) the strong sex
ٓ‫ ثمٖو‬akšan2, f. ‫ مٖوٕج‬kašnā’2, pl. ٓ‫مٖو‬
kušn rough, tough, harsh, rude, uncouth
‫ ثٌنٖوٕج‬al-kašnā’ the vulgar, uneducated
people
‫ٔز‬ٛ‫ مٖ و‬kušūna roughness, coarseness;
crudeness; rudeness
ٟ‫ مٖو‬kašiya a (kašy, ‫ز‬١‫ مٖو‬kašya) to fear, dread
(ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٝ‫ عٍو‬for s.o. or s.th.), be
afraid (ٖ of) II to frighten, scare, terrify,
alarm (ٖ s.o.) V = I; VIII to be
embarrassed; to be ashamed
‫ز‬١‫ مٖو‬kašya fear, anxiety, apprehension
│ِٓ‫زا‬١ٖ‫ م‬kašyatan min for fear of
ٝ‫ ثمٖو‬akšā more timorous, more fearful;
more to be feared. more frightening
ْ‫ج‬١‫ مٖو‬kašyān2. f. ‫ج‬١‫ مٖو‬kaāyā, pl. ‫ج‬٠‫مٖوج‬
timorous, timid, anxious, apprehensive
ٓ‫ م وج‬kāšin timorous, timid, anxious,
apprehensive
٘‫ مو‬kašša u to distinguish, favor (especially,
before others), single out (ٖ s.o.), bestow
special honors (ٖ upon s.o., in preference
to others); to endow (‫ ح‬s.o. with), confer,
bestow (‫ ح‬upon s.o. s.th.); to apportion,
allot, assign, accord, give, dedicate,
devote (‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. s.th., in preference to
others); with ٗ‫ ٌٕفْو‬to take possession ( ‫٘و‬
of), demand ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.; also ٗ‫موو٘ادووٗأفْوو‬
nafsahū); to be specifically associated (ٖ
with s.o.), be characteristic (ٖ of s.o.), be
peculiar (ٖ to); to apply in particular ( ‫٘و‬
to), be especially valid ( ‫ ٘و‬for); to concern,
regard (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘وو‬s.th.), have special
relevance ( ‫ ٘و‬to), bear ( ‫ ٘و‬on) │ٗ‫ضو‬٠‫وٗادعٕج‬ٚ‫م‬
(bi-‘ināyatihī) to devote one‘s attention to
s.o., favor s.o. with one‘s attention; ‫وٗا‬ٚ‫م‬
ٌ‫( دجٌويو‬bi-d-dikr) to make special mention
of s.o. or s.th.; ُٕٙ‫ثموو٘اِوو‬ٚ (akuṣṣu) I
mention, among them, especially (with
foll. acc.); ٟٕ‫وو‬ٚ‫ن‬٠‫ا‬٨‫ ٘وويثا‬this does not
concern me, this is none of my business II
to specify, particularize, itemize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to specialize ( ٘ s.th.), narrow, restrict (‫٘ ي‬
s.th. to); to designate, destine, set aside,
earmark, single out (‫ ٘و ي‬or ٖ s.o. or s.th.
for a purpose); to devote in particular,
dedicate, assign (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. to); to allocate,
allot, apportion (‫ ٘ووو ي‬s.th. to); to
appropriate (‫ ٘و ي‬funds for); to reserve,
held, withhold (‫ ٘و ي‬s.th. for); to tie down
(‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. to a special field) V to specialize
(‫ ي‬in, also ‫ ح‬or ٟ‫ ـو‬in a scientific field); to
devote all one‘s attention (‫ ي‬to s.th.); to
apply o.s. (‫ ي‬to), go in for s.th. (‫ ;)ي‬to be
peculiar (‫ ح‬to); to be chosen, destined,
earmarked (‫ ي‬for) VIII to distinguish,
favor (‫ ٖ ح‬s.o. with), confer distinction (‫ح‬
ٖ upon s.o. by); to devote, give, accord,
afford (‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. s.th., in preference to
others); to dedicate (‫ ٖ ح‬to s.o. s.th., e.g.,
one‘s services); (with ٗ‫ )ٌٕفْووو‬to take
exclusive possession ( ‫ ٘ووو‬of), claim,
demand ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), lay special claim ( ‫ ٘و‬to;
also ٗ‫ ثمووووض٘ادووووٗأفْوووو‬nafsahu); to be
distinguished, be marked (‫ ح‬by); to
possess alone, in distinction from all
others, have above others (‫ ح‬s.th.), have
the advantage over others (‫ ح‬that); to be
peculiar (‫ ح‬to); to concern, regard (‫ح‬
s.th.), bear (‫ ح‬on); to be pertinent, have
relevance (‫ ح‬to), have to do (‫ ح‬with); to
be duly qualified, be competent, have
jurisdiction (‫ ح‬in; e.g., an authority); to
have as a special function or task (‫ ح‬s.th.)
٘‫ م‬lettuce (bot.)
٘‫ موو‬kuṣṣ pl. ٗ‫ وج‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣāṣ, ٗ‫ وج‬ٚ‫ثم‬
akṣāṣ, ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣūṣ, hut, shack, shanty,
hovel
‫ز‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣṣa jet of water
ٗ‫ووووج‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣāṣ
crevice, crack, gap
interstice,
interval,
‫وز‬ٙ‫ج‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣāṣa crevice, crack, interval,
gap
‫ووز‬ٚ١ٚ‫ م‬kaṣīṣa pl. ٘‫ وجة‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣā’iṣ2
special characteristic or quality, specialty,
particularity, peculiarity
‫ج‬ٚ١ٚ‫ م‬kiṣṣīṣan particularly, especially,
specifically
ٗٛ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣūṣ specialness; ‫وووج‬ٙٛٚ‫م‬
kuṣūṣan
especially,
in
particular,
specifically │ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫دن‬, ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ام‬ٟ‫ ـو‬and ‫ِوٓا‬
ٗٛ‫وووو‬ٚ‫( م‬with foll. genit.) as to,
concerning, regarding, with respect to, as
regards; ٗٛٚ‫يثاثٌن‬ٙ‫ د‬and ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ِٓا٘يثاثٌن‬in
this connection, in this matter, in this
respect, about this, concerning this; ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍو‬
ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ثٌن‬and ٗٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ؽوٗاثٌن‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬wajhi l-k.)
especially, particularly, in particular,
specifically
ٟ‫وووو‬ٙٛٚ‫م‬
personal
kuṣūṣī;
special;
private,
‫ووووز‬ٙ‫ج‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣāṣa poverty,
privation, destitution, want
penury,
٘‫ ثمووو‬akaṣṣ2 more special, more
specific │٘‫مو‬٤‫اث‬ٝ‫ عٍو‬especially; ٘‫مو‬٤‫اث‬ٟ‫ـو‬
do.
‫ووووج‬ٚ‫ثم‬
confidante
2
akiṣṣā’
intimate
friends,
ٟ‫جة‬ٚ‫ ثم‬ikṣā’ī see 2ٝٚ‫م‬
٘١‫ووووووو‬ٚ‫صن‬
takṣīṣ
specialization;
specification,
particularization,
itemization; designation, destination (for a
purpose);
allotment,
apportionment,
allocation;
reservation;
(pl.
