Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2014

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ŠT. 2/2014
NO. 2/2014
WWw.IU-CG.org
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI
teorija in praksa urejanja prostora
ŠT. 2/2014 | NO 2/2014
CREATIVITY GAME
Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
kazalo
CONTENTS
I.UVOD editorial
Alenka Fikfak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek: DRUGA ŠTEVILKA
2nd ISSUE
8
Miha Dešman: Predstavitev PETIH diplomskih del študentov in študentk arhitekture,
ki so diplomirali v prvi polovici leta 2014
Presentation: FIVE theses by the architecture students
who graduated in the first half of 2014
10
Mojca Golobič: Doktorski študij s področja krajinske arhitekture Doctoral study programme in Landscape Architecture 12
Aleksander Saša Ostan: Arhitekturna ustvarjalnost in izobraževalni procesi v času globalne krize
Architectural creativity and educational processes in a time of global crisis
14
Thomas Dillinger: Doktorski študijski programi s področja prostorskega načrtovanja
na Tehnični univerzi na Dunaju
Doctoral Studies in Spatial Planning at the Technischen Universität Wien
18
II.ČLANKI ARTICLES
Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar: KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA NAČRTOVANJE
NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA RAZVOJA URBANIH OBMOČIJ CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION AND GUIDELINES FOR LAND USE PLANNING
IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
24
Anja Jutraž, Tadeja Zupančič: Vloga arhitekta pri interdisciplinarnem arhitekturnem projektiranju The Role of Architect in Interdisciplinary Collaborative Design Studios 34
4
Nuša Voda: EVIDENTIRANJE VZORCEV POZIDAVE NA PODEŽELJU: primer Podravske regije
RECORDING OF BUILDING DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS IN RURAL AREAS: case of Podravska region
44
Mia Crnič: Javni odprti prostori manjših središčnih naselij: raziskovanje tipologije javnega
ODPRTEGA prostora in njegove pojavnosti v prostoru Slovenije
PUBLIC OPEN SPACES OF SMALL CENTRALISED SETTLEMENTS: researching the typology
of public open spaces and their occurrence in the area of Slovenia
54
Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek: Študentske delavnice kot primer projektnega učenja
Student Workshops as an example of Project Based Learning (PBL)
66
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
III. PROJEKT PROJECT
73
IV.DELAVNICE WORKSHOPS 77
LOKACIJE DELAVNIC WORKSHOP LOCATIONS 110
V.NATEČAJI COMPETITIONS113
VI. PREDSTAVITVE PRESENTATIONS
119
VII. dodiplomska in podiplomska dela UNDERGRADUATE AND POST GRADUATE THESIS (work)
125
VIII. SEZNAM AVTORJEV LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 159
5
I.
UVODNIK
editorial
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Alenka Fikfak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek
DRUGA ŠTEVILKA
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
8
Pred nami je druga številka revije Igra ustvarjalnosti – revije, ki želi v sebi
združevati duh kreativnosti, projektnega pristopa in sproščenosti, hkrati
pa ta način dela uveljaviti tudi kot del znanstvenoraziskovalnega procesa.
Verjamemo, da je raziskovanje tudi delo, ki ni merljivo samo s številkami
in parametri, temveč tudi zanj veljajo načela in načini dela, ko se je treba
spoprijeti s “prazno glavo“ in vprašanjem, kje in kako začeti. V ta način
raziskovalnega dela vsekakor spada področje izkustvenega raziskovanja
(izkustveno raziskovanje in ustvarjalno reševanje problemov, ustvarjalno
in kritično razmišljanje) pri spopadanju s problemom ali ustvarjalnem
projektu. Ta način dela sovpada s programom UNESCO Teaching and Learning Strategies (slov. strategije poučevanja in učenja). Program predlaga
osem pomembnih strategij: izkustveno učenje, pripovedovanje zgodb,
izobraževanje o vrednotah, učenje s poizvedovanjem, ustrezna presoja,
reševanje problemov v prihodnosti, učenje zunaj učilnice in reševanje
problemov v skupnosti. Prav zato smo to številko posvetili raziskovanju na
doktorskih programih, kjer novi študenti vsako leto pokažejo nov zagon
in željo po raziskovanju novega in neznanega. Druga številka revije IU_CG
je torej namenjena doktorskim študentom in njihovim prvim izkušnjam
na znanstvenoraziskovalnem področju. Predstavljene vizije in ideje si
sledijo najprej v preglednih znanstvenih člankih in nato v različnih predstavitvah. Vsebine odražajo raznolikost vključenih šol in študijskih programov, kot so: UL Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Ul Fakulteta za gradbeništvo
in geodezijo, UL Biotehnična fakulteta in dunajska tehniška univerza TU
Wien. Nabor doktorskih šol v Evropi je na tem področju bistveno širši, kot
2nd ISSUE
The second issue of Igra ustvarjalnosti_Creativity Game is here. This is a journal
that wants to embody the spirit of creativity, project-based learning, and
relaxation, as well as implement this working method as part of scientific research. We believe that research is work, too – one that is measurable not only in
numbers and parameters, but rather it is also based on principles and working
methods where one needs to overcome the “empty mind” and the question
where and how to begin. This type of research includes experiential research
and creative problem solving, creative and critical thinking, by working on a
problem or a creative project. This working method coincides with UNESCO’s
Teaching and Learning Strategies programme. The UNESCO programme
proposes eight important strategies: experiential learning, storytelling, values
education, enquiry learning, appropriate assessment, future problem solving,
learning outside the classroom and community problem solving. As a result,
this issue is dedicated to research in PhD programmes, where each year’s new
students bring new impetus and desire to explore the new and the unknown.
The second issue of IU_CG is thus intended for PhD students and their first
experience in scientific research. Their visions and ideas are first presented
in review articles, followed by various presentations. The topics reveal the
diversity of the schools and study programmes included, such as: UL Faculty
of Architecture, UL Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, UL Biotechnical
Faculty, and the Vienna University of Technology. The range of PhD schools in
Europe in the field is much greater than presented in this issue; however, this
is only our second issue that will be followed by a third one where the basic
vision of the journal will be further pursued with even greater international
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
je predstavljeno v tej številki, vendar je to druga številka, ki ji bo sledila
naslednja, kjer bomo s še večjo mednarodno zasedbo sledili osnovni viziji
revije, ki sloni na prepletu kreativnosti, reševanja problemov in raziskovanja. Zato je v uvodnih besedah poudarjen pomen študija, na doktorski,
dodiplomski in magistrski ravni. Celotni razpon študija gradi osebnosti,
ki se spopadajo s problemi v grajenem okolju in ustvarjajo nove vizije
prihodnosti.
Irena Ostojič in Tadej Glažar v prispevku opozarjata na trajnostni
prostorski razvoj, ki je že splošno sprejeto vrednostno načelo urejanja
prostora, vendar pa ni celovito vključeno v izvedbene predpise za upravljanje urbanega prostora. V prispevku razčlenjujeta pomene na lokalni
ravni preko namenske rabe tal. Predstavljata nabor kriterijev, s katerimi
lahko ovrednotimo stopnjo trajnosti zasnove namenske rabe v urbanih
območjih.
Nuša Voda predstavlja način evidentiranja in raziskovanja obstoječih
vzorcev pozidave v izbranih podeželskih naseljih in ugotavlja povezanost
med stanovanjskim objektom in funkcionalnim zemljiščem. Predstavljeni so primeri obstoječih vzorcev pozidave v izbranih naselij (Pomurska
regija) in opisani odnosi med posameznim zemljiščem in stanovanjskim
objektom ter sosednjimi zemljišči in stanovanjskimi objekti.
Mia Crnič predstavlja prostor Slovenije kot mrežo središčnih krajev različne hierarhične stopnje. S tematiko vplivnosti središč, njihovih povezovanj,
značilnosti in podobno so se ukvarjali že mnogi raziskovalci, vendar Crničeva v svojem prispevku razglablja o možnosti meril razvrščanja, ki bi jih,
glede na grajene in programske značilnost javnih odprtih površin, lahko
povezali v večje zaokrožene celote s podobnimi značilnostmi.
Anja Jutraž in Tadeja Zupančič v prispevku prikazujeta pomembnost
interdisciplinarnega sodelovanja pri arhitekturnih projektih, vlogo arhitektov v tem procesu ter različne načine sprejemanja odločitev v interdisciplinarnem sodelovanju. Raziskava temelji na programu AEC Global
Teamwork Course, ki poteka na Univerzi Stanford.
participation, based on an interplay of creativity, problem solving, and research. This is why the introduction emphasises the significance of studies at the
doctoral as well as Bachelor’s, and Master’s levels. Throughout the course of
studies, people’s personalities evolve by dealing with the problems in the built
environment to create new visions of the future.
Irena Ostojič and Tadej Glažar drew attention to sustainable spatial planning, a generally accepted spatial planning principle which is, however, not
fully included in the implementing rules of urban spatial management. In their
paper they analyse the concepts at the local level on the example of intended
land use. They present a set of criteria to assess the level of sustainability regarding the concepts of intended land use in urban areas.
Nuša Voda presents a method of recording and studying the existing settlement patterns in selected rural settlements, and identifies the connection between residential buildings and appertaining land. The existing development
patterns in selected settlements (in the Pomurska region), and the relationships between land plots and residential buildings, and the adjacent land and
residential buildings are discussed.
Mia Crnič presents the territory of Slovenia as a network of central places of
various hierarchical levels. The topic exploring the impact of central settlements, their connections, characteristics, etc., has already been addressed by
many researchers; however, Crnič discusses the possibility of classification
criteria that would allow for grouping of central settlements into larger units
with similar features according to the built and programme characteristics of
public open spaces.
Anja Jutraž and Tadeja Zupančič show the importance of interdisciplinary
research in architectural projects, the role of architects in the process, and the
different methods of decision-making in interdisciplinary collaboration. The
study is based on the AEC Global Teamwork Course established at Stanford
University.
Znanstvenim prispevkom sledijo še predstavitve natečajev, delavnic, posvetov ter diplomskih in magistrskih del, kar je v tej številki nova vsebina. V ta
del so vključene naloge različnih študijskih programov, ki so bile izbrane kot
presežek v študijskem letu 2013/14. Menimo, da bo ravno ta del v reviji predstavljal tisto vizijo, v katero smo vpeti tako študentje diplomanti, magistri,
doktorandi kot mentorji v akademskem in pedagoškem delu.
The scientific articles are followed by presentations of competitions, workshops, conferences, and Bachelor’s and Master’s theses – which is a new
section in this issue. This part of the journal includes a selection of outstanding
works from various study programmes in academic year 2013/2014. We feel
that this section will present the vision that the students at Bachelor’s, Master’s
and doctoral levels, and mentors are part of in our academic and teaching
work.
Povabljeni k branju in novim prispevkom k naslednji, tretji številki revije
IU_CG, ki pa bo tematska. Tematika revije bo še vedno usmerjena v preplet raziskovalno izkustvenega dela. Vsebina bo na spletni strani objavljena v začetku leta 2015.
Happy reading! The contributions for the next, third and thematic, issue of
IU_CG issue are welcome. The combination of research and experiential work
will remain the main theme of the journal. It will be published on the webpage
in beginning of 2015.
9
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Miha Dešman
Predstavitev PETIH diplomskih del
študentov in študentk arhitekture, ki
so diplomirali v prvi polovici leta 2014
Presentation: FIVE theses by the
architecture students who
graduated in the first half of 2014
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
10
Ko bodoči/-a študent/-ka arhitekture prvič stopi skozi visoka vrata pod
stebri Plečnikovega portika, ki je hkrati nadstrešek in tempelj, lahko
fizično začuti – če je občutljiv/-a za arhitekturno sporočilnost klasike –,
kako je zapustil/-a dotedanje življenje za sabo in vstopil/-a v »čarobni svet
Arhitekture«. Pred njim/njo je pet ali osem let študija, ki ga/jo bo privedlo
(ali pa ne) do diplome, krone študija na fakulteti.
Študij poteka v predavalnicah in risalnicah seminarjev, kjer vlada ustvarjalni vrvež, in pred študentom/-ko se postopoma razkriva dialektična
narava arhitekture: med sodobnostjo in preteklostjo, med večnostjo in
efemernim, med umetnostjo in tehniko in tako naprej. Velika predavalnica, knjižnica, bife v kleti, podstreha, pa tudi dvorišče, ulica in mesto so
prostori, v katerih študent/-ka dela, misli, se druži in postopoma osvaja
sposobnosti in znanje, da si bo znal/-a predstavljati še neobstoječe stavbe, jih zasnovati, sprojektirati in miselno obvladati celoten proces gradnje.
Finale študija, diploma, pa se odigra v sobi z velikim oknom in podobo mojstra na steni – Plečnikovi sobi, kjer so v omari s steklenimi vrati
zaklenjene Plečnikove knjige. Klasika in sodobnost, trajnost (lat. perennis)
in trajnostnost (angl. sustainability) se prepletajo v častitljivem in hkrati
dinamičnem miljeju. Nato pa diplomant/-ka sestopi v realnost profesije, ki
je obetavna in grozeča, vabljiva in negotova.
Vloga arhitekture v družbi se spreminja. Vse teže je precizno določiti obseg znanj in kompetenc, ki bi jih bodoči/-a arhitekt/-ka moral/-a pridobiti
When the future students of architecture walk for the first time through the
high doors under Plečnik’s portico supported by columns, i.e. a canopy and a
temple at the same time, they can physically sense – if they are at all sensitive
to the architectural message of the Classics – as if they had left their previous
lives behind and entered the 'magic World of Architecture'. They have between
five and eight years of studies ahead of them, leading (or not) to a diploma,
the crown of studies at the faculty.
The study is conducted in classrooms and Design Studio art rooms amid the
creative hustle and bustle; gradually, the dialectic nature of architecture is revealed to the student: between the present and the past, between the eternal
and the ephemeral, between art and technique etc. The great lecture hall, the
library, the basement café, the loft, and also the courtyard, the street and the
city are the spaces where the students work, think, socialise and gradually
build the skills and knowledge enabling them to imagine the yet non-existing
buildings, to conceptualise and design the buildings and to command the
overall building process.
The grand finale of the studies, the diploma, happens in a room with a large
window and with the picture of the maestro on the wall – in Plečnik’s room
where his books are locked behind the glass fronted cabinet. The classical and
the contemporary, the perennial (perennis) and sustainability are intertwined
in a venerable but also dynamic milieu. Then the graduate is confronted with
the reality of the profession, which is both promising and threatening, alluring
and uncertain.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
med študijem. Velikokrat je arhitektovo/-kino delo reducirano na površna
razumevanja s strani javnosti, drugih strok in celo samih arhitektov/-k, pa
naj gre za simbolno in etično dimenzijo, tehnologijo, ekologijo, nostalgijo,
vpetost v kontekst, zgodovino ali avantgardnost.
Na UL FA je živa in cenjena tradicija, da so profesorji/-ice ob tem, da so
pedagogi/-nje in raziskovalci/-ke hkrati tudi arhitekti/-ke v praksi. Zanesljiva roka profesorjev/-ic s praktičnimi izkušnjami je še kako pomembna,
da študent/-ka pridobi miselno strukturo, s pomočjo katere se lahko giblje
po nepreglednih in širnih prostorih študija in vstopa v poklicno kariero, ne
da bi pri tem izgubljal/-a profesionalni in etični kompas.
A kakovost šole se ne meri po delu profesorjev/-ic, pač pa po delu svojih
diplomantov/-k. Diplome postavljajo letvico, ki velja za naslednje generacije. Pri tem je pomembna raven doseženega znanja, veščine in discipline,
a samo to še ni dovolj. Verjamem, da vloga šole ni le, da podpira in razvija
arhitekturna znanja in talente, pač pa tudi eksperimentalno in raziskovalno strast, iz katere izhajajo nove arhitekturne ideje, vizije in projekti.
Predstavljene diplome se odlikujejo prav po tem, da se diplomant/-ka
ni zadovoljil/-a z doseženim, pač pa razvija nove koncepte in ideje ter
postavlja nove meje. Izbranih je le pet letošnjih diplom, a v knjižnici in
na spletnem portalu http://fadiploma.info/ najdemo še mnogo takih, ki
razveseljujejo avtorje, mentorje in študente ter odpirajo prostor za študij,
primerjanje in tekmovanje.
The societal role of architecture is changing. It is increasingly difficult to define
the range of knowledge and competence that the future architect should
acquire during the studies. Often the architect’s work is reduced to superficial
understanding by the public, other disciplines and even architects themselves,
whether it is in the symbolic or ethical sense, or with regard to technology,
ecology, nostalgia, contextualisation, history or avant-garde.
At the UL FA, there is a strong and valued tradition that the professors fulfil the
roles of teachers, researchers and practitioners at the same time. The reliable
hand of the professors with practical experience is all the more important for
the students to acquire a mindset, which helps them to move across the vast
space of the studies, before entering the professional career, without losing
their professional and ethical compass.
However, the quality of a school is not measured by the work of the teachers,
but by the work of its graduates. The undergraduate theses set the bar for
future generations. The level of knowledge, skills and discipline is important,
but this by itself is not enough. I believe that the role of the school is not only
to support and develop architectural knowledge and talents, but also the
experimental and research passion that gives rise to new architectural ideas,
visions and projects.
The presented theses was distinguished by the fact that the graduates refused
to be satisfied by their achievement only, but rather they developed new
concepts and ideas and created new boundaries. Only five undergraduate
theses from 2014 were chosen for this presentation; however, in the library
and the web-portal at http://fadiploma.info/ there are many others that bring
joy to the authors, mentors and students, and make room for further studies,
comparison and competition.
11
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Mojca Golobič
Doktorski študij s področja
krajinske arhitekture
Doctoral study programme in
Landscape Architecture
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
12
Zakaj doktorski študij krajinske arhitekture? Ker je krajina zapleten sistem,
ker pomeni kakovost bivanja, ker je osnova za samobitnost in kulturno
dediščino ... morajo naše odločitve o njej temeljiti na teoretično trdnih
konceptih in empiričnih podatkih.
Doktorski študij s področja krajinske arhitekture poteka v okviru študija
Bioznanosti na Biotehniški Fakulteti. V okviru doktorskega študija izobražujemo strokovnjake za raziskovalno in akademsko delo na področju
krajinske arhitekture ter na interdisciplinarnih področjih, ki se ukvarjajo
z urejanjem prostora in varstvom okolja. Čeprav to v osnovi niso znanosti, pa odgovornost do javnosti in kompleksnost problemov zahtevata
argumentirane in verodostojne odločitve, ki morajo biti osnovane tudi na
rezultatih raziskovalnega dela. Temeljni področji raziskovanja sta teorija
stroke, na primer teorija oblikovanja, oblike, struktur, vzorcev v krajini,
teorija doživljanja krajine in metodologija stroke, raziskovanje in razvijanje
novih postopkov/metod načrtovanja. Kot ena izmed planerskih dejavnosti krajinska arhitektura vstopa v izrazito interdisciplinarne raziskave
z različnimi naravoslovnimi in družboslovnimi disciplinami, na primer
geografijo, ekologijo, hidrologijo, prostorsko sociologijo, ekološko psihologijo itd., z njim lastnimi raziskovalnimi metodami. Zato je doktorski
študij priložnost za razvijanje specifičnih znanj, ki združujejo posamezna
Why the doctoral study programme in Landscape Architecture? Acknowledging that landscape is a complex system, that the quality of landscape means
the quality of life, and that it is the basis of independence and cultural heritage, we should make our decisions about landscape based on theoretically
sound concepts and empirical data.
The doctoral study programme in Landscape Architecture is carried out in the
framework of the doctoral studies in Biosciences at the Biotechnical Faculty
of the University of Ljubljana. Within the doctoral study programme we aim
to train and educate experts for research and academic work in landscape
architecture and in interdisciplinary fields concerned with spatial planning
and environmental protection. Although these fields are not necessarily
sciences in their essence, the responsibility to the public and the complexity
of problems ask for well argued and reliable decisions that must be based on
research results. The basic research fields are theory of landscape architecture,
e.g. theory of design, form, structure, landscape patterns, theory of landscape
experience, and methodology of the profession, research and development of
new planning procedures/methods. As part of planning activities, landscape
architecture has entered distinctly interdisciplinary research, which involves
different natural and social sciences, such as geography, ecology, hydrology,
spatial sociology, ecological psychology etc., with their own research methods.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
raziskovalna področja. Doktorski študij s področja krajinske arhitekture je
usmerjen v prepoznavanje teh potreb ter razvoj uporabe znanstvenega
instrumentarija za interdisciplinarno raziskovanje.
Sedanji študijski program je sestavljen iz organiziranega pouka (predavanj, vaj, predstavitve teme doktorske disertacije idr.) v obsegu 60 kreditnih točk, preostalih 120 kreditnih točk pa je namenjenih individualnemu
raziskovalnemu delu za doktorsko disertacijo. Predavanja sestavljajo
temeljni (10 KT) in izbirni (5 KT) predmeti. Za področje krajinska arhitektura sta temeljna predmeta Teorija krajinskega oblikovanja in Teorija
varovalnega planiranja, izbirni predmeti pa so: Teorija oblike, Krajinsko
oblikovanje, Presoja vplivov na okolje, Metode v prostorskem planiranju, Tipologija kulturne krajine, Participativno prostorsko načrtovanje in
Krajinska antropologija. Doktorand izbere predmete skupaj z mentorjem
in koordinatorjem področja in glede na raziskovalno področje doktorske
disertacije. Potreben je vsaj en temeljni predmet s področja, na katerega
se doktorand vpiše. Izbor preostalih predmetov je možen izmed vseh
ostalih temeljnih in izbirnih predmetov študija in iz drugih primerljivih
programov domačih in tujih univerz.
V postopku je prenova doktorskega študija Bioznanosti, po kateri ne bo
več obveznih predmetov in bo študent lahko svobodno izbiral med predmeti na vseh 16 področjih, ki jih vključuje študij Bioznanosti. Med njimi
so poleg krajinske arhitekture še npr. agronomija, ekonomika naravnih
virov, hortikultura in varstvo naravne dediščine. Na prenovljenem študiju
krajinske arhitekture bomo zmanjšali število predmetov ter ponudili
predvsem vsebine, ki jih ne predavamo na II. stopnji in ki so na ustrezni
ravni zahtevnosti za III. stopnjo. Predvidoma bomo izvajali en predmet s
področja teorije oblikovanja krajine ter predmet Strateško planiranje in
analiza politik. V pripravi je še en izbirni predmet s področja zahtevnih
prostorskih (računalniških) analiz.
Ker doktorsko delo temelji na raziskovalnem delu, spodbujamo študente,
da se na študij vpišejo z okvirno predstavo o raziskovalnem vprašanju,
ki ga nameravajo obdelati v svoji disertaciji. Če je le mogoče, študente
vključimo v delo na potekajočih projektih ali jim pomagamo pri pridobivanju projektov ter s tem pogojev za izvedbo raziskave, ki je potrebna v
okviru disertacije. V zadnjih letih so bile na študiju KA izdelane disertacije
z naslednjimi naslovi:
In the context of the doctoral studies lies the opportunity to develop the
specific knowledge that combines the knowledge in other specific research
fields. The doctoral study programme in Landscape Architecture is focused on
the recognition of these needs and on developing the use of scientific instruments for interdisciplinary research.
Currently, the study programme consists of organised lessons (lectures,
practicals, presentations of PhD topics etc.) totalling 60 credits (ECTS), while
the remaining 120 credits are devoted to individual research work for the PhD
thesis. The lectures comprise basic (10 ECTS) and elective (5 ECTS) courses.
For the programme in Landscape Architecture, the basic courses are Theory
of Landscape Design and Conservation Planning Theory. The elective courses
are: Theory of Design, Landscape Design, Environmental Impact Assessment,
Methods of Spatial Planning, Typology of the Cultural Landscape, Participative
Spatial Planning, and Landscape Anthropology. A doctoral student selects the
courses together with the supervisor and field coordinator, in relation to the
research field of the PhD thesis. The choice of at least one basic course from
the selected field of study is required. The choice of other courses is possible
from among all other basic and elective courses and from other comparable
programmes of domestic and foreign universities.
The doctoral study programme in Biosciences is currently being revised; there
will be no more compulsory courses and the student will be free to choose
among the courses in all 16 fields that are part of the Biosciences study programme. Along with Landscape Architecture, other fields include Agronomy,
Economics of Natural Resources, Horticulture, and Protection of the Natural
Heritage. In the revised programme in Landscape Architecture the number of
courses will be reduced; it will mostly consist of the contents that are not delivered at level II, but rather have the complexity required for level III. A course
in the field of theory in landscape design and the course Strategic Planning
and Policy Analysis will be introduced. Another elective course in the field of
complex spatial (computer) analyses is also being prepared.
Since the PhD work is mainly research-based, we encourage the students who
enrol to already have a general idea about the research question that they intend to address in their thesis. If possible the students are included in ongoing
projects or we help them in applications for projects, to secure the necessary
conditions for their PhD research. In recent years, the following PhD theses
were prepared as part of the programme in Landscape Architecture:
■■ Vloga posameznih čutil pri oblikovanju regionalne identitete Dalmacije,
■■ The role of certain senses in creating the regional identity of Dalmatia,
■■ Zeleni sistem v razvoju odprtih površin izbranih mediteranskih obmorskih mest,
■■ Green systems in the evolution of the open space of selected Mediterranean towns,
■■ Simulacija razvojnih procesov v prostoru z uporabo tehnik strojnega
učenja,
■■ Simulation of spatial development processes using machine learning
techniques,
■■ Kompleksnost oblikovane krajine,
■■ Designed landscape complexity,
■■ Scenarij razvoja kulturne krajine kot dejavnik spreminjanja stališč in
ravnanja deležnikov,
■■ Influence of landscape scenarios on stakeholder attitudes and actions,
■■ Krajina kot dejavnik usmerjanja urbanizacije pri načrtovanju stanovanjskih območij.
■■ Landscape as a factor in directing urbanisation in housing planning.
13
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Aleksander Saša Ostan
Arhitekturna ustvarjalnost in
izobraževalni procesi v času globalne krize
Architectural creativity and educational
processes in a time of global crisis
UVODNIK
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PROJEKT
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
14
Uvod
Introduction
Arhitektura je dejavnost, za katero sta potrebni tako igriva ustvarjalnost
kot tudi vztrajna disciplina. Medtem ko pri umetnostih prevladuje prva
in pri znanostih druga značilnost, je za snovanje kakovostne arhitekture
nujni pogoj dopolnjujoče se, dinamično ravnovesje med njima. Zato je
celovito preseganje različnih dualizmov in razločnih antagonizmov v
ustvarjalnih procesih imanentno naši stroki. Za pedagoge to predstavlja
poseben izziv, saj morajo študentom odpirati senzibilnosti in percepcije,
ki vzpostavljajo ustvarjalne vezi med različnimi komplementarnostmi: med analitskim in sintetičnim mišljenjem, centralnim in lateralnim
vidom, med levo in desno možgansko hemisfero, miselnimi in čustvenimi
procesi, moškimi in ženskimi principi, med aktivnimi in kontemplativnimi
plastmi ustvarjanja, doživljanja in delovanja. Prevedeno v arhitekturni
kontekst: te dialoge lahko beremo tudi kot vezi med starim in novim, med
tradicijo in eksperimentom, vrednotenjem in raziskovanjem, varovanjem
in iznajdbo. Dajanje prednosti le enemu od obeh polov delovanja ne
more vzpostaviti zdravih, uravnoteženih strokovnih in človeških temeljev
oz. pogojev za zrel, ustvarjalen vzgojno-izobraževalni proces in tudi ne za
kasnejše celovito, polno in uspešno udejstvovanje v praksi.
Architecture is an activity that requires both playful creativity and persistent
discipline. The former is prevalent in arts, and the latter more prevalent in
sciences; however, the complementary and dynamic balance between both
characteristics is the condition necessary for the design of quality architecture. Therefore, the overall transcendence of the different dualisms and
distinct antagonisms in creative processes is immanent in our discipline.
This is a particular challenge for teachers whose role is to enhance students’
sensibilities and perceptions, forging creative links between different
complementarities: between analytical and synthetic thinking, central and
peripheral vision, between the left and right cerebral hemispheres, mental
and emotional processes, male and female principles, active and contemplative layers of creativity, experience and work. Translated into the architectural context, these dialogues can be seen as the links between the old
and the new, tradition and experiment, valuation and research, protection
and invention. To push forward only one of both poles of work is to prevent
the establishment of healthy, balanced, professional and human bases, i.e.
conditions for a mature and creative education process, as well as for future
comprehensive, fulfilling and successful work in practice.
Preletimo na hitro še nekaj tem, ki nam pomagajo uvideti, v kakšen svet
dandanes pošiljamo mlade diplomante.
Let us touch on some other topics to learn about the kind of world we send
our young graduates into.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
1. Naš planet se nevarno nagiba iz ravnovesja
1 Our planet is dangerously out of balance
Edini resni skupni imenovalec vseh globalnih kriz, ki se neposredno dotika prostora, je globalna ekološka kriza, ki je zaskrbljujoča. Sega od Arktike
do Antarktike (segrevanje planeta), od Katrine do Fukušime, od evropskih
megapoplav do afriških hipersuš, od norih zažiganj gozdov v Amazoniji
do »fucking frackinga« na Aljaski, od rušilnih sirijsko/iraško/afganistanskih
vojn do rapidnih kitajskih megaurbanizacij ... Krizo je nedvomno povzročil
sam človek s svojim nenasitnim pohlepom, s svojim imperativom o nujni,
nenehni ekonomski rasti. Vsakdo, še posebej pa študent arhitekture, se
mora zavedati dolgoročne kavzalnosti človekovih posegov v prostor.
The global ecological crisis, a cause for concern, is the only true common
denominator of all global crises that are directly concerned with space. It
extends from the Arctic to the Antarctic (global warming), from Katrina to
Fukushima, from European extreme floods to African mega-droughts, from
crazy forest burning in the Amazon to 'fucking fracking' in Alaska, from devastating Syrian/Iraqi/Afghan wars to the rapid megacity growth in China
etc. Without doubt, the crisis is a product of man’s insatiable greed, the
human imperative of the necessary, permanent economic growth. Anyone,
particularly any student of architecture, must be aware of the long-term
causality of human interference.
2. Kako se spopasti z nenasitno hiperurbanizacijo planeta?
2 How to tackle the insatiable hyper-urbanisation of our planet?
Akutni problem sodobnega sveta, ki se bolj neposredno dotika naše stroke, je prenapihnjena, rapidna, globalna (sub)urbanizacija, ki pljuska preko
vseh celin. Ne le da briše razlike med različnimi naravnimi in kulturnimi
konteksti, temveč uničuje tisto dobrino, v kateri se odvijajo vse človekove
dejavnosti, torej prostor. Ob tem je zaskrbljujoče tudi to, da je kakovost
teh novodobnih urbanih eksplozij, ki jih povzroča predvsem gon po
dobičku, večinoma zelo nizka. Alternativo lahko predstavlja le sonaraven, vzdržen, trajnostni prostorski razvoj: paradigma zajezitve patološke,
razpršene urbanizacije s kakovostno, notranjo rastjo in nadgradnjo mest.
Takšni so procesi reurbanizacije, regeneracije in revitalizacije naselbinske dediščine sveta. Zato je v študijskem procesu treba odpirati široke
poglede, vzgajati odprto komunikacijo, gojiti celosten pristop. Učiti, kako
posegati v prostor na (bolj) usklajen način, da ne bomo pokurili vseh
planetarnih »resursov«. Parcialna ali partikularna znanja so lahko le dopolnitev, ki napaja celoto, kot so posamezni predmeti lahko predvsem dobra
podpora celovitemu in povezanemu seminarskemu oz. študijskemu delu.
The acute problem in the world today, which is more or less the concern of
the profession, is the overblown, rapid global (sub)urbanisation, spanning
over all continents. Not only that it erases the differences between different
natural and man-made contexts, but it also destroys the resource where all
human activities take place, i.e. space. The quality of these present-day urban explosions, generated and driven by profit, is mostly low. Only sustainable spatial development can provide an alternative: paradigm of restricting
the pathological, disperse urbanisation with quality, organic growth and
upgrading of cities. These processes include reurbanisation, regeneration
and revitalisation of the settlement heritage worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the views, to teach open communication, and to cultivate
an integrated approach in the study process. To teach how to develop space
in a (more) harmonious way, without using up all Earth’s resources. Partial or
particular knowledge can only be complementary knowledge feeding the
whole, in the way that the individual courses can only be a good support to
a comprehensive and integrated seminar or study work.
3. Ali arhitektura in urbanizem sploh še lahko pomagata reševati
probleme sveta?
3 Can architecture and urbanism still help to solve the problems of
the world?
Kaj nam sploh še pomenijo »luštna hiška«, »odštekan muzej« ali le še eno
novo »generično naselje« na planetarni ladji, za katero se zdi, da se potaplja? Ali so vse sile in ves čas, ki jih usmerjamo v izolirane delčke celote,
sploh še vredni vseh velikih naporov? Kje je pravo razmerje med »vedeti
skoraj vse o skoraj nič ali vedeti skoraj nič o skoraj vsem«? Mar naj še
naprej vodimo izobraževalne napore predvsem v smeri bega od resničnih
problemov; v bolj ali manj izpraznjene formalizme, ki ne le, da ne zmorejo,
temveč tudi nočejo sodelovati pri reševanju kompleksne problematike
sveta? Verjamem, da je mogoče povezati oboje: se kot majhen »demiurg«
ustvarjalno lotiti strokovne naloge ob kritični zavesti, da nad nami visi
Damoklejev meč usihanja sveta! A za tak odnos študentje/-tke nujno
potrebujejo povabilo v ozaveščen, kritičen, celosten, interdisciplinaren,
participativen in timski pristop, ki odpira ustvarjalnost in hkrati podpira
posameznikovo samozavest. Začeti je treba že zgodaj v izobraževalnem
procesu, fakulteta pa lahko na zdravi splošni osnovi ponudi vrhunsko
strokovno in intelektualno dopolnitev oz. nadgradnjo.
What is the significance of a 'cute little house', a 'funky museum', or yet another 'generic settlement' on the planetary ship that seems to be sinking?
Are all our efforts and the time dedicated to the isolated particles of the
whole still worth all our considerable efforts? What is the correct relationship between 'knowing almost everything about almost nothing, and
knowing almost nothing about almost everything'? Will we still orient our
educational efforts towards escaping from real problems; leaning on more
or less empty formalisms that not only cannot, but will not participate in
solving the complex problems of the world? I believe that we can connect
both: to creatively tackle the professional tasks as the small Demiurge, as
it were, along with being critically aware that the Sword of Damocles of
the perishing world is hanging above us! However, for such a relationship,
the students need an invitation to an informed, critical, comprehensive,
interdisciplinary, participatory team approach, which opens creativity
and supports the individual’s confidence. An early start in the educational
process is necessary; the school can build on the healthy general basis and
offer state-of-the-art professional and intellectual completion or upgrading.
15
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
4. Pojava urejanja prostora in kakovostne arhitekture sta v Sloveniji
povsem neprepoznana
4 The phenomena of spatial planning and quality architecture in
Slovenia are completely unrecognized
Pri nas se družba – od političnih odločevalcev do različnih javnosti – sploh
ne zaveda velikega pomena arhitekture in urejanja prostora za kakovost
bivanja, psihično in fizično zdravje državljanov, socialno kohezivnost ali
alienacijo skupnosti, stimulacijo ali destimulacijo človekove ustvarjalnosti
… Težka, skoraj polstoletna dediščina kolektivne sistemske pozabe, samoin črnograditeljstva, cepljena z brezbrižno permisivnostjo in deregulacijo
tranzicije, so pogojili topo, »atopično« mentaliteto, ki ni občutljiva za vprašanja lepega, javnega, ustvarjalnega prostora, v katerem živi. In vendar
naj bi bili arhitekti, urbanisti, krajinski arhitekti in prostorski načrtovalci
predvsem kreativni varuhi in snovalci prostora, njegova občutljiva vest
in zavest hkrati. Arhitekt bi zato moral biti tudi pri nas reguliran poklic, ki
deluje v imenu in v zaščito javnega dobra, kot je običajno povsod drugod
po razviti Evropi (razen še v Bolgariji in Albaniji ... hm).
The society – from political decision-makers to different publics – is not
aware of the great significance of architecture and spatial planning for quality of living, psychological and physical health of citizens, social cohesion
and alienation of the society, stimulation and de-stimulation of human
creativity. The difficult, almost 50-year old heritage of collective systemic
oblivion, of self-build and illegal building, split with indifferent permissiveness and deregulation of transition was the basis of the blunt, 'atopic' mentality insensitive to the questions of the beautiful, public and creative space
that it occupies. And yet, architects, urban designers, landscape architects
and spatial planners are supposed to be the creative guardians and spatial
designers, the sensitive conscience and awareness at the same time. The
profession of an architect in Slovenian should be regulated, operating in
the name, and for protection, of the general good, as is the case elsewhere
in the developed Europe (except for maybe in Bulgaria and Albania ...).
Resnični prostor je navsezadnje edina prava posoda za bivanje, ki jo na
tem planetu premoremo (njegova virtualna različica je lahko le boljši ali
slabši medij ali surogat): je univerzalna dobrina, s katero mora družba
skrajno skrbno, racionalno, seveda pa tudi ustvarjalno ravnati! Zavedati bi
se morali, kaj družbi prinesejo kakovostni urbanizem, prostorsko načrtovanje ali arhitektura, zakaj jih v razvitih državah cenijo kot dolgoročni
»nacionalni interes« v razponu od ekonomije in energije do ekologije.
Med varovanjem in (so)oblikovanjem prostora je namreč še cela paleta
ustvarjalnih možnosti, s pomočjo katerih družba lahko poskrbi za boljše
ali slabše pogoje za zdravo, odprto, ustvarjalno življenje!
5. Kako poučevati arhitekturo v teh burnih časih?
UVODNIK
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PROJEKT
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
16
»There is hope in honest error. None in the icy perfections
of the mere stylist.« (Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Glasgow, 1901)
Časi tranzicijske konjunkture, ki so podpirali prenapihnjene projekte, ki
niso bili v skladu z realnimi zmožnostmi družbe, so mimo; zato je nujno
stimulirati inovativnost v stroki, a ne toliko v smislu potratnih formalističnih eksperimentov, temveč celostnih, ekoloških, socialnih, energetskih in
drugih raziskav. V arhitekturnih šolah je treba ponovno poučevati širše,
celovito, integralno branje prostora in se nanj vedno znova navezovati;
to je temeljna razsežnost kakovostne, vzdržne, kontekstualne, regionalne
arhitekture. Jasno je, da se mesta ne smejo več v nedogled širiti v naravni
prostor, temveč morajo primarno nadgrajevati svojo »notranjo rast«: zato
bodo vse več dela v bližnji bodočnosti predstavljale prenove obstoječega
fonda: reurbanizacije, revitalizacije, regeneracije in reciklaže ... Tudi pri nas
bi bilo treba več pozornosti posvetiti tem temam.
Študente v končni fazi pripravljamo na samostojno delovanje v stroki:
zato je njihovo razumevanje in občutljivost bolj smiselno odpirati v
smeri ustvarjalnih branj, procesov, principov, kot pa k izdelavi popolnega končnega produkta (poučevanje arhitekture še vedno servilno sledi
povpraševanju globaliziranega, generičnega trga, ki je osredotočen zgolj
Ultimately, our real space is the only true vessel of living that we have on
this planet (its virtual version can only be a better or worse medium or a
surrogate): it is a universal good with which the society has to deal with
carefully, rationally, and, of course, creatively! We should be aware of the
contribution of quality town planning, spatial planning and architecture,
and why in developed countries these disciplines are recognised as the
long-term 'national interest', ranging from economy, energy to ecology.
Between protection and (co)design of space there is, in fact, a range of
creative possibilities, which can help the society to improve or worsen the
conditions of a healthy, open, creative life!
5 How to teach architecture in these turbulent times?
»There is hope in honest error. None in the icy perfections
of the mere stylist.« (Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Glasgow, 1901)
The transitional conjuncture that supported bloated projects, which were
not within the actual abilities of the society, is over; we should stimulate innovation in the profession, not so much in the sense of wasteful formalistic
experiments, but as comprehensive, ecological, social, energy studies etc.
Schools of architecture should reintroduce the broader, comprehensive,
integrated comprehension of space, and reconnect with it; this is the basic
dimension of quality, sustainable, contextual, regional architecture. It has
become clear that cities should not go on expanding ad infinitum into
natural areas, but should primarily upgrade their 'organic growth': therefore, more and more future work will involve renovating the existing stock:
reurbanisation, revitalisation, regeneration, recycling etc. In Slovenia more
attention should be given to these topics.
Ultimately, the students are being prepared for independent work in the
profession: it seems reasonable to open their understanding and sensitivity towards creative understanding, processes, and principles, rather than
to produce the perfect end product (teaching architecture still servilely
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
na objekt ali večkrat še ožje, na oblikovanje fasadne opne objekta ...).
Zrel končni izdelek se vzporedno s posameznikovo osebnostno rastjo po
navadi izoblikuje šele s strokovnim dozorevanjem kasneje v praksi. Zato
mlade ljudi in strokovnjake vzgajamo tudi v smislu osebnostne zrelosti
in pokončnosti, ne le v akademsko-strokovnem smislu. V nepredvidljivih
in ustvarjalno burnih kriznih časih je posameznikova avtonomnost ena
najboljših popotnic za kreativno preživetje, saj se bodo službe vse manj
ponujale ali prinašale »na pladnju«, poklic pa si bo v kombinaciji sledenja
»notranjemu klicu« in odzivanja na družbeno situacijo mladi strokovnjak
vedno bolj sooblikoval kar sam!