-āt)
appropriation, financial allocation; credit
│٘١‫ووو‬ٚ‫اصن‬ٝ‫ عٍووو‬and ٘١‫ووو‬ٚ‫ؽوووٗاثٌضن‬ٚ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍووو‬
specifically
٘‫و‬ٚ‫ صن‬takaṣṣuṣ specialization (esp., in
a scientific field)
ٗ‫ووج‬ٚ‫ ثمض‬iktiṣāṣ pl. -āt jurisdiction,
competence; special province or domain,
bailiwick
(fig.);
pl.
prerogatives,
privileges,
monopolies;
concessions
(Intern. Law); ‫ووجٗاي‬ٚ‫مض‬٨‫ايىثسةاث‬ٚ‫ ى‬duly
qualified,
authorized,
responsible,
competent; ٗ‫ووووج‬ٚ‫مض‬٨‫ هثةووووٌراث‬scope of
competence,
sphere
of
authority,
jurisdiction, province, domain, field
ٟٙ‫ج‬ٚ‫ ثمض‬iktiṣāṣī pl. -ūn specialist
ٗ‫ موج‬kaṣṣ special, particular; specific,
peculiar; relative, relevant, pertinent (‫ح‬
to), concerning (‫ ح‬s.th.); earmarked,
Designated, destined, set aside (‫ ح‬for);
especially valid or true (‫ ح‬for), especially
applicable (‫ ح‬to), characteristic (‫ ح‬of);
distinguished; private; exclusive, not
public │‫وزاح‬ٙ‫وورامج‬٠ٌ‫ ؽ‬professional journal
for ...; َ‫ثٌعوج‬ٚ‫‘( ثٌنوجٗا‬āmm) the special and
the general; high and low, all people;
ٗ‫خاثٌنج‬١‫ ثٌ ذ‬physician in ordinary 241
‫وز‬ٙ‫ مج‬kāṣṣa pl. ٗ‫ث‬ٛ‫ مو‬kawāṣ2 exclusive
property; private possession; specialty,
particularity, peculiarity, characteristic,
property, attribute; essence, intrinsic
nature; leading personalities, people of
distinction, ‫ وز‬ٙ‫ ثٌنج‬the upper class, the
educated; kāṣṣatan and ‫وز‬ٙ‫ دنج‬bi-kāṣṣatin
especially, in particular │ُٙ‫وزاثٔفْو‬ٙ‫امج‬ٟ‫ ـو‬fī
k. anfusihim at the bottom of their hearts,
deep inside
‫ز‬١‫و‬ٙ‫ مج‬kāṣṣīya pl. -āt, ٘‫وجة‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣā’iṣ2
specialty, particularity, characteristic,
peculiarity, property, special attribute,
feature, trait, qualification; prerogative,
privilege; jurisdiction, competence
‫وز‬ٚ٠ٛ‫ م‬kuwaṣṣa (dimin. of ‫وز‬ٙ‫ )مج‬one‘s
own business, private affair │‫ا‬ٟ‫ووومًاـوو‬٠
ٌٞ‫ وزاثِوو‬ٚ٠ٛ‫ م‬he meddles in my private
affairs
ٗٛٚ‫ ِن‬makṣūṣ special
٘‫ و‬ٚ‫ ِن‬mukaṣṣaṣ chosen, set aside,
earmarked, designated, destined (‫ ي‬for);
allotted, apportioned, allocated; -- pl.
‫وووووووجس‬ٚٚ‫ِن‬
(financial)
allocations;
appropriations, credits; (daily) allowance;
(food) rations │‫ز‬١‫وجـ‬ٝ‫وجساث‬ٚٚ‫( اِن‬iḍāfīya)
extra allowances; ‫ووجساثٌٍّووه‬ٚٚ‫ ِن‬m. almalik civil list
٘‫ ِنووض‬muktaṣṣ pertaining, pertinent,
relevant, relative (‫ ح‬to); duly qualified,
authorized,
responsible,
competent;
special;
pl.
‫وووووووجس‬ٚ‫ِنض‬
muktaṣṣāt
competences
│‫ووووووووز‬ٚ‫اثٌّمجِووووووووجساثٌّنض‬the
competent authorities; ‫ووووز‬ٚ‫ثةٌاثٌّنض‬ٚ‫ثٌووووو‬
competent (or authoritative) quarters
‫وخ‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣaba i and kaṣiba a (kiṣb) to be fertile
(soil) II to make fertile ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to
fructify, fertilize ( ٘ s.th.) IV = I
‫وخ‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣib fertility; abundance, plenty;
superabundance, profusion
‫ووخ‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣib and ‫خ‬١‫ و‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣīb fertile,
productive, fat
‫ وٍز‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣla pl. ‫ وجي‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣāl quality,
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait;
(natural) disposition
ُ‫و‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣama i to defeat (ٖ an opponent) in
argument; to deduct, subtract ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., ٓ‫ِو‬
from): to discount ( ‫ ٘و‬a bill, a note III to
argue, quarrel, dispute (ٖ with s.o. 242
to bring legal action (ٖ against s.o.), sue (ٖ
s.o.), litigate (ٖ with); VI to quarrel, argue,
have a fight; to go to law, carry on a
lawsuit, litigate (‫ ِوا‬with s.o.) VII to be
deducted, be subtracted VIII to quarrel,
argue, have a fight
ُ‫وو‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣm pl. َٛ‫وو‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣūm, َ‫ووج‬ٚ‫ثم‬
akṣām adversary, antagonist, opponent;
opposing party (in a lawsuit)
‫دز‬ٛٚ‫ م‬kuṣūba fertility
‫خ‬١ٚ‫ صن‬takṣīb fructification, fertilization
ُ‫وو‬ٚ‫ م‬deduction; subtraction; rebate;
discount; pl. َٛٚ‫ م‬kuṣūm
‫جح‬ٚ‫ ثم‬ikṣāb fertility
‫ذجس‬ٚ‫ ِن‬mukaṣṣibāt fertilizers
liabilities (fin.) │َٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ ّوعٌاثٌن‬si‘r al-k.
discount rate, bank rate; ‫س‬٨‫وج‬١‫وُاثٌىّذ‬ٚ‫ م‬k.
al-kambiyālāt bill discount
‫خ‬ٚ‫ ِن‬mukṣib fertile, productive, fat
ٌٚ‫ م‬kaṣira a (kaṣar) to become cold; to suffer
from the cold III to clasp (ٖ s.o.) around
the waist, put one‘s arm around s.o.‘s (ٖ)
waist VIII to shorten, condense, abridge,
epitomize ( ٘ s.th.); to summarize ( ٘ s.th.)