6. Nujnost odpiranja in povezovanja arhitekture
Če hočejo biti prostorske stroke, še posebej arhitektura, v družbi ponovno
prepoznane kot relevantne ali celo nepogrešljive, moramo po eni strani
poglabljati znanja in raziskovanja znotraj lastnega ustvarjalnega polja,
po drugi pa se odpirati v sodelovanja z drugimi, predvsem sorodnimi
strokami. Zato mora študij omogočiti in vzpodbujati širjenje in poglabljanje vedenja tako v sodelovanju s tehničnimi disciplinami in znanostjo
(od raziskav v gradbeništvu do eksperimentov v vrhunski fiziki) kot tudi
z umetnostnimi disciplinami in humanističnimi vedami. Med bližnjimi, a
spregledanimi, so za nas še posebej pomembne arhitekturna teorija, arhitekturna in umetnostna zgodovina, etnologija in antropologija, filozofija
in psihologija, sociologija in etika in druge. V sodobnem svetu se vse omenjene stroke, ki hočejo ustvariti presežke, povezujejo in dopolnjujejo, a
vsaka ima svoje težišče in deluje primarno znotraj tega. Arhitektura pa že
vsaj od Vitruvija naprej po svoji generalistični naravi povezuje in preči vsa
omenjena polja. Seveda pa arhitektura v strokovnem in tudi človeškem
smislu ne sme postati le servis politiki, spornemu kapitalu ali drugim partikularnim interesom, kar se pri nas vse preveč rado dogaja …
Čas krize je torej optimalni čas, da se preverijo izhodišča in poslanstvo
stroke, da se vzpostavi zavest o nujnosti poglobljenega znanja v arhitekturi in modrosti o njej sami. In čeprav primarno poslanstvo arhitekture ni
v izdelovanju izoliranih, zgolj »lepih« objektov, temveč v celovitem, odgovornem in ustvarjalnem delovanju v polju arhitekturne kulture, se del
njenega smisla zrcali prav skozi njih: podobno kot se vsaka dobra, iskrena
misel zapiše nekam v duhovno prostorčasje človeštva, tudi vsako zrelo
arhitekturno dejanje, ki na Zemljo prinese vsaj za drobec več lepega in
resničnega – pa naj gre za še tako majhno hiško – predstavlja kamenček v
ogromnem mozaiku, ki ga gradimo za boljši jutri tega planeta.
follows the demands of the globalised, generic market focused only on the
structure, or even less than that, e.g. the design of its façade membrane).
Along with the individual’s personal growth, a mature end product can be
normally achieved only with professional maturity that comes at a later
stage of work. This is why young people and professionals are raised in
the sense of personal maturity and uprightness, not only in the academic
and professional sense. In unpredictable and creatively turbulent times of
crisis, the individual’s autonomy is one of the best companions to creative
survival, since less and less jobs will be there waiting, while the profession,
combined with responding to one’s 'inner calling' and the social situation,
will be shaped by the young experts themselves!
6 The necessity to open up and connect architecture
If the professions concerned with space, particularly architecture, want
once again to be recognised as relevant and, indeed, indispensable, we
should, on the one hand, deepen our knowledge and research within our
own creative field, and, on the other hand, open ourselves to cooperation
with other, particularly related, professions. Hence, the study must enable
and promote expansion and deepening of knowledge in cooperation with
technical disciplines and science (from research in the building industry
to experiments in cutting edge physics), as well as with art disciplines and
human sciences. The related and often overlooked disciplines are architectural theory, history of architecture and arts, ethnology and anthropology, philosophy and psychology, sociology and ethics etc. Today, all these
professions, wanting to transcend their field, are connected and complementary to each other; however, each has its own centre and mostly functions within it, while architecture due to its generalist nature, at least since
Vitruvius onwards, connects and moves across all these fields. Of course,
architecture in both the professional and human sense must not end up
only in the service of politics, controversial capital and other particularistic
interests, which is all too often the case.
The time of the crisis is the optimal time to check the baselines and mission of the profession, to establish the awareness about the necessity of
in-depth knowledge in architecture and, indeed, the wisdom about it. Even
though the primary mission of architecture is not production of isolated,
merely 'beautiful' objects, but comprehensive, responsible and creative
work in the field of architectural culture, a part of its significance is reflected
through them: similarly to the way that any good and honest thought is
inscribed in the spiritual space-time of humanity, each mature architectural
activity brings to Earth another fragment of beauty and truth – may it be
the smallest of houses –, which is yet another piece in the mosaic created
for a better tomorrow of the planet.
17
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Thomas Dillinger
Doktorski študijski programi
s področja prostorskega načrtovanja
na Tehnični univerzi na Dunaju
Doctoral Studies in Spatial Planning at the
Technischen Universität Wien
UVODNIK
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ARTICLE
razprava
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PROJEKT
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
18
Tehnična univerza na Dunaju (Technische Universität Wien) je prve doktorske nazive podelila leta 1902. Danes doktorski program večinoma traja šest
semestrov. Trenutno veljavni program določa, da morajo doktorski kandidati
zbrati 180 kreditnih točk po ECTS iz modulov (od tega je 162 točk po ECTS
doktorska disertacija). Doktorski program se oceni ustno, kot splošni izpit
pred komisijo, in vključuje tudi kandidatov zagovor disertacije. Doktorji iz
tehničnih znanosti pridobijo naziv »Dr. techn.«, doktorji iz naravoslovja naziv
»Dr. rer. nat.« in doktorji iz humanistike in ekonomije naziv »Dr. rer. soc. oec.«.
Na Fakulteti za arhitekturo in prostorsko načrtovanje (Fakultät für Architektur
und Raumplanung) se večinoma podeljuje naziv »Dr. techn.«.
Učni načrt s področja prostorskega načrtovanja je bil zasnovan in sprejet
v 1970. letih (takrat petletni program za pridobitev akademskega naziva
»Dipl.-Ing.«). Prvi naziv »Dr. techn.« na področju prostorskega planiranja
je bil podeljen že leta 1972. Do danes je doktoriralo 80 kandidatov. Na
doktorskem programu prostorskega načrtovanja je sicer vpisanih okoli 70
študentov. Doktorske teme z različnih področij prostorskega planiranja
kandidati lahko izbirajo sami, dokončno pa se glede teme dogovorijo z
mentorjem. Fakulteta za arhitekturo in prostorsko načrtovanje je v sodelovanju z drugimi fakultetami, univerzami in ustanovami v zadnjih letih
razvila naslednje doktorske programe:
In the year 1902 the Technische Universität Wien awarded the first doctoral
degrees. Nowadays the doctoral programme usually lasts for six semesters.
In addition to the dissertation, the current standardised programme for
doctoral students stipulates that a total of 180 ECTS of modules (162 ECTS of
which are the dissertation) must be completed. The doctoral programme is
assessed in the viva voce, a general examination by a committee involving
defence of the dissertation by the candidate. Graduates of a doctorate in the
technical sciences are awarded the title Dr. techn., graduates of a doctorate
in the natural sciences are awarded the title of Dr. rer. nat. and graduates of a
doctorate in the social and economic sciences are awarded the title of Dr.rer.
soc.oec.. In the Faculty of Architecture and Planning the Dr. techn. is the
dominant awarded title.
The curriculum of Spatial Planning (at that time a five years programme
awarding the academic title Dipl.-Ing.) was founded in the seventies. Already
in the year 1972 the first Dr. techn. in the field of Spatial Planning was awarded. Since now 80 doctoral students graduated. Actually about 70 students
are registered in a doctoral programme in Spatial Planning. The topics
include various fields of Spatial Planning and are in general free of choice
by the candidate and finally negotiated with the advisor of the thesis. In the
last years the Faculty of Architecture and Planning developed with other
faculties, universities and institutions the following four specific doctoral
programmes:
Mednarodni doktorski program: Spatial Research Lab (laboratorij
prostorskega raziskovanja)
International Doctoral College: Spatial Research Lab
Doktorski kolegij (nem. Doktorandenkolleg) je Tehnična univerza na Dunaju razvila leta 2007, skupaj z univerzo HafenCity Universität v Hambur-
This college was established in 2007 together with HafenCity University
of Hamburg, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
gu, tehnološkim institutom Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, švicarskim
zveznim institutom za tehnologijo ETH Zürich, Univerzo v Stuttgartu in
Tehnično univerzo v Münchnu. Mednarodni doktorski program je namenjen kandidatom, ki so visoko kvalificirani v širokem spektru disciplin,
povezanih s prostorom, in želijo sodelovati v intenzivnem, akademsko
ustvarjalnem diskurzu o pomembnih prostorskih vprašanjih v okviru doktorske disertacije (PhD), s ciljem izdelave izvedljivih in inovativnih rešitev.
Prvi program se je osredotočil na možnosti prostorskega razvoja v evropskih metropolitanskih območjih. Izbrani rezultati raziskav so objavljeni v
publikaciji Forschungslabor Raum_Das Logbuch.
Technology Zurich, University of Stuttgart and the Technical University of
Munich. The International Doctoral College is open to excellently qualified
candidates from a wide range of spatially relevant disciplines who would
like to engage in an intensive, academically creative discourse on difficult,
spatially relevant problems within the framework of a doctoral thesis (PhD)
and with a view to elaborating viable and innovative attempts at solutions.
The first College was concentrated on perspectives of Spatial Development
in European Metropolitan Areas. Selected research results are published in
Forschungslabor Raum_Das Logbuch .
Okvirna tema drugega doktorskega kolegija v obdobju 2013–2016 je
»Preobrazba mest in krajin«. Različne spremembe v življenjskih okoljih,
usmerjene na notranji razvoj naselij, spremembe na področjih mobilnosti,
krajine, demografije in energije, ter ne nazadnje podnebne spremembe
zahtevajo razvoj celostnih in vidnih strategij ter konceptov za celostno,
holistično preobrazbo. Pri raziskovanju in razmejitvi raziskovalnih tem
doktorski študenti z različnih univerz in ustanov visokošolskega izobraževanja preučujejo pomembne prostorske probleme, povezane s preobrazbo mest in krajin nacionalnega in evropskega pomena v Švici, Nemčiji in
Avstriji (http://www.forschungslabor-raum.info).
The framework theme for the second Doctoral College in the period 2013–
2016 is »Transformation of Cities and Landscapes«. The diverse changes
taking place in living environments with the predominantly inward focus on
infill development, changes in the fields of mobility, landscape, demographics, energy, and not least climate change, call for integrated, demonstrable
strategies and concepts for comprehensive, holistic transformation. In order
to explore and delimit their research topics the doctoral students at the
various universities and institutes of higher education will analyse significant
spatial issues relating to the transformation of cities and landscapes of national and European importance in Switzerland, Germany and Austria (http://
www.forschungslabor-raum.info).
Doktorski program: Ozaveščenost o energetskih vprašanjih in
vprašanjih, povezanih z viri, v urbanem in regionalnem razvoju
Doctoral College: Energy and Resource Awareness in Urban and
Regional Development
Ta doktorski kolegij je del raziskovalne usmeritve »Energija in okolje« na
Tehnični univerzi na Dunaju in ponuja 10 doktorskih mest pod mentorstvom profesorjev Fakultete za arhitekturo in prostorsko načrtovanje.
Program se je začel izvajati 2013, osredotoča pa se na deset tem ozaveščenosti glede energije in virov:
■■ infrastrukturna ekonomika in politika ter trajnostna poraba virov: modeliranje in odpravljanje netrajnostnega učinka zaprtega sistema (angl.
lock-in)
This Doctoral College is part of the Research Focus »Energy and Environment« of the Technischen Universität Wien and offers 10 doctoral positions
under specific supervision of professors from the Faculty of Architecture and
Planning. It started 2013 and concentrates on the following ten different
topics on Energy and Resource Awareness:
■■ Infrastructure economics and policy, and sustainable resource consumption: Modelling and overcoming the unsustainable »lock‐in«
■■ u
rbano in regionalno planiranje in obnovljivi viri energije – strateški
izzivi, potenciali, orodja in izvajanje
■■ s trategije za spodbujanje nizkih emisij ogljika v urbanem in regionalnem planiranju – izzivi, potrebe, potenciali, orodja in izvajanje
■■ U
rban and regional planning and renewable energies – strategic challenges, potentials, tools And implementation
■■ L ow ‐ carbon strategies in urban and regional planning – challenges,
needs, potentials, tools and implementation
■■ Smart City as a socio‐technical innovative process
■■ p
ametno mesto (angl. Smart City) kot družbeno-tehnični inovativni
postopek
■■ Strategic Planning of energy efficient Smart Cities and Regions
■■ strateško načrtovanje energijsko učinkovitih pametnih mest in regij
■■ S trategic spatial concepts for an energy‐conscious infill development of
settlements
■■ s ocialno vedenje na področjih porabe energije, potreb po energiji in
mobilnosti
■■ s trateški prostorski koncepti za energetsko osveščeni notranji razvoj
naselij (angl. infill development)
■■ modelno zasnovana računalniška podpora odločanju pri obsežnih ukrepih
za spodbujanje energetske učinkovitosti v grajenem mestnem okolju
■■ s podbujanje povezovanja energetskih politik in politik mobilnosti prek
upravljanja – struktur in procesov
■■ Social behaviour in the fields of energy consumption and mobility
■■ M
odel‐based computational decision support for large‐scale energy
efficiency measures in the built urban environment
■■ P
romoting the integration of energy and mobility policies through
governance – structures and processes
■■ Mobility Management in the Smart City Context
(http://raum.tuwien.ac.at)
19
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
■■ upravljanje mobilnosti v okviru pametnega mesta
Doctoral College: Urban Energy and Mobility Systems
(http://raum.tuwien.ac.at)
In Cooperation with the Wiener Stadtwerke Holding AG (Vienna Public
Utilities Company) the course entitled »Urban Energy and Mobility Systems«
(URBEM-DK) has been developed and offered 10 doctoral positions. The goal
is the research and development of scenarios for the path to a »sustainable,
supply-secure, affordable and liveable city«, using the example of the city of
Vienna with an integrated and inter-disciplinary approach. Six faculties from
the University work together in this college.
Doktorski program: Urbani energetski sistemi in sistemi mobilnosti
Program »Urbani energetski sistemi in sistemi mobilnosti« je bil razvit v
sodelovanju z dunajskim javnim podjetjem Wiener Stadtwerke Holding
AG in ponuja 10 doktorskih mest. Cilj so raziskave in razvoj scenarijev za
»trajnostno in finančno dostopno mesto, ki ima zanesljivo oskrbo in je
prijazno za bivanje«, na primeru mesta Dunaj, s celostnim in interdisciplinarnim pristopom. V tem doktorskem kolegiju sodeluje šest fakultet
dunajske univerze.
Program vključuje modeliranje dunajskega potniškega sistema prevoza,
analizo energetskih vzorcev stavbnega fonda, simulacijo razdelilnih omrežij, skladiščenje, točke dovajanja toplotne energije, plina in elektrike ter
preučevanje zahtev IKT glede pametnih omrežij (Smart Grids). Na podlagi
tega se bodo razvijale možnosti, ki se bodo porajale po celotnem sistemu
v prihodnjih stoletjih, predvsem v povezavi z vmesnikom za ponudbo in
povpraševanje na področju energetike zgradb (http://urbem.tuwien.ac.at).
Doktorski program: CI-NERGY Smart cities with sustainable energy
systems (pametna mesta s trajnostnimi energetskimi sistemi)
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
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ARTICLE
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recenzija
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PROJEKT
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COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
20
Pred kratkim se je dunajska univerza pridružila mreži CI-Network; na voljo
sta dve doktorski mesti. Cilj mreže CI-NERGY Marie Curie Initial Training
Network (ITN) je usposabljanje mladih znanstvenikov za razvoj programskih orodij za podporo odločanju in operativni optimizaciji pri zmanjševanju uporabe neobnovljivih virov energije v mestih. Usposabljanje bo
potekalo v tesnem sodelovanju šestih najboljših raziskovalnih centrov in
štirih vodilnih industrijskih podjetij iz energetskega sektorja in sektorja
za tehnologijo programske opreme (Siemens, WienEnergie, EDF/EIFER in
IES). Raziskovalci bodo svoje rezultate uporabili na dveh študijah primera
(Ženeva in Dunaj), ki sta bili izbrani zaradi zelo ambicioznih trajnostnih ciljev. Mreža CI-NERGY bo multidisciplinarno usklajen doktorski program na
področju urbane energetske trajnosti in bo pokrival ključne urbane izzive,
povezane z nizkoogljično prihodnostjo (http://www.hft-stuttgart.de).
Kot je razvidno, gre razvoj študija v smer tematskih programov (kolegijev)
za zainteresirane doktorske študente. Velika prednost te strategije je, da
študentje svoje disertacije razvijajo v »raziskovalnem grozdu«, z drugimi
univerzami in ustanovami v mednarodnem okolju. Univerza doktorske
raziskave zato lažje vsaj delno sofinancira. Pri pridobivanju najboljših
»mladih raziskovalcev« ima zato Univerza na Dunaju veliko prednost pred
drugimi univerzami. Kljub temu pa doktorski študent podporo za ustrezni
pristop k oblikovanju raziskovalnega problema še vedno najde v prostorskem načrtovanju. Zagotavlja širok razpon doktorskih raziskav.
Fakulteta za arhitekturo in prostorsko načrtovanje spodbuja vrsto dejavnosti za pospeševanje doktorskih raziskav. V prostorskem načrtovanju, ki
je v primerjavi z drugimi znanstvenimi vedami mlada stroka, je spodbu-
The College includes modelling of the Vienna passenger transport system,
analysis of the energy patterns of the building stock, simulation of the
distribution networks, storage, feed-in points for thermal energy and gas
and electricity, and the study of the ICT requirements by urban Smart Grids.
Building on this, perspectives will be developed that will arise across this
whole system over the coming centuries, in particular with regard to the
interface with buildings-related energy supply and demand (http://urbem.
tuwien.ac.at).
PhD Programme: CI-NERGY Smart cities with sustainable energy
systems
Just recently the University joined the CI-Network and offers two doctoral
positions. The CI-NERGY Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) aims to
train young scientists to develop urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. The
training will be carried out by a close collaboration of six of the best academic
research centres and four leading industrial companies from the energy and
software technology sector (Siemens, WienEnergie, EDF/EIFER, and IES). The
research fellows will apply their results in two case study cities (Geneva and
Vienna), which were chosen for their very ambitious sustainability goals. The
CI-NERGY network will be a highly multi-disciplinary coordinated PhD programme on urban energy sustainability, covering the key challenges in cities
related to a low carbon future (http://www.hft-stuttgart.de).
As shown there is a trend to offer thematic Colleges for interested doctoral
students. This strategy has the big advantage that the students can develop
their theses in a »research cluster« with other universities and institution in
an international environment. Through these clusters it is also easier for the
University to offer at least partly financed doctoral research work. This is a
big advantage in the competition among the universities to get the best
»young researcher« in this field. Nevertheless the appropriate approach that
a doctoral student formulates his research question is very much supported
in the field of Spatial Planning. It guaranties a wide spectrum in doctoral
research.
The Faculty of Architecture and Planning is very much encouraging all kind
of activities, which help to bring forward doctoral research. Especially in
the – compared to other scientific disciplines – young discipline of Spatial
Planning the promotion of doctoral degrees is considered more and more as
very important element for the future scientific development.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
janje pridobivanja doktorske stopnje izobrazbe vse bolj pomemben del
prihodnjega znanstvenega razvoja.
References:
Literatura in viri:
Department für Raumplanung (2013). Accessed on 01 July 2014.
http://raum.tuwien.ac.at/download/EWARD_Description_PhD_Positions.pdf
Department für Raumplanung (2013). Pridobljeno s spletne strani 1. 7. 2014
http://raum.tuwien.ac.at/download/EWARD_Description_PhD_Positions.pdf
Entwicklungsplan 2013+ (2013). Technische Universität Wien Accessed on 30 July 2014.
http://www.tuwien.ac.at/fileadmin/t/tuwien/docs/leitung/ep_2013_fassung_05_2013.pdf
Entwicklungsplan 2013+ (2013). Technische Universität Wien. Pridobljeno s spletne strani 30. 7. 2014
http://www.tuwien.ac.at/fileadmin/t/tuwien/docs/leitung/ep_2013_fassung_05_2013.pdf
Forschungszentrum »Energie und Umwelt« (2014). Technische Universität Wien. Accessed on 01 July 2014.
http://urbem.tuwien.ac.at/dissertation_subjects/EN/
Forschungszentrum »Energie und Umwelt« (2014). Technische Universität Wien. Pridobljeno s spletne strani 1. 7.
2014. http://urbem.tuwien.ac.at/dissertation_subjects/EN/
Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart (2014). Accessed on 01.July 2014.
http://www.hft-stuttgart.de/Forschung/Projekte/Projekt100.html/en?set_language=en&cl=en
Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart (2014). Pridobljeno s spletne strani 1. 7. 2014.
http://www.hft-stuttgart.de/Forschung/Projekte/Projekt100.html/en?set_language=en&cl=en
International Doctoral College “Spatial Research Lab” (2012). Accessed on 01 July 2014.
http://www.forschungslabor-raum.info/index.php/en/
International Doctoral College »Spatial Research Lab« (2012). Pridobljeno s spletne strani 1. 7. 2014.
http://www.forschungslabor-raum.info/index.php/en/
21
III.
ČLANKI
ARTICLES
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar:
KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA
NAČRTOVANJE NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA
RAZVOJA .URBANIH OBMOČIJ
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION AND GUIDELINES FOR
LAND USE PLANNING IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
DOI: 10.15292/IU-CG.2014.02.024-032 UDK: 504.06 : 71 1.02 Pregledni znanstveni članek / Scientific Article SUBMITTED: May 2014 / REVISED: June 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
UVODNIK
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IZVLEČEK
ABSTRACT
Trajnostni prostorski razvoj je splošno sprejet vrednostni cilj in načelo
urejanja prostora. Operacionaliziran je predvsem z ukrepi za izvedbo v
predpisih posameznih sektorjev upravljanja z naravnimi viri, ne pa tudi
celovito v izvedbenih predpisih za upravljanje z urbanim prostorom. Med
najpomembnejše inštrumente politike urejanja prostora na lokalni ravni
sodi namenska raba tal, za katero ni opredeljene celovite sistematizacije
ukrepov za uresničevanje trajnostnih ciljev prostorskega razvoja v urbanih
območjih. Skladno s pregledom in kritično analizo literature so v prispevku
predstavljeni štirje ukrepi: zaščita naravnih virov in zmanjševanje okoljskopodnebnih tveganj, strnjena urbana struktura, mešane rabe in dostopnost
urbanih funkcij. Izkazalo se je, da našteti ukrepi omogočajo trajnostni
razvoj urbanih območij, vendar le pod pogojem, če se načrtujejo in izvajajo
skladno s podpornimi prostorskimi, socialnimi in ekonomskimi elementi urbanega prostora. V sklepu je predstavljen nabor kriterijev, s katerimi lahko
ovrednotimo stopnjo trajnosti zasnove namenske rabe v urbanih območjih
ter usmeritve za prestrukturiranje namenske rabe obstoječih poselitvenih
območij.
Sustainable spatial development is a generally accepted objective and
principle in spatial planning. It is implemented mainly by regulations in the
sectors for management of natural resources, but not comprehensively in
implementing regulations for urban space management. One of the most
important instruments of spatial planning at local level is land use, for
which there is no comprehensive framework of implementing measures
for achieving sustainable spatial objectives in urban areas. In accordance
with the review and critical analysis of literature, there are four measures
presented in the paper: protection of natural resources and reduction of
environmental-climate risks, compact urban structure, mixed-use and
accessibility of urban functions. The review and analysis have shown that
the listed measures enable sustainable development of urban areas, but
only if they are planned and implemented in accordance with supporting
physical, social and economic elements of urban space. In the conclusion,
indicators which can assess the level of sustainability in land use design are
presented and guidelines for restructuring land use in existing settlement
areas are described.
KLJUČNE BESEDE
KEY-WORDS
trajnostni prostorski razvoj, urbani prostor, raba tal, naravni viri
sustainable spatial development, urban space, land use, natural resources
24
Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar: KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA NAČRTOVANJE NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA RAZVOJA ... : 24–33(162)
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
1. INTRODUCTION
Sustainable spatial development has become a generally adopted value
system and compulsory format of all planning interventions, yet it hasn’t
been neither defined nor standardised. Fons et al. (2010) emphasise that
the concept of sustainable urban development in most cases does not have
clearly defined empirical and conceptual baseline. Therefore it is difficult
to determine objectively measurable and comparable data, which could
evaluate status and trends in terms of sustainable development. Sustainable spatial development is defined as strategic objective in a number of
international, European and national documents, such as: Agenda 21, the
Habitat Agenda, Rio +20, the Lisbon Strategy, the European Sustainable
Development Strategy, the Europe 2020 Strategy, Spatial Development
Strategy of Slovenia (Zavodnik Lamovšek, 2003; Rebernik, 2008; Perez-Soba et al., 2012). Sustainable spatial development objectives are operationalized through measures to be realised mainly in the sectors of natural
resources management (biodiversity, soil protection, water protection,
agriculture, etc.), but not comprehensively and adapted to management of
urban space. The problem of sustainable urban development can therefore
be defined as deficiency of links between global strategic objectives and a
comprehensive system of implementing measures and control criteria for
regulating urban space at local level.
Among the most important instruments of spatial planning at local level,
according to Pogačnik (1999), is land use. This instrument coordinates
protective and developmental aspects of spatial-environmental, social and
economic development of urban areas. Land use defines areas for (Perez-Soba et al., 2012):
■■ agriculture, forestry and exploitation of natural raw materials, which are
traditionally economic categories of land use;
■■ nature conservation, natural resources and rural tourism as predominantly protective categories of land use;
■■ areas for settlements, transport and municipal energy infrastructure as
predominantly urban land use.
According to Rydin (2011) land use is defined in a multi-disciplinary process
and participation of lay and professional publics, whereby the interests of
various stakeholders are made instrumental in planning documents. The
starting point of the process should be stimulation of local well-being and
economic prosperity, while the result is the definition of areas of different
land uses, which accelerate their mutual positive effects, diminish negative
effects and increase the economic value of land.
However, the characteristics of land uses in today's cities are different.
According to a number of authors (Rebernik et al., 2008; Fons et al., 2010;
Rydin, 2011) they are dominated by dispersed urbanization, extensive
monoprogramic areas and fragmented areas of natural habitats which
cause a number of environmental, social and economic problems, such as:
high consumption of resources, environmental pollution, suburbanization,
inefficient mobility, high cost of public infrastructure, social stratification,
etc.. Many spatial models and best practices in sustainable spatial deve-
lopment are described in professional and scientific literature, but they are
not systemised or methodologically introduced into a day-to-day urbanistic
practice (see also: Williams et al., 2001; Mostafavi and Doherty, 2010; Meijer
et al., 2011). The purpose of the article is therefore to systematically review
and critically analyse expert and scientific literature in order to identify
comprehensive measures for achieving objectives of sustainable spatial
development by instrument of land use.
Spatial measures in the instrument of land use which enhance sustainability are (see e.g. Williams at al., 2001; Marušič and Mlakar, 2004; Park and Andrews, 2004; Plut, 2006; Pogačnik et al., 2006; Rebernik et al., 2008; Zavodnik
Lamovšek et al., 2008; Garcia et al., 2012):
■■ safeguarding of natural resources and diminishing environmental-climate risks;
■■ compact urban structure;
■■ mixed use;
■■ accessibility of urban functions.
The article argues that the listed measures are efficient only when planned
and implemented into urban areas together with supporting spatial, social
and economic measures (see e.g. Gehl et al., 2006; Goličnik et al., 2008;
Rydin, 2011; Leduc and Van Kann, 2013).
Based on the reviewed literature, the article first presents the concept of sustainable spatial development and its effect on land use planning, and then
outlines particular underlying measures. Each measure is described and
critically analysed from the perspective of achieving sustainable impacts on
natural environment and urban space. A set of criteria which can be applied
to assess the level of sustainability of land use in urban areas and guidelines
for restructuring land use in extant settlement areas conclude the article.
2. DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS
EFFECTS ON LAND USE PLANNING
In their concept of sustainability and equilibrium, Pogačnik et al. (2006)
distinguish four aspects:
■■ environmental aspect, focusing on the functionality and capacity of
natural equilibrium, orientation to environmental carrying capacity,
safeguarding of natural resources, sustainable exploitation of natural
resources and preservation of landscape variety;
■■ social aspect, manifested by changes in societal values, inter- and intra-generational justice, ensuring levels of sufficiency, increasing qualitative aspects of social welfare (e.g. health, quality of life, social justice,
landscape variety);
■■ economic aspect, which is conditioned by safeguarding of natural
resources and manifested by balanced economic growth and level of
exploitation of natural resources, increasing efficiency of economic
development, ensuring specific levels of self-sufficiency, stimulating
circular economic development which reduces the use of natural resources and replaces them with continuous recycling of waste products;
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
■■ cultural aspect, which is seen as respect for cultural particularities, safeguarding regional identity and cultural variety.
As it is evident from the objectives listed the sustainable spatial development is possible through intertwining actions at all levels of urban space.
It is a complex and interdependent network of elements and corresponding measures. Čerpes (2010, p. 108) states: “The sustainable city/.../ is not
a physical phenomenon or spatial form. It is a social process of constant,
gradual realisation of sustainability goals, nature- and humanity-friendly
development in all aspects of social life”.
Becker et al. (1997 in: Kos, 2004) defined the relations between environmental-spatial, socio-cultural and economic factors with the concept of
three levels of sustainable development that have to be observed simultaneously: analytical, normative and strategic. The analytical level brings empirical measuring of consequences of societal actions on the use of natural
is resources
a social process
constant, gradual
realisation
sustainability
goals, nature- the
and normative
humanity-friendly
andofcarrying
capacity
of theofnatural
environment,
development
in
all
aspects
of
social
life”.
level checks the level and mode of societal responses to these findings,
while the strategic level defines goals and measures for achieving sustainBecker et al. (1997 in: Kos, 2004) defined the relations between environmental-spatial, socio-cultural and
able development. Kos (2004) points out that interpretation of sustainable
economic factors with the concept of three levels of sustainable development that have to be observed
development must (ibid., p. 335): “/.../ also consider the ‘motivation capacity’
simultaneously: analytical, normative and strategic. The analytical level brings empirical measuring of
of humanity, which encompasses both cognitive and value-related diconsequences of societal actions on the use of natural resources and carrying capacity of the natural
mensions. Therefore for the enforcing of ‘sustainable development’ it is of
environment, the normative level checks the level and mode of societal responses to these findings, while the
utmost importance to 1) structure very complex ideas and 2) achieve constrategic level defines goals and measures for achieving sustainable development. Kos (2004) points out that
cordance on the dynamics of introducing new, inevitable measures.” These
interpretation of sustainable development must (ibid., p. 335): “/.../ also consider the ‘motivation capacity’ of
findings
give
a clear answer
to the
sustainable
humanity,
which
encompasses
both cognitive
andquestion
value-relatedwhy
dimensions.
Thereforedevelopment
for the enforcing of
cannot
be
globally
standardised.
It
can
be
standardized
on theideas
analytical
‘sustainable development’ it is of utmost importance to 1) structure very complex
and 2) achieve
level,
where
the
level
of
burdening
of
natural
environment
can
bea measuconcordance on the dynamics of introducing new, inevitable measures.” These findings give
clear answer to
empirically,
but when
it comes
responsesIt (normative
level)on the
thered
question
why sustainable
development
cannot to
be societal
globally standardised.
can be standardized
or thelevel,
definition
achieving
andenvironment
strategies
these
are it
analytical
where the of
level
of burdeninggoals
of natural
can(strategic
be measured level),
empirically,
but when
conditioned
by their
pertaining
environments.
comes
to societal responses
(normative
level) or socio-cultural-economic
the definition of achieving goals and
strategies (strategic level),
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL these are conditioned by their pertaining socio-cultural-economic environments.
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Picture 1: Scheme for sustainability principles of urban areas by the method of urban metabolism (adapted from
DIPLOMA Meijer
Picture
1: Scheme
et al.,
2011) for sustainability principles of urban areas by the
MASTER THESIS method of urban metabolism (adapted from Meijer et al., 2011)
Despite the complexity and mutual interdependence of components in sustainable cities the article focuses on its
26
Despite the complexity and mutual interdependence of components in
sustainable cities the article focuses on its spatial-environmental level and
impacts on natural resources. Sustainability performance of urban area in
terms of burdening natural resources can be evaluated by the method of
urban metabolism. Spatial-structural parts of the city are defined as flows
of energy and material, which demand inputs of energy and material and
produce a defined quantity of products – material and energy emissions.
Sustainable development demands reduction of burdening of natural
resources, therefore cities pursuing the sustainable course have to diminish
quantities of energy-material inputs and efficiently use energy from renewable sources. Thus the quantity of energy-material products is diminished
and also returned to the system as recycled – secondary inputs (Plut, 2006).
According to Meijer et al. (2011), energy-material inputs which are necessary for the functioning of urban systems are water, soil, energy, resources or
raw materials, while the products are hard waste and emissions into the air,
water and soil, which directly pollute natural resources (picture 1). Inefficient use and pollution of natural resources decrease the suitability of the
environment for settlement and carrying capacity for the functioning of the
urban system. They also have negative economic consequences because of
the necessary investment in remediation of environmental damages and
negative effects on the health of population.
The variable which can evaluate the amount of inputs into the urban
system, the processes within and the quantity of products is the use of
energy (Liu et al., 2009; Pincetl et al., 2012). The indicator of energy use in
urban areas is objective when calculated with the LCA method (Life Cycle
Assessment), which provides control over environmental impacts of cities
on the local and global levels (Liu et al., 2009).
The article proposes principles of land use planning, which we have, following Becker, grouped at the analytical level of sustainable development.
They diminish the burdening of natural environments, i.e. they preserve the
environment’s natural potential, enable rational use of land, decrease the
use of energy, water and materials and cause less pollution.
3. PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING IN URBAN
AREAS
3.1 Safeguarding natural resources and diminishing environmentalclimate risks
Safeguarding and efficient management of natural resources and potential
environmental risks were amongst the first measures when environmental-sustainability aspects were introduced to spatial planning. In member
states of the European Union they are officially adopted within national
legislative frameworks. In Slovenia safeguarding conditions are stipulated
for drinking water aquifers, aquatic areas, agricultural land and forests,
areas with natural values, flood plains, landslides and for the exploitation of
natural resources. Many authors criticise the departmental and regulatory
approach, since the quality and dynamics of ecosystems are not sufficiently observed, nor is placing activities optimised (e.g.: Williams et al., 2001;
spatial-environmental level and impacts on natural resources. Sustainability performance of urban area in terms
of burdening natural resources can be evaluated by the method of urban metabolism. Spatial-structural parts of
Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar: KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA NAČRTOVANJE NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA RAZVOJA ... : 24–33(162)
the city are defined as flows of energy and material, which demand inputs of energy and material and produce a
defined quantity of products – material and energy emissions. Sustainable development demands reduction of
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Marušič and Mlakar, 2004; Carter et al., 2005). Marušič and Mlakar (2004)
estimate that effective and comprehensive spatial planning is possible
only through the assessment of space for safeguarding and development
of particular spatial elements, which can be provided by analytical spatial
planning tools, such as e.g. the vulnerability analysis.
In the evaluation analysis of protection and development of spatial features
the following should be considered (Williams et al., 2001; Marušič and Mlakar, 2004; Carter et al., 2005; Pogačnik et al., 2006; Vrščaj and Vernik, 2010;
Garcia et al., 2012):
■■ elements of nature protection: legally protected natural areas, landscape and ecosystem functions of the environment, connectivity and
integrity of natural habitats;
■■ elements of nature protection as natural resource: forest areas, areas of
surface and underground waters, areas for food and biomass production, safeguarding soil for its environmental role in matter-energy cycles,
areas for exploitation of the renewable energy sources and the natural
resources;
■■ elements of quality of living: mitigation of environmental risks (floods,
storms, landslides, droughts, explosions, fires) and climate change
mitigation.
The issue of climate change and connected risks isn’t dealt with adequately
in spatial planning. Urban planning can be instrumental in alleviating the
causes and consequences of climate change. The cause demands a global
measure: decrease in use of fossil fuels. Land use planning can affect changes in use of energy for transport, construction, use and maintenance of
buildings and utilities-energy infrastructure. The consequences of climate
change demand local measures, adapted to local climatic conditions and
scenarios of climate changes. According to Kajfež Bogataj (2012) urban
planning in Slovenia has to predict measures to:
■■ decrease temperatures of urban heat islands in the summer,
■■ retain precipitation and flood water,
■■ prevent consequences of higher sea levels in coastal areas,
■■ manage water supply for the population and for agriculture,
■■ adapt to decreased quantity of snowfall in the winter.
In the research project Adapting to climate change with spatial planning
tools, Golobič et al. (2012) developed a method of analysing vulnerability
of space to climate change and standing spatial measures for adaptation to
climate change.
3.2 Compact urban structure
Compact or dispersed urban areas are determined by physical (morphological) and functional characteristics. Galster et al. (2001 in: Fons et al., 2010)
have identified a dispersion of urban areas with low levels of some of the
eight parameters: density, connectivity, concentration, clustering, centrality,
nuclearity, mixed-use and proximity. Physical compactness depends on spatial distribution of land uses, while the functional depends on density and
mixing functions. Zavodnik Lamovšek et al. (2008) define also population
density as a criterion for compactness of urban areas. The authors have developed a methodology for defining borders of compact urban areas, which
is an operational planning tool for preventing dispersed urbanization.
The effects of compactness of urban areas on the use of natural resources,
particularly energy use, are subject to numerous studies. Park and Andrews
(2004) proved that the use of energy for transport decreases when urbanised areas are more compact, when higher variety and density of urban
functions, housing and work places is ensured (mixed use) and positioned
at shorter distances (accessibility to urban functions). The authors establish
that negative effects of increased car-mobility cannot be dispatched only
by technical innovations (hybrid vehicles, cleaner technologies, intelligent
information systems on the transport network, etc.). However, Fons et al.
(2010) point out that the difference between energy use in transport is
essential only in extreme urban patterns of compactness and dispersion.
They note that the impact of land use on energy use in transport and consequently on air pollution is strongly conditioned by the effectiveness of
public transport, the corresponding density of population, local geographic
and climatic conditions.
Prevalent strategies for preventing urban sprawl are reuse of degraded
urban areas, quality densification of housing estates and compact development of already urbanised areas (Koželj, 1998; Rebernik et al., 2008; Garcia
et al., 2012). Strategies of contemporary sustainable cities are directing development into corridors with high-capacity, competitive public transport,
with the nodes of programmatically self-sufficient compact urban areas
(Šašek Divjak, 2004).
Inner city development can also have negative effects. In the research on
effects of density on sustainable urban development Dempsey et al. (2012)
conclude that in the compact city model it is necessary to establish optimal
population densities with short distances to sufficiently large open green
areas. They advocate that the compact city model is not universal and has
to be adapted to local contexts. Urban regeneration of inner city areas is
also much more demanding and complex than building on greenfield
areas. It has to be promoted by land tax policy and public co-investment.
According to Rebernik et al. (2008), land policy determines taxation levels,
which stimulate development of degraded areas and hinder development
on greenfield sites on the urban fringe.
Rydin (2011) defines two models of urban regeneration: the free market
and the social model. In the free market model the city or state initiates
development of urban degraded areas with public investments into remediation of pollution, providing high quality public spaces and constructing
public facilities. The goal is to attract private investors, who would invest
and exceed the share of public funding, thus trigger a process of increasing
land and property values. Within this approach it is important to initiate
private ventures by public investments, while insuring the needs of local
community are met within the spatial plan and partly financed by profits
of private investors. The social model is based on a ‘bottom-up’ approach
and active participation of local community. This approach also requires an
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
active public sector, especially for direction and coordination. It differs from
the first model mainly in the regeneration rationale, which grows from local
community needs and not private investment agenda. Public finance mechanisms of urban regeneration should stimulate the development of local
economy, for example the establishment of time banks for non-monetary
exchange of services, urban farming which stimulates healthy food and sale
of low-priced food products, micro-crediting schemes for the development
of small entrepreneurial initiatives for the financially less-capable groups,
initiatives for renewable energy sources, improving the energy performance
of buildings, waste recycling, etc. The goal of such projects is economic regeneration of the local population with their own activities and local resources,
often underestimated and overlooked in classical market systems. Besides
their economic role, non-profit activities have a significant social role and
contribute to co-creation of communities and alleviation of social tensions.
3.3 Mixed use
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Functionally compact urban areas imply adequate density, variety, disposition and distances between urban functions. Higher levels of functional
compactness are ensured by mixed use, which includes housing, offices,
retail, services, cultural, sports, administration and production programmes in functional entities and with respect to the needs of local age and
social groups and cultural characteristics of the area (Dempsey et al., 2012).
Contrary to mono-programmatic positioning of retail and employment
capacities on the urban fringe, mixed use physically and socially enriches
the urban structure and has synergetic social, economic and environmental
effects. Mono-programmatic areas increase car mobility (Uršič, 2006) and
also induce the closing of shops and services in urban centres. Plut (2006)
states that research conducted in Great Britain in the 1990s proved that
the market share of city centres decreased by up to 70 percent after out of
town shopping centres were developed.
The execution of planned mixed use areas in cities has been put in the
domain of market mechanisms, and is therefore largely dependant on
the regulation of mono-programmatic areas and the scope of possibilities
enabled by planning documents for realising market interests of investors.
Rebernik et al. (2008) state that the effects of defined mixed use in plans
can be optimal only if a main activity is proscribed, coupled with complementary or additional and/or dedicated uses. Mixing and variety inevitably
cause conflicts (Goličnik et al., 2008), therefore it is necessary to check the
mutual effects of activities beforehand. However, the vicinity of compatible functions increases economic activity and has positive effects, but
only if optimal settlement density is maintained, which ensures adequate
demand and economic viability of programmes (Mladenovič, 2011). Gehl
et al. (2006) claim that public programmes should be positioned on the city
ground floor and connected to the network of public open areas intended
for pedestrians and cyclists, previously relieved of parked and moving cars.
Such areas are conditioned by good accessibility and sustainable mobility
modes, i.e. cycling, walking and public transport.
From the technical point of view, mixed use is the primary condition for
achieving cost efficiency of systems for distant heating or cooling, which
require 24-hour operation. The present technical approach to mixed use is
their material-energy balance, whereby waste and surplus energy are used
as resources. In the study EU-LUPA European Land Use Patterns (Garcia et
al., 2012) the measure is proposed as a policy instrument to increase sustainable land use in regional and urban scale, especially for areas with a high
degree of urbanization and large environmental footprint. The described
approach requires a new multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to
energy and urban planning as well as management of urban space.
3.4 Accessibility of urban functions
Sustainability as the concept for planning transport systems has changed
the rationale from enabling mobility for motor cars to ensuring accessibility
to programmes by sustainable transport modes, i.e. walking, cycling and
public transport (Bertolini et al., 2005). Sustainable mobility is not only a
change in travel patterns in the city. It is the result of integrated planning
of programmes and transport systems, with emphasis on non-car forms
of transport (Aftabuzzaman and Mazloumi, 2011). Vale (2013) states that
such spatial development in itself is not sufficient and has to be supported
by complementary measures, which will stimulate users to change their
travel habits. An important measure for increasing sustainable mobility is
the limiting of car mobility, but as Uršič (2006) points out, such measures,
e.g. extending pedestrian areas, higher parking rates, reducing the quantity
of parking spaces, etc. have the opposite effect and limit city development
if not balanced with alternative modes of public transport, which enable
access of people, goods, information and capital to an urban area.
According to Curtis (2008), activities vary in frequency of use and size of
gravitational areas of users, from neighbourhoods, urban quarters, to the
city and region. Gehl at al. (1987 in: Curtis, 2008) emphasises that planning
of land use, programmes and transport systems have to take onboard the
notion that all activities have to be accessible by sustainable transport
systems, according to Bertolini et al. (2005), within half an hour travelling
time. In the recommendations of the Commission for architecture and the
built environment in Great Britain, accessibility to functions (picture 2) is
determined according to distance, quantity of potential users and frequency of the programme’s use (Internet 1):
■■ on the neighbourhood level: public transport stops (300 m), children’s
playgrounds (400 m), primary school with day care (400 m), local shop
(400 m);
■■ on the city quarter level: railway station (600 m), sports fields for ball
games and recreation (800 m), parks (800 m), health care centres (800
m), secondary schools (1 km), district centres (1,5 km), leisure centres
(1,5 km);
■■ on the city level: faculties (2 km), larger natural open areas (2 km), cultural institutions (5 km), large retail - commercial centre (5 km), general
hospital (5 km).
In Copenhagen, the so called pocket parks, covering up to 5000 m2, are
distributed throughout the city perimeter, thus allowing the inhabitants
access to green surfaces at a walking distance of five minutes, i.e. at a
28
Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar: KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA NAČRTOVANJE NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA RAZVOJA ... : 24–33(162)
parks (800 m), health care centres (800 m), secondary schools (1 km), district centres (1,5 km), leisure
centres (1,5 km);
-
on the city level: faculties (2IGRA
km),USTVARJALNOSTI
larger natural open
areas
(2 km),
cultural
institutions
(5 km), large
– teorija
in praksa
urejanja
prostora
| THE CREATIVITY
GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
retail - commercial centre (5 km), general hospital (5 km).
3. Parameters of land use structure which reduce energy consumption
in urban areas are: compact urban structure, mixed uses on the level
of building blocks and city districts, accessibility of urban functions
by sustainable mobility systems, protection of natural resources and
mitigation of environmental-climate risks.
Established categorization of land uses and mixed use principles based on
functionality, compatibility and exclusion of negative factors needs to be upgraded by energy efficiency criteria. This is important both in terms of shorter
travel paths for transport of goods and people, as well as shorter distances
between energy production and end-users. An important aspect is also local
and efficient re-use of waste products, i.e. materials, energy, and water.
This type of land use regulation and deployment of urban functions is
established, for example, in:
■■ Denmark, where for the past 20 years legislative regulations have prevented the development of hypermarkets on the outskirts of the city;
commercial areas are channeled into shopping complexes in the city
and local centers (Internet 3);
■■ the UK, where legislative regulations stipulate that at least 70% of
public investment (public facilities, housing, etc.) has to be situated in
degraded urban areas (Williams, 2010);
■■ Copenhagen and Zürich, where incinerators are designed as the central
Picture 2: The recommendations of the Commission for
city facility for heat - electricity production and are placed at the edge
architecture and the built environment in Great Britain for
of the city center due to efficient energy transport. In Copenhagen the
accessibility of urban functions (adopted by Internet 1) roof of the incinerator is designed as a ski slope which will provide the
Picture 2: The recommendations of the Commission for architecture and the built environment in Great Britain
inhabitants of the city with unique opportunities for winter recreation
for accessibility
of urban
by Internet
1)
distance
of less than
300 mfunctions
(Internet(adopted
2). Different
norms concerning
accesand enrich the urban social infrastructure (Internet 4);
sibility in Copenhagen (300 m) and Great Britain (800 m) follow socially
■■ the Netherlands, where in the town of Kerkrade leisure and mixed use
acceptable
normsthe
and
the differences
in normative
or strategic
throughout the
perimeter,
In Copenhagen,
sopoint
calledout
pocket
parks, covering
up to 5000
m2, are distributedprogrammess
arecity
planned
to be inserted into the existing industrial
levels of sustainability, as was also mentioned by Becker et al. (1997 in: Kos,
area
in
order
to
increase
density
thus allowing the inhabitants access to green surfaces at a walking distance of five minutes, i.e. at a distance of of built structures, provide the missing
programmes within walking distance to the adjacent residential neigh2004). Different norms are a consequence of varying cultural, social and
less than 300
m (Internetas2).well
Different
normsvalues
concerning
in Copenhagen
(300 and
m) and
Great Britain
borhood
to effectively
recycle waste energy, water and materials
economic
environments,
as prevalent
and lifeaccessibility
patterns. Thus
(Leduc
and
Van
Kann,
2013).
they
be transferred
from one environment
another
to
(800 cannot
m) follow
socially acceptable
norms and to
point
out and
the have
differences
in normative or strategic levels of
be adapted to local contexts.
sustainability, as was also mentioned by Becker et al. (1997 in: Kos, 2004). Different
norms
aredevelopment
a consequence
Sustainable
urban
requires properly managed programme
contents
3) and structural
of varying cultural, social and economic environments, as well as prevalent values
and(picture
life patterns.
Thus theycharacteristics of land use patterns
(picture 4). Considering the programme content, it is necessary to ensure
cannot be transferred from one environment to another and have to be adapted diversity
to local contexts.
and density of programmes that allow residence, employment
In accordance with the reviewed literature, we find that land use planning
and
spending
leisure time for different social and age groups as well as
for sustainable urban development has to take into account the following
4. CONCLUSION
combine
programmes
that efficiently recycle waste materials, water and
principles:
energy. Daily functions (kindergarten, school, shop with basic supplies,
public transport
playground)
1.
Sustainablewith
spatial
in termswe
of find
protecting
natural
resour- for sustainable
In accordance
thedevelopment
reviewed literature,
that land
use planning
urbanstops,
development
has need to be located within a walking
distance of 400 - 800m, access to other programmes should be provided
ces requires minimising energy use in all life situations of inhabitants
to take into account the following principles:
within a half-hour distance by bike or public transport. Structurally it is
and life-cycle stages of products or services.
necessary to manage land use patterns from: dispersed to compact, from
1. Sustainable
spatial development
in terms
of protecting
natural
requires
minimisingtoenergy
use inmixed,
all
monofunctional
functionally
from large-grained1 to fine-grained,
2.
Energy consumption
in urban areas
is indirectly
conditioned
byresources
the
from sparsely connected into densely connected. An important aspect of
use structure,
whichand
affects
energystages
use in of
transport,
life land
situations
of inhabitants
life-cycle
productsconstruction
or services.
4. CONCLUSION
and use of buildings as well as in construction and maintenance of
communal-energy infrastructure.
1 Grain structure is by Koželj (1990) defined as the ratio between the number of parts and
the area of the structural field.
29
connected into densely connected. An important aspect of sustainable urban development is also protecting
natural resources and mitigating environmental-climate risks by natural environments, which are reflected in the
Št. 2. / 2014interweaving
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI
– teorija in
urejanja
| THE CREATIVITY
and connectivity
ofpraksa
natural
areas prostora
in the settlement
area. GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
larger urban areas should be restructured into a network of programmatically autonomous “medium-sized” cities, defined by the half-hour isochroaccessibility
with sustainable
mobility systems and interconnected
connected into densely connected. An important aspect of sustainablenous
urban
development
is also protecting
with efficient public transport systems;
natural resources and mitigating environmental-climate risks by natural environments, which are reflected in the
interweaving and connectivity of natural areas in the settlement area.
Picture 3: The programme content of land
uses that increase the level of sustainability
in urban areas (source: authors)
smaller and less densely populated urban areas should be oriented towards
integrating into the before mentioned spatial-programmatic-transport
structure or a new model of efficient public transport should be developed,
which would be adapted to a lower quantity of spatially dispersed users in
a functional region.
Achieving sustainability goals by land use restructuring as described above
is conditioned by planning and implementation of supporting spatial, social and economic measures. Supporting spatial measures are:
■■ providing optimum population density, which enables viability of
sustainable urban development is also protecting natural resources and
Picture 3: The programme content of land uses that increase the level of sustainability
urban areasand
(source:
commercialinprogrammes
public social, transport and utility inframitigating environmental-climate risks by natural environments, which
structure,
i.e.
at
least
50
dwellings
/ ha (Power, 2004), and at the same
authors)
are reflected in the interweaving and connectivity of natural areas in the
time
provides
access
to
sufficiently
large open green spaces at short
settlement area.
distances;
Based on the analysed research and studies we can define the guidelines
for sustainable planning or restructured land use in urban areas:
■■ allocating settlement areas, urban functions and mixed-use onto the
network of cycling routes and stops of effective public transport;
■■ regulating high quality public open space in mixed-use areas.
Picture urban
3: The
programme
content
land usesaccessible
that increase
compact
areas
with mixed
use andofsustainable
urbanthe level of sustainability in urban areas (source:
functions
At the same time it is necessary to carry out social support measures which
authors)can be effectively developed on spatially limited territories, wheaffect travel and consumer habits of the inhabitants, to promote public
re a 30-minute access by bicycle or public transport can be ensured;
Picture 4: Structural characteristics of
land use patterns as a function of energy
use and the level of sustainability of
urban areas (source: authors)
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION Picture 4: Structural characteristics of land use patterns as a function of energy use and the level of sustainability
PREDSTAVITEV of urban areas (source: authors)
presentation
DIPLOMA
Based on the analysed research and studies we can define the guidelines for sustainable planning or restructured
MASTER THESIS
land use in urban areas:
30
 compact
urbancharacteristics
areas with mixed
sustainable
accessible
urbanuse
functions
can be
effectively
Picture
4: Structural
of landuse
useand
patterns
as a function
of energy
and the level
of sustainability
Irena Ostojić,
Tadej Glažar:
KRITERIJI limited
ZA VREDNOTENJE
IN USMERITVE
ZA NAČRTOVANJE
NAMENSKE
Z VIDIKA
TRAJNOSTNEGA
RAZVOJA ... : 24–33(162)
developed
on spatially
territories,
where a 30-minute
access by
bicycle RABE
or public
transport
can
of urban
areas (source:
authors)
be ensured;
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
participation in the development of local environment and provide a
proactive approach of public administration in revitalizing degraded urban
areas. Two models of proactive approach are possible. In the market model
of urban renewal, a city or a country initiates the development of degraded
areas through public investments into public infrastructure, public space
and public institutions. Its aim is to attract private capital to generate the
process of enhancing property values and good quality of urban space. In
the social model, public investments stimulate development of local entrepreneurship in order to economically regenerate local population, alleviate
social problems and reintegrate the community. Other economic support
measures include land, tax and investment policies that foster internal
development of brownfield sites and inhibit the development of dispersed
settlement and monoprogrammatic commercial and business areas on the
outskirts of the city.
The discussion in the article proves that sustainable land use planning in
urban environments can have positive environmental, spatial, social and
economic effects, the condition being that it is introduced to the planning
and implementation process harmonised with support measures and
adapted to the local context. It also proved that there is a lack of measurable planning and defined target values for compactness of urban areas,
mixed uses and accessibility of urban functions as well as interdependent
supportive measures, such as densities, which would support planning
decisions concerning sustainable land use design in urban areas.
English lector: dr. Lara Burazer, prof.ang.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
The article presents part of a research, which started in 2012 within the
doctoral study at the Faculty of architecture, University of Ljubljana and the
framework of the research programme P4.0085 Applicative botanics, genetics and ecology at the Biotechnological faculty, University of Ljubljana. The
research is supported by the European social fund of the European Union.
Co-financing is conducted within the Operational programme Human
resources development for the period 2007-2013, 1st development priority:
Supporting entrepreneurship and adaptability, priority axis 1.3 scholarship
schemes. Herewith we express our gratitude to prof. Lars Bylund for his
help and advice.
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recenzija
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PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
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Irena Ostojić, Tadej Glažar: KRITERIJI ZA VREDNOTENJE IN USMERITVE ZA NAČRTOVANJE NAMENSKE RABE Z VIDIKA TRAJNOSTNEGA RAZVOJA ... : 24–33(162)
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Anja Jutraž, Tadeja Zupančič
Vloga arhitekta pri interdisciplinarnem
arhitekturnem projektiranju
The Role of Architect in Interdisciplinary
Collaborative Design Studios
DOI: 10.15292/IU-CG.2014.02.034-042 UDK: 378.1 : 72 1.02 Pregledni znanstveni članek / Scientific Article SUBMITTED: June 2014 / REVISED: July 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
ABSTRACT
IZVLEČEK
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Arhitekturno projektiranje je kompleksni proces, v katerega so vključeni
različni akterji. Med študijem arhitekture študentje le redkokdaj dobijo
priložnost delati s študenti drugih disciplin. Posledično lahko med njimi
opazimo pomanjkanje poznavanja dela drugih disciplin ter hkrati pomanjkanje veščin komuniciranja in sodelovanja z njimi. Glavni cilj tega članka je
pokazati pomembnost interdisciplinarnega sodelovanja pri arhitekturnih
projektih, vlogo arhitektov v tem procesu, ter različne načine sprejemanja
odločitev tekom interdisciplinarnega sodelovanja. Predstavljena raziskava
temelji na programu AEC Global Teamwork Course, ki poteka na Univerzi
Stanford pod vodstvom prof.dr. Renate Fruchter. Študentje iz različnih
delov sveta delajo na arhitekturnem projektu od začetnih stopenj dalje (od
ideje do projekta za izvedbo). Na začetku in ob koncu projekta se študentje
srečajo na Univerzi Stanford, v vmesnem obdobju pa delajo na daljavo s
pomočjo različnih digitalnih orodij za virtualno sodelovanje. Članek prikazuje tri študije primerov, kjer je glavni poudarek na arhitektu in njegovem delu
ter na izzivih in priložnostih, ki jim jih predstavlja interdisciplinarno delo.
Architectural design is a complex process involving different actors. While
studying architecture, students usually work alone, and they do not have
many opportunities to collaborate with other professions. Consequently,
they end up lacking the knowledge regarding other professions, as well
asregarding communication and collaboration with other professionals.
The main focus of this article is to determine the importance of interdisciplinarycollaboration in architecture projects through the process of studyingarchitecture, the role of the architect within this process, and the manner
inwhich decisions are usually made within an interdisciplinary team.The
following research is based on the AEC Global Teamwork Course, whichtook
place at Stanford University under the leadership of Prof. Dr. RenateFruchter. Students from all around the world worked together on an architecturalproject from its initial stages. There were three case studies examined
for the purposes of thisarticle in which the main focus was placed on
architects, more specificallyon the challenges and the problems they were
facing, the knowledge architectsgained through interdisciplinary collaboration, and lessons learned insuch a course that could help them with their
professional careers.
KLJUČNE BESEDE
KEY-WORDS
Interdisciplinarno sodelovanje, projektno učenje, sodelovanje na daljavo,
odločanje
interdisciplinary collaboration, problem-based learning, long-distance
collaboration, decision making
34
Anja Jutraž, Tadeja Zupančič VLOGA ARHITEKTA PRI INTERDISCIPLINARNEM ARHITEKTURNEM PROJEKTIRANJU: 34–43(162)
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
1. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM BACKGROUND
During their studies, students of various disciplines or professions are
currently getting familiarized with the basics of other disciplines, but they
do not get many opportunities for active collaboration with students from
other disciplines to work on concrete architectural projects. The knowledge
of other disciplines is necessary for an architect to develop the quality of his/
her architectural design. The lack of active collaboration between different
actors from the early stages of design process onwards is also seen later
in practice. We are facing a shortage of interdisciplinary knowledge and
acquisition of communication skills through work on different projects in
co-operation with other disciplines. The mentioned professionals are all very
good in their respective fields, but they do not collaborate with each other.
Future architects are expected to possess a wide range of competencies,
from mastering design to acting as technical specialists, they should be
able to synthetize knowledge from different professions and work on an
integrated project. As Lattuce (Lattuca & Knight, 2010) said, “interdisciplinarity can be defined as a process of answering a question, solving a problem, or
addressing a topic that is too broad or complex to be dealt with adequately
by a single discipline or profession … and [that] draws upon disciplinary perspectives and integrates their insights through the construction of a more
comprehensive perspective”. Moreover, the integration process is initiated
by a specific problem and its context the team should identify and align with
the disciplinary contributions; coordination among disciplines is therefore very important. Because several professionals from different fields are
solving specific problems in specific situations, we can describe this process
as a problem-centred work where various professions with various types of
knowledge work together in order to solve problems resulting from the ever
changing situations and requirements. (Gnaur, Svidt, & Kaae, 2012)
Different firms like Arups and Buro Happold discovered that collaborative
team-work, or team-work across several disciplines is essential in order to
produce innovative work, and find new solutions as a result of collaborative
efforts put forth by all players. As Dong states (Dong & Doerfler, n.d.), “the
collaborative efforts can produce new and original ideas not possible in a
uni-disciplinary settings”, so the potential of developing integrated projects
worked on by interdisciplinary teams should be taken into consideration. Based on the study involving architecture and interior architecture
students, using web-based collaborative learning, Karakaya (Karakaya
& Şenyapılı, 2006) states that integrating interdisciplinary work into the
design curricula would be beneficial.
A number of collaborative interdisciplinary courses have been developed
over the last decades in which students worked long-distance, geographically distributed over several countries, with the help of advanced
information technology solutions. Students from different disciplines such
as engineering, industrial design, urban design, landscape architecture,
architecture, and interior design worked together, and at the same time,
the authors of different courses studied students’ interaction within the
distributed teams, while the insights gained from such work helped them
to improve distributed collaborative learning courses scheduled for each
individual year. 21 years ago, Fruchter (Fruchter, 1999) developed a distributed learning environment and included different universities from Europe,
Japan, and the United States. Also, Hussein and Peña-Mora (Hussein &
Peña-Mora, 1999) created a similar class for distributed learning conducted
jointly by MIT and by CICESE in Mexico, and Devon (Devon, Saintive, Hager,
Nowé, & Sathianathan, 1998) developed a French-American collaborative
design project. Several other universities developed their own collaborative
design courses, e.g. the University of Sidney (Simoff & Maher, 1997), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of Florida (Brien, Ph,
Soibelman, & Elvin, 2003), The Penn State Stuckeman School of Architecture
and Landscape Architecture (Holland, Wing, & Goldberg, 2012), Notre Dame
University – Louaizé in Lebanon (Asmar & Mady, 2013) etc.
This article focuses on interdisciplinary collaboration in architectural design
projects with a special focus on the architect’s role in them. It is a challenge
for an architect to work on an architectural project together with other professions from the initial stages onwards. The AEC Global Teamwork course
shall be presented at Stanford University as an example of interdisciplinary
long-distance collaboration and project-based learning.
The study is based on experience gained through participation as a participant, owner and mentor in the AEC Global Teamwork Course (PBL project)
over the last 6 years, which takes place this year for the 21st consecutive
year under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Renate Fruchter, director of PBL
laboratory at Stanford University, ZDA (Graaff, Kolmos, & Fruchter, 2003;
Ožbolt, 2008). PBL Lab is the so-called educational laboratory, based on
the problem, project, product, process and people involved in this process
(“problem, project, product, process, people-based learning”). Based on a
learning process that focuses on problem- and project-oriented work, the
result represents an integrated project. The project involved students coming from different parts of the world: from Europe, Asia, Central America
to the United States (e.g. University of California, Berkeley, University of Wisconsin - Madison, California State University – Chico, University of Puerto
Rico, Bauhaus – University Weimar, TU Delft, Aalborg University, University
of Ljubljana etc.). More than 20 different universities have already participated in this program; the University of Ljubljana has been involved since
1999 (more on www.pbl.si). In addition to basic student group work, various researches on intercultural cooperation are also taking place within the
PBL laboratory, using various digital tools, innovative learning processes, interactive work environments, asynchronous collaboration etc. The program
is based on team-work involving an international, interdisciplinary project
team, which leads the project preparing a concrete building that meets
all conditions of the client (owner). In each group, the owners guiding the
group are also presented. The owners also convey their wishes, limitations
and requirements to the group members. The aim of the project is to simulate real environment where designers have to be constantly ready to make
changes to the project. The purpose of this program is to prepare students
for interdisciplinary collaboration, which will present later in practice and
in real life situations, adapting the architecture to other factors and overall
design of various professions. One project team consisted of students of
architecture, structural engineering, a construction manager, MEP and a
life-cycle financial manager. The course also includes industry representa35
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
tives, designers from practice to which students can turn at any time for
advice and opinion. The course is designed mostly as a long-distance type
of collaboration, students meet at Stanford only at the beginning and at the
end of the project. In the meantime, they meet virtually at group meetings
or individual meetings (subgroup meetings). Students work six months
out of a year remotely using modern tools for design and communication
such as SketchUp, Revit, Skype, GoToMeeting, Brainmerge, Box, Dropbox,
GoogleDocs, Terf etc., and they finally produce a comprehensive integrated
project for public buildings. The results of the project are presented at the
final presentation, which takes place every year in May at Stanford where
industry representatives are also invited to express potential criticism of
the proposed solutions and provide students with up-to-date guidance for
their future work. The aim of the AEC Global Teamwork course is to educate
architects and engineers who will tackle major projects, to promote international team-work to integrate and exploit the advantages of innovative
technologies for the preparation of collaborative projects of higher quality.
(Fruchter, 2003; Zolin, Hinds, Fruchter, & Levitt, 2004)
2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This paper serves as a report on an exploratory study that examined the
collaborative interdisciplinary course, more precisely, the architects participating in the AEC Global Teamwork course. The aim of the study was to
determine whether architects learn anything new through interdisciplinary
collaboration, and how such collaboration could be improved. At the same
time, we wanted to find out how different professions can be motivated
to work together from the beginning of the design process. The main
objective is to determine the importance of the architect in the process of
collaborative architectural design.
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The study was guided by three main research questions:
1. Importance of interdisciplinary collaborative course for students of
architecture: Should the Master’s study program of architecture also
include an interdisciplinary design studio? How much do the students
learn for their future professional lives throughout the program?
2. Role of the architect in an interdisciplinary collaborative design studio:
problems and challenges architects are faced with, impact of other
members on architectural design, benefits of involving different professions from the beginning of design process.
3. The process of decision-making: How did the team make decisions?
What was the role of the architect in the decision-making process?
3. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
As a research method, we opted for case studies supported by a short survey among architects who participated in the interdisciplinary collaborative
course (Fink, 1995; Flick, Kvale, Angrosino, & Barbar, 2007; Kristof, Brown,
Sims Jr., & Smith, 1995). As a case study, we chose groups from the last three
years, with a member from the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, since as the mentor and owner of the groups, we were able to have
a deeper insight into the dynamic of teams and into their team processes.
The basic characteristics of all three teams are presented in table 1.
Students used digital tools for online collaboration such as GoToMeeting
and 3D ICC (Figure 2).
Our research was divided into the following stages: (1) Results and evaluation: Our observations throughout the design process of the AEC Global
Teamwork course, analysis of the final report prepared by the team, short
survey at the end of the course. (2) Discussion and conclusion.
4. RESULTS AND EVALUATION
The results will be presented separately: first, the case studies which enabled us to analyse groups and team dynamics and the role of the architect
through observation and a report students prepared at the end of the class;
and second, a short survey, which is based on the architect’s opinion and
experiences.
4.1 Case studies
The following table 2 features a comparison between three case studies
where we highlighted certain challenges the teams were facing. Each year,
Figure 1: Kick-off event at Stanford University at
the beginning of the AEC Global Teamwork course
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Team Atlantic 2012
Team Atlantic 2013
Team Express 2014
Team members: number
6
8
7
Team members: discipline
A, SE 3x, MEP, CM
A, Aa, SE 2x, MEP, CM 2x, LCFM
A, SE 3x, SEa, CM, MEP
Team members: faculty
University of Ljubljana, Stanford University University of Ljubljana, Stanford University University of Ljubljana, Stanford University
3x, Bauhaus University, Wisconsin
5x, Bauhaus University, KTH Royal Institute 3x, Bauhaus University, Georgia Tech,
of Technology
Technical University of Denmark
Number of architects in the team
1
2
1
Architects: faculty
University of Ljubljana
University of Ljubljana, Stanford University
University of Ljubljana
Location of a project
Madison, USA
Madison, USA
Ljubljana, SLO
Owners: number
2
3
4
Owners: discipline
A, CM
A, LCFM, CM
A, MEP, SE, CM
Owners: faculty
University of Ljubljana, Stanford University
University of Ljubljana, Bauhaus University,
Stanford University
University of Ljubljana, Stanford University
2x, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Swinerton Sustainability Challenge
Biomimicry
Leapfrog Sustainability
Healthy Building
DPR Challenge
Product – Organization – Process (POP)
Value for Money
Total value for the Client
Table 1: Comparison of three case studies (A – architect, SE – structural engineer, CM – construction manager, MEP – mechanical, electrical and plumbing engineer, LCFM – life-cycle
financial manager, a - apprentice)
a team had to create a building engineering design for a building at a specific location, and at the same time, it had to solve two challenges: Biomimicry and Product-Organization-Process (case study 1), Leapfrog Sustainability
and Value for Money (case study 2), and Healthy Building and Total Value for
the Client (case study 3).
In case study 1, the team did not have any particular problems with designing the building; they had a well-founded, compelling idea from the
beginning, and the team provided the architect with support when making
decisions. It can actually be said that the other disciplines served as support
for the architect and not vice versa, like for example in case study 3 where
the architect did not have any power to make decisions, and often, the
architect was there to support others. The team dynamic in case study 1
was very good. They did not have any special problems with communication and collaboration, and they also remained friends after the conclusion
of the project. Also, the presence of two owners was received really well, as
they presented two different disciplines and together they offered complete professional support to the team. The coordination between the owners
was easy, with their opinions being unified.
The process of designing their compelling idea was closely connected with
the first challenge – biomimicry. The team members wanted to incorporate an organism that presented a special meaning for the University of
Figure 2: Digital tools enabling long distance interdisciplinary collaboration (GoToMeeting and 3D ICC)
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Case study 1
Team Atlantic 2012
Case study 2
Team Atlantic 2013
Case study 3
Team Express 2014
Challenge: the project
How to involve biomimicry into design?
(Team members had to think about this
challenge from the beginning of the project.)
How to design a wooden building? (Team
members did not have any experience with
wooden design.)
How to design a building as a piece of a
entire urban network? How to connect the
building with its surroundings and the entire
city?
Challenge: team process
Interdisciplinary group.
Interdisciplinary group. Two architects, one
of them was apprentice, how to divide work
among them.
Really big team: 8 members.
Interdisciplinary group. Different cultures and
ways of communication: more than half of
the team members were from Asia.
Table 2: Case studies: comparison through our observation
Winsconsin. Badger, the school mascot, uses the heat from the earth 90
per cent of the time during the winter to keep warm, and also use it in
the summer to cool down. Thus, to save energy costs, they wanted to put
the building into the ground. The second challenge was: Reduce, Re-use,
Recycle. Their idea was to reduce on-site material storage through on-time
delivery, pre-fabrication, and recycling of wood and concrete, as well as to
re-use excavated soil for ramp construction, implement effective utilization
of machinery and formwork to reduce or eliminate waste.
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In case study 2, the biggest problem that was noticed was the presence of
two architects (one architect and one architectural apprentice) who failed
to define their roles in the team at the beginning, which lead to many
problems later on. Decisions were made mostly by one architect while the
second architect was not even aware of the reasons for decisions made.
Consequently, the other team members did not know the reasons either.
Sometimes they would spend a week or two working in circles before they
would make a joint decision. The main problem was also that the second
architect did not work on this project all the time, and he did not participate intensively in the design process from the beginning. The group had a
lot of subgroup meetings, discussions with mentors from the industry, and
through instant interdisciplinary collaboration, they designed an integrated project, which all the team members liked at the end and were quite
satisfied with it.
The team members worked on two challenges and also managed to overcome both of them, which could be seen as a consequence of really good
teamwork on the one hand, and a big interdisciplinary team on the other
hand (8 members, they had also LCFM, which the teams in case studies 1
and 3 did not have). In the first Swinerton challenge Leapfrog, they came
up with a disruptive sustainable technology, a new smart system (app),
which could connect human activities and behaviour, especially in terms of
how to design and operate their buildings, with the building itself, and the
materials used within a linked system. The smart system within the building
is meant to provide a living laboratory for the researchers. Its main purpose
is to optimize the performance of the building and educate users on how
their decisions impact that performance, and moreover, it can be used as a
troubleshooting system. The second, DPR challenge, presented them with
a task of finding a way to bring better “Value for Money” to the end users
of the building by looking at the life-cycle of the facility. They stated that
through the implemented technology they could reduce life-cycle impacts
on the facility. They looked carefully at different user perspectives when
deciding on the design, as well as construction and operation techniques
for the building.
The third case study deals with the most challenging group, which was
faced with more difficulties in terms of communication and collaboration
than the teams in the first and the second case study. Firstly, the nationality
mix of the team members was quite interesting: more than half of them
were Asians who are used to being quiet, polite, and not as impulsive as
perhaps their European counterparts (members from Croatia, Romania and
Germany). During conversations, they would mostly step back and listen,
Figure 3: Case study 1, Team Atlantic 2012
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Figure 4: Case study 2, Team Atlantic 2013
and they would not express their opinions, and sometimes the conversation would only unfold between the three members from Europe (especially
at the beginning). Surprisingly, there were really strong characters noticed
among them who were confident, with large egos; and even they did not
express their opinions. They would behave in accordance with their personalities and were not ready for compromises. Through the process, the
team learned how to listen, be patient, communicate, step aside and accept
other members. It was a hard task, with a lot of fights and heated discussions, but in the end they learned several valuable lessons for their future
lives, not only their professional careers.
In comparison to the first two groups, they spent more time on developing
the first compelling idea, their first architectural concept, and consequently,
they ran out of time for the second idea, which was therefore not developed as well as it could have been. They spent more time on communication rather than on the project. The biggest problem was that the design
process switched from “architect-other disciplines” mode of operation to
the “other disciplines-architect” mode of operation: structural engineers
actually designed the grid first, followed by the structure, and then the
architect designed the building. Architecture thus became a supporting
element for the structure, and not vice versa. It was a decision made in
stressful moments and was not thought through. However, they managed
to design an amazing building in the end. Moreover, there were 4 owners in
the team, telling them their wishes. Although they had separate conversations with the members, they did not hold a unified opinion, and this caused
some additional problems.
The team worked mostly on the Swinerton Challenge Healthy Building, and
they tried to transfer the health issue from urban design through architecture and interior to the furniture and other details. They formulated five
ultimate design goals to achieve an overall health concept: impact health
(health culture as in community gardens, injury prevention as in traffic calming and lighting, healthy environment as in air ventilation), influence health (health suggestions like recreational activities, recreational connections
as in workout park, health culture as in healthy food options), reflect health
(environment as in temperature sensing, emotion as in happiness meter,
awareness as in collaborative space and interactive virtual wall), maintain
health (recreational space as in bike connections and workout park, meditative space offering quietness and connection with nature, social channels
like graffiti wall and community garden), generate health (connectivity as
in social networks and bike paths, cohesion as in connection with community, visibility). They designed a system of health, which is in balance
with its inhabitants and its surroundings through interrelated networks
and connections. A health network should consist of different networks,
encompassing physical, mental, social and community health. Moreover,
they worked on designing a healthy building by using healthy materials,
obtaining LEED certificate, following sustainable issues. In order to connect
Figure 5: Case study 3, Team Express 2014
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this challenge with the second one, Total Value for the Client, they designed
a new app for smart phones and iPads in which they combined the aspects
of building and health: how you feel (your physical and mental health)
depends directly on the inner conditions in the building (sound, air quality,
temperature, light, colours of the walls, chosen materials) and outside the
building (urban design, connection to the surroundings).
4.2 Survey
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The results of the short survey conducted among architects showed that
an interdisciplinary course incorporated in the study of architecture is very
important for students’ professional and personal lives, as it provides them
with a variety of skills and knowledge, from communication skills, collaborative methods and tools for gaining knowledge from different disciplines. Overall, all architects described the AEC Global Teamwork as a great
experience, “a great learning and networking opportunity”, where they
used advanced technologies and where they also managed to learn a lot
about themselves. They learned about communication and organizational
skills that were crucial for successful team-work. As one architect said: “If a
good idea isn’t communicated well enough, it can get misunderstood and
even discarded.” They also learned a lot about other disciplines, and how
important it is to involve all disciplines in the project from the very start, as
this reduces problems in the later stages, as well as about the importance
of collaboration among all construction disciplines. Furthermore, one of
them also mentioned that they learned a lot about themselves, i.e. how
to handle different situations, cope with pressure, present ideas to others.
The biggest challenges for the architects queried were: co-located teams
(different time zones, schedules, habits, cultures, and languages), how to
fit the entire requirement program inside the given footprint, how to stay
calm in different situations, and how to compromise on things you know in
your field that are wrong. Only one architect claimed that there were major
problems in the team, associated with communication and poor response. The others did not notice any substantial problems, except things like
adjusting to different schedules, habits, ways of doing things, which differ
from what they were used to from previous experiences, and the collaboration with apprentice architect. They did not find it hard working with other
professions. Actually, they thought it was crucial for all the professions to
be involved in the construction process in order to have an insight into
what each of the team members goes through. They said that rather than
working with different professions, working with different cultures and
characters was challenging for them.
All architects explained that they made decisions together with the team,
within all disciplines, and they listened to the opinions of professionals and
also made pros-and-cons charts. However, sometimes outcomes would
depended on good argumentation – if the architect had better arguments
than the other professionals, such architect would also have more power
than the other professionals, otherwise not.
All of the architects agreed that the AEC Global Teamwork course will have
a huge impact on their future professional lives, as they acquired several
different skills and experiences: use of BIM technology, global cloud-based
architecture practice, knowledge about collaboration, how to cope with
other disciplines, how to communicate through different media, how to
represent ideas. One of them later described one of the best personal final
realizations: “It is important to be aware that the best design can be created
when all the disciplines are working together since day one.”
At the end, we asked the architects about the importance of interdisciplinary
design studios for students of architecture and about the role of architects
in interdisciplinary collaborative design studios. They all believe they should
be integrated in the learning process at some point during the studies and
they should be available for all students. An architect should be involved in
all stages of the project, “overseeing the entire design/building process integrating ideas from all the professions and combining them into one logical,
functional and aesthetical design”. He should understand other disciplines,
but at the same time, he should be faithful to his/her values and explain his/
her idea to the other team members using compelling arguments.
Figure 6: The final presentation at Stanford University
at the end of the AEC Global Teamwork course
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5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Through the interdisciplinary collaboration in the AEC Global Teamwork
course, the architects gained new knowledge, which will help them in their
future professional lives. If we look back at the research questions, we can
conclude:
(1) The course about interdisciplinary collaboration is really important for
students of architecture. Knowledge gained can be divided into two main
levels: non-professional and professional level. Interdisciplinary collaboration can be seen as a method for preparing architects for their future
professional lives, as it helps them learn the following things:
■■ communication skills: listening and hearing others, overcoming cultural
barriers;
■■ collaboration skills: working together, deciding together (how you can
work with other professions from early stages of the project onwards);
■■ personality features: respect, patience, tolerance etc.
Moreover, long-distance work can improve their computer skills and they
can also learn about new digital programs for online architectural collaboration.
(2) Architects have a special role in interdisciplinary collaborative design
studios, as they are the so-called mediators between different professions
and they have to monitor the progress of the project from its initial stages
onwards. By involving different professions from the beginning of design
process onwards, we can shorten the duration of the project, and by working together and exchanging different pieces of knowledge, a project of
higher quality (testing new solutions, materials, working on sustainability
issues etc.) can be designed. Moreover, architects can also gain new knowledge from other professions:
■■ Working with mentors from around the world, from faculty mentors to
industry partners, architects can improve their way of thinking, their
ability to solve problems, and they can improve their argumentation
skills (how to defend their proposals). Moreover, architects thus get
used to being faced with requirements (the exact program of the
building with exact square footage), building limits (ground floor) and
wishes from the owners.
■■ They learn the basics of structural design of buildings; they learn about
the different construction materials, and the entire process of construction, and about construction management. They acquire communication skills for collaboration with structural engineers and construction
managers.
■■ They acquire knowledge of mechanical installations and the principles
of sustainable construction of buildings.
■■ They get a deeper insight into the total cost of a particular investment;
they learn how the choice of materials and the implementation of
specific architectural details affect the price of the maintenance of the
building.
(3) Special attention should be paid to decision-making, which requires participation of the whole team, every member should express their opinion.
The best solution should be chosen by defining pros and cons of different
options, and through quality argumentation. Teams should determine their
respective leaders in the decision-making process. The leading position can
either be assumed by an architect or any other team member, whereby it is
recommended the person with best leadership skills be chosen.
Last but not least, we should mention that the process in this kind of courses is usually more important than the project itself. Also, the atmosphere
within the team is really important; how the members work together, communicate, if they respect each other. This is why it is important that team
members also get to know each other, spend time together and not work
only on the project. The course should be fun, and not only full of stressful
situations.
To conclude, the interdisciplinary long-distance collaborative course is
important because of the following things: integration of various universities from all around the world; preparation of students for interdisciplinary
collaboration, which will be present later in practice, real life; adapting
architecture to different requirements and wishes of the owners; creation of
designers who will be able to tackle major projects; exploitation of innovative technologies for collaboration; acquiring knowledge of other disciplines
through active work on architectural projects; collaboration with representatives from other disciplines and creating interdisciplinary networks
that will serve as support for further professional work; learning about
communication and collaboration skills; learning to use different tools for
interdisciplinary team-work; co-operation with designers from practice and
representatives from the industry, as well as acquisition of their practical
experience.
There were several important lessons learned which were mentioned by
students at the end of the class, and they should be highlighted here: “be
clear with communication; meeting time is precious; complex problems are
easier to solve in a team; communicating at the right moment is crucial for
success; compromises can sometimes result in better solutions; make sure
everyone is aware of your perspective from your discipline”.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank Dr. Renate Fruchter, Director of Project Based Learning Laboratory (PBL Lab) at Stanford University, for the opportunity to be
a part of the AEC Global Teamwork course and for the opportunity given to
students of the Faculty of Architecture at University of Ljubljana to attend
the interdisciplinary collaborative course.
LITERATURE
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Nuša Voda
EVIDENTIRANJE VZORCEV POZIDAVE
NA PODEŽELJU: primer Podravske regije
RECORDING OF BUILDING DEVELOPMENT
PATTERNS IN RURAL AREAS: case of Podravska region
DOI: 10.15292/IU-CG.2014.02.044-053 UDK: 711.3 1.02 Pregledni znanstveni članek / Scientific Article SUBMITTED: May 2014 / REVISED: June 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
ABSTRACT
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Podeželski prostor, kot ga vidimo danes je splet različnih aktivnosti. Na eni
strani zaznamo to kot spremembe, ki se kažejo v pogosto manj intenzivno
obdelanih kmetijskih površinah oziroma v spremenjenih kulturah rabe
prostora, na drugi strani pa v stalnem preoblikovanju podobe naših vaških
naselij in v likovno-estetski preobrazbi grajene strukture (Fikfak, 2008). Tako
lahko zaznamo tudi, da se je povezava med stanovanjsko hišo na podeželju
in pripadajočim zemjiščem v zadnjih desetletjih razvrednotila z vidika
kakovosti bivanja in funkcionalnih povezav tako znotraj objekta kot tudi v
povezavi z zunanjimi površinami.
The rural areas of today involve a range of different activities. On the
one hand, this is perceived as changes that are reflected in the frequent
abandonment of utilised agricultural areas or in the changed land use,
and, on the other hand, in the continuous transformation of the image of
our villages, and the artistic and aesthetic transformation of the built form
(Fikfak, 2008). We can see that the connection between the house in the
countryside, and the land on which it stands, has been devalued in the last
decades in terms of the quality of living and functional connections inside
the building and with exterior areas.
Glavni cilj raziskave je bilo evidentiranje obstoječih vzorcev pozidave v
izbranih podeželskih naseljih in ugotavljanje povezanosti med stanovanjskim objektom in funkcionalnim zemljiščem tudi v odnosu do sosednjih objektov in zemljišč. Raziskovanje vzorcev pozidave na slovenskem
podeželju je bilo opravljeno z aplikacijo na izbranem testnem primeru – v
treh izbranih podeželskih naseljih Podravske regije. Metodologija raziskave
je temeljila na sistematični izdelavi prikazov iz geografskega informacijskega sistema, geodetskih podlagah in na terenskem opazovanju ter fotografiranju pojavnosti treh različnih tipov gradnje (tradicionalna podeželska hiša,
individualna tipska hiša in sodobna podeželska hiša). Evidentirani so bili
obstoječi vzorci pozidave v izbranih naselij in opisani odnosi med posameznim zemljiščem in stanovanjskim objektom ter sosednjimi zemljišči in
stanovanjskimi objekti.
The primary objective of the research was the recording of the existing
patterns of development in selected rural settlements and to find the
connection between the residential buildings and appertaining land, and,
furthermore, the connection with adjacent structures and land. The research into development patterns in the Slovenian countryside was performed through the application on a case study, i.e. on three rural settlements
of the Podravska Region (the region along the Drava River). The research
methodology was based on a systematic elaboration of presentations
from the geographic information system (GIS), surveying groundwork,
field observations and photography of incidence of three different types
of building (a traditional rural house, a standard detached house design
and a contemporary rural house). The existing development patterns in the
settlements were recorded and the relationships between the respective
land plots and residential buildings, and the adjacent land and residential
buildings, were described.