ُ١ٚ‫ م‬kaṣīm pl. ‫ّج‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣamā’2, ْ‫وّج‬ٚ‫ام‬
kuṣmān adversary, antagonist, opponent
‫ِز‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣūma quarrel, argument,
dispute, controversy, feud; lawsuit
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣr pl. ًٛ‫و‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣūr hip, haunch,
waist
َ‫وج‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣām quarrel, argument, dispute,
controversy, feud; lawsuit
‫ووٌر‬ٚ‫ ِن‬mikṣara pl. ٌ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِنج‬makāṣir2
stick, baton, wand; mace, scepter
ُ‫وو‬ٙ‫ ِنج‬mukāṣim adversary, opponent,
opposing party (in a lawsuit); antagonist;
litigant
ً‫وج‬ٚ‫ ثمض‬iktiṣār shortening, condensation,
abridgment, summarization, epitomizing
(of a statement); brevity │ً‫وج‬ٚ‫مض‬٨‫ دج‬and
ً‫ج‬ٚ‫ دجمض‬briefly, in short, in a few words
1
ٝٚ‫ م‬kasīy pl. ْ‫ج‬١ٚ‫ م‬kiṣyān, ‫ز‬١‫و‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣya
a castrate, eunuch
ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ِنض‬muktaṣar shortened, condensed,
abridged; brief, short; concise, terse,
succinct; (pl. -āt) short excerpt, brief
exposition, synopsis, outline, summary,
abstract, epitome, compendium
‫وٌر‬ٙ‫ مج‬kāṣira pl. ٌ‫و‬ٙ‫ث‬ٛ‫ م‬kawāṣir2 hip,
haunch, waist │ٗ‫وٌص‬ٙ‫امج‬ٟ‫وزاـو‬ٛ‫( إو‬šauka) a
thorn in his side
‫وؿ‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣafa i (kaṣf) to mend, repair, sew ( ‫ ٘و‬a
shoe)
‫ووفز‬ٚ‫ م‬kaṣfa pl. ‫ وجؾ‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣāf basket
(made of palm leaves)
‫ووٍز‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣla pl. ً‫وو‬ٚ‫ م‬kuṣal, -āt tuft; bunch,
cluster; lock, wisp (of hair)
ٝٚ‫ م‬kaṣā ( ‫ج‬ٚ‫ م‬kiṣā’) to castrate, emasculate
(ٖ s.o.)
‫ز‬١ٚ‫ م‬kuṣya pl. ٝٚ‫ م‬kuṣan testicle
ٝٚ‫ ِن‬makṣīy castrated, emasculated
ٝٚ‫( ـٌُاِن‬faras) gelding
2
ٟ‫وجة‬ٚ‫ ثم‬ikṣā’ī pl. -ūn specialist; expert (of a
specialized field)
ٜ‫ موو‬kaḍḍa (kaḍḍ) to jolt, jog ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
shake ( ٘ s.th.); to frighten, scare (ٖ s.o.)
ٜ‫ ٌذٓام‬laban kaḍḍ buttermilk
‫ وز‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍḍa concussion, shock, jolt;
fright, terror, fear
‫وخ‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍaba i (kaḍb) to dye, color,
tinge ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- kaḍaba i and kaḍiba a
(‫ح‬ٛ‫ و‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍūb) to be or become green
(plant) II to color, tinge ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to dye
( ‫ ٘و‬s.th) XII ‫وخ‬ٝٛٞ‫ ثم‬ikḍauḍaba to be or
become green (plant)
O ‫خ‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍb chlorophyll (biol.)
‫جح‬ٞ‫ م‬kiḍāb dye, dyestuff │O َ‫جحاثٌوو‬ٞ‫م‬
k. ad-dam hemoglobin (biol.)
‫ح‬ٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍūb green, greenness, green
color
‫خ‬١ٞ‫ م‬kaḍīb dyed
ٜ‫ون‬ٞ‫ م‬ḳaḍkaḍa (ٜ‫ون‬ٞ‫ م‬ḳaḍkaḍa) to set in
motion, upset, rock, shake ( ٘ s.th.)
ٜ‫وون‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍkaḍa concussion, shock,
jolt
‫وو‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍada i (kaḍd) to cut off, break off ( ‫٘و‬
thorns) │ٗ‫وض‬ٛ‫ووإو‬ٞ‫( ام‬šaukatahū) to tame
s.o., hold s.o. in check, curb s.o.‘s power
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍira a (kaḍar) to be green II to make
green, dye or color green ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) │‫وٌا‬ٞ‫ام‬
ًٛ٤‫( ث‬arḍ) to sow the land, till the earth
IX to be or become green XII ٌ‫و‬ٝٛٞ‫ثم‬
ikḍauḍara = IX
ٌ‫ و‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍir green, verdant; verdure,
greenery; young green crop (of grain)
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ثٌن‬al-kaḍir, al-kiḍir a well-known
legendary figure
‫ وٌر‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍra green, greenness, green
color; - (pl. ٌ‫ووو‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍar) vegetation,
verdure, greenery, greens; meadow; ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫م‬
vegetables
ٌٞٞ‫ م‬kuḍarī greengrocer
ً‫ وج‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍār green, greenness, green
color; greens, herbs, potherbs
ٌ١ٞ‫ م‬kadīr green
‫جًر‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍāra greens, herbs, potherbs
ً‫ج‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍḍār greengrocer
ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫ ثم‬akḍar f. ‫وٌث‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍrā’ pl. ٌ‫و‬ٞ‫م‬
kuḍr green │ِ‫وجد‬١ٌ‫ث‬ٚ‫وٌا‬ٞ‫م‬٨‫اث‬ٝ‫اعٍو‬ٝ‫( ثصو‬atā) to
destroy everything, wreak havoc
‫ووووٌث‬ٞ‫ ثٌن‬al-kaḍrā’ ―the
(epithet of Tunis); the sky 243
Verdant‖
‫ثس‬ٚ‫وٌث‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍrāwāt vegetables; greens,
herbs, potherbs
‫ٌث‬١ٞ‫ ثٌن‬al-kuḍairā’ Paradise
O ًٛٞ‫ن‬٠ yakḍūr chlorophyll (biol.)
‫وٌر‬ٞ‫ ِن‬makḍara meadow, lawn, turf,
sod, greens, verdant land
‫ٌثس‬ٞ‫ ِن‬mukaḍḍarāt vegetables
ٌَ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kiḍrim pl. ًَ‫وج‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍārim2 abundant,
copious; well-watered, abounding in
water; openhanded, generous, liberal,
munificent
ٌَ‫و‬ٞ‫ ِن‬mukaḍram designation of such
contemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of
poets, whose life span bridges the time of
paganism and that of Islam; an old man
who has lived through several generations
or historical epochs
‫وا‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍa‘a a ( ٛ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍū‘) to bow, defer,
submit, yield, surrender (‫ ي‬to s.o., to s.th.),
humble o.s. (‫ ي‬before), obey, follow (‫ي‬
s.o. or s.th.); to be subject (‫ ي‬and ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to a
law, to a power, etc.), be under s.o.‘s (‫ ي‬or
ٝ‫ )ثٌووو‬control II and IV to humble,
subjugate, subdue, make tractable (ٖ s.o.);
to submit, subject, expose (‫ ٖ ي‬or ‫ ٘و‬s.th. or
s.o. to s.th.)