KLJUČNE BESEDE
KEY-WORDS
podeželska naselja, vzorci pozidave, funkcionalno zemljišče, stanovanjski
objekt, Podravska regija
rural settlements, patterns of building development, appertaining land,
residential building, Podravska Region
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1. INTRODUCTION
Extensive research has been conducted regarding the built environment in
the countryside, the shape of residential structures, traditional homesteads,
standard single-family buildings etc., while much less attention has been
given to exterior areas, the relationship between the house shape/façade
and the residential parts of the house, the land on which it stands, and the
relationship with other buildings on the appertaining land, and with adjacent buildings and land/plots. In terms of quality of living, the link between
the building, and the land on which it stands (and adjacent buildings and
land), is important. In the past, not enough attention was paid to the issue.
However, In the recent decades, much more consideration has been given
to appertaining land, as we have recognised the importance of an organised environment to the quality of life. The connection of open spaces with
the living space of a house has been gaining in importance.
In terms of rural planning today, the underlying values have been changing,
pursuing the goals of sustainable development. This includes the raising
of awareness on conservation and protection of the physical environment,
rational use of rural areas, increase in the quality of the living environment
and a healthy environment for rural residents. Sustainable development
ensures a slowdown in the use of goods, while rural development follows
the goals of ecology, including economic, social and environmental sustainability. In rural areas, sustainable development is used to encourage the
conservation of the traditional settlement structure and the protection of
the existing landscape and settlement identity of the area, hence preventing the deterioration of rural settlements and the decline of life in the
countryside.
The purpose of the research is the recording of the existing building
development patterns in three selected rural settlements of the Podravska
Region, and the identification of improved connectivity of the residential
building (housing) with other parts of the land on which it stands. The
research into the planning of external areas appertaining to the residential
rural buildings could provide insight into several inseparably connected
research subject matters, which are directly or indirectly linked to the issues
of rural areas, dwelling culture, sustainable development and management
of external (including green) areas and rural architecture.
2. EXPLORING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE RURAL HOUSE AND THE
APPERTAINING LAND FROM THE 20TH CENTURY ONWARDS
2.1 Relation between the rural house and appertaining land
according to the type of building
In the past, construction and siting of residential buildings in rural areas,
particularly of standard buildings in the 1970–1990 period, received much
less attention than urban developments. This was a period of major growth
and new constructions in Slovenia, including in the countryside. The connection between the country house and its appertaining land has been undermined in terms of living quality and functional connections within both
the building itself and its exterior areas. The introduction of the standard
single-family detached house into the rural landscape changed not only
the siting of structures, in the narrow and broader sense, but it was also followed by the disappearance of the traditional rural culture, dwelling culture
and landscape features. The protection of fertile soil, self-supply needs and
the overall ecological protection of environmental complexity necessitate
that more attention is focused on the organisation of contemporary rural
developments (Prosen, 1993; Fister et al., 1993). However, extra-urban areas
have been neglected and urban development schemes were indiscriminately implemented in rural areas as well.
The research of the evolution of the appertaining land of the residential
building was focused on the analysis of the elements connecting the interiors with appertaining land and buildings in the Podravska Region from
the 20th century onwards (based on the analysis of rural residential building
typology and morphology). In the classification of historical development
of residential buildings in Slovenian rural areas, I refer to Fikfak (2008, p.
28): »The biggest change in rural areas happened after 1970 when under the
influence of external factors (social policy, population migrations, industrialisation and degradation etc.) everywhere in Slovenia, mass construction
of single-family detached houses (i.e. following standard plans) began. The
housing problems were solved in a seemingly simple way: with the prevalence
of the standard single-family house, i.e. the house for every Slovene ... Indeed,
socialism was beginning to recede. At the same time, Slovenia declared its independence from Yugoslavia and adhered to the principles of internal democratization. In the plebiscite of December 1991, a uniform view regarding Slovenian
sovereignty and future was achieved. This was the beginning of independence
of the new state, which had yet to be fully won ...« Hence, 1990 is seen as the
transition to the era of contemporary residential building. In the period,
the building code was consistently enforced in extra-urban areas as well,
and a major change in residential construction was brought about by the
Housing Act of 1991 (ibid.). In reference to the aforementioned definitions,
the evolution of housing typology in Slovenian rural areas was divided into
three periods:
■■ traditional rural building (according to the research definitions: between 1900 and 1970),
■■ standard detached building (from 1970 to 1990),
■■ contemporary rural building (from 1990 onwards).
We found that, historically, the traditional rural Slovenian house was
never a detached, stand-alone building, but always part of a whole, which
included accessory buildings that were part of a discrete economic and
housing whole (residential house, farm buildings, woodsheds, gardens,
orchards etc.) (ibid.). For the traditional rural Slovenian house, the builders
considered the characteristics of the area and the relevant regulations,
which is why the land with the traditional rural house was exploited well.
The connection between the building and the relevant area was optimised
from both the housing and economic aspects. According to Kregar (1946),
in the organisation of spaces the influence of the landscape, economy and
the material is felt.
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These principles are not adhered to by the so-called standard single-family
houses, which were built without the symbiosis with the environment
and without the knowledge of their future users. As pointed out by Fikfak
(2008), after 1970 the rural residential house was the result of many influences; on the one hand, it was inspired by the suburban single-family villa
with balconies, fences and staircases, and, on the other hand, it was based
on the use of simple, easily manageable technology that allowed for self-build housing. The elaboration of standardised housing plans was based
on general principles, irrespective of the location and its distinctive features. The structure, shape and site selection and placement were selected
with no consideration of the traditional formats.
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In reference to the standardised type of building, which was, indeed,
transferred from the urban to the rural areas, the residential buildings were
positioned in the middle of the land/plot, with no space left for ancillary
and farm buildings. The residential gardens, or courtyards in the strict sense
of the word, were missing or they had a very low practical use. The use of
space was irrational and unfunctional. The relationship to open spaces
was different than in traditional building design, as the outside areas were
not defined. The standard detached house did not consider or preserve
the characteristics and regulations of the area in which it was situated. The
access to the residential building was located in the middle of the plot,
thus dividing the plot into two separate parts. Hence, the typical standard
building was characterised by irrational land use, with houses situated in
the middle of the plots, making a functional use of space difficult, if not
impossible. In the standardised rural building and placement of the house,
not enough attention was given to the integration of the building and its
land plot. The potential offered by the plot/appertaining land was underexploited, which is still the case today. Regarding the quality of living, the
integration of the house and the residential garden is of high importance;
hence, the development of the living environment is significant. This is not
only a matter of shape and siting of the residential structure, but also the
consequence of the inappropriate layout (plan view/house design), which
is the fundamental mistake in the building of a standard house. As Vatovec
(1989) points out, the living areas of the standardised building are mostly
placed on the first floor, thus preventing an uninterrupted transition from
the living areas to the appertaining land. Hence, the direct contact with the
land is disrupted. The land loses its important function of a living space. The
transitions to the land/plot through a terrace or stairs devalue the usefulness of land, while the living part of the land/plot remains under-designed
and is hardly ever used. The same level of the plot, i.e. the appertaining
land, and the living areas in the house provides the most appropriate connection between the house and land, frequent use of appertaining land,
thus justifying its existence.
The connection between the rural house and its appertaining land has
been somewhat improved by the contemporary standardised building, but
functionally it is still not optimal. Nowadays, the organised environment is
getting increased attention, since it affects the quality of live and thus provides the cultural and aesthetic comfort of living. The connection between
open spaces and structures is gaining in importance (relationship between
exteriors and interiors). It is of crucial importance that exteriors and interi-
ors intertwine functionally and programmatically, making the optimum use
of the appertaining land possible in all seasons. On this basis, the research
will focus on the understanding of possible connections between the
residential building and land, and the site selection and placement of the
buildings in a broader sense [general evaluation based on land use: intimate, private, social and public space; »the role of personal space«, definitions
by Mlinar (1994) and Rapoport (1991)].
2.2 Connection between the rural house and its appertaining land in
view of the layout of buildings and the shape of land/plot
Based on the building typology, we can visually assess the changing of
components of our rural settlements. The mix of the whole/part relationship and the assembly of these basic »cells« into ever new combinations is
the evolution process of changing the settlement patterns in the settlement system (Fikfak, 2008). However, the basic residential unit does not
include only the »residential house«, but a set of visible and »invisible« ways
between the individual elements shaping the appearance of the individual
functional unit, as well as the composability of the different units into a
formation called the rural settlement.
The main starting point in the classification and definition of the types
refers to the type of development and the arrangement of buildings into
the basic living unit (Drozg, 1995):
■■ nucleated (clustered) arrangement of buildings,
■■ linear arrangement of buildings.
Here, we have to consider many external and internal influences, such as
site selection and placement (morphology, relief, vegetation ...), relationship to public space (roads, squares ...), relationship to the open space of
a homestead (courtyards), relationship between the homestead and agricultural land (hinterland) and also the relationship between the structures
forming the homestead or house unit (detached or connected structures). The analysis of communication relationships (and the breakdown to
different land uses at the level of the basic living unit) represents the basis,
where each unit is evaluated separately and as a unique experience of the
experiential space (Fikfak, 2008). In fact, these distinctive features create a
unique format of each residential house, farm or the basic living unit. This is
also influenced by the shape of the land on which the residential building
stands as an independent element or in a group with ancillary structures
(parts of homestead).
The principle of proper development of both building and land, shown as
the relationship between the individual elements, is reflected in:
■■ spiritual values,
■■ way and culture of life,
■■ connection of social and economic functions (separation of use),
■■ technology of economy,
■■ social institutions that take on the role of regulating and organising the
life of a society (legal, ownership, production, financial system) etc.
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Another important aspect of the connection between the residential house
and land is the shape of the land on which the building is situated. The
basis of cropland distribution in Slovenia was set by Svetozar Ilešič in the
1950s (1950). Mušič (1947) and later Durjava (1986) connected the system
of cropland distribution with architecture and morphology of farm buildings. These studies clearly show the connection between the shape of the
agricultural home and the plot pattern, that is, as a rule, transferred from
the fields to the settlement. Fister (1993) also stressed that plot shape and
positioning are among the important criteria in the design of settlements.
Gabrijelčič (1985; Gabrijelčič and Fikfak, 2002) pointed out to the dependence of plot shapes, landscape typology in Slovenia and settlement.
Figure 1: Sites of selected rural settlements in the Podravska Region.
3. WORKING METHOD
The research into the patterns of appertaining land in relation to residential
building development in Slovenian rural areas from the 20th century onwards
was performed through the application on a test case study from the Slovenian countryside, i.e. on three rural settlements of the Podravska Region. There
were two major factors that affected the structure of built-up areas in the
past (before World War II): the need to respond to the natural conditions and
terrain configuration. Having in mind the importance of terrain configuration
in the siting of buildings, in the narrow and broader sense, we included the
settlements that were situated in lowlands (Lovrenc na Dravskem polju), on
the slopes (Vitomarci) and on a hilltop (Ločki Vrh) (Figure 1).
The analytical part of the research methodology was based on repeated
field observations and photography of natural geographical, cultural and
spatial features of the Podravska Region and the selected settlements, and
a systematic elaboration of presentations from the geographic information
system, surveying groundwork and field observations, and photography
of incidence of three types of building (a traditional rural house, a standard
detached house design and a contemporary rural house). The recording of
the existing development patterns in the selected settlements in the initial
stage was performed using a GIS map. We systematically reviewed the existing patterns of detached housing construction and intended use of buildings on the plot (residential buildings, business facility and non-business
facility) and different combinations of buildings. For example, we recorded
the combination of a detached residential building with a business facility
and another non-business structure (garage, canopy) and two detached
residential buildings on a plot. The shapes of plots were adopted from
survey maps and plans and divided into three groups, i.e. branched plot,
elongated plot and regularly shaped plot. In the next step of the research,
on the basis of the GIS maps, we recorded the location of the building on
the land plot relevant to the road (beginning, middle or end of the plot).
When recording development patterns using the geographical information
system, we also looked at the state or organisation of adjacent plots. We
determined the state of development and the presence of agricultural land
on adjacent land plots.
In the studying and recording of existing development patterns, repeated field observations and photography were of crucial importance. Field
observations were important in the recording of existing types of buildings.
In the first stage, we defined the intended use of the structure (residential,
business, non-business), while in the second stage the type of building
was defined. In most cases it was difficult to determine the type of building
only on the basis of the geographic information system or survey maps and
plans. In the case of lowlands, it was easier to identify traditional buildings,
since they had a typically elongated shape and a typical layout of ancillary
structures (residential structure by the side of the road, with farm buildings
and agricultural areas in the rear). On the slopes and on the hilltop, the
layout was somewhat different, i.e. it adjusted to the local topography.
The recorded patterns were drawn and systematically combined in a table;
each plot with its buildings was represented separately and in a group
with adjacent plots and buildings, including the description of relationships between the plots and residential buildings, and adjacent plots and
residential buildings. This part of the research was presented in section 3.3
Development patterns in selected settlements.
3.1 Spatial inventory in the Podravska Region
»The Podravska Region is characterised by continental climate. The two basic
landforms are extensive plains and hills. In lowlands, the landscape pattern
involves distinctly open and broad field areas with a distinctive ribbon land
allotment. This is clearly noticeable wherever the original field pattern was
not changed by the contemporary land restructuring. The settlement in the
lowlands is in the form of agglomerations, while in hilly areas it stretches along
the ridge.« (Marušič, 1996, p. 37)
Despite the fact that there is an abundance of natural and cultural heritage in the Podravska Region, we must acknowledge that the region is
losing its cultural heritage, cultivated landscape, and regional identity,
thus becoming less identifiable. We are referring to the deterioration and
abandonment of old rural settlements (settlements in Slovenske gorice)
and buildings (e.g. the cimprana hiša, a traditional Pannonian house) which
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Figure 2: Names and location of settlements,
villages and towns of the Podravska Region.
»the distinct relationship between natural characteristics and land use and the
format of layout and design of architectural identity is the criterion underlying
any future developments«.
3.2 Spatial inventory in the selected settlements
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should be renovated to preserve the traditional rural cultural heritage
(Figure 2). To improve the current state, in the future rational and prudent
use of natural resources should be promoted in the settlement area of the
Podravska Region, and the population (Figure 3) should be encouraged to
preserve and develop cultural diversity. Also, the preservation of tradition
should not be forgotten. All of this would promote a greater visibility of the
Podravska Region. The degraded areas of the Podravska Region could be
rehabilitated by shifting new developments to the already degraded areas,
while the existing settlements should be developed or rehabilitated using
the principle of dispersed concentration with densification into several
nucleated settlements or agglomerations, taking into consideration the architectural and landscape characteristics. According to Fister (1993, p. 202),
Figure 3: Settlement of the Podravska Region.
As already mentioned, the period after World War II in the Slovenian rural
areas was characterised by the progressively decreasing consideration
of the natural factors and local characteristics, which is why the problem
of degradation of rural areas and cultivated landscape has grown. These
buildings are inappropriately sited and designed, residential buildings
untypical for the rural landscape, with ill-proportioned volumes, improper orientation, improper façade colour and installations, and unsuitable
architectural elements. This leads to the disappearance of the classical rural
culture, living culture and the loss of identity of traditional settlements. The
problem of rural areas of the selected settlements is reflected not only in
built-up areas, but also in green areas, which are extremely important for a
quality living environment. This problem has not received enough attention, as we can see that in the settlements and on the fringes of settlements
there are not many green areas for leisure activities, as an expression of
rural aesthetics. This is, indeed, not understandable in the view of increasing non-agricultural rural population who have more leisure time than
agricultural population; the way to improve the quality of living is to increase common green areas. Green areas have many positive effects on rural
areas and the quality of living. By preserving the existing green areas and
through proper placement and design of new ones, we can create a better
living environment and improve the image of the area. According to Prosen
(1993), the planting along the roads and squares helps to contextualise and
alleviate the density of built-up areas.
Lovrenc na Dravskem polju
Lovrenc na Dravskem polju is a rural settlement in the lowlands of the Podravska Region, lying in the south of the plain of Dravsko polje; it is an example
of good practice of a rural agglomeration. The settlement is characterised
by a continuous, nucleated roadside development (church, store, catering
facility, post office, organised sports grounds with a sports facility) (Figure
4). In the past, the settlement was distinctly agricultural. Today, the number
of people in agriculture is declining, while a growing number of population
Figure 4: Building pattern – Lovrenc na Dravskem polju.
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is not engaged in agriculture; hence, the settlement can be characterised
as non-agricultural. A major part of the settlement is represented by the
standard type of building (on the plot there is a residential building with no
outbuildings), whose structure, shape and site selection is not part of the traditional format. There is a distinct trend of disappearance of traditional development patterns and landscape features (improper choice of installations,
vivid colours of the façade, improper materials and building orientation). To
a large degree, the area is introduced by urban settlement patterns.
Figure 6: Building pattern – Ločki Vrh.
Vitomarci
The rural settlement of Vitomarci is a distinctly dispersed and nucleated
settlement located on the slopes (church, post office, store, catering facility)
(Figure 5). Vitomarci are a case in point of development that responded to
the terrain configuration. Along with topographical features, the building
structure was influenced by the proximity of the flood-prone Pesnica river,
so the dwellings were moved to higher elevations. Along with the introduction of non-traditional buildings, vivid colours, improper installations
and materials, there is another major problem regarding the preservation
of traditional rural development patterns in Vitomarci, i.e. the conversion
and adaptation of the existing traditional buildings that are restored without consideration of characteristic traditional forms. This also means the
disappearance of the classical rural culture, dwelling culture and the loss of
identity of the traditional settlement.
Figure 5: Building pattern – Vitomarci.
sary to restore the buildings that can still be protected from deterioration.
We can still recognise and detect traditional patterns and forms that we can
use as the basis and inspiration for the design (shape, volume, materials,
colours, site orientation etc.). As it is, it is only a question of time when the
traditional image will disappear completely.
3.3 Development patterns in selected settlements
The existing building patterns in each selected settlement were recorded
and the relationships between the individual plots, residential buildings,
and adjacent plots and residential buildings were described. Field obserFigure 7: Map of traditional building, standard building and
contemporary building – rural settlement of Vitomarci (source:
GIS viewer – Atlas okolja (Environmental Atlas of Slovenia))
Ločki Vrh
The rural settlement of Ločki Vrh is located in the northern hills of the
Pesnica Valley. The development in the area of the settlement surrounded
by forest is mostly found along the ridgeline (roadside development), while
elsewhere it is distinctly disperse (Figure 6). The infrastructural connectivity
is fairly unregulated and nonfunctional. The individual housing structures
remote from the main connecting roads are abandoned, while agricultural
land is set aside or overgrown, since the settlement is only developed in the
proximity of communication routes. The settlement is adversely affected by
the introduction of urban types of building and incorrect approaches to the
siting and design of structures. Extensions and restorations of the existing
traditional structures are being made. There are many traditional residential
buildings (e.g. cimprana hiša, the typical Pannonian house), which are all
deteriorating. To preserve cultural heritage and spatial identity, it is neces49
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vations were of crucial importance when determining the type of building
and the intended use of the ancillary buildings (business, non-business).
Based on the recording methodology, the list of patterns of the existing
developments for the case of the rural settlement of Vitomarci (Table 1), for
three different types of building, is given below (Figure 7). The same research methodology was applied to the settlements Lovrenc na Dravskem
polju and Ločki Vrh.
In the selected settlements, there are no contemporary rural buildings that
would lean on traditional patterns, shapes, local distinctive features and
properties and native building materials. There are cases of contemporary
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standard building, which, however, is universal for all regions in Slovenia. As
mentioned before, this type of building is not preferred from the aspects of
spatial identity, landscape features, classical rural culture and dwelling culture. We need to create a contemporary type of building that will consider
the traditional patterns and shapes, and which will be designed in line with
the requirements of contemporary living, i.e. agricultural population on the
one side, and non-agricultural rural population on the other side. Traditional
formats should be reinvented and given a new function, which would adapt
to the needs of the modern man in the countryside. The functional design
of the traditional building for agricultural population can be significantly
Table 1: Recorded patterns of traditional building, of standard building
and of contemporary building in the rural settlement of Vitomarci.
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different that the one for non-agricultural rural population. With agricultural
population, the housing requirements are closely connected to economic
activity, while the non-agricultural population primarily needs to satisfy its
accommodation needs. In both cases, the form of the contemporary rural
building is the same, while it differs in the functional layout of spaces and
outbuildings and in the connection between the house and the land/plot.
As early as in the design stage, the designer and the builder should have in
mind the connection between the house and its appertaining land, in order
to achieve a useful and functional connectivity, i.e. a functionally uniform
area. According to Ogrin (in: Vatovec, 1986, p. 4):»If we do not take advantage
of extending our living environment from the inside of building to the outside/
garden, the main quality potential of living is lost and the detached house
loses its social significance. If the detached house fails to enable the diversity,
layers and the richness of forms of living, it cannot justify the presence of land,
which is often irrationally exploited, nor can it justify the relatively high costs of
building and maintenance«.
4. RESULTS
Finally, we provide the general observations based on the existing research into the building patterns in the rural areas of the Podravska Region
for three selected settlements. In the first part of the research we focused
on the problem of connection of the residential building with the appertaining land, and the relationship with outbuildings on the appertaining
land, as well as with adjacent buildings and land/plots. In the selected rural
settlement standard building prevails, which is universally present in all
Slovenian regions; however, this type of building does not respond to local
particularities and features (traditional patterns, native building materials),
furthermore, there are no contemporary rural buildings in the selected
settlement, but rather the type of building can be defined as contemporary
standard building. Field observations in the selected settlement showed
that there is a decline in the number of agricultural population, and a rise
in non-agricultural population, which is reflected in the organisation and
intended use of the buildings on the land, as well as in the connection with
adjacent buildings and plots.
Table 2: The position/
location category of the
building on the plot.
Based on the recording and systematic plotting of the existing development patterns, the results were elaborated in tables, and then the
patterns were systematically arranged in categories/groups related to:
■■ siting or location of the building on the land (beginning, middle or end
of the plot) (Table 2),
■■ shape of the plot (regularly shaped plot, elongated plot, branched plot)
(Table 3),
■■ type of intended use of the buildings on the plot (residential building
with a (non-)business facility, other outbuildings ...) (Table 4).
Table 3: The shape of plot category.
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Table 4: The type/intended use category of the buildings on the plot.
Table 6: Narrowed selection of standard building patterns for the settlement of Vitomarci.
Table 7: Narrowed selection of
contemporary building patterns for
the settlement of Vitomarci.
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Based on the recorded patterns and considering the different factors
(natural geographical factors, shape of plot, intended use of buildings, type
of building, siting of building) that affect the integration of the residential
building with the appertaining land, we narrowed down the patterns to
three types of buildings for the settlements in question (Tables 5, 6, 7). We
Table 5: Narrowed selection of traditional building patterns for the settlement of Vitomarci.
considered both agricultural and non-agricultural population and their
living requirements. The different housing requirements of rural population
affect the functional layout of interiors of the residential building, the design and layout of external areas and ancillary structures, hence influencing
the integration with the residential building.
The results presented here are a starting point for further research into the
connection between the residential structure and the appertaining land.
5. CONCLUSIONS
The aim of the study was to record the existing patterns of building development in three selected rural settlements of the Podravska Region and to
establish the possibilities of a better integration of residential, i.e. accommodation, structures with other parts of appertaining land.
Based on these results, in our future research we will try to determine the
effect of size and shape of land plots, siting, intended purpose of ancillary
structures, access, vegetation, layout of the building, access from the building to the land, roof pitch and floors, relation between the residential rural
building and appertaining land, and with ancillary and adjacent buildings
and land/plots. The acquired data will be used for the analysis of connectivity between the building and appertaining land, i.e. the relationship between the rural house and appertaining land in individual building types.
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Further studies should focus on the possibility of defining minimum plot
areas of a contemporary residential house in the countryside of the Podravska Region needed for quality housing, and on the elaboration of a proposal of a contemporary design approach to the planning of external areas
and construction of contemporary detached residential houses in the area
under question. The improved connectivity between the buildings and the
area would help to optimise the exploitation of the appertaining land in all
seasons, while also provide quality cultural and aesthetic comfort. The research into the planning of external areas appertaining to the residential rural
buildings provides insight into several connected research subject matters,
which are directly or indirectly linked to the issues of rural areas, dwelling
culture, sustainable development and management of external (including
green) areas and rural architecture. The studying of these connections helps
towards a comprehensive understanding of the residential house/land/
appertaining land relationship and the influence of the relationships between the individual physical and man-made elements, which help to create the
»living cell«, the basic unit, i.e. the building block of rural areas in Slovenia.
REFERENCES
Drozg, V. (1995). Morfologija vaških naselij v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Inštitut za geografijo.
Durjava, M. (1986). Načela oblikovanja slovenskih kmečkih naselij in ljudske arhitekture. Maribor: Društvo
arhitektov.
Fikfak, A. (2008). Naselbinska kultura slovenskega podeželja-Goriška brda. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani,
Fakulteta za arhitekturo.
Fister, P., Boh-Pečnik, N., Debevec, L., Deu, Ž., Kavčič, M., Lah, L. (1993). Arhitekturne krajine in regije Slovenije.
Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor Republike Slovenije, Zavod RS za prostorsko planiranje.
Gabrijelčič, P., Fikfak, A. (2002). Rurizem in ruralna arhitektura. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za
arhitekturo.
Ilešič, S. (1950). Sistemi poljske razdelitve na Slovenskem. Ljubljana: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti.
Kregar, R. (1946). Naš kmečki dom, 1. del – Hiša na vasi. Ljubljana: Naš dom – Gradbena strokovna založba.
Marušič, J. (1996). Značilni krajinski vzorci Slovenije. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor.
Mlinar, Z. (1994). Individuacija in globalizacija v prostoru. Ljubljana: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti.
Mušič, M. (1947). Obnova slovenske vasi. Celje: Družba sv. Mohorja.
Prosen, A. (1993). Sonaravno urejanje podeželskega prostora. Ljubljana: Katedra za prostorsko planiranje na
Fakulteti za arhitekturo, gradbeništvo in geodezijo.
Rapoport, A. (1991). House form and culture. Prentice-Hall, NJ: Englewood Cliffs.
DOI:10.1080/140360900300108573
Vatovec, M. (1986). Vrt ob enodružinski hiši: stanje in razvojne možnosti. Diplomska naloga. Ljubljana:
Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za agronomijo.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Mia Crnič
Javni odprti prostori manjših središčnih naselij:
raziskovanje tipologije javnega ODPRTEGA prostora in njegove
pojavnosti v prostoru Slovenije
PUBLIC OPEN SPACES OF SMALL CENTRALISED
SETTLEMENTS: researching the typology of public open
spaces and their occurrence in the area of Slovenia
DOI: 10.15292/IU-CG.2014.02.054-064 UDK: 711.4(497.4) 1.02 Pregledni znanstveni članek / Scientific Article SUBMITTED: May 2014 / REVISED: June 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
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IZVLEČEK
ABSTRACT
Prostor Slovenije je dokaj gosto prepleten z mrežo središčnih krajev različne
hierarhične stopnje. S tematiko vplivnosti središč, njihovih povezovanj,
značilnosti, itd. so se ukvarjali že mnogi raziskovalci (Drozg, Ravbar, Vrišer,
tudi Fister, idr.), ki so postregli z naborom različnih vhodnih podatkov in
temu primernimi rezultati. Da neko naselje živi, mora imeti program, s
katerim oskrbuje svoje prebivalstvo. Prav tako pa vsakršno naselje postreže
s svojimi značilnostmi in sestavinami, tako na ravni zasnove naselja, kakor
grajenega tkiva. S slednjim se je ukvarjal Fister, P. (1993), med tem ko je pri
Vrišerju, I. (1998) prednjačila funkcija naselij in njihova vplivnost na gravitacijsko zaledje. Pri tem se pojavljata vprašanji, ali je moč najti zvezo med
Fistrovo kategorizacijo slovenskega prostora z vidika značilnosti grajenega
tkiva in Vrišerjevo razdelitvijo glede na program in njegovo pomembnost
ter ali za vsa naselja, ki so razporejena po celotnem prostoru, obstajajo
kriteriji razvrščanja, ki bi jih, glede na grajene in programske značilnost javnih odprtih površin, lahko povezali v večje zaokrožene celote s podobnimi
značilnostmi?
The area of Slovenia is rather widely intertwined with a network of centralised areas of various hierarchies. Several researchers (Drozg, Ravbar, Vrišer,
Fister, and many others), who used a variety of input data and received
adequate results, have been dealing with the topic of the influence of centres, their connections and characteristics. For a settlement to exist, it has
to possess a program for the provision of its citizens. At the same time such
a settlement has its own characteristics and ingredients at the level of the
design of the settlement as well as construction. Fister (1993) dealt with the
latter topic while Vrišer (1998) focused on the functionality of settlements
and their influence on the catchment areas. In this context the question arises as to whether there is a connection between the categorisation of the
Slovenian area in regards to the characteristics of construction by Fister and
classification in regards to the program, its importance and the question
whether classification criteria exists which could be connected into larger
rounded off units with similar characteristics in regards to the building and
similar program characteristics of public open spaces by Vrišer.
Kot osnova za raziskovanje opredeljenega problema je bila primerjava
Fistrovega in Vrišerjevega modela. Dobljeni rezultati so bili iztočnica za
nadaljnjo raziskovanje javnih odprtih površin, ki povezujejo grajeno tkivo v
naseljih z drugo stopnjo središčnosti po Vrišerju.
The basis for researching the problem in question was the comparison of
the model by Fister with the model by Vrišer. Acquired results formed the
basis for further research of public open spaces connecting constructions in
settlements with centres of second level by Vrišer.
KLJUČNE BESEDE
KEY-WORDS
javni odprti prostor, manjša središča, vzorec, tipologija, Slovenija
Public open space, small centres, pattern, typology, Slovenia
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1. INTRODUCTION
Natural conditions and historical development contributed largely to the
development of numerous small and dispersed settlements in the area of
Slovenia. Two million people live in almost 6000 settlements, nearly one
half in the countryside. Due to the uneven distribution and density of the
population, the topography of the surface, political and administrative
division of land and historical development almost 600 settlements were
formed with various hierarchies of centralisation (Vrišer, 1998, p. 308) supplying its own wide and narrow areas.
Researching the topic of centralised settlements in Slovenia interested
several researchers in the past, e.g. Vrišer (1968) on the network of centralised settlements in Yugoslavia, Kokole (1971) on the network of centralised
settlements in Slovenia and many others, however, there has been a drop in
interest to some extent in the present day. This is due to the changes in the
socioeconomic status, politics and gradual depopulation from cities into
suburbs and the nearby countryside, etc. Hence it is possible to expect that
the actual situation is somewhat different today (Cigale, 2002, p. 44).
A research regarding the characteristics of Slovenian architecture or rather
buildings and settlements was carried out in 1993 by Peter Fister et al. He
states to have created an inventory of identity/quality inventories. He divided the area of Slovenia into 74 architectural landscapes and named them
according to the name of locations from which patterns and guidelines for
architectural identity were originating from. He found four centres of various
sizes. He merged architectural landscapes with similar or identical characteristics into regions (14) with names corresponding to already established
geographical, ethnological or other designations. In the search for ingredients which determine general and recognizable characteristics (termed
by Fister as architectural identities) of designing architectural landscapes,
farm buildings were primarily subject to observation. Since (farm) buildings
were the main criteria for designing common characteristics and connecting
those into larger groups with similar characteristics (hereinafter architectural
landscapes) morphological content is certainly in the foreground (building
typology, position, volume, fragmentation of architectural elements, etc.). He
also focuses on settlements within components of individual architectural
landscapes. The primary criteria determining the characteristics of individual
settlements arise from morphology and topography (adapting to the relief,
scheme, fragmentation of the building line, position, partly by vedute, etc.).
As a result of rounding off the main components on the level of buildings
and settlements, dialectological, ethnological and geographical regionalisations have to be taken into consideration (Fister, 1993, p. 5–33).
As opposed to research by Fister, which is based on building and settlement morphology as well as surface topography, Vrišer (1998) researched
the area of Slovenia on the basis of influential areas of individual location
and their role in space. The function of settlements has changed over the
years; the last century especially lead to changes in regards to historical
development, urbanization, industrialisation, increase in the standard of
living, polycentric development, etc. These changes influenced the creation
of locations with various hierarchical levels. Vrišer names 7 levels. Functio-
nality of a location is the main criteria of the categorisation and importance
of an individual centre:
■■ Centre of the First Level: complete or incomplete primary school, grocery store, inn;
■■ Centre of the Second Level: primary school, post office, medical practice, bank, police station, pharmacy;
■■ Centre of the Third Level: medical practice, cinema, hotel, several specialised stores and trades, library, subsidiary court, etc.;
■■ Centre of the Fourth and Fifth Level: secondary schools, hospital, theatre, etc.;
■■ Centre of the Sixth and Seventh Level: university, court house, opera, etc.
Individual centralised settlements are connected into greater influential
areas. His definition of geographical influential areas arises from the location of centres of third or higher levels and thus shows their catchment force.
In addition to the level of centralisation he also defines a corresponding
level of influence. By and large he defines 15 influential areas, among those
seven with the fourth level of influence (and corresponding to centres of
the fourth level) and eight with the fifth level of influence (corresponding to
centres of the fifth level or higher). A high level of connecting centres and
influential areas is shown while defining two major influential areas comprising the area of Slovenia. The northeast area of the country falls under
the influential area of Maribor (influential area of the sixth level) while the
remainder belongs to the influential area of Ljubljana (highest influential
area of the seventh level) (Vrišer, 1998, p. 308, 309).
Fister’s and Vrišer’s divisions of the area of Slovenia into smaller units have
the research of individual influential areas in common. However, they differ
regarding the main criteria influencing the results of their research. Fister
prefers a farm building and its morphology (with the topography of the surface) while Vrišer’s research is based solely on the function of settlements.
As Vrišer states (1998), the image and role of settlements has changed over
the years solely because of the changes of functions. Fister rules out the
function of a location and solely observes changes in the form. He neglects
relations between volumes, functions of individual buildings, etc. (with
the sole exception of dominating features, which he describes according
to the position in the settlement). He also excludes the fragmentation of
open areas of individual settlements, which are not only morphologically
determined but serve a purpose in the settlement which makes them the
main connectors of construction (Goličnik Marušič, 2010). The development
of locations throughout the history has definitely been influenced by
the function of these locations which enabled their existence and development. Taking into account the classification criteria of locations according to Vrišer, Slovenia is split into manageable 15 influential areas, while
the morphological method by Fister is less applicable since it splits the area
of Slovenia into 74 influential areas (or rather architectural landscapes). This
raises questions as to whether Fister’s fragmentation can possibly be merged into larger closed groups of settlements according to Vrišer’s functional
provisions of individual influences and their corresponding areas, and
which criteria is most suitable for the classification of settlements according
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to their common characteristics: morphological or functional and whether
a connection between them exists.
■■ Fall into the 2nd category of centralisation according to Vrišer (Vrišer,
1998).
The reasons behind researching the typography of public open spaces
of settlements are findings indicating that a system of sufficient quality
summarising common characteristics and general categorisation for various
areas does not exist. The results of the categorisation shall provide a link between the morphological and functional criteria and shall show which criteria
type precedes the research of public open spaces. Two types of results shall
be given. Of great interest is on the one hand the main criteria influencing
the design of public open spaces and on the other hand the categorisation/
typology of public open spaces of smaller centralised settlements. Categorisation of settlements will provide a basis for further research and set the
guidelines for development and management of public open spaces.
In the further stages of research where settlements were analysed in more
detail, in addition to criteria mentioned above for the selection of settlements according to their size and function, a criteria of great importance
was also public open space. It is namely the main criteria connecting
construction with public spaces. As Jankovič (2011, p. 2, 3) states, the public
areas are open to everyone and make socialisation, play, creating, etc. possible. They include traffic areas and other common areas, such as squares,
platforms, parks, greens, embankments, etc.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The starting point for the research of the problem in question is the Fister’s
model of classification of settlements into architectural location in regards
to morphology and topography, and Vrišer’s functional research (described
in the introduction).
All stages of research share a common criteria for the selection of patterns.
They namely deal with settlements that fall into the category of “small”
centralised settlements. “Small” centres are very difficult to define and do
not represent a criteria according to which their size could be established.
The term “small” does not exclude or condition the meaning of provincial,
urban, rural or tourist (Fikfak, 2009, p. 24). Thus while defining the term
“small centres”, the relationship between the centralised settlement and
its catchment areas as well as its relationship toward neighbouring centres
influencing and supplementing it, is of great importance.
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“Small centres” can accordingly be defined with the following criteria:
■■ Are all settlements with the role of (municipal) centres, with less than
5000 inhabitants in its catchment area (SPRS, 2004) (this criteria also limits the creating of new municipalities (Official Gazette of the Republic
of Slovenia, No. 44/96)),
■■ In addition to their centralised significance they also have administrative significance,
■■ T he basic activities of the centre are the following: post office, primary
school, petrol station, bank, general physician, pharmacy, police station
(should the centre be located near the border), grocery store, inn (Cigale, 2002, p. 46),
■■ T he exception in regards to their activities are centres in close proximity
of larger centres; there is a division of function in such cases (Cigale,
2002, p. 53)
■■ Generally smaller than 3000 inhabitants (Criteria for designing cities
(Gabrijelčič et al., 2004, p. 17)),
■■ Are typically provincial settlements (urban or semi-urban provincial
settlements; “urban” as a way of life not as a sign of an urban city area),
villages and tourist villages (Fikfak, 2009, p. 24),
Choosing the methodological approach depends largely on individual
parts of the research which should not be strictly separated but instead
intertwined and supplementing each other. The first and second step are
based on the comparative method of the models by Fister and Vrišer, while
the third and fourth steps aim to analyse and synthesise public open spaces
in settlements all around Slovenia.
3. RESEARCH
3.1 Matching/Not matching
The results of both researchers are verified on the basis of matching or
rather not matching: Vrišer’s map of centralised settlements and influential
areas of important centres from the year 1994 (Vrišer, 1998, p. 309) is overlapped by Fister’s map of Architectural landscapes and regions (Fister, 1992,
p. 246). In regards to the question whether Fister’s classification can be
merged into larger closed groups of settlements in accordance with Vrišer’s
functional provisions of individual influential areas, a comparative analysis
of both maps was created: to what extend do influential areas coincide with
architectural regions (does an appropriate architectural region fit inside one
influential area or can one influential area hold several regions) and later on
with architectural landscapes and as to whether within one influential area,
landscapes from one or several architectural regions can exist.
3.2 Comparison
On the basis of results from the previous point, a further comparative
analysis followed (Table 1). In regards to the previous hypothesis that
settlements can be merged into larger groups on the basis of functionality,
the foundation for the creation these larger groups was represented by an
influential area according to Vrišer (Table 1, column 1). In accordance with
the previous step, there were several architectural landscapes – all belonging to various architectural regions – within one influential area (Table 1,
column 2). A characteristic overview followed (as determined by Fister,
1993) for each architectural landscape at the level of settlements and farm
buildings (Table 1, column 3). Based on this overview of main characteristics the column 4 in the Table 1 was created and it presents common
characteristics of landscapes (even if located in various regions) regardless
of its corresponding influential area.
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INFLUENTIAL
AREA
ACCORDING TO
VRIŠER
ARCHITECTURAL LANDSCAPES ACCORDING TO FISTER (1993, p. 42–225)
Architectural landscape
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics
5, 7, 8, 9
7: Koper (Architectural region
Karst – Primorje)
Settlements:
(a) in dominant areas, in groups,
(b) on a ridge or near older clustered centres, buildings parallel to the infrastructure
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) individual buildings, longitudinal ground plans (1:1.8), storey, gradual pitched roofs covered with convex tiles,
stone details,
(b) clustered complexes, closed courtyards, elongated ground plan (1:3.5), gradual pitched roofs or single pitched
roofs with convex tiles, stone details,
(c) individual buildings in common street lines, storey, pitched roofs with convex tiles, stone detail.
8: Koštabona (Architectural
region Karst – Primorje)
Settlements:
(a) small cluttered settlements without dominating features on hills or slopes,
(b) on ridges or slopes, along infrastructure forming street lines, dominating features on the edges.
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) clustered complexes joined by connected buildings, gradual pitched roofs covered with convex tiles, stone
detail,
(b) buildings in short, irregular sets, storey, gradual pitched roofs with convex tiles, stone details.
9: Brkini and Markovščina
(Architectural region Inner
Carniola – Brkini)
Settlements:
(a) undulating land, built clustered near the infrastructure, farm buildings spread unevenly, dominating features
not very pronounced.
Farm buildings, buildings:
(b) merged complexes, single-story or storey buildings, longitudinal ground plans (1:1.6), pitched roofs covered
with convex tiles, stone details.
KOPER
5: Karst – Sežana
(Architectural region Karst –
Primorje)
Settlements:
(a) gently sloping hills with central dominating features,
(b) larger groups of buildings instead of individual farm buildings
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) individual as part of irregular sets, storey, pitched roof, convex tiles, stone details
(b) farm buildings in groups and around courtyards, at ground floor or storey, longitudinal ground plans, pitched
roofs covered with convex or stone tiles.
Table 1: Matching of certain influential
areas by Vrišer with architectural landscapes at building and settlement level.
Settlements:
Irregular groups, buildings form a
street line, accentuated dominating
features, mostly on the edge.
Farm buildings, buildings:
Irregular line, longitudinal ground
plans, gradual pitched roofs
covered with convex tiles or stone
detail.
KRŠKO - BREŽICE
48, 51
48: Brežice (Architectural region
Lower Carniola)
Settlements:
(a) settlements located on faults and near infrastructure, clustered farm buildings, not pronounced dominant
features, farm buildings hidden in the greens,
(b) settlements located on flat land, along infrastructure, irregular in small groups, dominating features not
pronounced
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) Buildings in groups around open courtyards, near roads, longitudinal ground plan (1:1,4), single-story, wooden,
plastered, pitched roofs covered with crown tiles,
(b) Farm buildings are unified, square to the road, residential buildings elongated into commercial buildings (1:1.5
– 1:2), storey, pitched roofs covered with crown tiles.
51: Podsreda – Bizeljsko
(Architectural region Savinjsko –
Kozjansko)
Settlements:
(a) On the border of two cultures, along infrastructure, spread out buildings, farm houses hidden in greens,
dominating features in certain parts of settlements or outside.