ٛ‫ و‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍū‘ submission, obedience,
humility, subjection
ٛٞ‫ م‬kaḍū‘ pl. ‫وا‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍu‘ submissive,
humble
‫وووج‬ٞ‫ ثم‬ikḍā‘ subjugation, subdual;
subjection
‫ووا‬ٝ‫ مج‬kāḍi‘ pl. ‫ووا‬ٞ‫ م‬kuḍa‘, ْ‫ووعج‬ٞ‫م‬
kuḍ‘ān, kiḍ‘ān submissive, humble;
obedient, pliant, tractable; subject, liable,
prone (‫ ي‬to s.th.)
ً‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍila a to be or become moist II and IV
to moisten, wet ( ٘ s.th.) IX = I
ً‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍil moist, wet; juicy, succulent;
refreshing, gay, lighthearted
ُ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kaḍama i (kaḍm) to munch ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th., with
a full mouth), bite ( ٘ into s.th.)
ُ‫و‬ٞ‫ م‬kiḍamm vast (said of the sea); sea,
ocean
٠‫ مو‬kaṭṭa u (kaṭṭ) to draw or trace a line (ٝ‫عٍو‬
on); to draw, trace, sketch, design ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to write, pen ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to carve,
engrave, inscribe ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.); to outline,
mark, trace out, prescribe ( ‫ ي ٘و‬for s.o.
s.th.) │‫ام وجايّو ٌثة‬٠‫( امو‬kaṭṭan, satran) to
draw a line; ‫خ‬١‫( م وٗاثٌٖوو‬šaibu) his hair
turned gray II to draw lines; to rule ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to furrow, ridge ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to mark
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak ( ‫٘ و‬
s.th.); to pencil ( ‫ ٘و‬the eyebrows); to mark,
designate, earmark, indicate ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
demarcate, delimit, delineate, stake out,
survey ( ‫ ٘و‬land, real estate); to layout, map
out ( ‫ ٘ و‬roads) VIII to trace out, mark,
outline, prescribe ( ‫ ٘ و‬a way); to mark,
demarcate, delimit, stake out, delineate ( ‫٘و‬
s.th.); to map out, plan, project ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., the
construction of a city); to make, design,
devise ( ‫ ٘و‬a plan); to plan ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), make
plans ( ٘ for)
٠‫ موو‬kaṭṭ pl. ٟٛ‫ م وو‬kuṭūṭ line; stroke;
stripe, streak; (railroad) line, line of
communication; telephone line; frontline
(mil.); furrow, ridge; handwriting; writing,
script; calligraphy, penmanship │O ‫ا‬٠‫موو‬
ٟ‫و‬ًٝ‫( ث‬arḍī) ground wire (radio); O ‫ا‬٠‫ثٌنو‬
ٟٕ١‫ّوف‬٨‫( ث‬isfīnī) cuneiform writing; ‫ا‬ٟٛ‫ثٌن و‬
‫وز‬١ٔ‫ِج‬٤‫( ث‬amāmīya) the foremost lines, battle
lines (mil.); ًٍ‫ادوج‬٠‫( مو‬bāriz) relievo script;
ٟٔٛ‫اصٍفووو‬٠‫ مووو‬telephone line; ‫وووز‬٠ٛ‫اؽ‬ٟٛ‫م ووو‬
(jawwīya) airlines; ٞ‫وو‬٠‫افو‬٠‫( مو‬ḥadīdī) and
‫ووو‬٠‫اّووىزاثٌقو‬٠‫ موو‬k. sikkat al-ḥadīd railroad
line, railroad track; ‫ثي‬َٚ‫اثٌو‬٠‫ مو‬k. az-zawāl
meridian (astron.; = ً‫وج‬ٌٕٙ‫وؿاث‬ٚٔ‫ا‬٠‫ مو‬k. niṣf
an-nahār); O ًٞ‫اثٌّْوووّج‬٠‫( ثٌنووو‬mismārī)
cuneiform writing; ‫ث‬ٛ‫ّوض‬٨‫اث‬٠‫ مو‬k. al-istiwā’
equator; ‫ي‬ٛ ٌ‫اث‬٠‫ م‬k. aṭ-ṭūl or ٌٟٛ‫و‬ٟ‫ا‬٠‫( م‬ṭūlī)
circle of longitude, meridian (geogr.); ‫ا‬٠‫مو‬
ٌٛ‫ ثٌعوو‬k. al-‘arḍ or ٟ‫وو‬ٌٝ‫اع‬٠‫‘( موو‬arḍī)
parallel (of latitude) (geogr.); ٖ‫وج‬١ٌّ‫ُاث‬١‫اصمْو‬٠‫م‬
k. taqsīm al-miyāh divide, watershed; ‫ا‬٠‫مو‬
‫ووز‬١‫ٌدجة‬ٙ‫راثٌى‬ٛ‫ ثٌموو‬k. al-qūwa al-kahrabā’īya
power lines; ‫وجؽٌر‬ٌٙ‫اث‬٠‫ مو‬meridian (grogr.);
٠‫ مووٌػاعووٓاثٌنوو‬to derail, run off the rails
(train); ُ١‫اِْوووووضم‬٠‫امووووو‬ٝ‫عٍووووو‬
(mustaqīm)
straightaway, in a straight line; outright,
out and out; ٠‫ياثٌنو‬ٛ‫وو‬ٟ‫ا‬ٝ‫( عٍو‬ṭūl al-k.) all
along the line
٠‫ مو‬kuṭṭ section, district, quarter (of a
city)
ٟ ‫ م‬kaṭṭī handwritten; linear; spear
‫ م ووز‬kuṭṭa matter, affair; condition,
state; office, function, position
‫ م وز‬kiṭṭa, kuṭṭa pl. ٠‫ م و‬kiṭaṭ, kuṭaṭ a
place of land acquired for the purpose of
building a house; a place of real estate,
lot; district; map or plan of a place of real
estate, layout; plan, project, design,
intention; line of action, course, policy,
rule, precept, guiding principle │ً‫اثٌعّو‬٠‫مو‬
k. al-‘amal operation plan, work plan; ‫ذموجا‬ٟ
‫ِز‬ٛ‫( ٌن ووووزاٌِّوووو‬ṭibqan) according to
schedule, as scheduled or planned
ٟ‫ م وووووج‬kaṭṭāṭ pl. -ūn penman,
calligrapher; -- tracing lines, leaving
straight trace │ٟ‫( ـٖوهام وج‬fašak) or ‫فوزا‬٠‫لي‬
‫ز‬ٟ‫ م ج‬tracer bullet, tracer (mil.)