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) Clustered and modest, longitudinal ground plan (1:2,2), steep pitched roofs covered with crown tiles, common
hipped roofs,
(b) Complexes in groups, longitudinal ground plans, steep pitched roofs covered with crown tiles and hipped roof.
Farm buildings, buildings:
Longitudinal ground plan,
clustered, modest without details,
pitched roofs covered with crown
tiles.
61: Ptuj (Architectural region
Drava)
Settlements:
(a) on flat land, near infrastructure, regular, one-sided design, parcel oriented square to the road, dominating
features not pronounced or non-existent,
(b) on rising grounds or gentle slopes, near infrastructure.
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) Farm houses in shape of the letter L or elongated buildings, narrow parts of the building square to the road,
single-story buildings, single, double or multiple pith roof covered with shear tiles,
(b) Buildings in groups, elongated ground plans (1:2.5), single-story buildings, pitched roof covered with shear tiles.
Settlements:
On flat land, located near
roads, parcels square to the
communication axle, dominating
features not pronounced.
66: Ormož – Ljutomer
(Architectural region Pomurje)
Settlements:
(a) on flat land, regular settlements, one or two-sided design, linear settlements, parcels oriented square to the
road, forming streets lines, dominating features rarely stand out.
Farm buildings, buildings:
(a) Regular with squared or parallel commercial buildings, elongated ground plan (1:2), single-story, steep pitched
roofs covered with crown tiles or shear tiles.
Settlements:
Clustered settlements, also
scattered (however, buildings
located relatively in close
proximity to one another), along
infrastructure, dominant features
not pronounced or located outside
of settlements.
PTUJ
61, 66
Farm buildings, buildings:
Longitudinal ground plans, the
short side of the building next to
infrastructure, steep pitched roofs
covered with shear tiles.
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3.3 Sampling public open spaces
Further research (step 3) was based on determining public open spaces in
a settlement. Sample selection increased and included the entire area of
Slovenia. The observed patterns were represented by three locations of all
15 influential areas, since previous research showed that settlements may
be merged in regards to their influence of functions.
Observing settlements on the basis of morphology of open spaces, or more
precisely: where construction connects and intertwines. According to previously determined criteria for pattern selection, three locations from its own
influential area (in regards to the map by Vrišer, 1998, p. 309) and all in all 48
samples from all over Slovenia were chosen. Based on ortophotographs the
design of public open spaces (traffic surface and other common surfaces, such
as squares, platforms, parks, greens, embankments) and how these appear in
space were observed. Two patterns emerged: linear and star-shaped.
Figure 1a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Koper. Source: Internet 1
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PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Figure 1b: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Kranj. Source: Internet 1
Figure 2a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Novo mesto. Source: Internet 1
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Figure 2b: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Nova Gorica. Source: Internet 1
Figure 3a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Jesenice. Source: Internet 1
3b: Designing public open spaces in the influential area of Postojna. Source: Internet 1
Figure 4a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Krško-Brežice. Source: Internet 1
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Figure 4b: Designing public open spaces in
the influential area of Celje. Source: Internet 1
Figure 5a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Trbovlje. Source: Internet 1
UVODNIK
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razprava
discussion
recenzija
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PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Figure 5b: Designing public open spaces in the influential area
of Ravne na Koroškem – Slovenj Gradec. Source: Internet 1
Figure 6a: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Velenje. Source: Internet 1
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Figure 6b: Designing public open spaces in the
influential area of Maribor. Source: Internet 1
Figure 7a: Designing public open spaces in
the influential area of Ptuj. Source: Internet 1
7b: Designing public open spaces in the influential area of Murska Sobota. Source: Internet 1
Figure 8a: Designing public open spaces in the influential area of
Ljubljana – north of rivers Ljubljanica and Sava. Source: Internet 1
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Figure 8b: Designing public open spaces in the influential area of
Ljubljana – south of rivers Ljubljanica and Sava. Source: Internet 1
3.1 Width of public open spaces
In the fourth step the preceding steps were supplemented. On the basis of
acquired patterns, the width of each pattern was observed in the first phase
while the next phase dealt with width of public open spaces regardless of
occurring patterns.
4. RESULTS
This section presents general findings on the basis of a research of characteristics of settlements with the second level of centralisation according to
Vrišer (1998) from the standpoint of public open spaces and morphological
characteristics. Overlapping maps of settlement classification according to
UVODNIK
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INFLUENTIAL AREAS
ACCORDING TO VRIŠER
(1998, p. 309)
Koper
Nova Gorica
Postojna
Jesenice, Kranj
Ljubljana
Novo mesto
Krško - Brežice
Trbovlje
Celje
Velenje
Ravne na Koroškem –
Slovenj Gradec
Maribor
Ptuj
Murska Sobota
ARCHITECTURAL REGION (1993, p. 246)
Karst – Primorska, part of Inner Carniola – Brkinska
Soško – Vipavska, Idrijsko – Trnovska, part of Upper
Carniola
Inner Carniola – Brkinska
Upper Carniola
Ljubljanska, Ribniško – Kočevska, part of Lower
Carniola
Lower Carniola, Belokranjska
part of Lower Carniola, part of Zasavje, part of
Savinjsko – Kozjanska
Zasavje
Savinjsko – Kozjanska, part of Dravska
Savinjsko – Kozjanska
Carinthia
Part of Carinthia, part of Dravska
Part of Dravska, part of Pomurska
Pomurska
Table 2: Merging/overlapping of maps on the basis of architectural regions. Remark:
‘part of’ refers to the fact that an architectural region is only partly represented.
morphologically-typological criteria (Fister) and functional criteria (Vrišer)
concluded that the borders of individual complete areas are not harmonized and that there is considerable fragmentation according to the method
by Fister. Solely the influential area of Murska Sobota by Vrišer coincided
with the architectural region by Fister. In other examples several architectural regions are joined into one functional influential area or the other way
around – one architectural region is divided into two influential areas.
INFLUENTIAL AREAS
ARCHITECTURAL LANDSCAPES ACCORDING TO FISTER
ACCORDING TO VRIŠER
(1993, p. 246)
(1998, p. 309)
Koper
Koper, Kaštabona, Kras – Sežana, Brkini z Markovščino
Brda, Nova Gorica, Vipava, Trnovska planota, Idrija,
Nova Gorica
Cerkbo, Tolmin, part of Bohinj
Jesenice
part of Bohinj, Mojstrana, Radovljica,
Kranj
Kropa, Tržič, Jezersko, Kranj, Železniki, Škofja Loka, Žiri
Tuhinj, Kamnik – Domžale, Lukovica (črni Grabenj),
Moravče, Litija, Ljubljana Moste, Ljubljana Barje,
Ljubljana
LjubljanaVrhnika, Ljubljana Polhov Gradec, Ljubljana
Šentvid, Višnja Gora, Ribnica, Kočevje, part of Bloke,
Logatec, part of Planina - Cerknica
Postojna
Postojna, Pivka, Ilirska Bistrica, part of Planina – Cerknica,
Metika, Novo mesto, Kostanjevica, Trebnje, Šentrupert –
Novo mesto
Mokronog, Suha Krajina, part of Kočevje
Krško -Brežice
Brežice, Podsreda –Bizeljsko, part of Sevnica
Trbovlje
Trbovlje, part of Sevnica
Podčetrtek – Kozjansko, Rogatec, Šmarje – Celje, Laško
Celje
– Celje, part of Sevnica, Žalec – Celje, Vojnik, part of
Slovenska Bistrica, part of Gornja savinjska dolina
Velenje
Velenje, part of Gornja savinjska dolina
Ravne na Koroškem – Ravne – Dravograd, Slovenj Gradec, part of Pohorje,
Slovenj Gradec
Vuzenica
Partf of Pohorje, Ruše – Maribor, Pesnica - Maribor,
Maribor
Lenart, Fram, part of Slovenska Bistrica
Ptuj
Part of Lenart, Ptuj, Ormož – Ljutomer
Gornja Radgona, Murska Sobota – Lendava (Ravensko +
Murska Sobota
Dolinsko), Cankova - Domanjševci
Table 3: Merging/overlapping of maps on the basis of architectural landscapes. Remark:
‘part of’ refers to the fact that an architectural region is only partly represented.
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Table 2 shows that several architectural landscapes can be merged within
a single influential area according to Vrišer. Three adequate samples of
influential areas (Ptuj, Koper and Krško-Brežice) were gathered with their
corresponding architectural landscapes (Karst – Sežana, Koper, Koštabona,
Brkini and Markovščina, Brežice, Podsreda – Bizeljsko, Ptuj, Ormož – Ljutomer). Samples were gathered so that one influential area by Vrišer contained architectural landscapes from various architectural regions. This pattern
selection enabled a greater diversity of input data and made possible to
analyse whether settlements could be merged into groups with identical
characteristics in regards to functional influential areas. The results indicated that architectural regions and landscapes by Fister (which belong in an
architectural region or represent landscapes from various regions) could be
merged into functional influential areas by Vrišer. There were no deviations
within individual landscapes, what confirms the theory that settlements
may be categorised according to characteristics of buildings and characteristics of the function of the entire settlement. The results of the first two
steps, moreover, showed that the system of Vrišer’s influential areas may be
a start of a classification according to which settlements (and consecutively
buildings) could be classified into closed systems with common or very
similar quality with the focus being on the function and not the shape.
Among all patterns in question (altogether 48 patterns) two patterns of
public open spaces which define and connect construction emerged –
namely a pattern of linear and star-shaped settlements. The linear pattern
shapes the public open spaces longitudinally, in a straight line or in a
curved line. The star-shaped pattern on the other hand shapes a location as
small groups of individual buildings among which star-shaped open spaces
occur (Figure 9).
Figure 10: Division of Slovenia regarding the occurrence
of the star-shaped and the linear pattern of open spaces.
Observing the width of public open spaces it became clear that they were
wider in the northeast of the country and exceptionally also in the influential area of Kranj (Figure 11). These results can be compared with influential
areas by Vrišer, since wider public areas coincide with the influential area of
Maribor while narrower are found in the influential area of Ljubljana.
Figure 9: above – linear patterns, below: star-shaped patterns in public open spaces.
While observing dispersal of both patterns in space, a clear border is noticeable between the north and south part of Slovenia. The border moves from
east to west through the middle of the country, through Ljubljana. For settlements north of Ljubljana a linear pattern of public open spaces is typical
while settlements lying south of Ljubljana exhibit star-shaped patterns of
public open spaces (Figure 10).
Figure 11: Narrow and wide public open spaces.
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5. DISCUSSION
In the last couple of years the function of settlements has changed drastically. Once focused on agriculture, the settlements have markedly changed
since the invasion of middle-class mentality (Drozg, 1998). New demands
for programs which once did not exist (new social programs, higher standard of living, higher standards of teaching and health institutions, different
mentalities, etc.) brought about changes in the planning and designing of
settlements. A village was once an agricultural community based on self-sufficiency whereas today it serves mostly as a sleeping settlements where
services are offered (ibid.). Spatial planning is thus adapted to the functions
or rather services, which are connected to the economy and socio-economic structures (Drozg, 2002, p. 20). Planning settlements means linking
buildings, morphological elements and all ingredients that suit the demands of citizens (ibid.). The importance of functions for the planning of the
settlements can also be seen while comparing architectural regions with
influential areas. Architectural regions which are based solely on geographically closed areas can be summed up into influential areas, since among the
latter the criteria of function, which had one of the most important roles in
the development of settlements, is prevalent (Table 2).
The reason that only two patterns of public open spaces appear (linear
and star-shaped) in Slovenia can be found in the design of settlements. As
Drozg (1998, p. 300) notes, the regional unity of settlement type can be discerned from their corresponding location in regards to natural conditions,
limiting factors and visual exposure of the settlement. Since limiting factors
are similar in the entire region, the position and ground plan design of the
settlement are also similar (precisely there).
UVODNIK
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The results of the research regarding the arrangement of linear and star-shaped pattern of public open spaces also coincide with the following
findings:
■■ Types of urbanization in the first half in 1990s (Ravbar, 1998, p. 311):
northern part of the Slovenian area is taken over by urbanized countryside with a dispersed population (the results of the research also
showed that there is a prevalence of star-shaped open spaces), while
the southern part represents urbanized countryside with condensed
population. This map of urbanization can also be used to analyse where
wide and where narrow open public spaces are prevalent.
■■ Type of colonisation (Drozg, 1998, p. 299): the northern part is represented by dispersed settlements and the southern part by nucleated
settlement, confirmed by this research.
morphological factors are of great importance for the categorisation of
settlement from the standpoint of vedute, greens, orientation, infrastructure in public spaces, etc., and therefore these should be the object of further
research which will enable us to draw new conclusions in this field.
LITERATURA IN VIRI
Ravbar, M. (1998). Značilnosti urbanizacije. Geografski atlas Slovenije [Kartografsko gradivo]: država v prostoru in
času, str. 310-313.
Vrišer, I. (1998). Središčna (centralna) naselja. Geografski atlas Slovenije [Kartografsko gradivo]: država v prostoru
in času, str. 308-309.
Cigale, D. (2002). Centralna naselja v Sloveniji in njihova vplivna območja v letu 1999. Geografski vestnik
[Elektronski vir], 74-1, str. 43-56. Acquired on 1 June 2014 from the website: http://www.dlib.si/details/
URN:NBN:SI:DOC-ISO6HUJ1/
Fister, P. (1993). Arhitekturne krajine in regije Slovenije. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor Republike
Slovenije, Zavod Republike Slovenije za prostorsko planiranje.
Fister, P. (1993). Glosar arhitekturne tipologije. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor Republike Slovenije,
Zavod Republike Slovenije za prostorsko planiranje.
Goličnik Marušič, B. (2010). Uspešni javni odprti prostori. Annales. Series historia et sociologia. [Elektronski
vir], letn. 20, št. 1, str. 103-118.. Acquired on 1 June 2014 from the website: http://www.dlib.si/details/
URN:NBN:SI:DOC-OMRPLYXM
Drozg, M. (1998). Kmečka naselja. Geografski atlas Slovenije [Kartografsko gradivo]: država v prostoru in času, str.
289-300.
Drozg, V. (2002). Poselitvena območja in diferencirana merila za urejanje naselij. V: Ažman Momirski, L. (ur.),
Fikfak, A. (ur.). Oblike prostorskega načrtovanja : od mestnega načrta do urejanja naselij (str. 20-23).
Publikacija Mednarodnega posveta Oblike prostorskega načrtovanja: od mestnega načrta do urejanja
naselij. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za arhitekturo.
Crnič, M., Grom, J. P., Fikfak, A. (2013). Centralni prostor občinskega središča. Igra ustvarjalnosti [Elektronski
vir], Letn. 1, št. 1 (2013), str. 96-106. Acquired on 1 June 2014 from the website: http://www.iu-cg.org/
paper/2013/IU_st01_fikfak.pdf
Jankovič Grobelšek, L., 2011. Javni in za javnost odprti prostori sodobnega mesta. Doktorska disertacija. Ljubljana.
Medmrežje 1: Atlas okolja. Acquired on 7 May 2014 from the website: http://gis.arso.gov.si/atlasokolja/profile.
[email protected]
Gabrijelčič, P., Fikfak, A. Čok, G., 2004: Urejanje podeželskih naselij: naselja brez središčnega pomena. Fakulteta za
arhitekturo, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana.
6. CONCLUSION
Gabrijelčič, P., Gruev, M., Fikfak, A., Čok, G., Kobler, A., Marušič, I., 2004: Podrobnejša pravila urejanja prostora urejanje manjših naselij. Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana.
As is the past, in the future settlements shall also be divided into groups on
the basis of their function which they have in the network of settlements.
Notwithstanding the wide dispersal of colonisation and prevalent small
settlements in Slovenia, they can be merged into typical closed groups on
the basis of program equipment of the settlement and its functional value
for providing for its citizens in the catchment areas. Topographical and
SPRS: Strategija prostorskega razvoja Slovenije
Zakonu o postopku za ustanovitev občin ter za določitev njihovih območij. Uradni list RS, št. 44/96. Ljubljana.
Fikfak, A., 2009: Urbanizirano podeželje - manjša neagrarna naselja. Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Univerza v Ljubljani,
Ljubljana.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek
Študentske delavnice kot primer
projektnega učenja
Student Workshops as an example
of Project Based Learning (PBL)
DOI: 10.15292/IU-CG.2014.02.066-072 UDK: 374:303.425:711.4(497.4) 1.02 Znanstveni članek / Scientific Article SUBMITTED: June 2014 / REVISED: September 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
IZVLEČEK
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ARTICLE
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discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
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COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
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DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Študentske delavnice so oblika projektnega učenja in sodelovanja med
izobraževalnimi institucijami in lokalnimi skupnostmi. Cilj takšne oblike učenja je, da obe strani pridobita pozitivne izkušnje medsebojnega
sodelovanja. Izobraževalne institucije na ta način pridobijo realno okolje, v
katerem študentje iščejo odgovore na konkretna vprašanja prostorskega
razvoja, učitelji jih pri tem vodijo skozi teoretično zasnovane metodološke
pristope. Lokalnim skupnostim pa tovrstno sodelovanje prinese odprto razpravo o vprašanjih prostorskega razvoja z vsemi zainteresiranimi deležniki,
predvsem s širšo strokovno in laično javnostjo. Dejanski odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic smo preverili z anonimno spletno anketo,
s katero smo zgornje ugotovitve potrdili. Prošnjo po izpolnitvi anketnega
vprašalnika smo poslali vsem 212 slovenskim občinam. Na anketo je odgovorilo 56 (26 %) občin. Analiza odgovorov kaže veliko stopnjo zadovoljstva
lokalnih skupnosti s študentskimi delavnicami ter pridobljenimi rešitvami
na zastavljena vprašanja prostorskega razvoja na območju sodelujoče občine. Rezultati so tudi jasno pokazali, da se lokalne skupnosti zavedajo, da
nabor predlogov in idej še ne predstavlja neposrednih strokovnih podlag
za izdelavo konkretnega prostorskega akta, temveč le podlago za odprto
razpravo in izhodišče za nadaljnje delo. Hkrati se lokalne skupnosti zavedajo, da so delavnice oblika študijskega procesa, in jih podpirajo ter si želijo
nadaljnjega poglobljenega sodelovanja z izobraževalnimi institucijami.
KLJUČNE BESEDE
študentska delavnica, učenje s projektnim delom (PBL), anketa, lokalna
skupnost
ABSTRACT
Student workshops are a form of Project Based Learning (PBL) and cooperation among educational institutions, and local communities. The purpose of
this is that both parties gain positive experiences. For educational institutions this is a good way to be challenged with a real-life case where students
seek answers to real-life questions in spatial development. The mentors
are their guides through a theory-based methodological approach. For
local communities this cooperation opens a public discussion on the local
challenges in spatial development with all the interested stakeholders,
but mostly with the general professional and »lay« public. To gain insight
into the actual opinion on student workshops of the local communities we
created an anonymous on-line questionnaire, whose results confirmed the
aforementioned statements. All 212 Slovenian municipalities were asked to
complete the survey. The responses were received from 56 municipalities
(26%). The results show a high satisfaction rate of the local communities
with the student workshops and with the results regarding the local spatial
development challenges in the area of the municipality involved. Moreover,
the results clearly demonstrated that the local communities are, in fact,
aware that the proposals and ideas are far from actual professional designs
of spatial planning documents, but rather a basis for open discussion and a
starting point for further work. Moreover, they are also aware that the student workshops are a form of learning process – they are very supportive
of it, and have high hopes for future in-depth cooperation with educational
institutions.
KEY-WORDS
student workshop, project based learning (PBL), survey, local community
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1. UVOD
Korak h kakovostnejšemu študiju je postavljanje smiselnih in primerno
zahtevnih nalog in strokovnih ter raziskovalnih vprašanj (Puklek Levpušček,
Marentič - Požarnik, 2005). Ali kot pravi Linn (2006), glavni cilj poučevanja
je pomoč študentom, da po korakih spoznavajo stališča strokovnjakov in v
svojih možganih povezujejo koščke znanja drugega za drugim.
Številni avtorji poudarjajo, da je treba klasični izobraževalni proces nadgraditi s sodobnimi prijemi in drugačnimi metodami podajanja znanja. Ena
naprednejših metod je projektno učenje (angl. project-based learning –
PBL) (Medmrežje 2; Thomas, 2000; Larmer, Mergendoller, 2010; Blumenfeld
et al., 1991; Ayas, Zeniuk, 2001), torej učenje, ki temelji na izdelavi projektne naloge. Opredelitve so si podobne v različnih virih in, kot navajajo
avtorji v različnih priročnikih za učitelje (Jones, Rasmussen, Moffitt, 1997;
Thomas, Mergendoller, Michaelson, 1999: v Thomas, 2000), so projekti
kompleksne naloge, zasnovane na zahtevnejših vprašanjih ali problemih,
ki vključijo študente v oblikovanje, reševanje problemov, odločevalske ali
raziskovalne aktivnosti, dajo priložnost študentom za samostojno delo v
daljšem časovnem razdobju in se na koncu izdelajo v enaki obliki kot pravi
projekti ali predstavitve.
V članku predstavljamo študentske delavnice kot obliko projektnega
učenja, ki ga izvajamo na Fakulteti za gradbeništvo in geodezijo Univerze
v Ljubljani (UL FGG). Gre za obliko projektnega dela v izobraževalnem
procesu, kjer se študenti seznanijo s problemi na lokalni ali regionalni
ravni. Cilj takšne oblike učenja je, da vse vpletene strani pridobijo pozitivne
izkušnje medsebojnega sodelovanja. Izobraževalne institucije in študenti
na ta način pridobijo realno okolje, v katerem mentorji in študentje iščejo
odgovore na konkretna vprašanja prostorskega razvoja ter preizkušajo
teoretične dileme. Lokalne skupnosti pridobijo ideje in vizije prostorskih,
arhitekturnih in okoljskih rešitev ter k razpravi in razmisleku aktivirajo tudi
lokalno prebivalstvo.
Pri delu se upoštevajo vsi elementi projektnega učenja (Medmrežje 2).
Na začetku delavnice se jasno podajo izhodišča naloge ter s predavanji
strokovnjakov in lokalnih deležnikov predstavi vprašanja prostorskega razvoja, ki zadevajo sodelujočo lokalno skupnost. S kreativnim iskanjem idej
in rešitev v daljšem časovnem obdobju (prek enega ali dveh semestrov)
študenti ob podpori mentorjev izluščijo rešitev in jo ustrezno predstavijo
ter zagovarjajo pred širšo strokovno in laično javnostjo v sodelujoči lokalni
skupnosti. Delavnice izvajamo že deseto leto zapored z različnimi študenti
študijskih programov in praviloma v povezavi s sorodnimi oddelki na
drugih fakultetah Univerze v Ljubljani (Filozofska fakulteta – Oddelek za
geografijo, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Biotehniška fakulteta – Oddelek za
krajinsko arhitekturo) in na Tehniški univerzi na Dunaju (Oddelek za regionalno planiranje in regionalni razvoj).
Projektno delo v obliki študentskih delavnic je na Katedri za prostorsko
planiranje Fakultete za gradbeništvo in geodezijo Univerze v Ljubljani
vključeno kot način dela v rednem izobraževalnem procesu predvsem v
višjih letnikih poučevanja, medtem ko imajo nekatere fakultete v Sloveniji,
kot na primer Fakulteta za arhitekturo Univerze v Ljubljani, delavnico –
kot obvezno obliko izobraževanja – umeščeno v redni študijski program
(Medmrežje 1).
Projektno delo temelji na realno oblikovanih problemih (Thomas, 2000),
zato je uspešnost študentskih delavnic odvisna od sodelovanja med
izobraževalnimi institucijami (univerzami in fakultetami) ter lokalnimi skupnostmi. Delo na dejanskem problemu pozitivno vpliva na razvoj študenta, bodočega ustvarjalca, saj prestopi meje učilnice ter se sooči z realnim
delovnim okoljem. Četudi je projektno delo lahko oblikovano na teoretičnih ali izmišljenih problemih, si izobraževalne institucije želijo sodelovanja
z lokalnimi skupnostmi, saj na ta način teoretična znanja lahko prenašajo
v lokalno okolje in jih približajo študentom na praktičnih primerih, hkrati
pa lokalne skupnosti pridobijo rešitve in usmeritve za reševanje lokalnih
vprašanj prostorskega razvoja.
Praviloma se delavnice zaključijo z uradno predstavitvijo in razpravo z
lokalnim prebivalstvom, za temeljito ovrednotenje dela s strani lokalnih
skupnosti pa pogosto zmanjka časa ali pa vrednostna ocena ni globlja
od vljudnostnega zadovoljstva ali nekritičnega nezadovoljstva. V članku
smo zato želeli preveriti zadovoljstvo lokalnih skupnosti z že izvedenimi
študentskimi delavnicami ter preveriti delovno hipotezo, da tovrstno sodelovanje prinaša koristi vsem sodelujočim.
2. METODA DELA IN RAZISKAVA
Kot je poudarjeno že v uvodu, smo želeli čim bolj nepristransko ovrednotiti rezultate sodelovanja med izobraževalnimi institucijami in lokalnimi
skupnostmi. V ta namen smo pripravili anonimno spletno anketo. K sodelovanju smo povabili vseh 212 slovenskih občin, saj smo želeli preveriti,
koliko občin je že sodelovalo na tak način z izobraževalnimi institucijami,
ali je sodelovanje v obliki študentske delavnice zanje koristno in analizirati
prednosti in slabosti tovrstnega sodelovanja in povezovanja med lokalnimi
skupnostmi in izobraževalnimi institucijami.
Anketa je bila dostopna na spletni strani Google Docs, oblikovana v programskem okolju Google Forms in posredovana vsem 212 občinam po elektronski pošti, ciljno na oddelke za urejanje prostora. Če elektronski naslov
oddelka za urejanje prostora posamezne občine ni objavljen na spletu,
smo prošnjo za izpolnjevanje anketnega vprašalnika naslovili na direktorje občinskih uprav, župane ali pa smo uporabili skupni e-naslov občine.
Anketa je bila anonimna in kratka, anketiranec je zanjo potreboval od 5 do
8 minut. Spletna anketa je bila izvedena maja 2014.
Anketni vprašalnik je bil sestavljen iz petih vsebinskih sklopov:
■■ SKLOP 1 – splošni podatki o izpolnjevalcu ankete (delovno mesto), ali
je v lokalni skupnosti že bila izvedena študentska delavnica ter od kod
so pridobili informacije o študentskih delavnicah; štiri vprašanja,
■■ S KLOP 2 – vsebinska vprašanja, povezana z izvajanjem delavnic in
sodelujočimi deležniki; štiri vprašanja,
■■ S KLOP 3 – ovrednotenje delavnic ter pomen delavnic za lokalno skupnost; štiri vprašanja,
67
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
■■ SKLOP 4 – priporočila za nadaljnje delo ter lastna opažanja izpolnjevalca anketnega vprašalnika; tri vprašanja,
■■ S KLOP 5 – vprašanja za občine, ki še nimajo izkušenj s študentskimi
delavnicami; tri vprašanja.
Pri devetih od osemnajstih vprašanjih je bila uporabljena štiristopenjska
vrednostna lestvica, pri čemer 1 pomeni najnižjo vrednost ali »se ne strinjam«, 2 »se delno strinjam«, 3 »se strinjam« in 4 najvišjo vrednost oziroma
»se popolnoma strinjam«. Ostala vprašanja so imela vnaprej podane
odgovore in možnost izbire. Na posamezna vprašanja je bilo možno podati
tudi več odgovorov.
Grafikon 1: Poznavanje študentske delavnice kot oblike dela in sodelovanja med lokalnimi skupnostmi in univerzitetnimi institucijami.
Ali in kje ste že slišali za študentsko delavnico kot obliko sodelovanja med lokalnimi skupnostmi in univerzitetnimi institucijami?
13%
35%
Lokalne skupnosti, ki so že imele izkušnje s študentskimi delavnicami,
so odgovarjale na prvi, drugi, tretji in četrti sklop vprašanj, na prvi in peti
sklop vprašanj pa tiste, ki tovrstnega sodelovanja z izobraževalnimi institucijami še ne poznajo.
Prejeli smo 56 odgovorov. Predpostavili smo, da je v eni lokalni skupnosti
izpolnila anketo ena oseba, in tako število prejetih odgovorov predstavlja
26 % vseh lokalnih skupnosti. Ocenili smo, da je vzorec prispelih odgovorov dovolj velik, da lahko izvedemo analizo rezultatov ankete.
V 55 % od prejetih odgovorov so anketo izpolnjevali predstavniki oddelkov za prostor in v 18 % direktorji občinskih uprav. Zaradi visokega deleža
pristojnih oseb ocenjujemo, da so rezultati ankete verodostojni in da lahko
na njihovih odgovorih temeljijo tudi naši zaključki.
3. ANALIZA IN REZULTATI
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Vrnjene anketne vprašalnike smo obdelali in rezultate predstavili v grafični
in tabelarični obliki. V članku so neposredno (z grafično ali tabelarično
ponazoritvijo) ali neposredno (v vrednotenju celostnega obravnavanega
sklopa) predstavljeni odgovori na vsa zastavljena vprašanja.
V zadnjih 15 letih je študentske delavnice izvedlo 52 % lokalnih skupnosti,
ki so izpolnile anketo, 28 % lokalnih skupnosti delavnic ni izvedlo, v 20 %
pa se anketiranec ni spomnil ali ni imel dovolj informacij, da bi lahko pritrdil ali zanikal izvedbo študentske delavnice.
Lokalne skupnosti, ki delavnice niso izvedle, so za študentske delavnice slišale bodisi iz medijev (35 %) ali iz izkušenj v sosednjih/bližnjih občinah (17
%). Kar v 35 % so lokalne skupnosti o izvedbi urbanistične delavnice tudi
razmišljale, vendar se zanjo nato niso odločile. Le 13 % lokalnih skupnosti
(v absolutni vrednosti 3 lokalne skupnosti) za delavnico še niso slišale
(grafikon 1). 81 % lokalnih skupnosti, v katerih delavnica še ni bila izvedena, se je opredelilo, da bi v prihodnosti želele sodelovati z univerzitetnimi
institucijami, med interesnimi področji sodelovanja pa je največ zanimanja
za urejanje podeželskih naselij (28 %), sledijo krajinska arhitektura in urbanizem (19 %) in okoljska infrastruktura (18 %).
Med lokalnimi skupnostmi, ki so študentsko delavnico že izvedle, je 37 %
takih, ki so jo izvedle trikrat ali večkrat, 33 % jo je izvedlo dvakrat, 30 % pa
DA, iz medijev
DA, študentsko delavnico so
izvedli v sosednji/ bližnji občini
DA, tudi v naši občini smo o njej
razmišljali, vendar se zanjo
nismo odločili
NE, nikoli
35%
17%
Med lokalnimi skupnostmi, ki so študentsko delavnico že izvedle, je 37 % takih, ki so jo enkrat (grafikon 2). Študentske delavnice so bile najpogosteje izvedene v
izvedle trikrat ali večkrat, 33 % jo je izvedlo dvakrat, 30 % pa enkrat (grafikon 2). Študentske delavnice so bile najpogosteje izvedene v sodelovanju s Fakulteto za arhitekturo (46 %), ki ji sodelovanju s Fakulteto za arhitekturo (46 %), ki ji sledita Fakulteta za gradsledita Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo (21 %) in Biotehniška fakulteta (19 %), vse beništvo in geodezijo (21 %) in Biotehniška fakulteta (19 %), vse članice
članice Univerze v Ljubljani. Obravnavana so bila raznolika vprašanja prostorskega razvoja Univerze v Ljubljani. Obravnavana so bila raznolika vprašanja prostorskega
lokalnih skupnosti, kot so urbanistične ureditve za del ali celotno mesto (24 %), urejanje vaških naselij in podeželja v celoti (skupaj 23 %), krajinske ureditve (13 %), arhitekturne razvoja lokalnih skupnosti, kot so urbanistične ureditve za del ali celotno
rešitve (12 %), prostorsko načrtovanje na ravni občine (9 %) in prometna in okoljska mesto (24 %), urejanje vaških naselij in podeželja v celoti (skupaj 23 %),
infrastruktura (skupaj 10 %) (preglednica 1). krajinske ureditve (13 %), arhitekturne rešitve (12 %), prostorsko načrtovanje na ravni občine (9 %) in prometna in okoljska infrastruktura (skupaj 10
Iz odgovorov lahko sklepamo, da so lokalne skupnosti imele s študentskimi delavnicami pozitivne izkušnje, saj je 70 % lokalnih skupnosti ponovno pristopilo k tej obliki sodelovanja. %) (preglednica 1).
Planersko‐urbanistične delavnice so za lokalne skupnosti bolj zanimive kot delavnice z arhitekturnim in/ali okoljskim načrtovanjem. Sklepamo, da se za ta vsebinska področja odločajo predvsem zaradi perečih prostorskih problemov ter večje zahtevnosti Preglednica 1: Prikaz deleža obravnavanih tematik v lokalnih skupno(interdisciplinarnosti) dela. stih, ki so v zadnjih 15 letih že izvedle študentske delavnice.
Grafikon 2: Lokalne skupnosti glede na število izvedenih študentskih delavnic v zadnjih 15 letih. Področje, na katerem se je izvedla
Odstotek odgovorov
študentska delavnica
1.
Urbanistična rešitev dela mesta
24 %
2.
Urejanje manjših vaških naselij
15 %
3.
Krajinsko oblikovanje oz. arhitektura
13 %
4.
Arhitektura
12 %
5.
Prostorsko načrtovanje (na ravni občine)
9%
6.
Urejanje podeželja
8%
7.
Umeščanje infrastrukturnega objekta/-ov v
prostor
6%
8.
Urbanistična zasnova celotnega mesta
5%
9.
Iskanje prometnih rešitev
4%
10.
Drugo
5%
68
Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek ŠTUDENTSKE DELAVNICE KOT PRIMER PROJEKTNEGA UČENJA : 66–72(162)
6 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa
urejanja
prostora
|
THE
CREATIVITY
GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študents
V sklopu vprašanj glede
pomena
študentskih
delavnic za lokalno skupnost
Iz odgovorov lahko sklepamo, da so lokalne skupnosti imele s študentskiOdnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
mi delavnicami pozitivne izkušnje, saj je 70 % lokalnih skupnosti ponovno
so bile študentske delavnice ocenjene zelo
visoko, saj je kar 96 % občin
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
pristopilo k tej obliki sodelovanja. Planersko-urbanistične delavnice so za
menilo, da so študentske
delavnice primerna oblika za obravnavo prostor1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
19%
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…0%
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
lokalne skupnosti bolj zanimive kot delavnice z arhitekturnim in/ali
okoljsko načrtovalskih problemov (odgovori na četrto
vprašanje/trditev, grafi1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…0%
4%
19%
77%
skim načrtovanjem. Sklepamo, da se za ta vsebinska področja odločajo
0%
38%
kon 3) ter da je prisotnost2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
študentov popestrila lokalno
okolje in zanimanje
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
19%
77%
predvsem zaradi perečih prostorskih problemov ter večje zahtevnosti
lokalnega
prebivalstva ter tudi navdihnila delavce
občinske
uprave (83 %). 62%
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92
(interdisciplinarnosti) dela.
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11
Z rezultati delavnice so bila
izpolnjena
pričakovanja
lokalne skupnosti
kar v
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
62%
92%
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
89 %,3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
v 10 % so bile občine
le delno zadovoljne.
11%0%
43%
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
1
Grafikon 2: Lokalne skupnosti glede na število izvedenih študentskih delavnic v zadnjih 15 letih.
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
4%
0%
4%
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske… 11%0%
43%
46%
6
Lokalne skupnosti so pomen in5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
rezultate študentskih delavnic ocenile 17%
kot
Kolikokrat ste že uporabili študentsko 0%
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študents
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
0%
43%
46% tako
zelo dobro
(grafikon 4). 64 %11%
lokalnih
skupnosti
meni, da so rezultati
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
17%
61%
9% 1
delavnico kot način dela za obravnavanje 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
dobri, da bi jih lahko uporabili
tudi pri nadaljnjem61%
delu
(odgovor na 9%
tretje
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
17%
13%
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
4%
prostorsko načrtovalskih problemov? 0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
70% 80%0%
90%
vprašanje/trditev, grafion 4), hkrati
pa 54 % občin ugotavlja
(odgovor na 60%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
19%
0% 10%
30% 2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
40% delavnic
50% 60%niso
70%upošte80% 90% 100%
drugo vprašanje/trditev,
4), 20%
da v rezultatih
0%
Se ne strinjam grafion
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
vane vse posebnosti obravnavanega
prostora,
zato
kljub
dobrim
rešitvam
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
19%
77%
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
uporabni za
rezultati delavnice niso
neposredni prenos
rešitev
v prostor.
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
0%
4%
19%
77%
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delav
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…0%
38%
62% 3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92
30%
Enkrat delavnice je vidna
tudi
iz odgovora na
Omejena uporabnost rezultatov
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11
37%
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno sk
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
62%
vprašanje
4
v
grafikonu
4,
kjer
je
32
%
lokalnih
skupnosti
izpostavilo,
da
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%0%
43% 4%
1
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. rezultatov
študentskih delavnic niso nikoli uporabile.5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
Lokalne skupnosti, ki
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
4%
0%
4%
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
36% 46%
4%
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%
0%
43%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
so bile z rezultati delavnice zadovoljne,
so predlagane rešitve uporabile
kot
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
17%
6
Dvakrat
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. 0%
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
28%
32%
36%
4%
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%
0%
43%
46%
strokovno
podlago
za
izdelavo
prostorskega
akta
ali
občinskega
projekta
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
29%
17%
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z… 3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
17%
61%
9%0% 1
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
(odgovora
na vprašanji 5 in4%
6 v grafikonu
29 Se ne strinjam
% lokalnih
Se delno strinjam
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
28%
32% 29% skupnosti
36% 5). Kar
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
46%
17%61%
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
17%
9%
13%
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
0%s predstavljenimi
10% 20% 30% 40%
50% ni
60% 70% 80% 90%
pa je bilo mnenja, da se lokalnoSe ne strinjam
prebivalstvo
rešitvami
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Trikrat ali več
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
8%
46%
29%
17%
33%
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
16
48%
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
povsem
poistovetilo (odgovor
na
vprašanje/trditev
5,
grafikon
4).
0% 10% 20% 30%
40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%32%
100%
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
Zadovoljstvo lokalnih skupnosti z izvedenimi študentskimi delavnicami. 3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
16%
48%
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
24% 50
36%21%
32%
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
0%
Grafikon 3: Zadovoljstvo lokalnih skupnosti z izvedenimi študentskimi delavnicami.
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
8%
24%
32%
40%
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
50%
21%36%
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delav
20% 30% 29%
1. Ali so rezultati delavnice izpolnili vaša pričakovanja?
10%
55%
34%
Se ne strinjam 0% 10%
Se delno strinjam
15 5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
29% 60% 0%
50% 20% 30% 40% 50%
21%
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno sk
Preglednica 1: Prikaz deleža obravnavanih tematik v lokalnih skupnostih, ki so v zadnjih 15 7 0% 10%
70% 80% 90%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
4%
letih že izvedle študentske delavnice. 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. 0%
10%
20%
2. Odločitev za študentsko delavnico je bila vzpodbuda in navdih za občinsko upravo
23%
38%
35%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
36%
4%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
Področje, na katerem se je izvedla študentska delavnica 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Odstotek odgovorov 3. Prisotnost študentov na terenu je občane vzpodbudila k dejavnejšemu sodelovanju pri Urbanistična rešitev dela mesta 24 % aktivnostih v lokalnem okolju (večje sodelovanje javnosti, razprave, zanimanje za probleme Urejanje manjših vaških naselij 15 % občine …)
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
32%
36%
4%
29% 28%
17%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
0%
24%
52% 21%
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
28%
32% 29%
36%
4%
46%
17%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
Krajinsko oblikovanje oz. arhitektura 13 % 3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
8%
46%
17%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
i 29%
16
48%
36%
0%
Arhitektura 12 % »Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je 4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
32%
4. Ali se vam zdijo študentske delavnice primerna oblika za obravnavo prostorsko načrtovalskih
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
3%
53%
43%
ii
Prostorsko načrtovanje (na ravni občine) 9 % problemov na lokalni ravni?
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
16%
36%
0%
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketira
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
24% 50
36%21%
32% 48%
Urejanje podeželja 8% 5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
ii
0%
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
0% 4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Umeščanje infrastrukturnega objekta/‐ov v prostor 6 % »Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 8%
24%
32%
Pomen
študentskih
za lokalno skupnost.
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
29%
50%
21%36%
Grafikon
4: Pomenrezultatov
rezultatov študentskih
delavnic zadelavnic
lokalno skupnost.
ii
Urbanistična zasnova celotnega mesta Iskanje prometnih rešitev Se ne strinjam
Se ne strinjam
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Se delno strinjam
15 29% 60% 0%
50% 20% 30% 40% 50%
10%
70% 80% 90%
5 % i
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin Se popolnoma strinjam
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 4 % 5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske ii Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin 4%
36%
32%
5 % 21%
0%
28%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh lokalnih značilnosti, zato niso
8%
17%
29%
46%
uresničljive
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
V sklopu vprašanj glede pomena študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost so bile študentske delavnice ocenjene zelo visoko, saj je kar 96 % občin menilo, da so študentske delavnice 3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri nadaljnjem delu 36% 48%
16%
primerna oblika za obravnavo prostorsko načrtovalskih problemov (odgovori na prvo i
vprašanje/trditev, preglednica 2) ter da je prisotnost študentov popestrila lokalno okolje in »Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je 4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli uporabljene
32%
36%
24%
8%
zanimanje lokalnega prebivalstva ter tudi navdihnila delavce občinske uprave (83 %). Z ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketira
rezultati delavnice so bila izpolnjena pričakovanja lokalne skupnosti kar v 89 %, v 10 % so bile ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
10. Drugo 0%
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
občine le delno zadovoljne. 5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami ni poistovetilo
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 21%
50%
29%
ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin 0%
ii
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
69
4. Kot občinski dogodek
35%
38
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
36%
4%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upošteva
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
48%
36%
0%
50%
35%
38%25%
26%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
17%44%
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko upora
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
36%
32%
4. Kot občinski dogodek
35%
38%
5. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo prostorskega plana
26%
44%
20%
28%
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME –6. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo občinskega projekta
36%
0%
Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bil
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
21%
5. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo prostorskega plana
26%20%
44% 50%
6. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo občinskega projekta
28%
7. V obliki publikacije
70%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
32%
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi re
6. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo občinskega projekta
Kako ste predstavili/uporabili rezultate izvedenih študentskih delavnic širši javnosti?