٠١‫ صن وو‬takṭīṭ ruling, drawing of, or
marking
with,
lines;
lineation;
designation,
marking,
earmarking;
surveying, survey (of land); planning;
projecting, mapping out, laying out (of
cities, of roads); plan, design
ٟ‫ وو‬١ ‫( ًّووُاصن‬rasm) rough draft, first
sketch, design
ٟٛ ‫ ِن‬makṭūṭ handwritten; manuscript
ٟٛ ‫ ِن‬makṭūṭa pl. -āt manuscript
٠‫ ِن و‬mukaṭṭaṭ striped, streaked, ruled;
furrowed; designated, marked, earmarked;
planned, guided, controlled; (pl. -āt)
sketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a
city)
‫ م وب‬kaṭI’a a (‫ م وب‬kaṭa’) to be mistaken; to
commit an error, make a mistake; to sin II
to charge with an offense, incriminate,
declare guilty (ٖ s.o.); to accuse (ٖ s.o.) of
an error or mistake; to fine (ٖ s.o.; tun.) IV
to be mistaken, to err, commit an error, be
at fault (ٟ‫ ـو‬in); to be wrong (ٟ‫ ـو‬about, in);
to make a mistake (ٟ‫ ـو‬in, with); to miss (ٖ
s.o., e.g., a shot; ‫ ٘و‬the target); to escape (ٖ
s.o. or s.o.‘s notice; a fact) │‫اأم وووبا‬
ٗ‫(ـبٌو‬fa’luhū) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his
expectations do not come true, are not
fultilled; that‘s where he is wrong, that‘s
where he made a mistake! ٟ‫أم ووبٖاثٌٖوو‬
(šai’u) (lit.: the thing escaped him, missed
him, i.e.) he lacked it; ‫ووك‬١‫ـ‬ٛ‫ أم ووبٖاثٌض‬he
failed, was unsuccessful; ٗ‫اثّوضٕضجؽجص‬ٟ‫أم وباـو‬
he drew the wrong conclusions; ‫ٓا‬١‫أم وبادو‬
ٓ١‫ت‬١‫ ثٌٖوو‬he confused the two things, he
mistook one thing for the other
٠‫ م‬kiṭ’ slip, lapse, fault, offense, sin
‫ م ب‬kaṭa’ and ‫ م وج‬kaṭā’ error; mistake,
incorrectness; offense, fault; kaṭa’an
erroneously, by mistake │...‫اِوٓاثٌن وباثْا‬it
is (would be) wrong to …; ‫ؿاثٌن ووب‬٩‫وو‬ٙ‫ث‬
iṣlāḥ al-k. corrigenda, errata, list of
corrections; ‫ لضوًاثٌن وب‬qatl al-k. accidental
homicide (jur.)
‫توووز‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭī’a pl. -āt, ‫وووج‬٠‫ م ج‬kaṭāyā
mistake, blunder; slip, lapse; fault,
offense; crime, sin; fine (tun.)
‫ب‬ٟ‫ موج‬kāṭi’ wrong, incorrect, erroneous;
mistaken, at fault; (pl. ‫ م جر‬kuṭāh, actually,
pl. of colloq. kāṭī), f. ‫تز‬ٟ‫ مج‬kāṭi’a pl. ‫ب‬ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫مو‬
kawāṭ‘2 sinner
‫ ِن وب‬mukṭi’ mistaken, at fault, wrong;
incorrect, wrong, erroneous
‫ م وخ‬kaṭaba u (‫ م ذوز‬kuṭba, ‫ م جدوز‬kaṭāba) to
deliver a public address, make a speech; to
preach, deliver a sermon (ُ‫اثٌٕوج‬ٟ‫ ـ‬and ُ‫ثٌٕوج‬
an-nāsa to the people); -- (kaṭb, 245 ‫م ذوز‬
kiṭba) to propose (‫ ٘وج‬to a girl; said of the
man), ask for a girl‘s hand (‫ )٘وج‬in marriage
(‫ ي‬on behalf of s.o.; said of the
matchmaker); to give in marriage, betroth,
affiance, engage (ٝ‫ عٍووو‬or ‫ دٕضوووٗاي‬one‘s
daughter to s.o.) │‫ه٘ووج‬ٚ‫( م ووخا‬wuddahā)
and ‫وج‬ٙ‫هص‬ِٛ‫( م وخا‬mawaddatahā) he courted
her love III to address (ٖ s.o.), speak, talk,
direct one's words (ٖ to s.o.), turn (ٖ to s.o.,
orally or in writing) │ْٛ‫ف‬١ٍ‫ذووٗادووجٌض‬ٟ‫ مج‬to
telephone s.o., call s.o. up; ‫ذوٗادجٌىوجؾ‬ٟ‫( مج‬bil-kāf) to address s.o. on an intimate firstname basis VI to talk to one another; to
converse, confer, have a talk, carry on a
conversation; to write each other,
correspond, carry on a correspondence
VIII to seek a girl‘s (‫ )٘وج‬hand in marriage,
ask for a girl‘s hand
‫ م وخ‬kaṭb pl. ‫ م وخ‬kuṭb matter, affair,
concern, business; situation, conditions,
circumstances; misadventure, mishap │‫اِجا‬
‫م ذوووه‬what do you want? what‘s the
trouble? what‘s the matter with you? ‫ِوجا‬
ٟ‫ م ذٗاـ‬what concern of his is ...? what has
he to do with ...? ‫ ِوجام وخاىٌوه‬what‘s it all
about?
‫ م ذوووووز‬kiṭba
engagement
courtehip;
betrothal,
‫ م ذوووز‬kuṭba pl. ‫ م وووخ‬kuṭab public
address; speech; lecture, discourse;
oration; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday
sermon, khutbah │‫ـضضوووجؿ‬٨‫ام ذوووزاث‬opening
address
‫ م وجح‬kiṭāb pl. -āt, ‫ ثم ذوز‬akṭiba public
address, speech; oration; letter, note,
message │‫وووووخ‬١‫ ام وووووجحاصٌف‬welcoming
address; ٌٓ‫ م جحاثٌع‬k. al-‘arš speech from
the throne; ً‫( م ووووجحاِْووووضعؾ‬musta‘jil)
express letter, special-delivery letter; ‫م جحا‬
‫ صموِووز‬taqdima letter of introduction; O
‫ّووزاثٌّمووًٌر‬١‫( م جد وجساىثساثٌم‬dāt al-qīma almuqarrara) (= lettres avec valeur
declarée) registered, insured letters (eg.);
‫ووووًاثٌن ووووجح‬ٚ‫ ـ‬faṣl al-k. (in letters:)
conclusion of the formal greetings by the
words ‫ ثِووجادعووو‬amma ba‘du; conclusion,
termination, end; decision; unmistakable
judgment; ‫وووًاثٌن وووجح‬ٚ‫ٕوووهاـ‬١‫د‬ٚ‫ا‬ٟ‫ٕووو‬١‫ د‬we‘re
through with one another once and for all
ٟ‫ م وووجد‬kiṭābī oratorical, rhetorical,
speech-, lecturing (in compounds)
‫وخ‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭīb pl. ‫ م ذوج‬kuṭabā’ (public)
speaker; orator; lecturer; preacher, khatib;
suitor (for the hand of a girl); fiancé
‫ذز‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭība fiancée
‫ م جد وز‬kaṭāba preaching, sermonizing,
oratory
‫ م جدوز‬kiṭāba rhetoric, oratory; speech,
lecture, discourse
‫دوووز‬ٛ ‫ م‬kūṭūba courtship; betrothal,
engagement
‫ذوز‬ٟ‫ ِنج‬mukāṭaba pl. -āt address; public
address,
speech;
proclamation;
conversation, talk; conference, parley
│‫وووز‬١ٔٛ‫ف‬١ٍ‫ذوووزاص‬ٟ‫ ِنج‬telephone conversation,
telephone call
‫ صنض ووووخ‬takāṭub conversation; talk,
discussion; (inter)communication (also,
e.g., telephonic, by radio, etc.) │‫ٌؽزاثٌضن جح‬
lugat it-takāṭub colloquial language
‫خ‬ٟ‫ مج‬kāṭib pl. ‫ م ذج‬kuṭabā’2, ‫م وج‬kuṭṭāb
suitor; matchmaker
‫ذوز‬ٟ‫ مج‬kāṭiba pl. ‫ م وجح‬kuṭṭāb woman
matchmaker
‫دز‬ٛ ‫ ِن‬makṭūba fiancée
‫وخ‬ٟ‫ ِنج‬mukāṭab addressed, spoken to;
(gram.) second person
ٟٛ‫ ثم ذ‬look up alphabetically
ٌ‫ م و‬kaṭara i (ْ‫ م وٌث‬kaṭarān) to swing, wave,
brandish (‫ ح‬s.th.); to shake, tremble,
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swinging
gait; to strut, parade haughtily; -- i u (ًٛ ‫م‬
kuṭūr) to occur (‫ ي‬to s.o.), come 246 to
s.o.‘s (‫ )ي‬mind │ٗ‫ادجٌو‬ٝ‫( ام وٌاعٍو‬bālihī) the
matter came to his mind, occurred to him,
he recalled the matter (also ٗ‫ادجٌو‬ٟ‫ ـو‬and ٗ‫دذجٌو‬
or. ٌٗ‫ادج‬ٍٝ‫ٌ ;)ع‬ٟ‫ م ٌاٌٗامج‬he had an idea; ‫ثٌِا‬
‫ن وووٌادذوووجي‬٠‫( ٌوووُا‬lam yakṭur bi-bālin) an
unexpected matter, s.th. one wouldn‘t
dram of; -- kaṭura u (‫ًر‬ٛ‫ م و‬kuṭūra) to be
weighty; to be important, significant; to be
grave, serious, momentous, dangerous,
perilous, risky, hazardous III to risk,
hazard, stake (‫ ح‬s.th. ٗ‫ دٕفْو‬one‘s life); to
incur the danger, run the risk (‫ ح‬of), risk
(‫ ح‬s.th.); to bet, wager (ٖ s.o., ٝ‫ عٍو‬a stake)
IV to notify, inform (ٖ s.o.), let (ٖ s.o.)
know (‫ ح‬about s.th.); to warn, caution (ٖ
s.o.) V to walk with a lofty, proud gait; to
stride, strut (with a swinging gait); to
pendulate, oscillate, vibrate VI to make a
bet (ٍٝ‫ ع‬against stake)
ٌ‫م ووووووووووو‬
kaṭar
weightiness,
momentousness;
importance,
consequence, significance; seriousness,
gravity; -- (pl. -āt, ً‫ ثم وج‬akṭār) danger,
peril, menace (ٝ‫ عٍوووو‬to); riskiness,
dangerousness; risk; hazard; (pl. ً‫م ووج‬
kiṭār) stake, bet, wager │ٌ‫ًاثٌن و‬١ٍ‫ ؽ‬of very
great importance, momentous; ٌ‫ام ووو‬ٚ‫ى‬
dangerous,
perilous;
ٌ‫اٌٍن وووووو‬ٌٛ‫ِعوووووو‬
(mu‘arraḍ) endangered, jeopardized; ‫ثٕجًرا‬
ٌ ‫ ثٌن‬išārat al-k. alarm signal
ْ‫ م ووٌث‬kaṭarān swinging, oscillation,
vibration
ٌ‫ ثم وو‬akṭar2 more dangerous, riskier;
weightier, of greater consequence; more
serious, graver
‫ ِن ٌر‬look up alphabetically
ٌٟ‫ ِنج‬makāṭir2 dangers, perils
‫ٌر‬ٟ‫ ِنوج‬mukāṭara pl. -āt venture, risk,
hazard
ً‫ ثم وج‬ikṭār notification, information;
warning
ٌٟ‫ م وج‬kāṭir pl. ٌٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ م و‬kawāṭir2 ideas,
thought, notion; mind; desire, inclination,
liking │‫ٌن‬ٟ‫ؽوًاموج‬٤ (li-ajl) for your sake;
ٌٟ‫ ِووٓاوووًام وج‬min'n kulli kāṭirin with all
one‘s heart, most gladly; ٌٟ‫ذوزاموج‬١ٟ‫‘ عوٓا‬an
ṭībati kāṭirin gladly, with pleasure; of
one‘s own free will, voluntarily; ‫ا‬ٝ‫عٍوو‬
‫ٌن‬ٟ‫ موج‬as you like; ٌٖٟ‫ ثموويادن وج‬to afford
satisfaction to s.o., to comfort, reassure
s.o.; ٓ‫ٌاِو‬ٟ‫امج‬ٍٝ‫ ثمياع‬to feel offended by, to
take offense at; ٌٖٟ‫وووو اموووج‬ٙ ṣadda‘a
kāṭirahū to trouble, bother s.o.; ‫ّووٓا‬ٟ
ٌٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫( ثٌنو‬ṭammana) to calm the excitement;
ْ‫ٌٖاث‬ٟ‫( ِوٌادنوج‬marra) the thought crossed
his mind that ...; ‫ٌن‬ٟ‫( ثوٌثِوجاٌنوج‬ikrāman)
for your sake, to please you; ٌٟ‫ّوٌعزاثٌنوج‬
sur‘at al-k. presence of mind; ٌٟ‫ااثٌنوج‬٠ٌ‫ّو‬
quick-witted
ٌٟ‫ ِنوج‬mukāṭir one who risks s.th., who
takes a chance; daring, bold, venturesome
ٌ‫ ِن و‬mukṭir dangerous, perilous, risky,
hazardous
ٌ‫ م وو‬kaṭir dangerous, perilous, risky,
hazardous; serious, grave, weighty,
important, significant
‫ م وٌؾ‬kaṭrafa (eg.) to be delirious,. to rave, to
talk irrationally
ٌ‫ م و‬kaṭara pl. kaṭarāt pompous walk,
strut; swinging gait; idea, thought, notion
‫ م وؿ‬kaṭifa a, kaṭafa i (kaṭf) to snatch, wrench
or wrest away, seize, grab ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
make off ( ‫ ٘و‬with s.th.); to abduct, kidnap
(ٖ s.o.); to dazzle (ٌ‫و‬ٚ‫ ثٌذ‬247 al-baṣara the
eyes) V to carry away, sweep away (. s.o.)
VI to snatch or seize ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.) from one
another VII to be snatched away, be
wrested away; to be carried away, be
swept away VIII to grab, seize, take
forcibly ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to snatch, wrest, wrench
(ٓ‫ ٘و ِو‬s.th. from s.o.); to abduct, kidnap (ٖ
s.o.); to run away, elope (‫ ٘ووج‬with a
ً‫ م ج‬kaṭṭār pendulum (phys.)