20%
28%20%70%
0% 10%
30% 40%40%
50% 60%
70
7. V obliki publikacije
0%
10%
20%
30%
50%
Grafikon 5: Uporabnost in seznanjanje javnosti z rezultati študentske delavnice.
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
21%
7. V obliki publikacije
70%
0%Se delno strinjam
10% 3%
20%
30% NE 40%
50%
60%
1. Z javno predstavitvijo in razstavo
7%
90%
Se ne strinjam
Se strinjam
DA
DELNO Se popolnom
0%
10%
20%
DA30% NE 40%
DELNO 50%
0%
10%
20%
60%
3. Preko promocije aktivnosti občine
4. Kot občinski dogodek
5. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo prostorskega plana
Št. 2. /
2. Z objavo v medijih
81%
3. Preko promocije aktivnosti občine
50%
4. Kot občinski dogodek
35%
5. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo prostorskega plana
26%
6. Kot strokovne podlage za izdelavo občinskega projekta
28%
20%
7. V obliki publikacije
10%
20%
30%
12%
8%
DA
NE
Se ne strinjam
25%
25%
Se ne strinjam
DELNO
Se delno strinjam
Se delno
Se str
27%
44%
30%
i
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 52%
ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
38%
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«
ii
70%
0%
15% Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin 15%
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do štude
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena
70% Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin 80%
90%
100%
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
i
40%
50%
60%
ii
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…0
Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…0%
4% 19%
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0
ževanje), kar je še posebej pomembno za manjše,
kadrovsko in finančno
Lokalne skupnosti so praviloma rezultate delavnice predstavile Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
na javni
DA
NE
DELNO
4%
77%
šibkejše skupnosti. Zavedajo
se, da je takšna0%
oblika19%
dela cenovno ugodnejpredstavitvi in razstavi (90 %), 81 % jih je izvedlo objavo v javnih medijih, 70 1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
ša
od
primerljivega
dela
strokovnih
institucij,
ni
pa
primerna
za
reševanje
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega…
% pa se je odločilo tudi za izdelavo publikacije (grafikon 5). Visok odstotek
0%
4% 19%
77%
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
62%
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
večjih in težjih prostorskih problemov.
Kljub omejenim
možnostim uporabe
lokalnih skupnosti (50 %) je rezultate študentske delavnice uporabil v sklo4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z…
0%
38%
62%
dobljenih
rezultatov ponuja delavnica dodatne koristi, ki jih vidijo pred3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
pu promocijskih aktivnosti občine ali ob občinskem dogodku (35 %).
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%0%
43%
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
vsem
v
odprti
javni
razpravi.
Eden
od
anketiranih
je
poudaril,
»da
so
prav
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
4%
0%
4%
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%javnosti
0%
46%
89 % lokalnih skupnosti bi se ponovno odločilo za izvedbo študentskih
študentske
delavnice dvignile pričakovanja
širše
in 43%
so se kasneje
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
17%
0
dejansko sprejele boljše prostorske
odločitve«.
delavnic (odgovor na vprašanje/trditev 4, grafikon 6), hkrati pa si želijo
tudi
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske…
11%
0%
43%
46%
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z… 17%
61%
9%
20% 30% 4
drugačnih oblik sodelovanja z izobraževalnimi institucijami (22 %). Ne samo
Se ne strinjam 0% 10%
Se delno strinja
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z…
Ne samo v anketnih odgovorih,
tudi v pripisih
in komentarjih
so lokalne
17%
61%
9% 13%
da občine preko študentskih delavnic pridobivajo prostorske rešitve, tem0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
skupnosti izrazile veliko naklonjenost
in podporo
delu in
30% 40%tovrstnemu
več v tej obliki sodelovanja vidijo tudi lastno družbeno odgovornost (odgo0%
10%
20%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
sodelovanju
ter bile z rezultati
delavnice praviloma
zadovoljne.
ene 100%
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam KritikaSe popolnoma strin
vor na vprašanje/trditev 2, grafikon 6) in se zavedajo, da je za študente stik
skupnosti je bila predvsem
od
anketiranih
lokalnih
na
račun
pomanjkljive
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
z realnimi problemi v lokalnem okolju neprecenljiv (odgovor na vprašanje/
ustrezne strokovne ravni
prikazanih rešitev ter potrebe po večji angažirano Pomen rezultatov študentskih de
trditev 1, grafikon 6).
sti mentorjev. Ena od anketiranih lokalnih skupnosti pa je poudarila, da se
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno
delavnica ni zaključila in bila
nad takim razpletom razočarana.
Anketa je omogočila tudi izražanje mnenj o študentskih delavnicah
ter
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
UVODNIK
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. napotke za nadaljnje delo in sodelovanje. Pripise smo strnili v vsebinske
Izpostavljena je bila željo po še močnejšem1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
stiku z izobraževalnimi instituci36%
4%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
EDITORIAL
Pomen rezultatov študentskih delavnic za lokalno skupnost. sklope ter izluščili naslednja mnenja.
jami
(fakultetami),
hkrati
pa
so
tudi
navedle,
da
se
zavedajo
lastne
pasivno1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske
32%
36%
4%
ČLANEK
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
29% 2
17%
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
sti ter nepoznavanja vseh možnih oblik sodelovanja.
Želele bi sodelovati
Lokalne skupnosti pogrešajo podporo in sofinanciranje tovrstnih projektov
ARTICLE
1. Rešitve so bile vizionarske 4%
28%
32% 29%
36%
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
46%
17% in tudi
in finančno podpreti usmerjene
seminarske
naloge
diplomske
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
36%
0% in
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
s strani pristojnih institucij (ministrstva za prostor, ministrstva za izobrarazprava
magistrske
naloge.
2. Rešitve so bile dobre, vendar niso upoštevale vseh…
8%
46%
29%
17%
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
48%
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
32%
discussion
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
3. Rešitve so bile dobre in bi jih lahko uporabili pri…
16%
48%
36%
0%
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
24%
36%
32%
Grafikon 6: Odnos lokalnih skupnosti do študentskih delavnic.
recenzija
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
21%
Odnos
lokalnih
skupnosti
do
študentskih
delavnic.
review
4. Rešitve so bile sprejemljive, a niso bile nikoli…
8%
24%
32%
5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
50%
21%36%
20% 30% 24
Se ne strinjam 0% 10%
Se delno strinja
PROJEKT
1. Študentske delavnice so primerna oblika aktivnega izobraževanja študentov, saj so
4%5. Lokalno prebivalstvo se s predstavljenimi rešitvami…
19%
77%
29%
50%
21%
študenti soočeni z realnimi problemi
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 0%
70% 80%
PROJECT
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
2. Podpora študentskih delavnic in sodelovanje z izobraževalnimi inštitucijami je odraz
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
DELAVNICA
38%
Se ne strinjam 62%0%Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strin
družbene odgovornosti občine
WORKSHOP
Se ne strinjam
Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
3. Študentskih delavnic ne bomo več izvajali
92%
4% 4%
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
4. Če bo priložnost, bomo še podprli študentske delavnice 11%
46%
43%
i
PREDSTAVITEV
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako s
ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin presentation
i
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od ank
5. Želeli bi drugačno obliko sodelovanja z izobraževalnimi inštitucijami (študenti)
61%
9%
13%
17%
ii
DIPLOMA
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin 0% 10%
20%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
ii 30%
MASTER THESIS
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin i
Se ne strinjam
70
»Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin Se delno strinjam
Se strinjam
Se popolnoma strinjam
ii
Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek ŠTUDENTSKE DELAVNICE KOT PRIMER PROJEKTNEGA UČENJA : 66–72(162)
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
4.RAZPRAVA
Rezultati ankete odražajo visoko stopnjo zadovoljstva lokalnih skupnosti
in željo po nadaljnjem in poglobljenem sodelovanju s fakultetami. Tudi
lokalne skupnosti, ki do sedaj še niso izvedle študentske delavnice, poznajo
tovrstno obliko sodelovanja ter o njej tudi razmišljajo. Zelo pomembna so
pripisana mnenja anketiranih (poljubni komentarji), v katerih navajajo, da
bi lokalne skupnosti potrebovale finančno in strokovno pomoč ter več motivacije za pristop k sodelovanju. Finančno pomoč si želijo s strani pristojnih
ministrstev, strokovno pomoč in motivacijo pa pričakujejo s strani fakultet.
Gradiva študentskih delavnic so, po rezultatih ankete, dobro izrabljena za
strokovno delo ter tudi kot promocijska aktivnost lokalne skupnosti. Zelo
veliko lokalnih skupnosti se odloča za izdajo publikacij, kar pomeni, da so
rezultati dela študentov trajno zabeleženi in dostopni tudi širši javnosti.
Hkrati se tudi zavedajo, da rezultati študentskih delavnic ne morejo in tudi
ne dajo strokovnih rešitev, ki bi bile neposredno uporabne kot strokovne
podlage ali idejne zasnove za izvedbo projektov, temveč jih razumejo kot
priložnost za pridobivanje drugačnih pogledov, vizionarskih rešitev in razmišljanj »out of the box«1. Študentske delavnice so tako predvsem orodje
preveritev prostorskih možnosti ter iskanje drugačnih, še neznanih rešitev,
ki predvsem razburkajo razpravo v strokovnih krogih in lokalnih skupnostih ter predramijo lokalno prebivalstvo. Ker imajo predstavljene rešitve
tudi strokovne pomanjkljivosti (nepoznavanje vseh lastnosti in značilnosti
lokalnega okolja, drugačno razmišljanje in dojemanje prostora, omejen čas
izvedbe), se lokalno prebivalstvo, ki praviloma pričakuje izvedljive projekte,
s predlaganimi rešitvami težko poistoveti.
Presenetilo nas je, da se lokalne skupnosti zavedajo pomena študentskih
delavnic za izobraževalni proces in celo menijo, »da bi morale biti študentske delavnice stalna oblika izobraževanja v vseh letnikih študija, in to na
različnih študijskih programih«2. Tako mnenje lahko izhaja iz lastnih izkušenj
anketiranca ali pa iz spoznanja in zavedanja, da je le dobro izobražen kader,
z že nekaj pridobljenimi izkušnjami v lokalnem okolju boljši sogovornik v
poizobraževalnem obdobju.
Študentske delavnice so oblika projektnega učenja z učinkom »win-win-win«
– koristi imajo vse tri vpletene strani (lokalna skupnost, študenti in fakulteta).
5. ZAKLJUČEK
Izhajajoč iz pozitivnega stališča in naklonjenosti lokalnih skupnosti predlagamo vzpostavitev stičišča idej in predlogov občin in zainteresiranih fakultet, v katerem bi se zainteresirani deležniki medsebojno povezali. Vzpostavitev »borze« študentskih delavnic, na kateri bi lokalne skupnosti predlagale
projekte, šole/fakultete pa se preko vzpostavljenega konzorcija odzivale na
ponudbe, je možna platforma nabora idej in vzpostavljanja stikov. Odprta dostopnost portala bi aktivirala lokalne skupnosti, ki se za študentske
1 »Razmišljanje izven pričakovanih okvirjev«; tako se je izrazila ena od anketiranih občin.
2 Pripis mnenja ene od anketiranih občin.
delavnice še niso odločile, fakultete pa bi z medsebojnim povezovanjem/ali
tekmovanjem višale raven svojih storitev.
Priprava ter izvedba delavnice zahteva od pedagogov več naporov kot
klasičen način poučevanja, hkrati pa omogoča preizkušanje teoretičnih
dognanj v dejanskem okolju, kar je za pedagoge velika dodana vrednost.
Znanstveno pomembnim spoznanjem je treba zagotavljati tudi aplikativno
odličnost, za kar so delavnice dober učni in strokovni poligon.
Zaradi omejenega časa izvedbe delavnice (prek enega, največ dveh semestrov) ter omejenih možnosti študentov pa so lahko mentorji, ki prevzemajo nase odgovornost za študentsko delo, deležni tudi kritik. Kljub temu
menimo, da gre za primerno obliko dela in se strinjamo z enim od mnenj v
anketi, ki pravi, »da bi bilo smiselno oblikovati koordinacijsko telo prostorskih šol, ki bi spremljalo, vzpodbujalo in usmerjalo takšno obliko pedagoškega dela«. Koordinacijsko telo prostorskih šol bi lahko poskrbelo tudi za
inter- in večdisciplinarnost študentskih skupin in mentorjev ter povezovanje študijskih programov.
Ne nazadnje pa so študentske delavnice v največjo dobrobit študentom. V
desetletnem obdobju izvajanja študentskih delavnic na UL FGG in izvajanja
mentorstva smo prepoznali predvsem naslednje koristi za študente:
■■ študentska delavnica je osredotočena na pridobivanje usmerjenih
znanj in veščin,
■■ š tudenti so usmerjeni v reševanje problemov, kritično mišljenje, sodelovanje, komuniciranje in iščejo inovativne rešitve,
■■ v projektno nalogo se poglobijo ter na odprta in zastavljena vprašanja
tudi poiščejo ustrezne odgovore,
■■ vzpodbuja se kreativnost in samoiniciativnost,
■■ vzpostavijo kritično distanco do lastnega dela ter dela drugih v skupini,
■■ učijo se veščin sodelovanja ter komuniciranja ipd.
Zato menimo, da je treba projektno učenje nadgrajevati in ga redno vključevati v študijski proces.
Na podlagi ankete in lastnih izkušenj s študentskimi delavnicami lahko
potrdimo delovno hipotezo. Študentska delavnica kot oblika projektnega
učenja je koristna za vse vpletene strani (lokalna skupnost, študenti in
fakulteta).
VIRI IN LITERATURA
Ayas, K., Zeniuk, N. (2001). Project-Based Learning: Building Communities of Reflective Practitioners,
Management Learning. SAGE. DOI: 10.1177/1350507601321005
Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R., W., Krajcik, J., S, Guzdial, M., Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating projectBased Learning: Sustaining the Doing, Supporting the Learning. Educational Psychologist, 26 (3 & 4),
369–298. TAYLOR&FRANCIS Online. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.1991.9653139
Dumont, H., Istance, D., Benavides, F. (ur.) (2013). O naravi učenja: uporaba raziskav za navdih prakse. Pridobljeno
6. 6. 2014 s spletne strani: http://www.zrss.si/pdf/o-naravi-ucenja.pdf
71
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Larmer, J., Mergendoller, J. R. (2010). Seven Essentials for Project-Based Learning Giving Students Meaningful
Work. 68 (1), 34–37. Pridobljeno 6. 6. 2014 s spletne strani: http://www.ascd.org/publications/
educational_leadership/sept10/vol68/num01/seven_essentials_for_project-based_learning.aspx
Linn, M. C. (2006). The knowledge integration perspective on learning. V R. K. Sawyer (ur.), The Cambridge
handbook of the learning sciences (245–265). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Medmrežje 1: Predstavitveni zbornik enovitega magistrskega študijskega programa Arhitektura. Pridobljeno
7. 6. 2014 s spletne strani: http://www.fa.uni-lj.si/filelib/2_novice/mojca_rozman/predmetniki/
predstavitveni_zbornik_1_2_2010_corr.pdf
Medmrežje 2: Project based learning – PBL. Pridobljeno 10. 6. 2014 s spletne strani: http://bie.org/about/
what_pbl
Puklek Levpušček, M., Marentič - Požarnik, B. (2005). Skupinsko delo za aktiven študij. Center za pedagoško
izobraževanje. Ljubljana. Filozofska fakulteta.
Thomas, J. W. (2008). A review of research on project-based learning. Pridobljeno 10. 6. 2014 s spletne strani:
http://w.newtechnetwork.org/sites/default/files/news/pbl_research2.pdf
Yuen, D. (2012). Project based learning. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University. Pridobljeno 12. 6. 2014 s spletne strani: http://tlrc.edc.polyu.edu.hk/_notes/David%20
Yuen%20(ME)%20Project%20Based2%20(formatted).doc.
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
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Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek ŠTUDENTSKE DELAVNICE KOT PRIMER PROJEKTNEGA UČENJA : 66–72(162)
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PROJECT
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
... - oblikovanje celostnega pristopa
SHAPE
SHAPE - Shaping an Holistic Approach to Protect...
k zaščiti morskega okolja in obal Jadrana
the Adriatic Environment between coast and sea
...
Slovenska obala
...
2013/2014
UDK: UDK: xxxx 1.03 Kratki znanstveni prispevek / Short Scientific Article SUBMITTED: May 2014 / PUBLISHED: October 2014
Tip PROJEKTA TYPE OF PROJECT
pilotni projekt
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
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ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
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presentation
74
delovne skupine Workgroup
vodja delovne skupine 1: asist. dr. Gregor Čok u.d.i.a;
člani skupine: Andrej Mlakar u.d.i.a, Mateja Segulin u.d.i.a, Andreja Skubic u.d.i.a
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS
Slavko Mezek, Alberto Manzin, Marko Starman, delovna skupina 2: Janko Rožič,
Mitja Suhadolc, Gašper Drašler, predstavniki ribičev, marikulture, turističnih
organizacij
INSTITUCIJE INSTITUTIONS
Generalna Direkcija za okolje ter varstvo tal in obale Regije Emilia-Romagna (vodilni partner SHAPE); vključeni v pilotni projekt: Regionalni razvojni center Koper
RRA Južna Primorska, Center za pospeševanje podjetništva Piran, Javni zavod
Krajinski park Strunjan, Občina Piran, Občina Izola, Krajevna skupnost Strunjan
SPLETNA STRAN WEBPAGE
http://www.shape-ipaproject.eu/
http://www.rrc-kp.si/sl/kdo-smo/aktualni-projekti/shape.html
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist. dr. Gregor Čok
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services
ČOK, Gregor, MLAKAR, Andrej, SEGULIN, Mateja, SKUBIC, Andreja. SHAPE : Shaping an holistic approach to protect the adriatic environment between coast and
sea = Oblikovanje celostnega pristopa k zaščiti morskega okolja in obal Jadrana,
Pilotni projekt : idejna zasnova krajinsko urbanistične ureditve za Strunjan in idejne rešitve posameznih prostorskih ureditev : poročilo zaključne faze. 24 f., ilustr.
[COBISS.SI-ID 3020932]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA V Sloveniji predstavlja obalni pas kompleksno fizično in socialno okolje, v katerega gravitira veliko število interesov. Zaradi dolgoletne ekstenzivne urbanizacije
in postopnega uvajanja varstvenih režimov so se na številnih obalnih lokacijah
možnosti želenega kvalitativnega razvoja praktično že izčrpale. Na osnovi sprejetih Evropskih strategij, Protokola o integralnem upravljanju z obalnim območjem
(ICZM) in časovnice za uvedbo Pomorskega prostorskega načrtovanja se tudi v
Sloveniji pripravljajo posamezna izhodišča in modeli za vzpostavitev integralnega
upravljanja obalnega pasu.
Projekt SHAPE je usmerjen v problematiko trajnostnega razvoja na območju Jadrana, natančneje v krepitev institucionalne podpore za varstvo in upravljanje virov
(naravnih in kulturnih) ter preprečevanja tveganj. Namen projekta je vzpostaviti
večnivojski in medsektorski sistem upravljanja obalnih območij, ki bo usmerjen v
racionalno rabo virov in sposoben reševanja konfliktov med različnimi rabami.
Projekt je bil izveden ob finančni podpori IPA Adriatic. V njem je sodelovalo 13 partnerjev z obeh obal Jadrana (iz 7-ih Italjanskih jadranskih regij ter Slovenije, Hrvaške, Bosne in Hercegovine, Črne gore in Albanije). Vodilni partner je bila Generalna
direkcija za okolje ter varstvo tal in obal Regije Emilije-Romaje. Obsegal je naslednje delovne nsklope: 1- Integralno upravljanje z obalnim območjem, 2 - Uvajanje
Pomorskega prostorskega načrtovanja, 3 - Promocija integracije ICZM in morskega
prostorskega načrtovanja, 4 - Uvajane Morskega prostorskega načrtovanja: integracija morskega/kopnega prostorskega načrtovanja ter integralnega upravljanja
z obalnim območjem (ICZM). Slovenski parterji smo v okviru četrtega (4) sklopa
pripravili pilotni projekt za prostorsko urejanje Krajinskega parka Strunjan.
Zaključek - Za vzpostavitev učinkovitega integralnega upravljanja z obalnim
območjem bo v Sloveniji v bodoče potrebno predvsem:
■■ opredeliti območje »vzajemne obravnave« (obalni pas) v katerem je
potrebno načrtovanje namenske rabe, režime upravljanja in varovanja
v prostoru izvajati skupaj na kopnem in morskem delu. Tako se bo
vzpostavila potrebna »strukturna in upravna korespondenca«, ki bo
zagotavljala učinkovito umeščanje programov na kopnem in morskem
delu,
■■ vzpostaviti upravni in planerski sistem skupnega načrtovanja,
■■ vse posege v prostoru izvajati v soglasju s kompetentno stroko, lokalno
skupnostjo in drugimi dotičnimi interesnimi skupinami,
■■ opredeliti širši nabor razvojnih in varovalnih prioritet pri načrtovanju
posegov v prostoru: npr. vizualni vidik, širše vplivno območje, sinergija
programov, stranski učinki posega v prostoru ipd.
ABSTRACT
Slovenia is in the process of preparing individual reference levels and models for
establishing integrated coastal zone management, based on adopted European
Strategies, Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management and timelines for
implementing Maritime Spatial Planning. To establish efficient integrated spatial
management according to the sustainability principles, a system methodology needs
to be formed. The said methodology will predominantly upgrade the reference levels
spectrum, project goals and the method of their analytical treatment.
Uvod - V okviru projekta SHAPE je bil izdelan pilotni projekt »Idejna zasnova krajinsko urbanistične ureditve za Strunjan in idejne rešitve posameznih prostorskih
ureditev« na podlagi katerega smo prepoznali posamezne karakteristike obstoječega sistema planiranja in načrtovanja ter opredelili nabor potrebnih dopolnitev
za bodočo vzpostavitev integralnega upravljanja.
Metoda - Raziskava temelji na predpostavki, da so obstoječe problemske situacije
v prostoru predvsem posledica neusklajene rabe zemljišč na kopnem in morju, ki
temeljijo na različnih sistemskih in upravnih pomankljivostih. V okviru pilotnega projekta smo simulirali izdelavo idejne prostorske rešitve za obalni pas na
območju Strunjana, pri čemer smo v posameznih korakih ugotavljali obstoječe
pomankljivosti in potencialne rešitve. Uporabljena je bila deskriptivna raziskovalna metoda in polstrukturirani intervjuji.
Projekt je razdeljen v tri vsebinske sklope:
1. faza:
Prva, analitična faza je bila usmerjena v prepoznavanje problemskih situacij v
prostoru, razlogov, ki tvorijo konflikte ter interesnih skupin uporabnikov.
Slika 1: Temeljni razlogi za obstoječe »problemske
situacije« in posledični konflikti v prostoru.
2. faza:
V drugi fazi smo na podlagi vmesnih rezultatov izdelali idejne prostorske (programske, urbanistične in arhitekturne) rešitve za pet prostorskih enot ter jih v
okviru delavnic prezentirali posameznim deležnikom. Na podlagi pripomb in
dopolnitev smo v naslednjem koraku izdelali končne rešitve.
3. faza:
V tretji fazi smo s pomočjo analize izdelane simulacije (in delovnega procesa)
opredelili posamezna vsebinska in metodološka izhodišča za nadgradnjo obstoječega sistema, kot pripiročila za pripravo sistema integralnega upravljanja z
obalnim območjem.
Slika 2: Problemske situacije kot posledica neusklajene rabe
prostora na kopnem in morju (območje pilotnega projekta).
75
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
ECTP - delavnica mladih prostorskih načrtovalcev ECTP - YOUNG PLANNERS WORKSHOP
Prostorsko načrtovanje in energija
Spatial planning and energy
Ljubljana, Bruselj
2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
prostorsko - načrtovalska delavnica/angleška
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
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78
MENTORJI MENTORS prof. dr. Ignacio Gavin Peman
Mentor SLOVENSKE ekipe/Mentor of the Slovenian team
doc. dr. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, univ. dipl. inž. arh.
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Študenti magistrskih študijskih programov Prostorsko načrtovanje in Okoljsko gradbeništvo (UL FGG): Mateja Klun, dipl. inž. grad. (UN), Gašper Okršlar,
dipl. inž. gozd.(UN), Maja Weisseisen, dipl. inž. grad. (UN).
Organizator Organisation
ECTP - CEU - European Council of Spatial Planners
Datum predstavitve Date of presentation of papers
3. 5. 2014 - 5. 5. 2014
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILI MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Mateja Klun, Gašper Okršlar, Maja Weisseisen
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
Evropski komite prostorskih planerjev (ECTP - The European Council of
Spatial Planers) je letos že tretjič zaporedoma organiziral delavnico za mlade planerje iz držav članic EU. Tema trimesečne delavnice je bila energija
in njena vloga v prostorskem načrtovanju. Cilj je bil izdelava prispevkov
na izbrano temo, katere smo v procesu nastajanja medsebojno vrednotili
in korigirali preko rednih videokonferenc. Zaključek delavnice je potekal
v Bruslju na Komiteju regij. Srečanje je bilo namenjeno predstavitvi dela
sodelujočih ekip, strokovnemu ogledu Bruslja z opisom njegovih urbanih
izzivov in obisku podelitve nagrad s področja prostorskega planiranja (10th
European Urban and Regional Planning Awards 2013 – 2014).
Skupina treh študentov FGG- ja, Maja Weisseisen, Gašper Okršlar in Mateja
Klun smo se na delavnico pod mentorstvom Alme Zavodnik Lamovšek
prijavili s prispevkom z naslovom »Sodelovanje javnosti pri prostorskem
načrtovanju: Študija v občini Šentrupert - mnenje javnosti o energetskem
planu občine in o projektu daljinskega ogrevanja«.
Slika 1: Sodelujoči na delavnici (foto: Julian Hill, http://www.
ectp-ceu.eu/images/stories/Awards2014/WebPhotos/).
Kot izhodišče naše raziskave smo privzeli sledeče predpostavke:
■■ Javnost se v proces odločanja vključi prepozno, zato ima pogosto
negativen odnos do sprememb. Z zgodnjim vključevanjem javnosti bi
se temu lahko izognili, saj bi se deležniki lahko dovolj zgodaj opredelili
do sprememb, izrazili svoje mnenje ter tako vplivali na odločitve ter jih
posledično lažje sprejeli.
■■ Javnost ni seznanjena z delom občine.
■■ Zaradi subvencij EU je del prebivalcev zamenjal oziroma posodobil sistem ogrevanja, zato ne bodo zainteresirani za priključevanje na sistem
daljinskega ogrevanja.
■■ P
rebivalci ne želijo živeti v bližini objektov energetske infrastrukture
(NIMBY efekt).
V okviru študije smo s pomočjo spletnega vprašalnika ugotavljali, v kolikšni
meri so občani vključeni v razvoj občine ter kolikšne je interes za sodelovanje. Vprašalnik je bil dostopen na spletni strani Občine Šentrupert od 6. do
19. aprila 2014, občani pa so bili o raziskavi obveščeni tudi po pošti.
Prejeti odgovori so potrdili dve izmed štirih hipotez. Ovrženi sta bili hipotezi,
ki sta predpostavljali, da so prebivalci prepozno vključeni v proces odločanja
ter da niso informirani o energetskih načrtih občine. Preko 90 % vprašanih
je odgovorilo, da so z načrti seznanjeni in da jih zanima nadaljnji razvoj. Kot
pravilna se je izkazala hipoteza, da prebivalci ne želijo živeti v bližini kotlovnice (NIMBY efekt), vendar pa je 70% vprašanih sodobne objekte energetske
infrastrukture (fotografije v vprašalniku) opredelilo kot estetsko sprejemljive. Večina vprašanih (več kot dve tretjini) meni, da je biomasa eden izmed
ekološko prijaznejših načinov ogrevanja, prehod na daljinsko ogrevanje pa
se jim zdi pravilna izbira. Potrjena je bila tudi hipoteza, ki predpostavlja, da
so mnoga gospodinjstva zaradi dostopnosti pred kratkim prenovila svoje
sisteme ogrevanja (70 % sodelujočih je svoje sisteme prenovilo pred manj
kot šestimi leti) in jih sistem daljinskega ogrevanja ne zanima.
Slika 1: Zaključni dogodek na Komiteju Regij
V izdelavi je e-publikacija, ki bo vsebovala povzetek delavnice in vse prispevke sodelujočih ekip. Dostopna bo na www.ectp-ceu.eu.
ABSTRACT
The European Council of Spatial Planners (ECTP) organized the Third Edition ECTP - Young Planners Workshop. The main theme of the workshop was
connection of Spatial Planning and Energy. It lasted 3 months, during which,
the participating teams (14) from different countries had produced papers on
various topics regarding the theme.
Our team participated with the paper Public Participation in City Design; Public
Acceptance of Municipality’s Energy Plan and The Project of District Heating
in Šentrupert, in which we gathered public opinion on the topic using a web
based questionnaire. Our research confirmed two out of four hypotheses and
showed that in the municipality of Šentrupert, people are acquainted with
municipality’s energy plan and willing to be part of its realisation. However,
due to high availability of EU eco-funds, a large part of respondents changed
or renewed their heating system recently and are not interested in becoming a
client of district heating system.
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Arhitekturna delavnica Krajinski park Ljubljansko Barje
Urban Gardening in Nova Gorica
KP Ljubljansko Barje
2013/2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
arhitekturna delavnica/slovenska
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. dr. Matej Blenkuš in strok. svet. Josip Konstantinovič
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
80
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: Adamič Katarina, Banko Matic, Brvar Marko,
Bulovič Karin, Butara Barbara, cestnik Tim, Colarič Petra, Cotič Matej, Cvelbar
Sebastian, Čalasan-Dorn Luka, Černič Sabina, Černigoj Jaka, Čuk Maruša, Fetahu Ahmed, Gorgievski Marko, Gržanič Domagoj, Hafizovič Lejla, Klofutar
Ana, Košak Dominik, Košnik Zala, Lavtar Sara, Lušin Dominika, Motaln Rok,
Partaš Nika, Popovič Saša, Posinek Vita, Pregelj Kaja, Ravnikar Monika, Rezar
Tadej, Savič Nina, Silič Tina, Sušanj Ariana, Škrlep Eva, Štepič Kaja, Štremfelj
Špela, Žugič Manca, Žvokelj Špela
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Mestna občina Ljubljana, Občina Vrhnika, Občina Škofljica, Občina Log –
Brezovica in Občina Borovnica, Slovenija
NAROČNIK CLIENT
Krajinski park Ljubljansko Barje
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za Arhitekturo, Zoisova 12, Ljubljana
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. dr. Matej Blenkuš
COBISS_Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services oz.
ustrezen podatek o vpisu v drugo bibliografsko bazo
FIKFAK, Alenka (ur.), BLENKUŠ, Matej, KONSTANTINOVIČ, Josip. Arhitekturna delavnica
Krajinski park Ljubljansko Barje:[strokovna publikacija urbanistično-arhitekturne delavnice].Urednik publikacije Alenka Fikfak. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za arhitekturo, ????, str. ????,
ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 2211204]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Vremenska postaja, maketa (avtorica:
Špela Štremfelj, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 4: Ekološka zeliščna kmetija, Črna vas,
maketa konstrukcije (avtorica: Vita Posinek,
vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 2: Opazovalnica ptičev in
divjadi, pri Črni vasi, maketa
(avtor: Tim cestnik, vir: arhiv
seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 3: Razgledni stolp štirih elementov
Barja, pri Podpeči, maketa (avtorica: Kaja
Pregelj, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 5: Eko-hostel pri Podpeškem jezeru, maketa (avtor: Dominik Košak, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 6: Mladinski hotel pri Goričici, maketa (avtorica: Manca Žugič, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
VSEBINA
Zadana naloga je bila zasnovati manjše do srednje velike objekte v sklopu
Krajinskega parka Ljubljansko Barje, s katerim so študentje iskali stvarne,
zaznavne in simbolne povezave med okoljem, prostorom in arhitekturo.
Študentje 2. letnika so preučevali zasnovo opazovalnice za ptiče in divjad,
vremenske postaje, razglednega stolpa, postajališča rečne plovbe, izposojevalnice koles, prostore za ribolov ter postojanke za pohodnike in izletnike. V
3. letnik so se osredotočili na naselja vrtov, veslaški center, kopališče na Ljubljanici, pasjo šolo ter center za obiskovalce. 4. in 5. letnik pa sta se posvetila
jahalnemu centru, ekološki kmetiji, eko-campingu, sistemu mostičkov in
mostov preko kanalov na Barju, mladinskemu hotelu, predstavitvenemu
center Barja ter lesnemu obratu.
S skupinskim projektom smo želeli opozoriti zainteresirano javnost na
nujnost, da se v zaščitenih območjih narave poleg varstva biotopov poskrbi
tudi za uravnoteženo in premišljeno umeščanje dejavnosti, infrastrukture,
objektov in stavb, ne glede na velikost in vsebino. Le na tak način bo Barje
postalo prepoznaven ekološki in vsebinski prostor sožitja človeka in narave.
Slika 7: Postajališče rečne plovbe – interakcijska točka, pri Črni vasi,
maketa (avtorica: Karin Bulovič, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
Slika 8: Postojanka za pohodnike in izletnike, pri Črni vasi, maketa (avtor: Sebastijan Cvelbar, vir: arhiv seminarja Blenkuš, FA).
ABSTRACT
Students of various years of study were engaged with a set of different design
tasks within the protected environment of the Nature park Ljubljansko Barje.
Small and medium sized buildings and infrastructural objects covered the
whole range of activities which would eventually be placed into natural settings. The main aim was to inform and warn the management of the Park of the
necessity of the combined efforts in vigorous protecting the biological diversity
and careful placing and constructing infrastructure.
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Mednarodna urbanistična študentska delavnica EHL kampus
International Urban-design Student Workshop EHL Campus
Lausanne Švica
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
urbanistična delavnica/mednarodna
MENTOR MENTOR izr. prof. mag. Tadej Glažar
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
82
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: Maša Čuk, Živa Drakulič, Miha Denša, Tina
Dolenc, Špela Doles, Gregor Gregorec, Irati Gomez Perez, Primož Kastelic,
Marta Lloret, Sabina Marov, Petja Ogrinc, Klara Prošek, Christian Stanovnik,
Bruno Šegvič
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: Primož Kastelic
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
NAROČNIK CLIENT
École hôtelière de Lausanne, Švica
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Lausanne, Švica, 2013
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist. Vid de Gleria
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Koncept
VSEBINA
Slika 2: Značilni prerezi
Slika 3: Prostorski prikaz
Osnovna misel projekta kampus EHL je, da je potrebno mladi generaciji
študentov prvenstveno zagotoviti kvalitetno bivalno okolje z arhitrktutrno
rešitvijo povezano s svojo naravno okolico, ki bo omogočala kvaliteten
študij in bivalno okolje.Kvalitetno učno okolje, bližina narave, celovita športna infrastruktura, vse to doprinese h kvalitetnejšemu življenju, boljšemu
počutju in učnemu uspehu študentov kampusa EHL.
Arhitekturna zasnova s svojo veliko gostoto in majhnim odtisom na tleh
omogoča, da se med objekte zajedajo velike zelene površine in tako omogočajo preplet grajenega in naravnega okolja. Naravni preplet zunanjih in
notranjih površin spodbuja uporabnike, da svoj prosti čas preživijo zunaj
objekta.
Projektirano okolje sestavljajo velike zelene površine, raznolike vedute na
objekt in njegovo naravno okolico, nova povezava do metro postaje in bližnjega stanovanjskega naselja na S območja ter krožno tekaško stezo, ki se
v obliki neskončne zanke vije skozi celotno območje kampusa EHL. Vmesni
odprti prostori so razdeljeni na štiri karakterno različna območja. Območja
si od zahoda proti vzhodu sledijo: poslovno območje, območje za druženje,
območje rekreacije in območje naravnega okolja. Vsako od 4 območij je
programsko podrobno razdeljeno in predstavlja zaključeno celoto, ki se
urbanistično vključuje v območje študentskih stanovanj
ABSTRACT
Healthier students are better learners. This is the all encompassing idea behind
our EHL campus project. A quality environment, the vicinity of nature and comprehensive sports facilities all improve students' learning abilities and enhance
the quality of life on campus. The high floor area ratio and low footprint allow
for large green areas and encourages students to spend their free time outside.
The basic elements of our proposal are: large green areas, interesting views of the site
and the surrounding environment, a direct path that connects the planned metro
station with the housing estate in the north and the iconic circular running path that
winds its way all around the campus in a number eight shape. The open area among
the buildings is divided into four spaces with distinct ambients. From west to east, they
are: official, social, sporty and natural. Each has its own program, that continues into
the nearby student housing buildings.
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Priložnosti za razvoj
The Opportunities for the Development
opuščenih kočevarskih vasi
of Abandoned Kočevska Villages
Kočevje
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
krajinsko-arhitekturna delavnica/slovenska
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
84
MENTORJI MENTORS prof. dr. Mojca Golobič, asist. Nadja Penko Seidl
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo,
študentje 2. letnika magistrskega študija krajinske arhitekture pri predmetu
Tipologija, upravljanje in varstvo kulturne krajine
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Občina Kočevje, Mihael Petrovič, mag. Jelka Hudoklin, univ.dipl.ing.kraj.arh.
ACER d.o.o. Novo mesto
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
25.1.2013, Kočevje
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Nadja Penko Seidl
COBISS_Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services oz.
ustrezen podatek o vpisu v drugo bibliografsko bazo
ABRAM, Žiga, GOLOBIČ, Mojca (urednik), PENKO SEIDL, Nadja (urednik). Priložnosti
za razvoj opuščenih kočevarskih vasi. V Ljubljani: Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za
krajinsko arhitekturo, 2013. [64] str., ilustr., zvd. ISBN 978-961-6833-08-0. [COBISS.SI-ID
269837824]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
Kočevsko, poleg odmaknjenosti od glavnih prometnih tokov in nadpovprečne
gozdnatosti, zaznamuje še ena posebnost – na območju velikem 860 km² je od
naselitve okrog leta 1330 pa do druge svetovne vojne živela številčna nemško
govoreča skupnost Kočevarjev v kar 177 naseljih. Skupnost je štela največ članov
v drugi polovici 19. stoletja, ko naj bi se njihovo število povzpelo na 28000. Zaradi
gospodarskih in političnih razmer se je to število že do 2. sv. vojne zmanjšalo na
12500, medtem ko jih je po njej ostalo na območju Kočevske le peščica.
Slika 1: Predlog razvoja ekovasi - Preža
Danes bi večino od teh vasi le težko našli. Sledov nekdanjih hiš skorajda ni več,
le tu in tam lahko naletimo na ostanke zidov, preraščene z grmovjem ali gozdom. Od grajenih struktur so se za najbolj trdožive izkazali vodnjaki. Ponekod
nas sredi gozda ali pašnikov presenetijo terase, na njih pa ostanki sadnega
drevja, dokaz, da so tu nekoč živeli ljudje. In nenazadnje, kljub temu da njihove
prisotnosti v prostoru ne moremo več zaznati, so se ohranili toponimi, ki pričajo
o življenju nekdanjih prebivalcev tega območja.
Kako ohraniti in domačinom ter obiskovalcem predstaviti vsaj drobec te izjemne
dediščine in kulturne krajine so bila vprašanje, ki smo si jih zastavili s študenti 2.
letnika magistrskega študija krajinske arhitekture na Biotehniški fakulteti Univerze v Ljubljani. Študentje so – kakor se od njih nekako pričakuje, k iskanju rešitev
pristopili neobremenjeno, a kljub temu upoštevajoč dejstva, napotke in pobude,
ki so jih dobili s strani občine Kočevje ter strokovnjakov, ki jim je problematika
poznana. Tako so znotraj posameznih skupin preverjali različne možnosti za
razvoj in varstvo opuščenih kočevarskih vasi. Skozi programsko raznolike rešitve
so skušali poiskati lokacije za razvoj kmetijstva, ekovasi, turističnega in lokalnega
oskrbnega središča, ena od skupin pa se je lotila iskanja ustreznega programa
za območje nekdanje žage Rog. In nenazadnje, ukvarjali so se tudi z vprašanjem
kako vse te lokacije med seboj povezati z različnimi potmi ter kako celotno
tematiko ustrezno predstaviti. Zemljevid z vsemi potmi je bil shranjen tudi na
portalu http://www.geopedia.si. Študentje so poleg gradiva za razstavo oblikovali
tudi brošuro, v kateri so predstavili svoje ideje za razvoj, varstvo in predstavitev
vsaj drobca dediščine, kulure in krajine, ki so jo skozi 600 let ustvarjali Kočevarji.
ABSTRACT
The landscape of Kočevska was cultivated and managed by German speaking community (Gottscheer) for almost 600 years. At the beginning of the 19th century 28000
people lived in 177 villages and hamlets. Nowadays only a few of these villages are
still inhabited. How to preserve and present this unique heritage and landscape was
the challenge for the students of the 2nd year of Master programme of Landscape Architecture study at the University of Ljubljana. Students have addressed the
problem considering the available information, initiatives and guidance from local
community and developed alternative solutions for some of the abandoned villages:
eco-villages, the development of farming, the revival of the local centre in Kočevska
Reka and the new programme for the area of steam saw Rog. The last challenge for
the students was how to mark and connect these locations with foot and bicycle
trails and how to present this unique history, landscape and culture that Gottscheer
have created through 600 years. An inventory of all abandoned villages, mountain
peaks, natural and cultural heritage was made and a system of foot and bicycle trails
with different pretentiousness was proposed and presented on a map. The map of all
trails was saved on http://www.geopedia.si and could be further developed with geocatching. And, last but not least, a system of signs, a proposal for touristic booklet,
information tables and memorials which would present and designate abandoned
villages were designed.
Slika 2: Plakat z zemljevidom, na katerem so označene
naravne in kulturne znamenitosti Kočevske, opuščene
kočevarske vasi in predlagane rekreacijske poti.
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Stanford, Tečaj globalnega timskega dela AEC 2010
Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2010
ZDA, virtualno sodelovanje
2009/2010
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
interdisciplinarna arhitekturna delavnica/ mednarodna delavnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
86
MENTORJI MENTORS Super-Coach and Mentor: Renate Fruchter, Stanford University; Architects:
Mike Martin, UC Berkeley, Humberto Cavallin, University of Puerto Rico
School of Architecture, David Bendet, Perkins and Will, Architects, Robert
Alvarado, Charles M Salter Assoc. Inc., Chuck Eastman, Georgia Tech, Paola
Sanguinetti, Georgia Tech, Hans Verheij, NACO, Netherland, Dirk Donath,
Bauhaus University, Germany, Daniel Gonzales, Design Village, Willem
Kymmell, UCS Chico, Wafaa Sabil, Gensler, Jan Slyk, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; Structural Engineers: Helmut Krawinkler, Stanford University, Ronnie Borja, Stanford University, Greg Luth, GPLA of California, Shilin
Yang, GPLA of California, Nick Arenson, D. R. Horton, Karl Beuke, Bauhaus
University, Germany, Frank Werner, Bauhaus University, Germany, Larry
Bank, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Grace Yamamoto, ARUP, Erik Kneer,
Degenkolb, Nick Arenson, D.R. Horton; Construction Managers: Bob Tatum,
Stanford University, Martin Fischer, Stanford University, Eduardo Miranda,
Stanford University, Henry Tooriany, Microestimating Inc., Henry Tooriany,
Hunt Construction, Mark Bartlett, Hunt Construction, Adhamina Rodriguez,
Swinerton Builders, Josh Odelson, DPR, Kjell Nilver, KTH, Sweden, Tomo
Cerovsek, University of Ljubljana; Life Cycle Financial Management: Hans
Wilhelm Alfen, Bauhaus University, Germany, Andrea Jungbeck, Bauhaus
University, Germany, Katja Leidel, Bauhaus University, Germany, Matthias
Ehrlich, Bauhaus University, Germany, Axel Seifert, LA; MEP/LEED: Adhamina Rodriguez, Swinerton, Alisdair McGregor, ARUP, Cole Robers, ARUP,
Afaan Naqvi, ARUP, John Nelson, UW Madison
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Stanford University, PBL Lab, prof.dr. Renate Fruchter
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Spletna stran projekta in rezultatov: www.pbl.si in http://pbl.stanford.edu/
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist.dr. Anja Jutraž, prof.dr. Tadeja Zupančič
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika1: Skupina Central (foto:
Skupina Central)
Slika 2: Prostorski prikaz (foto:
Skupina Central)
VSEBINA
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Architects: Astrid Hall, Urszula Koziarska, Joe McCoy, Gabriella Perez, Milosz
Romanczuk, Marielis Suarez, Lana Topolovec; Structural Engineers: Mei Ling
Chu, Abel Diaz, Brent Ellifson, Mary Ferguson, Raleigh Fisher, Tyler Hoehn,
Joanna Huey, Plamen Ivanov, Jaclyn Lee, Frank Scheiber, Martin Tjioe; Construction Managers: Nima Assadi, Michael Barahona, Lena Karlsson, Andrew
Keene, Martin Lah, Sandrine Rivoire, Henning Roedel, Dustin Rothwell,
Lauren Scammell; Life-Cycle Financial Managers: Sandra Kittler, Sebastian
Kohts, Charlotte Thomas; MEP: Hang Yin, Shanie Jensen; Apprentice: Victoria Flores, Alexandra Lipsey-Rahe, Gino Mazzotti, Rith Yoeun
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Sodelujoče univerze/ universities: Stanford University; Berkeley University
of California; University of Wisconsin – Madison; California State University
– Chico; University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus – Universität Weimar; TU Delft;
Aalborg University; KTH, Sweden; Danmarks Tekniske Universitat; The Royal
Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture; Politechnika Warszawska; University Collage Cork; ETH Zurich.
Vodje skupin/ Owners: David Borowicz, Emanuel Bombasaro, Dimitra Ioanidy, Holger Keitel, Erik Kneer, Josh Odelson, Forest Olaf Peterson, Anirudh
Rao, Wafaa Sabil
Žirija: 4th Swinerton Sustainability Challenge: Adhamina Rodriguez (Swinerton Builders); 2th DPR Challenge: Atul Khanzode, Josh Odelson and Dan
Gonzales (DPR Construction)
Pri virtualni delavnici, z dvema kratkima srečanjima na Univerzi Stanford na
začetku in ob koncu projekta, so sodelovali študentje in mentorji iz vsega
sveta. Sodelovalo je 7 arhitektov, 11 statikov, 9 vodij gradbišča, 3 LCFM, 2
strojnika in 4 pripravniki. Hkrati je sodelovalo 9 t.i. investitorjev ter številni
univerzitetni mentorji in mentorji iz industrije (Perkins+Will, NACO, Swinerton Builders, ARUP, GPLA, DPR, Bechtel, Webor idr.). Študentje so v sedmih
interdisciplinarnih skupinah izdelali projekt javne skladbe, v katerem so preizkušali nove tehnološke rešitve in raziskovali inovativne koncepte učenja in
zasnove fakultete.
Študentje so se soočili z dvema izzivoma: »Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)«
in »Sustainable Performance«. Pri svojem delu so uporabljali virtualne
programe za pisanje zapiskov na sestankih (npr. Google Wave), kamor so vsi
hkrati lahko vnašali komentarje. Svoje delo so nenehno usklajevali z ostalimi člani ekipe, svoje obveznosti so beležili v koledar, ki je bil vsem dostopen
in tako skrbeli za čimbolj transparenten potek dela. Pri drugem izzivu, ki se
je nanašal na zasnovo trajnostne zgradbe, so v svoj projekt vključili fotovoltaične panele, naravno prezračevanje, uporabili so opeke za opečne plošče,
različne načine varčevanja s pitno vodo in zasnovali fleksibilne tlorise.
ABSTRACT
In 2010, students focused on two challenges: Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)
and Sustainable Performance. They used integrated meeting notes in order to
write down their goals, and they also used Google Wave that allowed them to
take meeting notes in real time. They would constantly coordinate work with
other team members, add their obligations to the schedule and thus make the
process as transparent as possible. While focusing on the second challenge,
there were photovoltaic panels included in their design, along with natural ventilation and thermal mass. They also re-used brick for brick panels, they used a
steel structure, and they designed flexible floor plans.
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Stanford, Tečaj globalnega timskega dela AEC 2011
Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2011
ZDA, virtualno sodelovanje
2010/2011
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
interdisciplinarna arhitekturna delavnica/ mednarodna delavnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
88
MENTORJI MENTORS Super-Coach and Mentor: Renate Fruchter, Stanford University; Architects:
Mike Martin, UC Berkeley, Humberto Cavallin, University of Puerto Rico
School of Architecture, David Bendet, Perkins and Will, Architects, Robert
Alvarado, Charles M Salter Assoc. Inc., Chuck Eastman, Georgia Tech, Paola
Sanguinetti, Georgia Tech, Hans Verheij, NACO, Netherland, Dirk Donath,
Bauhaus University, Germany, Daniel Gonzales, Design Village, Willem
Kymmell, UCS Chico, Wafaa Sabil, Gensler, Jan Slyk, Warsaw University
of Technology, Poland, Peter Anderson, CCA, USA; Structural Engineers:
Helmut Krawinkler, Stanford University, Ronnie Borja, Stanford University,
Greg Luth, GPLA of California, Shilin Yang, GPLA of California, Nick Arenson, D. R. Horton, Karl Beuke, Bauhaus University, Germany, Frank Werner,
Bauhaus University, Germany, Larry Bank, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
Grace Yamamoto, ARUP, Erik Kneer, Degenkolb, Nick Arenson, D.R. Horton;
Construction Managers: Bob Tatum, Stanford University, Martin Fischer,
Stanford University, Eduardo Miranda, Stanford University, Henry Tooriany,
Microestimating Inc., Henry Tooriany, Hunt Construction, Mark Bartlett,
Hunt Construction, Adhamina Rodriguez, Swinerton Builders, Josh Odelson,
DPR, Kjell Nilver, KTH, Sweden, Tomo Cerovsek, University of Ljubljana;
Life Cycle Financial Management: Hans Wilhelm Alfen, Bauhaus University,
Germany, Bjorn Wuendsch, Bauhaus University, Germany, Matthias Ehrlich,
Bauhaus University, Germany, Axel Seifert, LA; MEP/LEED: Adhamina Rodriguez, Swinerton, Alisdair McGregor, ARUP, Cole Robers, ARUP, Afaan Naqvi,
ARUP, John Nelson, UW Madison.
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Stanford University, PBL Lab, prof.dr. Renate Fruchter
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Spletna stran projekta in rezultatov: www.pbl.si in http://pbl.stanford.edu/
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist.dr. Anja Jutraž, prof.dr. Tadeja Zupančič
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 2: Končne predstavitve
maja (foto: Anja Jutraž)
Slika 1: Prostorski prikaz
(foto: Skupina Ridge).
VSEBINA
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Architects: Maciej Burdalski, Rebecca Diaz, Sinan Mihelchic, Maria Seidel,
Gitte Sørensen, Karol Wawrzyniak; Structural Engineers: Pallav Agrawal,
Marian Benischke, Graham Brasic, Katelin Patricia Crook, Travis Dufour, Riam
Elias Firouz, Carl Gregory Fosholt, Lindsey Koenig, Jeanette Lam, Caroline
Lewis, Stephan Salbach, Justin Schwaiger, Michael Christopher Seaman,
Colin VanLang, Yuexin Wang (Marina); Construction Managers: Umut Aydin,
Ariel Bautista, Catherine Boubekeur, Andres Marcos Bours, Fernando Castillo Cohen, Connor Daniel Daly, Codie Davis, Matt Larson, Imke Lewis, Sebastjan Meža, Maria Selk, Mike Daren Ryan; Life-Cycle Financial Managers:
Constanze Grimm, Sarah-Kristina Merz, Frank Musiol, Sebastian Schönbach;
MEP: Linette Bodilsen, Anne-Laure Cuvilliez, Mads Rasmussen, Seale Wong;
Apprentice: Nikiya Crisostomo, Kim Dependahl, Chelsea Drenick, Arelano
Edmundo, Anemarie Golz, Derek Ouyang
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Sodelujoče univerze: Stanford University; Berkeley University of California;
University of Wisconsin – Madison; California State University – Chico;
University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus – Universität Weimar; TU Delft; Aalborg
University; KTH, Sweden; Danmarks Tekniske Universitat; The Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture; Politechnika Warszawska;
University Collage Cork; ETH Zurich.
Vodje skupin/ Owners: Eric Borchers, David Borowicz, Joanna Huey, Dimitra
Ioanidu, Erik Kneer, Anja Jutraz, Hoss Nasseri Nosar, Josh Odelson, Forest
Olaf Peterson, Anirudh Rao, Lauren Scammell, Bjorn Wuendsch
Žirija: 5th Swinerton Sustainability Challenge: Adhamina Rodriguez (Swinerton Builders); 3th DPR Challenge: Atul Khanzode, Josh Odelson and Dan
Gonzales (DPR Construction)
Pri virtualni delavnici, z dvema kratkima srečanjima na Univerzi Stanford na
začetku in ob koncu projekta, so sodelovali študentje in mentorji iz vsega
sveta. Sodelovalo je 6 arhitektov, 15 statikov, 12 vodij gradbišča, 4 LCFM,
4 strojnikov in 6 pripravnikov. Hkrati je sodelovalo 12 t.i. investitorjev ter
številni univerzitetni mentorji in mentorji iz industrije (Perkins+Will, NACO,
Swinerton Builders, ARUP, GPLA, DPR, Bechtel, Webor idr.). Študentje so
v sedmih interdisciplinarnih skupinah izdelali projekt javne skladbe, v
katerem so preizkušali nove tehnološke rešitve in raziskovali inovativne
koncepte učenja in zasnove fakultet.
Študentje so se soočili z dvema izzivoma: »Native« in »Target Value Design
(TVD)«. Zasnova zgradbe je temeljila na prvem izzivu: kako ustvariti čim
bolj naravno stavbo in vključiti v oblikovanje značilnosti Navade in Univerze
Reno. Pri tem so raziskovali različne vidike: urejanje zunanje okolice (kaktusi), sodelovanje z lokalnimi in regionalnimi ponudniki, odnos do okolja
(oblika strehe se navezuje na bližnje hribe), LEED certifikat, varčevanje
z vodo, alternativni prevozi (avtobusi) in pametni sistemi za upravljanje
zgradb. Na fasadi so poenotili okna in uporabili lokalni pesek za betonsko
fasado, zato da so dobili čimbolj naravni videz. Poleg tega so zasnovali
stavbo, ki uči: pokazali so inštalacijske cevi ter umestili interaktivne table,
ki prikazujejo, kako stavba deluje. Pri drugem izzivu TVD so določili končno
ceno investicije in se ji skušali čimbolj približati.
ABSTRACT
In 2011, students focused on two challenges: Native and Target Value Design
(TVD). Their compelling idea was based on their first challenge: how to go
native and incorporate Nevada and Reno University characteristics in their
design. They explored different aspects of “being native”: landscaping (planting
cacti), local and regional providers, reflecting the environment (they designed
a roof resembling mountains), achieving LEED gold, use alternative transportation (bus) and building management systems. Moreover, they designed a
building with a teaching function, they showed plumps, set up smart boards
and showed users how the building functions. While focusing on the second
challenge, TVD, they determined the final price of the investment and tried to
bring the value of the final product as close to it as possible.
89
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Stanford, Tečaj globalnega timskega dela AEC 2012
Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2012
ZDA, virtualno sodelovanje
2011/2012
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
interdisciplinarna arhitekturna delavnica/ mednarodna delavnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
90
MENTORJI MENTORS Super-Coach and Mentor: Renate Fruchter, Stanford University; Faculty and
Industry Mentors: Architects: Mike Martin, UC Berkeley, Humberto Cavallin,
University of Puerto Rico School Architecture Department, David Bendet,
Perkins + Will, Architects, Robert Alvarado, Charles M Salter Assoc. Inc.
Chuck Eastman, Georgia Tech, Paola Sanguinetti, Georgia Tech, Hans Verheij, NACO, Netherland, Dirk Donath, Bauhaus University, Germany, Daniel
Gonzales, Design Village, Willem Kymmell, UCS Chico, Wafaa Sabil, Gensler,
Jan Slyk, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; Structural Engineers:
Helmut Krawinkler, Stanford University, Ronnie Borja, Stanford University,
Greg Luth, GPLA of California, Shilin Yang, GPLA of California, Tim Schrotenboer, GPLA of California, Nick Arenson, D. R. Horton, Karl Beuke, Bauhaus
University, Germany, Frank Werner, Bauhaus University, Germany, Guido
Morgenthal, Bauhaus University, Germany, Michael Oliva, UW Madison, Erik
Kneer, Degenkolb, Nick Arenson, D.R. Horton; Construction Managers: Bob
Tatum, Stanford University, Martin Fischer, Stanford University, Eduardo
Miranda, Stanford University, Henry Tooriany, Microestimating Inc., Henry
Tooriany, Hunt Construction, Mark Bartlett, Hunt Construction, Adhamina
Rodriguez, Swinerton Builders, Daniel Gonzales, DPR, Kjell Nilver, KTH, Sweden, Tomo Cerovsek, University of Ljubljana, Julian Nahan, The Beck Group;
Life Cycle Financial Management: Hans Wilhelm Alfen, Bauhaus University,
Germany, Bjorn Wuendsch, Bauhaus University, Germany, Axel Seifert, LA;
MEP/LEED: Adhamina Rodriguez, Swinerton, Kyle Adams, ARUP, Afaan
Naqvi, ARUP, Cole Robers, ARUP, John Nelson, UW Madison
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Stanford University, PBL Lab, prof.dr. Renate Fruchter
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Spletna stran projekta in rezultatov: www.pbl.si in http://pbl.stanford.edu/
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist.dr. Anja Jutraž, prof.dr. Tadeja Zupančič
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 4: Priprave na končno predstavitev (foto: Skupina Atlantic).
Slika 1: Člani ekipe Atlantic (foto: Skupina Atlantic).
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Architects: Kristian Fosholt, Madeleine Campos, María Carrión, Zuzanna Koltowska, Janž Omerzu, Karolina Ostrowska, Nicholas Kampmann Petitmaire;
Structural Engineers: Deborah Duan, Jefferson Hang, Annemarie Herrmann,
Jennifer Ju, Chris Lee, Aaron Michael McDevitt, Nick Erin Miley, Thomas
Petershack, Johannes Solass, Eric Tung, Maryanne Wachter, Chen Wenhao,
Curtis Wong, Courtney Wong, Yao Xiao, Leila Zheng; Construction Managers: Jonathan Isaksson, Adrew Long, Diana M Louie, Mike Miller, Ramprasath Palanisamy, Sara Sundelin, Milos Todorovic, Gustav Westphal, Dennise
Wolfe; Life-Cycle Financial Managers: Maria Frank, Sabrina Lingemann, Kata
Mooafak; MEP: Rob Best, Andrew Eckhart, Bedriye Kaplan; Apprentice: John
Dodini
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Sodelujoče univerze: Stanford University; Berkeley University of California;
University of Wisconsin – Madison; California State University – Chico;
University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus – Universität Weimar; TU Delft; Aalborg
University; KTH, Sweden; Danmarks Tekniske Universitat; The Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture; Politechnika Warszawska;
University Collage Cork; ETH Zurich.
Vodje skupin/ Owners: David Borowicz, Fernando Castillo, Joanna Huey,
Dimitra Ioannidou, Anja Jutraz, Sinan Mihelcic, Hossein Nasseri, Gitte
Sørensen, Forest Olaf Peterson, Anirudh Rao, Lauren Scammell, Michael
Christopher Seaman, Maria Selk, Bjoern Wuendsch
Žirija: 6th Swinerton Sustainability Challenge: Adhamina Rodriguez (Swinerton Builders); 3th DPR Challenge: Atul Khanzode, Josh Odelson and Dan
Gonzales (DPR Construction)
VSEBINA
Pri virtualni delavnici, z dvema kratkima srečanjima na Univerzi Stanford na
začetku in ob koncu projekta, so sodelovali študentje in mentorji iz vsega
sveta. Sodelovalo je 7 arhitektov, 16 statikov, 9 vodij gradbišča, 3 LCFM,
3 strojnikov in 1 pripravnikov. Hkrati je sodelovalo 14 t.i. investitorjev ter
številni univerzitetni mentorji in mentorji iz industrije (Perkins+Will, NACO,
Swinerton Builders, ARUP, GPLA, DPR, Bechtel, Webor idr.). Študentje so
v sedmih interdisciplinarnih skupinah izdelali projekt javne skladbe, v
katerem so preizkušali nove tehnološke rešitve in raziskovali inovativne
koncepte učenja in zasnove fakultet.
Študentje so se soočili z dvema izzivoma: »Biomimmicry« in »Product-Process-Organization (POP)«. Pri prvem izzivu so v zasnovo želeli vključiti
organizem, ki predstavlja posebnost za Univerzo Wisconsin, in sicer šolsko
maskoto jazbeca. Ta uporablja toploto iz zemlje pozimi, da mu je toplo in
poleti, da se ohladi. Podoben princip so predlagali pri zasnovi stavbe in jo
tako naslonili ob hrib, tik ob jezeru Madison. Na ta način so skušali zmanjšati stroške energije. Hkrati bi uporabili prefabricirane elemente, reciklirali les
in beton ter uporabili izkopano zemljo za gradnjo ploščadi. Njihov cilj je bil
tudi zmanjšati količino odpadkov.
ABSTRACT
In 2012, students focused on two challenges: Biomimicry and Product-Process-Organization (POP). When tackling the first challenge – biomimicry – they
wanted to incorporate into it an organism that presented a special meaning
for the University of Winsconsin. Badger, the school mascot, uses the heat from
the earth 90 per cent of the time during the winter to keep warm, and also use
it in the summer to cool down. Thus, to save energy costs, they wanted to put
the building into the ground. They also applied the principle: Reduce, Re-use,
Recycle. Their idea was to reduce on-site material storage through on-time
delivery, pre-fabrication, and recycling of wood and concrete, as well as to re-use excavated soil for ramp construction, and implement effective utilization
of machinery and formwork to reduce or eliminate waste.
91
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Stanford, Tečaj globalnega timskega dela AEC 2013
Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2013
ZDA, virtualno sodelovanje
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
interdisciplinarna arhitekturna delavnica/ mednarodna delavnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
92
MENTORJI MENTORS Super-Coach and Mentor: Renate Fruchter, Stanford University; Architects
– Industry: Robert Alvarado, CS & Associates, David Bendet, Perkins+Will,
Kristian Fosholt, Perkins+Will, Hans Verheij, NACO, Wafaa Sabil, Gensler,
Friedrich Traub, Hanover, Germany; Architects – Faculty: Mike Martin, UC
Berkeley, Humberto Cavallin, University of Puerto Rico, Willem Kymmel, UCS
Chico, Michael Mullins, AAU, Denmark, Michael Lauring, AAU, Denmark,
Gitte Sørensen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Jan Slyk, WUoT, Poland, Anja Jutraz,
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; Structural Engineers – Industry: Greg Luth,
GPLA, Shilin Young, GPLA, Tim Schrotenboer,GPLA, Erik Kneer, Degenkolb,
Geoff Bomba, Forell/Elsesser, Eric Borchers, ARUP, Nick Arenson, D. Horton Developers, Guido Morgenthal, Bauhaus University, Frank Scheiber,
Bauhaus University, Justin Schwaiger, Thornton Tomasetti, Riam Firouz,
Oakland, Justin Bocian, Hong Kong; Structural Engineers – Faculty: Eduardo
Miranda, Stanford University, Ronnie Borja, Stanford University, Martin Tjioe,
Stanford University, David Borowicz, USMA West Point, Michael Oliva, UW
Madison, Graham Brasic, Atlanta; MEP – Industry: Cole Roberts, ARUP, Afaan
Naqvi, ARUP, Kyle Adams, ARUP, Luis Rivera, ARUP; MEP – Faculty: Michael
Lepech, Stanford University, John Nelson, UW Madison, Lotte Bjerregaard
Jensen, DTU, Denmark, Jan Karlshøj, DTU, Denmark, Annika Feige, ETH
Zurich; CM – Industry: Adhamina Rodriguez, Swinerton Builders, Henry Tooryani, Microestimating Inc., Mark Bartlett, Hunt construction, Dan Gonzales,
DPR, Fernando Castillo Cohen, DPR, Dustin Rothwell, DPR, Mike Miller, DPR,
Michael Pearson, DPR, Maria Selk, Mortensen Construction, Julian Nahan,
BECK Group, Forest Olaf Peterson, Stanford University, Lauren Scammell,
ARUP, Plamen Ivanov, Clark Construction, Ramprasath Palanisamy, Bechtel,
Diana Louie, Webcor, Matt Larson, Webcor; CM – Faculty: Tomo Cerovsek,
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Martin Lah, University of Ljubljana,
Slovenia, Milos Todorovic, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Martin Fischer,
Stanford University, Jochen Teizer, Georgia Tech, Thomas Thorsell, KTH,
Sweden; LCFM – Industry: Matthias Ehrlich, CAPGEMINI, Axel Seifert, LA;
LCFM – Faculty: Hans Wilhelm Alfen, Bauhaus University, Germany, Bjorn
Wuendsch, Bauhaus University, Germany, Maria Frank, Bauhaus University,
Germany
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Stanford University, PBL Lab, prof.dr. Renate Fruchter
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Spletna stran projekta in rezultatov: www.pbl.si in http://pbl.stanford.edu/
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist.dr. Anja Jutraž, prof.dr. Tadeja Zupančič
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 2: Uvodno srečanje januarja na
Univerzi Stanford (foto: Andrej Kurent).
Slika 1: Vstopna avla (foto: Skupina Atlantic)
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Architects: Bjarke Apollo, Andrej Kurent, Joanna Pietrzykowska, Joanne
Muñiz, Ana Sofia Cardona Fernandez, Pablo Gabrielle Alejandro Cabral
Juan, Jorge Silen; Structural Engineers: Elias Chuayffet, Stephanie Chen,
Daniel Hall, Stefan Markic, Michael J. Muller, Danielle Peterson, Shihui Qu,
Donata Trost, Nanyu Zhao, Minyan Zhang; Construction Managers: Charles
Bovet, Ramon Dario Iglesias, Enrique Hernandez, Yang Ji, Niklas Kindahl,
Laura Mighetto, Nolan Milord, Kourosh Salehzadeh, Sijie Zhang; Life-Cycle
Financial Managers: Felix Bollwahn, Jana Unterschuetz, Mareike Deurloo;
MEP: Reinier Kok, Ronnie Piil, Haagensen, Chasapis Kleanthis, Graham Ryan,
Ethan Landy; Apprentice: Anran Li, Sijia Tao.
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Sodelujoče univerze: Stanford University; Berkeley University of California;
University of Wisconsin – Madison; California State University – Chico;
University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus – Universität Weimar; TU Delft; Aalborg
University; KTH, Sweden; Danmarks Tekniske Universitat; The Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture; Politechnika Warszawska;
University Collage Cork; ETH Zurich.
Vodje skupin/ Owners: David Borowicz, Fernando Castillo, Maria Frank, Anja
Jutraz, Zuzanna Koltowska, Sinan Mihelcic, Mike Miller, Hossein Nasseri,
Karolina Ostrowska, Anirudh Rao, Michael Christopher Seaman, Maria Selk,
Lauren Scammell, Gitte Sørensen, Bjoern Wuendsch.
Žirija: 7th Swinerton Sustainability Challenge: Adhamina Rodriguez (Swinerton Builders); 4th DPR Challenge: Atul Khanzode, Josh Odelson and Dan
Gonzales (DPR Construction)
VSEBINA
Pri virtualni delavnici, z dvema kratkima srečanjima na Univerzi Stanford na
začetku in ob koncu projekta, so sodelovali študentje in mentorji iz vsega
sveta. Sodelovalo je 7 arhitektov, 10 statikov, 9 vodij gradbišča, 3 LCFM,
5 strojnikov in 2 pripravnikov. Hkrati je sodelovalo 15 t.i. investitorjev ter
številni univerzitetni mentorji in mentorji iz industrije (Perkins+Will, NACO,
Swinerton Builders, ARUP, GPLA, DPR, Bechtel, Webor idr.). Študentje so
v sedmih interdisciplinarnih skupinah izdelali projekt javne skladbe, v
katerem so preizkušali nove tehnološke rešitve in raziskovali inovativne
koncepte učenja in zasnove fakultet.
Študentje so se soočili z dvema izzivoma: »Value for Money« in »Leapfrog
Sustainability«. Pri prvem so razvijali tehnologije, ki pomagajo pri trajnostnem obnašanju stavbe, in sicer so predlagali nov pametni sistem (app),
ki bi povezoval človekove dejavnosti in vedenje s samo stavbo: kako lahko
uporabniki sami oblikujejo in upravljajo stavbo. Pametni sistem bi tako
predstavljal t.i. živi laboratorij za raziskovalce. Njen glavni namen je optimizirati učinkovitost stavbe in izobraževati uporabnike o tem, kako njihova
odločitev vpliva na delovanje stavbe in kako lahko pripomorejo k odpravljanju težav. Te so povezali z drugim izzivom, kjer so ugotavljali, kako dodatna
investicija lahko prispeva k večjemu zadovoljstvu končnih uporabnikov.
Podrobno so pogledali različne vrste uporabnikov in njihovo vlogo pri
odločanju o načrtovanju, gradnji in obratovanju stavbe.
ABSTRACT
In 2013, students focused on two challenges: Value for Money and Leapfrog
Sustainability. In the first Swinerton challenge Leapfrog, they came up with
a disruptive sustainable technology, a new smart system (app), which could
connect human activities and behaviour, especially in terms of how to design
and operate their buildings, with the building itself, and materials used within a
linked system. The smart system within the building is meant to provide a living
laboratory for the researchers. Its main purpose is to optimize the performance
of the building and educate users on how their decisions impact that performance, and moreover, it can be used as a troubleshooting system. The second,
DPR challenge, presented them with a task of finding a way to bring better
Value for Money to the end users of the building by looking at the life-cycle of
the facility. They stated that through the implemented technology they could
reduce life-cycle impacts on the facility. They looked carefully at different user
perspectives when deciding on the design, construction and operation techniques for the building.
93
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Stanford, Tečaj globalnega timskega dela AEC 2014
Stanford, AEC Global Teamwork Course 2014
ZDA, virtualno sodelovanje
2013/2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
interdisciplinarna arhitekturna delavnica/ mednarodna delavnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
94
MENTORJI MENTORS Super-Coach and Mentor: Renate Fruchter, Stanford University; Architects –
Industry: David Bendet, Perkins+Will, Kristian Fosholt, Perkins+Will, Willem
Kymmell, CSU Chico, Hans Verheij, NACO, Wafaa Sabil, Swinerton Builders,
Friedrich Traub, Hanover, Germany; Faculty: Mike Martin, UC Berkeley,
Humberto Cavallin, University of Puerto Rico, Willem Kymmel, UCS Chico,
Michael Mullins, AAU, Denmark, Michael Lauring, AAU, Denmark, Gitte
Sørensen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Jan Slyk, WUoT, Poland, Anja Jutraz,
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; Structural Engineers – Industry: Greg Luth,
GPLA, Shilin Young, GPLA, Tim Schrotenboer,GPLA, Erik Kneer, Degenkolb,
Geoff Bomba, Forell/Elsesser, Eric Borchers, ARUP, Nick Arenson, Consultant,
Guido Morgenthal, Bauhaus University, Frank Scheiber, Bauhaus University,
Justin Schwaiger, Thornton Tomasetti, Riam Firouz, Oakland, Justin Bocian,
Hong Kong; Faculty: Eduardo Miranda, Stanford University, Ronnie Borja,
Stanford University, Martin Tjioe, Stanford University, David Borowicz,
USMA West Point, Michael Oliva, UW Madison, Graham Brasic, Atlanta; MEP
– Industry: Cole Roberts, ARUP, Afaan Naqvi, ARUP, Kyle Adams, ARUP, Luis
Rivera, ARUP; Faculty: Michael Lepech, Stanford University, John Nelson,
UW Madison, Lotte Bjerregaard Jensen, DTU, Denmark, Jan Karlshøj, DTU,
Denmark, Annika Feige, ETH Zurich; CM – Industry: Adhamina Rodriguez,
Swinerton Builders, Henry Tooryani, Microestimating Inc., Mark Bartlett,
Hunt construction, Dan Gonzales, DPR, Fernando Castillo Cohen, DPR,
Dustin Rothwell, DPR, Mike Miller, DPR, Michael Pearson, DPR, Maria Selk,
Mortensen Construction, Julian Nahan, BECK Group, Forest Olaf Peterson,
Stanford University, Lauren Scammell, ARUP, Plamen Ivanov, Clark Construction, Ramprasath Palanisamy, Bechtel, Diana Louie, Webcor, Matt
Larson, Webcor; Faculty: Tomo Cerovsek, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia,
Martin Lah, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Milos Todorovic, University
of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Martin Fischer, Stanford University, Jochen Teizer,
Georgia Tech, Thomas Thorsell, KTH, Sweden; LCFM – Industry: Matthias
Ehrlich, CAPGEMINI, Axel Seifert, LA; Faculty: Hans Wilhelm Alfen, Bauhaus
University, Germany, Bjorn Wuendsch, Bauhaus University, Germany, Maria
Frank, Stanford University
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Stanford University, PBL Lab, prof.dr. Renate Fruchter
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Spletna stran projekta in rezultatov: www.pbl.si in http://pbl.stanford.edu/
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
asist.dr. Anja Jutraž, prof.dr. Tadeja Zupančič
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 2: Srečanje na Stanfordu na
začetku delavnice (foto: Sanja Štimac).
Slika 1: Ekipa Express (foto:
Skupina Express).
VSEBINA
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Architects: Katarzyna Ałaszewska, Bjorn B. Hansen, Jakob F. Jørgensen,
Bianca Morell, Sanja Stimac, Paweł Wołejsza, Alicja Woźniak; Structural Engineers: Rene Gallegos Arratia, Mandy Bugzel, Benjamin Carter, Chris Chan,
Jure Česnik, Yue Hua, Jackie Yiyang Jiao, Sebastian Rau, Xu Shohan, Andrew
Sang, Qi Wu, Chris Yang, Jingxuan Zhang, Tianao Zhao, Sophia Zhou; Construction Managers: Satej Dhirubhai Desai, Yihai Fang, Erik Karlsson, Kyungki Kim, Erik Lindstrom, Lucas Melquist, Olga Golovina, Randy Schieber,
Evelina Widén; Life-Cycle Financial Managers: Norayr Badasyan: Dominik
Dietz, Tim Tarek Fergin, Jacqueline Frey; MEP: Anna Heebøll, Pernille Berg,
Dorian Curvature, Jinzhi Wang, Flavia Grey, Amy M. Egerter, Eric Chang, Sarah Saxon; Apprentice: Albert Alix, Shiyu Bai, Claire E. Frykman, Asli Kimya,
Ben Laboy, Raymond HJ Pierson IV.
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
Sodelujoče univerze: Stanford University; Berkeley University of California;
University of Wisconsin – Madison; California State University – Chico;
University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus – Universität Weimar; TU Delft; Aalborg
University; KTH, Sweden; Danmarks Tekniske Universitat; The Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture; Politechnika Warszawska;
University Collage Cork; ETH Zurich.
Vodje skupin/ Owners: Anja Jutraz, Karolina Ostrowska, Zuzanna Koltowska,
Andrej Kurent, Ana Sofia Cardona, Pablo Gabrielle Alejandro Cabral Juan,
Gitte Sørensen, Michael Christopher Seaman, Anirudh Rao, Michael J. Muller, Donata Trost, Maria Selk, Fernando Castillo, Mike Miller, Milos Todorovic,
Kourosh Salehzadeh, Niklas Kindahl, Ronnie Haagensen, Ethan Landy,
Sebastian Schönbach, Maria Frank, Felix Bollwahn.
Žirija: 8th Swinerton Sustainability Challenge: Adhamina Rodriguez (Swinerton Builders); 5th DPR Challenge: Atul Khanzode and Dan Gonzales (DPR
Construction)
Pri virtualni delavnici, z dvema kratkima srečanjima na Univerzi Stanford na
začetku in ob koncu projekta, so sodelovali študentje in mentorji iz vsega
sveta. Sodelovalo je 7 arhitektov, 15 statikov, 9 vodij gradbišča, 4 LCFM,
8 strojnikov in 7 pripravnikov. Hkrati je sodelovalo 23 t.i. investitorjev ter
številni univerzitetni mentorji in mentorji iz industrije (Perkins+Will, NACO,
Swinerton Builders, ARUP, GPLA, DPR, Bechtel, Webor idr.). Študentje so
v sedmih interdisciplinarnih skupinah izdelali projekt javne skladbe, v
katerem so preizkušali nove tehnološke rešitve in raziskovali inovativne
koncepte učenja in zasnove fakultet.
Študentje so se soočili z dvema izzivoma: »Healthy building« in »Total Value
for the Client«. Pri prvem so reševali problem zdrave zasnove zgradbe iz urbanističnega in arhitekturnega vidika, tako od umestitve stavbe na lokacijo
in navezavo na okolico kot tudi do zasnove interierja in reševanja detajlov.
Pri zasnovi so raziskovali uporabo zdravih materialov, se ukvarjali z vprašanji
trajnostne gradnje in z LEED certifikatom. Kot rezultat reševanja obeh
izzivov so zasnovali novo aplikacijo za tablične računalnike in pametne telefone, kjer so združili vidike zdrave stavbe in zdravega načina življenja (vpliv
temperature v stavbi, uporabljenih barv, zvoka, kakovosti zraka, materialov
na počutje uporabnikov).
ABSTRACT
In 2014, students focused on two challenges: Healthy Building and Total Value
for the Client. They tried to transfer the health issue from urban design through
architecture and interior to the furniture and other details. They worked on designing a healthy building by using healthy materials, obtaining LEED certificate,
and by keeping track of the issues regarding sustainability. They also designed
a new app for smart phones and iPads in which they combined the aspects of
building and health: how you feel (your physical and mental health) depends
directly on the conditions within the building (sound, air quality, temperature,
light, colours of the walls, chosen materials) and outside the building (urban
design, connection to the surroundings).
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
EHL Campus development; natečaj za študentski kampus
EHL Campus development; Student Campus
hotelirske šole EHL v Švici
Competition for Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, Switzerland
Lausanne, Švica
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
urbanistično-arhitekturna delavnica/mednarodna
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
96
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. mag. Vasa J. Perović, MA (BiA), asist. Anja Vidic, Jure Grohar
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Univerza v Ljubljani: Ada Finci Terseglav, Filip Martinić, Maša Mertelj, Urška Rupnik, Rok Smrkolj, Maruša Trnovec, Matic Vrabič,
Boris Vranić
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Ecole hoteliere de Lausanne (EHL)
NAROČNIK
Ecole hoteliere de Lausanne (EHL)
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
julij 2013, Lausanne
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Maša Mertelj, Ada Finci Terseglav, Matic Vrabič, Boris Vranić
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Koncept in programska shema kampusa
Slika 2: Pogled na kampus
VSEBINA
Naloga je bila programska razširitev in povečanje števila študentskih sob šole hotelirstva
v Lausanni v Švici. Načrtovati je bilo potrebno
960 študentskih studiev, nov hotel, telovadnico, bazen, start up-e in zunanje zelene
površine.
Zaradi omejenega števila kvadratnih metrov se
odločimo enoto študentske sobe zmanjšati in
“ukradene” kvadratne metre uporabiti v glavnem arhitekturnem in programskem elementu,
tako imenovanem “SOCIAL LOOP-u”, kjer se
zgostijo vsi skupni programi.
Predlagamo ne le pokrito pot do šole, kar je
zaradi dolge in hladne zime zaželeno, ampak
“programski hodnik” z dodano vrednostjo.
Social loop povezuje študentske domove s
šolo in je hkrati prostor interakcij in preživljanja
prostega časa.
Programska “zanka” je potopljena v teren,
znotraj nje oblikujemo tri velike atrije z različnimi karakterji. Študentski domovi se pojavijo v
obliki dvanajstih kubusov, ki se dvignejo v štiri
nadstropja. Vsaka etaža ima dvajset sob, vsaka
soba je namenjena dvema študentoma.
Soba sestoji iz dveh velikih polic, ki predstavljata
edino pohištvo. Polica omogoča poljubno organizacijo ležišča, delovne mize in omare in tako
uporabniku dovoli individualizacijo.
Edini ločen objekt je hotel, ki s svojo višino in
tankim profilom predstavlja dominanto v prostoru. Vse sobe, od treh zvezdic spodaj do predsedniške suite na vrhu, so obrnjene proti jugu in
tako omogočajo najlepše poglede proti mestu
Lausanne.
ABSTRACT
The task was to design a campus, sport facilities,
start-ups, outdoor space and testing hotel for Ecole hoteliere de Lausanne in
Switzerland.
Due to the limited amount of square meters, we decided to ’steal’ a part of every
student room in order to contribute to the main architectural, programmatical
and educational element of the campus - the SOCIAL LOOP. We propose a
covered path with added value - a wide programmed hallway connecting student dorms with school and a main event space at the same time. All common
programs - ‘living’ rooms, fitness, study rooms are arranged along the main
walkway and easily accessible.
Slika 3: Koncept in organizacija študentske sobe
Slika 4: Pogled iz študentske sobe na atrij
Slika 5: Koncept hotela
Slika 6: Hotel kot ikona
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Felicità; Območje Sibirija, Ljubljana:
Felicità: Siberia Area in Ljubljana, Slovenia:
urbana prenova + integracija v mesto
Urban Renewal + City integration
Ljubljana
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
urbanistično-arhitekturna delavnica
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. Jurij Sadar, asist. Ana Kreč, tehnični sodelavec: Denis Rovan
DRUGI SODELUJOČI
prof. dr. Ana Kučan, doc. Darja Matjašec
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
98
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: Mojca Jandrok, Katra Jezeršek, Robert Kardinar,
Doroteja Mučibabić, Matic Pantar, Luka Žibret, Nikola Cvetkovski, Marko
Kavčič, Maruša Lemut, Kristina Slejko, Eva Vojska,Tadej Bogovič, Alenka
Bratec, Lovrenc Kolenc, Andreja Korpič, Sara Pirjevec, Jure B. Sajovic, Ana
Angelina Veljanoska, Tina Globočnik, Valentina Gjura, Žiga Klinc, Katja Sernel, Maša Šporn, Rok Sraka, Maja Starič, Matic Škarabot, Sara Škarica, Jožef
Mark Škoflek, Danijel Tejić
UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo : Barbara Prezelj,
Marina Kokalj, Lea Kušar
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Ljubljana, junij 2013
UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo, junij 2013
ter na razstavi simpozija 'Green housing for the future', Nantes, Francija,
2013
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Jurij Sadar in Ana Kreč
COBISS_Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services oz.
ustrezen podatek o vpisu v drugo bibliografsko bazo
1. Sadar, Jurij, 1963- 2. Kreč, Ana, 1983- Felicità : območje Sibirija, Ljubljana : urbana
prenova + integracija v mesto : Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, seminar
Jurij Sadar, 2013 COBIS.SI-ID 273372672
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Sibirija 5 minutno mesto
Slika 2: Nova cestna mreža
VSEBINA
Študentje v seminarju so se ukvarjali z vprašanjem, kako preoblikovati
zapostavljeno in degradirano območje Sibirije v Ljubljani v mestni predel,
kjer bo možno bivati in delati v skladu z našimi predstavami o mestu kot
prostoru interakcije med njegovimi prebivalci. Sibirija je območje znotraj
ljubljanske obvoznice in od središča mesta oddaljeno 5 minut z avtomobilom ter 15 minut peš ali s kolesom. Linije mestnega avtobusa se ga
izogibajo,območje je v velikem delu poplavno, komunalno neurejeno ter
brez kvalitetnih javnih površin. Prometno je navezano na mesto z vzhodnim
in zahodnim uvozom na Cesto dveh cesarjev ter v podaljšku Mokriške z
mostom za pešce.