ٌ‫ووو‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭīr pl. ٌ‫ م ووو‬kuṭr weighty,
momentous; important, significant; grave,
serious │ْ‫ٌاثٌٖب‬١ ‫ م‬of great importance
‫ًر‬ٛ‫م وووووووو‬
importance,
consequence,
seriousness
kuṭūra
weight(iness),
moment(ousness);
significance;
gravity,
‫ م ٌـز‬kaṭrafa delirium, raving
woman); to make off ( ‫ ٘و‬with s.th.); to
dazzle (ٌٚ‫ ثٌذ‬al-baṣara the eyes)
‫ م ووؿ‬kaṭf grabbing, forcible seizure,
rape; abduction, kidnapping; ‫ م فوج‬kaṭfan
rapidly, quickly
‫ م فوووز‬kaṭfa pl. kaṭafāt (n. vic.) a
snatching away, a grab; sudden stirring,
flash │‫ام فوزاثٌذوٌق‬ٟ‫( ـو‬barq) instantly, in a
trice, like a streak of lightning; ‫م فوزاِوٓا‬
ًٛ‫ م فجساثٌٖع‬an impulse, a sudden emotion
‫ م جؾ‬kaṭṭāf rapacious; robber
‫ م وجؾ‬kuṭṭāf pl. ‫ؿ‬١ٟ‫ م وج‬kaṭāṭīf2 (iron)
hook; fishhook; (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬swift, a
variety of swallow
‫ؿ‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭīf pl. ‫ؿ‬١ٟ‫ م ج‬kaṭāṭīf2 iron hook
‫ ثمض جؾ‬iktiṯāf grabbing, forcible seizure,
rape; abduction, kidnapping
2
‫ؿ‬ٟ‫ مج‬kāṭif pl. ‫ؿ‬ٟ‫ث‬ٛ‫ م‬kawāṭif ravenous;
rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, sudden;
lightninglike; fleeting; short, brief │‫ىةوجحا‬
‫فوز‬ٟ‫ مج‬ravenous wolves; ‫فوز‬ٟ‫ًرامج‬ٛ‫و‬ٙ (ṣūra)
snapshot; ‫فز‬ٟ‫( فٌحامج‬ḥarb) Blitzkrieg
ً‫ م و‬kaṭila a (kaṭal) to talk nonsense IV do. V
to strut, walk with a pompous gait; to
walk with a proud, swinging gait
ً ‫ م‬kaṭal idle talk, prattle
ً ‫ م‬kaṭil garrulous, chattering, given to
silly talk; stupid, foolish
ُ‫ م و‬kaṭm nose, snout, muzzle (of an animal);
front part (nose and mouth); foremost or
first part; important matter │‫ووًاِن ّووز‬ٟ‫ث‬
(aṭalla) approx.: to manifest its force, set
in (e.g., of a disaster)
ٟ‫ م ّوو‬kiṭmī, kaṭmī (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ر‬marsh
mallow (Althaea officinalis; bot.)
َ‫ م وج‬kiṭām pl. kuṭum noseband, halter (of a
camel)
‫ة‬ٛ‫ م وجايم و‬kaṭā u (kaṭw) to step, pace, walk; to
proceed, advance, progress │‫ثسا‬ٛ‫م ووجام وو‬
‫ثّوعز‬ٚ (kaṭawātin) to take large strides, also
fig. = to make extraordinary progress II
and V to overstep, transgress ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), to
cross ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), go or walk through s.th.
( ‫ ;)٘و‬to ford ( ‫ ٘و‬a river); to leave its banks,
overflow (river); to cross, traverse (ً‫ثٌذقوج‬
the seas); to omit, disregard, ignore, pass
by (ٖ so.); to go beyond s.th. ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to extend
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to); to exceed, transcend ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to
excel, surpass, outstrip, outdo (ٖ s.o.); to
proceed, pass ( ‫ ٘ و‬through s.th., ٝ‫ ثٌوو‬to),
leave s.th. ( ‫ )٘و‬behind and turn to s.th. else
(ٝ‫ ;)ثٌو‬to disregard ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ s.o., s.th.) in order
to turn one‘s attention to (ٌٝ‫ا│ )ث‬ٌٝ‫ادٗاث‬ٝ ‫صن‬
َ‫ِووج‬٨‫( ث‬ilā l-amāmi) to promote, advance
s.th. VII to step, pace, walk; to proceed,
advance, progress
‫ر‬ٛ‫ م و‬kaṭwa pl. kaṭawāt and kuṭwa pl.
kuṭwāt, kuṭuwāt, ٝ‫ م و‬kuṭan step, pace,
stride │ٖ‫ام وج‬ٟ‫( ّوجًاـو‬kuṭāhū) to walk, or
follow, in s.o.‘s footsteps; ‫ر‬ٛ‫راـن و‬ٛ‫صمووَام و‬
taqaddama kutwatan fa-kutwatan to
proceed or advance step by step; ‫را‬ٛ‫ثصنويام و‬
‫( فجّوّز‬ittakada) to take a decisive step;
‫لفوَر‬ٚ‫صوجْا‬ٛ ‫ م‬kaṭwatan wa qafza hop, skip
and jump (athlet.)
‫وووز‬١ ‫ م‬kaṭīya (= ‫توووز‬١ ‫ )م‬slip, lapse,
transgression, fault, offense, sin
‫ م جر‬kuṭāh pl. of ‫ب‬ٟ‫ مج‬kāṭi’ sinner
‫ موؿ‬kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be slight,
insignificant; to become lighter, decrease
in weight, lose weight; to decrease in
intensity, grow lighter (color); to be
nimble, agile, quick; to hasten, hurry, rush
(ٝ‫ ثٌو‬to) II to make lighter ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.), reduce
the weight of ( ‫ ;)٘و‬to ease, lighten, relieve,
soften ( ‫ عووٓ ٘ و‬for s.o. s.th. difficult or
oppressive, also ٘ ٝ‫ ِوٓ ;عٍو‬s.th., e.g., s.o.‘s
situation); to lessen, decrease, reduce,
diminish ( ‫ ٘ و‬or ٓ‫ ِوو‬s.th.); to mitigate,
alleviate, moderate, temper (ٖ or ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.);
to thin, dilute ( ‫ ٘و‬e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to
pronounce ( ‫ ٘و‬a consonant) without tašdīd
│‫ مفوؿاعٕوه‬kaffif ‘anka! cheer up! be of
good cheer! ‫ مفووؿاِووٓاّووٌعضه‬kaffif min
su‘atika! slow down! ٗ‫َاعٕوو‬٨٢‫ مفووؿاث‬to
soothe s.o.‘s pains V to dress lightly; to
disburden, relieve o.s. (of a burden); to rid
o.s., free o.s. (ٓ‫ ِو‬of s.th.); to hurry away
(ٓ‫ ِو‬from), leave (ٓ‫ ِو‬s.th.) in a hurry X to
deem ( ‫ ٘ و‬s.th.) light; to value lightly,
disdain, scorn, despise (‫ ح‬s.o. or s.th.),
look down (‫ ح‬upon), think nothing (‫ ح‬of),
make light (‫ ح‬of), set little store (‫ ح‬by);
not to take seriously (‫ ح‬s.th.), attach no
importance (‫ ح‬to); to carry away,
transport (ٖ s.o., e.g., joy)
‫ موؿ‬kuff pl. ‫ مفوجؾ‬kifāf, ‫ ثمفوجؾ‬akfāf shoe,
slipper; -- (pl. ‫ ثمفوجؾ‬akfāf) camel hoof;
foot (of the ostrich); sole (of the foot) │‫ا‬
ٓ١‫افٕوو‬ٟ‫ ًؽوواادنفو‬raja‘a bi-kaffai ḥunain to
return with empty hands, without having
achieved one‘s mission; to accomplish
nothing, fail, be unsuccessful
‫`مفوووووز‬kiffa lightless (of weight);
slightness,
insignificance,
triviality;
sprightliness,
buoyancy;
agility,
nimbleness;
inconstancy,
fickleness,
flightiness, levity, frivolity │‫ امفوزاثٌقٌووز‬k.
al-ḥaraka, ‫اثٌقٌوووووز‬ٟ‫ مفووووزاـوووو‬nimbleness,
agility, quickness; َ‫ مفوووزاثٌوووو‬k. ad-dam
amiability, charm; ‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫ موؿاثٌو‬k. ar-rūḥ do.;
‫وو‬١ٌ‫ مفوزاث‬k. al-yad manual skill, dexterity,
deftness
‫ ثموووؿ‬akaff2 lighter; lesser, slighter;
weaker │ٓ٠ًٌ‫و‬ٌٞ‫ اثموؿاث‬a. ad-ḍararain the
lesser of two evils
‫ مفووجؾ‬kafāf, ‫ فؾوووٌاثٌنفوووجؾ‬ḥajar al-k.
pumice, pumice stone
ْ‫ مفج‬kuffān pumice, pumice stone
‫وؿ‬١‫ مف‬kafīf pl. ‫ مفوجؾ‬kifāf, ‫ ثمفوجؾ‬akfāf,
‫ ثمفوج‬akiffā’2 light (of weight); slight, little,
trivial, insignificant; thin, scanty, sparse;
nimble, agile, sprightly, lively; -- ‫ووؿ‬١‫ثٌنف‬
name of a poetic meter │‫وؿاثٌقٌووز‬١‫ مف‬k. alḥaraka easily movable, very mobile;
nimble, agile; َ‫ موؿاثٌوو‬k. ad-dam amiable,
charming; ‫ؿ‬ٌٚ‫ووؿاثٌوو‬١‫ مف‬k. ar-rūḥ likable,
charming, winning, amiable; gay, in high
spirits, cheerful; ً‫وووؿاثٌرووو‬١‫ مف‬k. az-zill
likable, nice (person); ٓ١‫و‬ًٝ‫وؿاثٌعج‬١‫ مف‬k. al‘āriḍīn having a thin beard; ً‫وؿاثٌعمو‬١‫ مف‬k.
al-‘aql feeble-minded, dimwitted; ‫وو‬١ٌ‫ؿاث‬١‫مف‬
k. al-yad nimble-fingered, deft; ‫وؿ‬١‫امف‬ٞ‫ٕوج‬
weak tea
‫وووووؿ‬١‫ صنف‬takfīf lightening, easing;
lessening,
decrease,
diminution;
reduction; allaying, mitigation, alleviation,
palliation, moderation;
commutation
(jur.); relief; thinning. dilution (e.g., of a
liquid) │‫وووووؿ‬١‫ؾاثٌضنف‬ٌٚ‫ ظووووو‬extenuating
circumstances (jur.)
‫ ثّوووووضنفجؾ‬istikfāf disdain,
contempt; levity, frivolity
scorn,
‫ؾاِنففز‬ٌٚ‫ ظ‬ẓurūf mukaffafa extenuating
circumstances (jur.)
‫ ِنفؿ‬mukaffaf thin, diluted
‫ مفش‬kafata u (‫س‬ٛ‫ مف‬kufūt) to become inaudible,
die down, die away (sound, voice); to
become silent, become still III ‫ِوٗىا‬٩‫مجـشادى‬
ٗ‫ص‬ٛ‫وو‬ٚ‫( د‬bi-kalāmihī, bi-ṣautihī) to lower
one‘s voice IV to silence, reduce to
silence (ٖ s.o.) VIII = I
‫س‬ٛ‫ مف‬kufūt fading (radio)
‫ مفووش‬kāfit dying away, dying down,
becoming silent; inaudible; faint, dying,
fading, trailing off (sound, voice); soft,
subdued (light, color)
‫ ِنضفش‬muktafit soft, low, subdued 249
ٌ‫ مفو‬kafara u (kafr, ‫ مفوجًر‬kifāra) to watch ( ‫٘و‬, ٖ
s.o., s.th. or over s.o., over s.th.), guard,
protect (ٖ s.o., ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); -- kafira a (kafar,
‫ مفوجًر‬kafāra) to be timid, shy, bashful II =
I kafara V = I kafira
ٌ‫ مف‬kafr watching, watch, guard(ing)
ٌ‫ مفوو‬kafar guard detachment, guard;
escort │ً‫ثف‬ٌْٛ‫ امفٌاث‬coast guard (Eg.)
ٌ‫مفوووووو‬
kafar
timidity,
bashfulness, diffidence
shyness,
ٌ‫ مفو‬kafir bashful, diffident, timid, shy,
embarrassed, coy
ٌ‫و‬١‫ مف‬kafīr pl. ‫ مفوٌث‬kufarā’2 watchman;
protector, guardian; guard, sentry, sentinel
‫ مفووجًر‬kafāra watch(ing), guard(ing),
protection; guard duty
ٌ‫ ِنفووو‬makfar pl. ٌ‫ ِنوووجـ‬maḳāfir 2
guardhouse, guardroom; guard, control
post │‫ز‬ٌٟ‫ اِنفووٌاثٌٖوو‬m. aš-šurṭa police
station
‫ موجـٌر‬kāfira: ً‫ثف‬ٛ‫ موجـٌراثٌْو‬k. as-sawāḥil
coastguard cruiser (Eg.)
ًٛ‫ ِنف و‬makfūr under escort, escorted;
covered, sheltered, protected
ِ‫ مفو‬kafasa u (kafs) to ridicule, scorn (ٖ s.o.),
laugh, mock (ٖ at); to destroy, demolish,
tear down (ٖ a house)
ٔ‫ مف‬kafaš day blindness, hemeralopia
ٔ‫ ثمفو‬akfaš2, f. ‫ مفٖوج‬kafšā’2, pl. ٔ‫ مفو‬kufš day
blind,
hemeralopic;
weak-sighted,
afflicted with defective vision
ٓ‫ مفج‬kuffāš pl. ٔ‫ مفجـ‬kafāfiš2 bat (zool.)
ٜ‫ مف‬ka
i (kafḍ) to make lower ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.);
to lower, decrease, reduce, lessen,
diminish ( ‫ ٘و‬s.th.); to lower, drop ( ‫٘و‬, ٓ‫ِو‬
s.th., also, e.g., the voice); (gram.) to
pronounce the final consonant of a word
with i; to put ( ‫ ٘و‬a word) in the genitive
│ٗ‫اؽٕجفو