Območje je svojevrsten geto odpadov, nenačrtnih gradenj in predmestnih rančev. Na eni strani je hrupna obvoznica, na drugi pa poplavni Mali
graben. A vendar ima tudi drugo podobo ostankov barjanske pokrajine z
zelenimi poljanami ter drevoredi ob regulacijskih potokih.
Sibirija ima svojo identiteto in šarm, kot ga imajo opuščeni industrijski
predeli ali drugi zapostavljeni predeli mesta – ima tudi svoj ritem in urnik,
posamezne iniciative. To smo poizkušali razbrati in vključiti v projekte. Atmosfera Sibirije je postala del projekta. Naloga je bila, kako videti ta predel
drugače, kaj je njegov potencial, kaj lahko arhitekturni projekt spremeni in
kakšne razvojne strategije lahko ponudimo mestnim oblastem ter prebivalcem tega predela. Na ta vprašanja smo odgovorili s serijo posameznih
projektov.
Felicità je nekoliko ironično in hkrati provokativno skupno ime vseh projektov, ki ponujajo drugačno podobo Sibirije – veselo, varno, vabljivo za
umetnike in mlade, zeleno – kot razvojno možnost upočasnjene in zaspane
Ljubljane.
ABSTRACT
Sibirija lies on the southern part of Ljubljana, within the ring road, just 5 minutes from the city centre. It is a buffer zone between the Murgle residential area
Slika 3: Hibridni objekt ob Barjanski cesti
and the Ljubljana marshes, where people go for a walk, run, and relaxation.
The area is often flooded. Sibirija is a ghetto of junkyards, unplanned constructions and suburban ranches with no regulated communal services and lack of
public space. Yet it offers another image with remains of marsh landscape with
green fields and tree avenues by regulated streams. Sibirija has its own identity
and charm, its own pace and schedule, individual initiatives. Felicità is somewhat ironic and at the same time provocative name of all our projects that offer
different image of Sibirija - happy, safe, inviting for artists and young people,
green - as a development possibility for slow and sleepy Ljubljana.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Prostorski razvoj južnega Tolmina
Spatial Fevelopment of the Southern Part of Tolmin
Tolmin
2013/2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
urbanistična, krajinskoarhitekturna in arhitektura
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. Darja Matjašec (urbanizem, krajinska arhitektura), doc. Jurij Sadar (urbanizem, arhitektura), prof. dr. Mojca Golobič (vključevanje javnosti), asist.
Nejc Florjanc, asist. Ana Kreč
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
100
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo:
2. letnik magistrskega študija krajinske arhitekture: Aljaž Babič, Polona Černe, Luca Eberlinc, Ema Križič. Manca Krošelj, Danijel Mohorič, Sara Novak,
Tadeja Pavšič, Danko Puhalo, Jasna Rizvanović, Domen Rus, Tilen Šenk, Saša
Štefančič in Nina Uršič
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: 4. letnik magistrskega študija arhitekture: Matic
Mohar, Jan Trunkelj, Lara Zukanovič
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo in Občina Tolmin
NAROČNIK
Občina Tolmin
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
16. – 30. junij 2014, Knjižnica Cirila Kosmača Tolmin
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. Darja Matjašec, asist. Nejc Florjanc
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 2: Prostorski prikaz stanovanjske soseske (Babič, Pavšič, Rus).
Slika 3: Prostorski prikaz stanovanjske soseske
(Mohar, Trunkelj, Zukanovič, Krošelj, Novak).
Slika 1: Zasnova (Babič, Pavšič, Rus)
Vsebina
Študenti so se ukvarjali s prostorskim razvojem južnega dela Tolmina. Obravnavali so območje obstoječega športnega parka Brajda, območje Cvetja
južno od šole ter festivalsko območje ob načrtovani obvoznici ter na Sotočju
ter celoten gozdni prostor na levem bregu Soče od Sotočja do pokopališča.
Izhodiščna naloga je bila, da preverijo možnosti zamenjave načrtovane stanovanjske soseske na območju Cvetja in obstoječega športnega parka Brajda
in da predlagane rešitve še vedno omogočajo izvedbo množičnih festivalov.
Na podlagi analiz in vključevanja javnosti je bilo ugotovljeno, da je zamenjava
načrtovane soseske in obstoječega športnega parka smiselna.
Študenti so pri svojih zasnovah oblikovali različne koncepte. Nekateri so
kot izhodišče svoje zasnove upoštevali naravo, ki je značilna za reko Sočo
in njeno neposredno okolico, drugi so izhajali iz zgodovinskih značilnosti iz
obdobja Soške fronte, kot izhodišče pa je bilo obravnavana tudi poplavna
ogroženost.
Soseska bi se na lokaciji obstoječega športnega parka bolje navezovala
na samo mesto tako z vidika povezave mestnih funkcij kot z vidika boljše
umeščenosti stavbnega fonda znotraj mestnega jedra. Na robu mesta bi
bile mestne funkcije od soseske preveč oddaljene, do konfliktov pa bi prihajalo tudi v času festivalov. Športni park bi se z lokacijo južno od šole bolje
navezoval na odprte in zelene površine na Sotočju, ki že imajo rekreacijsko
funkcijo. Nova lokacija športnega parka bi omogočala umestitev več različnih programov, ki so se na podlagi ankete med prebivalci, ki so jo opravili
študenti, izkazali kot potrebni (na primer pokriti bazen, lokal itd.).
Students were dealing with the spatial development of the southern part of Tolmin between old historical centre and river Soča. One of the goals was also to
examine the possibility of replacing locations between the planned residential
area and existing sports park Brajda. Furthermore, suggested spatial solutions
should still allow organization of mass music festivals on Soča riverbanks. Students based their design solutions on different concepts. Some ideas for design
concepts were based on river Soča natural surroundings, others derived from
historical events of Isonzo Front.
Slika 4: Prostorski prikaz sprehajalne
poti ob Soči (Križič, Mohorič).
Abstract
Slika 5: Prostorski prikaz poplavnega
loga ob Soči (Babič, Pavšič, Rus).
101
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Park Žiri
Žiri Parc
Žiri
2013/2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
krajinskoarhitekturna in arhitektura
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. Darja Matjašec (krajinska arhitektura), doc. Jurij Sadar (arhitektura), asist.
Nejc Florjanc, asist. Ana Kreč
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
102
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo:
3. letnika krajinske arhitekture: Nina Berovič, Vid Bogovič, Eva Celinšek, Vlasta
Damjanovič, Davor Dušanić, Nadja Gothe, Jure Gubanc, Andraž Hudoklin,
Marko Klemen, Urša Kljun, Saša Kolman, Tina Kralj, Tomislav Krnač, Tomaž Kuret, Maša Legat, Martina Lovrić, Andreja Majnik, Veronika Malik, Sara Matušin,
Neža Novšak, Don Papandopulo, Klavdija Peperko, Tom Pogačar, Ana Pšenica,
Mojca Seliškar, Maruša Šubic, Nives Vavtar in Simona Vraničar;
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo: 4. letnika arhitekture: Primož Černelč, Andreja
Korpič in Sara Pirjevec
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION UL, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo in Občina Tolmin
NAROČNIK
Občina Žiri
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
19. december – 12. marec 2014, Občina Žiri, 21. marec 2014 – 25. aprila 2014,
Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. Darja Matjašec, asist. Nejc Florjanc
COBISS_Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services oz.
ustrezen podatek o vpisu v drugo bibliografsko bazo
Park Žiri : ŠRC Pustotnik / Študentska krajinsko arhitekturna delavnica ; [avtorji Darja
Matjašec ... [et al.] ; uredila Darja Matjašec, Nejc Florjanc]. - Ljubljana : Biotehniška
fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo ; Žiri : Občina, 2013. - 41 str. : ilustr., načrti ;
21 x 22 cm [COBISS.SI-ID 270878208]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Park Rupnikova linija (Pogačar, Šubic).
Slika 2: Športni park Alpina (Dušanić, Gubanc).
Slika 3: Sheme (Gothe, Peperko).
Slika 4: Sheme in prostorski prikazi (Pogačar, Šubic).
Vsebina
Na delavnici je bilo preverjeno, kakšne možnosti se ponujajo za preoblikovanje in programsko nadgradnjo območja tako v kontekstu kulturne krajine kot
v kontekstu mestne krajine. Različne možnosti so študenti preverjali skozi različne scenarije. Nekateri scenariji so gradili na zatečeni situaciji (bivša deponija
gradbenega materiala). S čim manj posegi so poskušali nadgraditi obstoječe
rešitve tako v funkcionalnem kot v oblikovnem smislu. Drugi scenariji so
gradili izhodišča za celovito prenovo na način, da Žiri postanejo prepoznavne
v širšem merilu, kar sicer praviloma zahteva radikalne prostorske preureditve,
ki pa se dolgoročno splačajo, saj Žiri pridobijo na novi prepoznavnosti in
privlačnosti kraja. Navdih so študenti poiskali v do zdaj na nek način neizkoriščenih potencialih v zgodovini, pa tudi v prepoznavni športni industriji Alpina
ali celo v žirovski čipki. Drugi so poskušali navdih poiskati v preprosti lepoti
naravnih prvin. Vsi scenariji se lahko v prostoru smiselno udejanjijo, seveda
pa zahtevajo različen vložek občine tako v organizacijskem kot v finančnem
smislu, občina pa bi morala tudi temeljito razmisliti, kakšen razvoj kraja želi.
Od zadržanega, kjer je njena glavna ambicija, da zadovoljuje potrebe svojega
prebivalstva, ali pa do nekoliko bolj smelega, skozi katerega se lahko umesti
na zemljevid turistično prepoznavnih slovenskih krajev. Obe smeri razvoja sta
možni in povsem legitimni.
Slika 5: Gostinski paviljon (Černelč, Korpič, Pirjevec).
Slika 6: Prostorski prikaz (Dušanić, Gubanc).
Abstract
The aim of the workshop was to examine different options for spatial and programmatic redevelopment of the area ŠRC Pustotnik in Žiri. Students examined
different options through a variety of scenarios. Some scenarios focused on local
recognition and were built on current situation (landfill of construction material),
where they tried to upgrade existing solutions with minimal interventions. Other
scenarios suggested more radical ideas that would help Žiri gain its recognition
and identity also in a wider (national and international) perspective.
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Elementi, materiali in oblike 4
Ljubljana
2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
prostorska inštalacija/slovenska
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
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MENTORJI MENTORS doc. dr. Alenka Fikfak, prof. mag. Peter Gabrijelčič
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakultete za arhitekturo: Kaja Krebel, Blažka Sevčnikar, Tajda Češarek (Visoka šola za dizajn), Boštjan Kropinšek, Matic Komel, Lara Baler, Tjaša Barič, Bea
Avguštin, Nika Koraca, Lea Oberza, Tjaša Rus, Sanja Daljavec, Mojca Simonič,
Lina Skrinjar, Katja Traunšek, Rok Kramarič, Tjaša Kobi, Andrea Jurinčič, Alen
Vovk, Peter Nemec, Jan Barič, Ivan Hofman, Bor Kajzer
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS
ID:doma - Matevž Frančič , Grom Arch d.o.o. - Janez P. Grom, UL FGG - asist.
Gašper Mrak, SMS Stražišar Mirko, s.p., Lucimaster - Urban Modic, UL FA - doc.
dr. Tomaž Novljan, Viki Žigon, Urša Kalčič
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
otvoritev razstave 25. aprila 2014, hodnik Fakultete za arhitekturo, 2. nadstropje
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. dr. Alenka Fikfak
Elements, Materials and Form 4
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Ustvarjalno in kreativno delo na delavnici.
Vsebina
Delavnica o svetlobi je bila namenjena spoznavanju oblikovanja elementa
osvetljevanja: LUČI. Začetek je bil popolnoma nezahteven, vendar smo z
vsakim naslednjim korakom ugotavljali, kako je znanje, ki je v ozadju tega
zahtevno in kompleksno: tehnične, estetske in predvsem psihološke narave. V
nalogi je bila izpsotavljena celostna zasnova in oblikovanje modela sodobnega svetila. Izbrani material za izdelavo je bil inox. Glavni cilj delavnice je v preteklih mesecih sledil razumevanju obnašanja materiala in možne vsestranske
uporabnosti le-tega. Obravnavali smo različne funkcije in lastnosti svetlobe,
mešanje barv in kako vplivajo na vtis in učinek prostora.
Svetloba skozi oči oblikovalca, fotografa, računalničarja, obrtnika. Študentov
arhitekture in urbanizma: kompozicija in ustvarjanje atmosfere.
“There is a crack in everything. That's how the light gets in.”
Leonard Cohen, Selected Poems, 1956-1968
“Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive
out hate: only love can do that.”
Martin Luther King Jr., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches
ABSTRACT
Creativity is closely connected to empirical method of learning, where the involvement in the experience and thinking proves to be invaluable for broadening and
development of the knowledge of an individual, group and all participants.
In order to realize the idea of spatial composition, the key issue was to find the
appropriate place (FA) and time (limitation to three days of active work). An additional restriction was manual work without the use of a computer, and minimum
costs with the possibility of recycling the material already used.
Workshop 3 (April 2013): material – white plastic cups; clipping of elements into
curves; stacking and folding of surfaces into a composition; making a 3D composition of a room; finalising the composition of a “leisure room”; shaping the
ambient and the individual elements, circle, observation of structure.
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Načrtovanje prostora je za vse!
Spatial planning is for everyone!
Šentrupert
2013/2014
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
tehniški dan na osnovni šoli
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. dr. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, viš. pred. mag. Mojca Foški, asist. Gašper
Mrak, Tadej Žaucer
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
106
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS Meta Petrič, Tanja Marn, Urban Jeriha, Špela Žohar, Nadja Kmetič, Maja
Weisseisen, Gašper Okršlar, Urša Kalčič
učitelji Osnovne šole dr. Pavla Lunačka, Šentrupert
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION UL, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo; IPOP
Osnovna šola dr. Pavla Lunačka, Šentrupert
NAROČNIK
Osnovna šola dr. Pavla Lunačka, Šentrupert
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
avla UL FGG, Ljubljana, od 28. 5. 2014 do 4. 6. 2014
avla Osnovne šole dr. Pavla Lunačka, Šentrupert, od 18. 6. 2014 do 23. 6. 2014
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILI MATERIALS PREPARED BY
viš. pred. mag. Mojca Foški, doc. dr. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, asist. Gašper
Mrak
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slike 1, 2, 3: Terensko delo in ustvarjanje v učilnicah.
Vsebina
Odnos do prostora se oblikuje že v zgodnjem razvoju otrok. Spoznanje in
zavedanje, da je prostor naša skupna dobrina in da ga lahko oblikujemo po
meri vseh nas – uporabnikov in s skupnimi močmi, je bilo ključno vodilo pri
izvedbi tehniškega dne za učence osnovne šole. S spoznavanjem tematike
prostorskega načrtovanja, prilagojene različnim starostnim skupinam, smo
naredili enega prvih korakov v vzgoji otrok do boljšega odnosa do prostora.
Oblikovane so bile tri naloge, prilagojene starostnim skupinam učencev v posameznem triletju osnovne šole. V prvem triletju so učenci objektom na trgu
v naselju Šentrupert določali dejavnosti in vsebine. Poseben poudarek je bil
na razgovoru o odnosu med dejavnostmi v objektih, njihovih uporabnikih in
odnosu objektov do odprtega javnega prostora. V drugem triletju so učenci
izdelali otroški turistični zemljevid, na katerem so predstavili in izpostavili
zanimivosti Šentruperta in ožje okolice ter hkrati vnesli dejavnosti in objekte,
ki bi jih v svoji bližnji okolici še želeli. Na podlagi vnaprej pripravljenih gradiv
so izdelali zemljevide v obliki zgibanke. Naloga učencev tretjega triletja je
bila zasnovati kolesarske poti in pešpoti, s katerimi lahko povežemo deželo
kozolcev v Šentrupertu z zanimivostmi v njeni okolici.
Delo je bilo razdeljeno v več faz, ki so potekale pod vodstvom strokovnih
mentorjev in učiteljev. V prvem, uvodnem delu so bili učenci seznanjeni s
problematiko in nalogami, sledil je terenski ogled, v zadnjem delu pa izdelava
predlogov, zgibank, plakatov in drugih gradiv v učilnicah. Učenci so ob koncu
tehniškega dne opravili tudi evalvacijo stanja prostora Šentruperta in njegove
okolice ter evalvacijo poteka in zadovoljstva s tehniškim dnem.
Slika 4: Trg Šentruperta z novimi dejavnostmi v
zapuščenih objektih v očeh učencev prve triade.
Abstract
In the education session for primary school pupils, the main consideration was
to bring across the understanding and awareness that space is a common good
and that, as a joint effort, it can be customised (to suit all users). By looking at the
topics of spatial planning, adapted to the different age groups of primary school
pupils, we took a first step in the education of children to improve their relation to
space. The pupils of the first three-year cycle proposed new uses of the buildings
in the square of the town of Šentrupert, a Slovenian municipality, and suggested
how to renovate the façades. The pupils in the second three-year cycle devised a
tourist map for children, while in the third three-year cycle they designed a bicycle
path and a footpath in the area surrounding Šentrupert.
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Niz izobraževanj otrok in mladine
Educational Programmes about
o kvalitetah lokalnega prostora
the Qualities of the Local Space
Velenje, Podsreda, Celje
2012/2013
Tip delavnice TYPE OF WORKSHOP
delavnice za otroke in mladino
MENTORJI MENTORS dr. Mojca Furman Oman, u.d.i.geod., mag. Gorazd Furman Oman, u.d.i.a.
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS
Jaka Sedovnik, u.d.i.a, Andreja Džakušić, samostojna umetnica
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
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PROJECT
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WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
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PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
108
DRUGI SODELUJOČI OTHER PARTICIPANTS
dijaki od 1. do 4. letnika Umetniške gimnazije, Velenje (delavnice mesto…
industrija… mesto, Velenje)
učenci OŠ Podčetrtek, OŠ Kozje, OŠ Lesično, OŠ Maksa Pleteršnika Pišece, OŠ
Bistrica ob Sotli in OŠ Bizeljsko (delavnice hiša v parku, Podsreda)
učenci II. OŠ Celje (delavnice (p)oživimo ulico, Celje)
učenci II. OŠ Celje, OŠ Lava, III. OŠ Celje in dijaki Gimnazije Center, Celje (delavnice naše mesto, Celje)
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION Metro SR, zavod za prostor Savinjske regije, Celje
NAROČNIK
Galerija Veleje, Velenje, Kozjanski park, Podsreda, Mestna občina Celje
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
Razstava in podelitve nagrade Zlata kocka 2014, Ljubljana, 4. 3. 2014.
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Mojca Furman Oman
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slike 1, 2, 3: Hiša v parku, Podsreda.
Slike 4, 5, 6: Mesto ... industrija ... mesto, Velenje.
Vsebina
Metro SR razvija lastne programe izobraževanj otrok in mladine o kvalitetah
lokalnega prostora, ki jih izvaja v obliki delavnic. Za niz izobraževanj otrok in
mladine o kvalitetah lokalnega prostora, ki smo jih v obliki delavnic izvajali v
letih 2012/13, smo prejeli nacionalno nagrado Zlata kocka 2014 (http://www.
zaps.si/index.php?m_id=ARHITEKTURA%20IN%20OTROCI).
Skupini imenovalec izvedenih delavnic z naslovi mesto… industrija… mesto,
hiša v parku, naše mesto in (p)oživimo ulico je naslednji:
■■ udeležence smo seznanili s prostorom, v katerem živijo, s poudarkom
na urbanističnem in arhitekturnem razumevanju tega prostora
■■ u
deleženci so razvili kritičen odnos do prostora, v katerem bivajo, se
igrajo, izobražujejo
■■ u
deleženci so pridobili nova znanja in veščine, s katerim lahko izbran
prostor izboljšajo
■■ s kozi delavnice smo skušali vzgojiti kritične uporabnike prostora, ki
bodo cenili in spoštovali kvalitete grajenega prostora.
Vsako izobraževanje smo razvili za specifično lokalno okolje, s čimer smo
motivirali udeležence, jim zbudili pozornost do lokalnega grajenega okolja in
na razumljiv način podali kompleksnejša znanja s področja urbanizma in arhitekture. Vsaka od delavnic je bila zasnovana povsem unikatno in tematsko
vezana na problematiko ali kvaliteto prostora, v katerem se je izvajala.
Po mnenju žirije za podelitev Zlate kocke so naše »delavnice prilagojene
prostoru (urbano/ruralno) v katerem se odvijajo, navezujejo se na lokalno
problematiko in sledijo trajnostnemu cilju: misli globalno in deluj lokalno.
Uporabljeni so raznoliki pristopi, tehnike in materiali, vsi prilagojeni okolju in
tematiki, ki ju delavnica podpira. Projekt predstavlja vzor za delo z otroki na
področju izobraževanja o prostoru in arhitekturi.«
ABSTRACT
Metro SR, The Institute for Space in the Savinja region carries out its own educational programmes about the qualities of the local space for children as well as
youth by means of workshops.
Every form of education within the workshops is developed for the purpose of a
specific local environment which motivates the participants, arouses their attention to the local constructed space and makes complex knowledge from the field of
urbanism and architecture more comprehensible. Therefore, in the years of 20122013, a series of workshops based on the local environment were developed. Four
thematically different workshops namely A House in the Park, Our City, Revive the
Street and City…Industry…City are presented.
Awards: Architecture & Children Golden Cubes Awards 2013/14 (National Nomination)
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5 1 6 UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
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PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
110
4 7 2
8 3 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
LOKACIJE
DELAVNIC
WORKSHOP
LOCATIONS
Lokacije delavnic:
1. Ljubljana, Bruselj
2. KP Ljubljansko Barje
3. Kočevje
4. Ljubljana
5. Tolmin
6. Žiri
7. Ljubljana
8. Šentrupert
str. 74
str. 76
str. 80
str. 94
str. 96
str. 98
str. 100
str. 102
111
V.
NATEČAJI
COMPETITIONS
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Krožno križišče Šijana
Pula, Hrvaška
2014
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
114
Tip NATEČAJA TYPE OF competition
krajinsko-arhitekturni
MENTORJI MENTORS doc. Darja Matjašec
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakultete za krajinsko arhitekturo: Tomislav Krnač, Aljaž Babič, Vlasta Damjanovič, Urša Kljun, Ema Križič, Tadeja Pavšič, Domen Rus in Maruša Šubic
Naročnik CLIENT
Občina Pula, Hrvaška
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
2014, Pula
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. Darja Matjašec
Šijana Roundabout
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
V vse večji globaliziranosti sveta je pomembno, da se posamezni kraji, še posebej,
če je turizem njihova glavna gospodarska panoga, razlikujejo od drugih krajev.
Krajina in zeleni sistem kraja lahko nosita pomembno sporočilnost in sta lahko več
kot odlična priložnost za identiteto nekega kraja. S študenti smo želeli pokazati,
da lahko krajinskoarhitekturne ureditve ob infrastrukturnih koridorjih v urbanih
območjih pomembno tvorijo identiteto kraja in s tem postaviti antipod rešitvam,
ki smo jim v vsakdanjem življenju ob poplavi nestrokovnih ureditev krožnih
krožišč vse bolj priča.
Puljska obvoznica s krožnimi križišči in mestnimi vpadnicami ima potencial
ekološkega in rekreacijskega koridorja, ki sta sestavni del zelenega sistema mesta.
Z mestnimi vpadnicami tvori pomembno strukturno členitev mesta. Trendi v
razvoju urbanih okolij v razvitem svetu kažejo na to, da se na račun trajnostne
mobilnosti vse bolj opušča promet z osebnimi avtomobili, mestne oblasti pa
dajejo velik poudarek kolesarjenju in pešačenju. Hodljivost omogočajo ustrezne
ureditve peš in kolesarskih koridorjev in ustrezen urbanistični razvoj mesta, ki
mora upoštevati obstoječe naravne danosti. Naravni gozd (Šijanska šuma), ki meji
na obravnavano krožno križišče, je pomembno rekreacijsko območje. Šijanska
šuma je z mestom povezana ravno preko šijanskega rondoja, zato našo osnovno
idejo gradimo na kultivirani krajini znotraj rondoja. Kultivirana krajina se kaže
v talni ploskvi z menjavajočo se podobo zaradi sprememb letnih časov (zelena
ploskev vs. cvetoča ploskev z lokalno značilnimi vrstami), nad njo pa se razprostira
gozd pinij in celtisa. Obvoznico obdaja obojestranski drevored pinij, ki se izvede
karseda zvezno (kjer pač razmere to dopuščajo), mestna vpadnica, ki poteka od
Šijanske šume proti centru mesta pa obdaja obojestranski drevored celtisov. Tudi
ta drevored se ohranja čim bolj zvezno.
Ureditev znotraj rondoja upošteva vse cestnoprometne predpise in standarde na
področju varnosti. Rešitev je zasnovana tako, da ne povzroča distrakcije šoferja in
ga vodi umirjeno skozi prometno krožišče. Prav tako pešce in kolesarje. Posebna
pozornost je namenjena nizkim stroškom vzdrževanja ob predpostavki, da bo
notranjost rondoja imela namakalni sistem. Predvidevata se dve fazi izvedbe. V prvi
fazi se posadijo le drevesa (drevoredi in nadomestni gozd sredi rondoja (celtisi in
pinije), v drugi fazi pa se v rondoju pod drevesi zasadijo trajnice (sivka, rožmarin in
santolina). Druga faza ni obvezna, saj zahteva večji finančni vložek. Celotna ureditev je zasnovana kot nadomestni habitat, ki je bil uničen zaradi gradnje šijanskega
rondoja. Na zunanji strani rondoja, na jugozahodni strani in južno od obvoznice
ne zahodni strani rondoja se lahko na odprtih površinah vzpostavi sistem urbanih
vrtičkov.
Slika 1: Rekreacijske povezave
Slika 2: Zasnova
Slika 3: Prostorski prikaz, izvedbena faza 2
Abstract
The goal of the competition was to find a design proposal for a roundabout, located
on a bypass road in Pula, Croatia. Students tried to avoid generic solutions and tried
to show that landscape interventions along infrastructural corridors are part of a
larger green system within the city of Pula.
Slika 4: Prostorski prikaz poleti
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2100: Zelena pozidava za prihodnost / koliščarji
2100: Green Housing for the Future / Pile Dweelers
Ljubljana
2013
Tip NATEČAJA TYPE OF competition
mednarodni urbanistični, krajinskoarhitekturni in arhitekturni
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
116
MENTORJI MENTORS prof. dr. Ana Kučan, doc. Darja Matjašec, doc. Jurij Sadar, asist. Nejc Florjanc,
asist. Ana Kreč
ŠTUDENTJE STUDENTS UL, Fakultete za krajinsko arhitekturo: Tadej Bevk, Eva Strgar, Blaž Meznarčič
UL, Fakultete za arhitekturo: Tadej Bogovič, Alenka Bratec
Naročnik CLIENT
Agrocampus Ouest – Centre d'Angers, I'ENSA de Nantes, Plante et Cité,
Francija
DATUM IN KRAJ RAZSTAVE DATE AND LOCATION OF EXHIBITION
2013, spletna objava http://www.agrocampus-ouest.fr/infoglueDeliverLive/digitalAssets/51355_Concours2100_presentation.pdf
Nagrada – 1. (deljena) nagrada
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. Darja Matjašec
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
Slika 1: Zasnova
Namen natečaja je predstavitev študentskih projektov na temo bivanja v
prihodnosti v sožitju z naravo v urbanem prostoru na poljubnih lokacijah.
Projekt obravnava severni del območja Sibirije v Ljubljani, južno od Malega
grabna. Območje prestavlja pomembno vez med središčem Ljubljane in
Ljubljanskim barjem. Trenutno je območje stihijsko naseljeno, poplavno
ogroženo in degradirano. Predlagana rešitev v večji meri ohranja obstoječi
program, to je bivanje z dopolnilnimi dejavnostmi, in ga smiselno nadgrajuje. Upošteva strukturne značilnosti prostora (barjanski jarki) in nevarnost
poplav.
Rešitev predvideva terasasto urejanje območja. Terase se spuščajo proti
Malemu grabnu. Spodnje služijo za območja, na katerih Mali graben občasno poplavlja, na njih pa so načrtovane krajinskoarhitekturne ureditve, ki
brez nastale škode prenesejo pogoste poplave. Najvišja terasa je poplavno
varna in je zato tudi zazidljiva. Na njej sta zasnovani stanovanjski naselji,
predvidena je faznost izvedbe. Obe naselji sta zasnovani kot samooskrbni, z
območji za pridelavo zelenjave. Vzpostavljen je sistem zbiranja deževnice za
uporabo v gospodinjstvih. Voda iz utrjenih povoznih površin se prečiščuje v
rastlinskih čistilnih napravah v kanalih, strehe objektov so ozelenjene. Zahodno naselje ima večstanovanjske objekte, vzhodno pa enostanovanjske, ki
omogočajo izvajanje dopolnilnih dejavnosti. Objekti v vzhodnem naselju so
zasnovani pravokotno na terase in se čez zgornjo teraso prevešajo nad spodnje terase na način, da ob morebitnih poplavah delno lebdijo nad vodno
površino. Celotno območje je pešcem in kolesarjem prijazno. Zasnova predstavlja rešitev, kjer prebivalci z načinom bivanja spoštujejo naravne procese
in kljub tehnološko dovršenim stavbam še vedno ohranjajo stik z naravo.
Slika 2: Situacija ob manjših in večjih poplavah
Slika 3: Značilni prerezi ob različnih nivojih vode
Abstract:
The purpose of the contest is the presentation of student projects on the theme
of living in the future within randomly selected degraded urban areas. The
project deals with the redevelopment of northern area of Sibirija in Ljubljana.
The area represents an important link between Ljubljana city center and nature
park Barje, a swampy area used for cultivation. Sibirija was originally used for
cultivation but illegal housing spread quickly on some plots. The area experiences annual flooding.
Slika 4: Tloris - detajl
Slika 5: pogled na poplavno ravnico
117
VI.
PREDSTAVITVE
PRESENTATIONS
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Pametni urbanizem - učiti trajnost
Smart Urbanism - Teaching Sustainability
Ljubljana
...
2014
Tip predstavitve TYPE OF presentation
mednarodni znanstveni posvet in delavnica za učitelje
PROGRAMSKI ODBOR PROGRAMME COMMITTEE
Prof. Peter Gabrijelčič, MSc, Prof. Janez Koželj, Assist. Prof. Alenka Fikfak, PhD,
Assist. Prof. Ilka Čerpes, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Tadej Glažar, MSc
ORGANIZACIJSKI ODBOR ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Assist. Prof. Alenka Fikfak, PhD, Assist. Polona Filipič, MSc, Assist. Matevž
Juvančič, PhD, Assist. Anja Jutraž, PhD, Assist. Špela Verovšek, PhD,
Assist. Aleksander Vujović, Janez P. Grom, Nejc Černigoj, Mia Crnič,
Urša Kalčič, Mitja Blaganje, MSc, Mojca Potočnik Kogovšek,
Renata Stella Čop, Mojca Rozman, Karmen Marolt, Evgen Klemenc
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
120
ZNANSTVENI ODBOR SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Dr. Cristian Suau, US, UK, Birgit Klauck, TU Berlin, DE, Prof. Enrico Anguillari,
IUAV, IT, Tomaž Pipan, MA, Prof. Eva Vaništa Lazarević, PhD, UB, SR,
Prof. Goran Radović, PhD, UOM, ME, Assist. Prof. Saja Kosanović, PhD, UPKM,
KOS, Prof. Živa Deu, PhD, UL FA, Assoc. Prof. Martina Zbašnik Senegačnik, PhD,
UL FA, Assoc. Prof. Tadeja Zupančič, PhD, UL FA, Assist. Prof. Alma Zavodnik
Lamovšek, PhD, UL FGG, Assist. Prof. Ilka Čerpes, PhD, UL FA,
Assist. Prof. Sonja Ifko, PhD, UL FA
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Katedra za urbanizem
DATUM IN KRAJ IZVEDBE DOGODKA DATE AND LOCATION OF OF PERFORMANCE OF THE EVENT
Posvet je potekal v prostorih UL Fakultete za arhitekturo dne 19., 20. in 21.
junija 2014.
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. dr. Alenka Fikfak
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services
FIKFAK, Alenka (urednik). Smart urbanism : teaching sustainability : book of proceedings. Ljubljana: Faculty of Architecture, 2014. 215 str., ilustr. ISBN 978-961-682352-4. [COBISS.SI-ID 274206720]
Operation part-financed by the European Union, the European Social Fund and the
Ministry of Education, Science and Sport. Operation imple¬mented in the framework
of the Operational Programme for Human Resources Development for the Period
2007-2013, Development priority 3: »Development of Human Resources and Lifelong
Learning«; Priority axis 3.3: »Quality, Competitiveness and Responsiveness of Higher
Education«.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA Slika 1: B–2 mesto, šola kot mesto zanimivih
spomenikov, z razstave “Reclaiming the City”,
2012 (vir: Bakalčev, in: Fikfak (ed.), 2014, 32).
Vsebina urbanističnega posveta »Pametni urbanizem« je bila v letu 2014
osredotočena na učenje, predvsem kako učiti »trajnost«. Iz prispevka prof.
mag. Petra Gabrijelčiča: »Pojav računalniških orodij in interneta odpira
številna vprašanja glede učenja na področju izobraževanja arhitektov in
urbanistov. Napredna računalniška orodja so osvobodila študenta mnogih
tehničnih in risarskih spretnosti. Hkrati so omogočila skoraj brezmejne
možnosti ustvarjanja v virtualnem svetu. Na široko so odprla vrata domišljiji in novim idejam, kar vse je bilo s starimi orodji skoraj nemogoče, pa
tudi nepredstavljivo. Še posebej pomemben je pojav interneta. Z njegovo
pomočjo smo lahko hkrati tukaj in povsod drugod. Ne sicer fizično, ampak
s sliko, besedo in informacijo. Nič več ni potreben posrednik, ki bi nam s
pozicije moči posredoval informacije ali sporočila. Vse, kar nas zanima, si
lahko nemudoma pogledamo, preberemo ali poslušamo kar sami. »Renesančno« izobraženega učitelja, »ki je vedel vse in nič več« in je bil ključar
znanja, je zamenjal učitelj, ki je predvsem promotor učenja, usmerjenega k
določeni strokovni orientaciji. Torej učitelj, ki je izkušen kritični sobesednik s
širokim filozofskim ozadjem in etično držo. Ki je promotor ideje o družbeni
odgovornosti stroke.« (Fikfak (ed.), 2014, 11)
ABSTRACT
Slika 2: Posvet na dan 19.6.2014.
In 2014, the third scientific conference SMART URBANISM explores the theme
Teaching for sustainable architecture and urbanism. The starting position
has been previously well defined in the UNESCO programme TEACHING
AND LEARNING FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, which has been established
for the United Na¬tions Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
in 2002 and is a major contribution to the United Nations World Summit on
Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002). “ The programme
can be used as it is, or adapted to local, national or regional needs. It provides
professional development for student teachers, teachers, curriculum
developers, education policy makers, and authors of educational materials.
The modules are divided into 4 themes: Curriculum rationale, Sustainable
Development across the curriculum, Contemporary issues and Teaching &
learning strategies.”
Slika 3: Naslovnica publikacije (Mia Crnič).
Edited by Alenka Fikfak
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS
“SMART URBANISM”
TEACHING SUSTAINABILITY
“SMART URBANISM”
TEACHING SUSTAINABILITY
“SMART URBANISM”
Prof. Mark MICHAELI, Prof. Lars Bylund, Prof. Minas BAKALČEV, PhD, Prof. Vlatko P.
KOROBAR, PhD, Milena VUKMIROVIĆ, Prof. Eva VANIŠTA LAZAREVIĆ, PhD, Assist.
Prof. Saja KOSANOVIĆ, PhD, Branislav FOLIĆ, MArch, Senior Lecturer Cristian SUAU,
PhD, Prof. Carmelo ZAPPULLA, PhD, Tomaž PIPAN, Prof. Dušan VUKSANOVIĆ, PhD,
Prof. Goran RADOVIĆ, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Florian NEPRAVISHTA, PhD, Birgit KLAUCK,
Enrico ANGUILLARI, PhD, Lea PETROVIĆ KRAJNIK, PhD, Višnja KUKOČ, PhD,
Prof. Peter GABRIJELČIČ, MSc, Prof. Janez KOŽELJ, Assist. Prof. Ilka ČERPES, PhD,
Assoc. Prof. Tadej GLAŽAR, MSc, Assoc. Prof. Tadeja ZUPANČIČ, PhD,
Assist. Anja JUTRAŽ, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Maruša ZOREC, Assist. Prof. Alenka FIKFAK,
PhD, Tech. Assist. Janez P. GROM, Assoc. Prof. Mojca GOLOBIČ, PhD,
Assist. Prof. Alma ZAVODNIK LAMOVŠEK, PhD, Lecturer Mojca FOŠKI, MSc,
Assist. Gašper MRAK, Assoc. Prof. Andreja ISTENIČ STARČIČ, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Maruška ŠUBIČ KOVAČ, PhD, Assist. Prof. Tomaž NOVLJAN, PhD, Assist. Prof. Mitja ZORC,
Assist. Prof. Anja PLANIŠČEK, MSc, Lecturer Aleš GOLJA, MSc, Assist. Prof. Matej
BLENKUŠ, PhD, Assist. Prof. Peter MAROLT, PhD, Assist. Prof. Špela HUDNIK, PhD,
Assist. Prof. Narvika BOVCON, PhD, Prof. Franc SOLINA, PhD, Janez ŽAKELJ, MSc,
Maja TERLEVIĆ, Petra VERTELJ NARED, PhD, Maja SIMONETI, MSc, Tadej ŽAUCER,
Irena OSTOJIČ, Boštjan COTIČ
Edited by Alenka Fikfak
Ljubljana 2014
121
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Človek in prostor
Man and Space
Goriška Brda: Dobrovo, Medana, Šmartno
2013
Tip predstavitve TYPE OF presentation
slovenski strokovni posvet medicine, arhitekture in urbanizma
ORGANIZACIJSKI ODBOR ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
doc. dr. Alenka Fikfak, prim. Nataša Fikfak, Valentina Šibav Mužič
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
122
SODELUJOČI PARTICIPANTS
župan Franc Mužič, Občina Brda, prof. mag. Peter Gabrijelčič, izr. prof. dr. Aleš
Kogoj, Izidor Simčič, prof. Lars Bylund. Cvetka Melihen Bartolić, izr. prof. mag. Tadej
Glažar, doc. dr. Saja Kosanović, asist. mr. Branislav Folić, prim. Franci Koglot,
doc. dr. Ilka Čerpes, dr. Matevž Gorenšek, izr. prof. dr. Mojca Golobič, Katarina
Lestan, asist. dr. Gregor Čok, izr. prof. dr. Živa Deu, prim. Jelka Pirc, Dimitrij Klančič,
doc. dr. Igor Toš. viš. pred. mag. Aleš Golja
ORGANIZATOR ORGANISATION
UL, Fakulteta za arhitekturo v Ljubljani, Katedra za urbanizem, Ljubljana, Splošna
bolnišnica dr. Franca Derganca Nova Gorica, Šempeter pri Novi Gorici, Občina
Brda, Dobrovo v Goriških brdih, Hotel Venko, Dobrovo v Goriških Brdih
DATUM IN KRAJ IZVEDBE DOGODKA DATE AND LOCATION OF OF PERFORMANCE OF THE EVENT
Posvet je potekal na treh lokacijah: grad Dobrovo - Viteška dvorana, hotel Venko,
hotel San Martin, Belica Turizem, dne 11. in 12. oktobra 2013.
GRADIVO PRIPRAVILA MATERIALS PREPARED BY
doc. dr. Alenka Fikfak
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services
FIKFAK, Alenka (urednik). Človek in prostor : zbornik povzetkov = Man and space :
book of abstracts. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za arhitekturo, 2013. 52 str., ilustr. ISBN 978961-6823-37-1. [COBISS.SI-ID 268910336]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA Slika 1: Dogajanje na posvetu dne 11. oktober 2013.
Človekove potrebe in vrednote bivanja so danes sestavni del prostorskih dokumentov in predstavljajo izhodišče za oblikovanje novih bivalnih zasnov. Hkrati so
sestavni del mednarodnih konvencij in sporazumov. To nam z vidika kakovosti
bivanja najbolj nazorno oriše Allardtova (1979) klasifikacija človeških potreb po
imeti, ljubiti in biti. Prostor, predvsem njegov grajeni del, zajema stavbe, izoblikovane prostore in izdelke, ki jih je ustvaril ali spremenil človek. To ustvarjalno
spreminjanje prostora vpliva na fizični prostor in tudi na družbeno-socialno okolje
ter posledično na naše zdravje in na kakovost življenja in bivanja.
Tema strokovnega srečanja ČLOVEK IN PROSTOR je bila osredotočena na izmenjavo mnenj z vidika prepoznavanja sodobnih principov omogočanja kakovosti
življenja posameznika, družine, soseske, skupnosti, države in naroda. Povezava
med za bivanje neprimernimi stanovanjskimi razmerami in zdravjem človeka je že
dolgo zelo jasna in obširno raziskana. Pa vendar se šele v zadnjem času zavedamo
vse več dejstev, ki kažejo, da so pojavi telesnih in duševnih zdravstvenih težav,
kot so depresija, motnje pomanjkanja pozornosti, astma, bolezni srca in motnje
prehranjevanja, povezani z grajenim okoljem. Neprimerni pogoji za bivanje se
izražajo tudi s kazalniki stresa pri posamezniku in celotni družbi, kar neposredno vpliva tudi na odziv imunskega sistema in nepotrebno poslabšanje zdravja
posameznika. Ob tem se vzporedno pojavljajo vse večja pričakovanja pacientov,
staranje prebivalstva, boljše razumevanje nezdravega načina življenja ter medicinske in tehnološke inovacije. Vse to hkrati posredno vpliva na sistem celostne
zdravstvene storitve in tudi na posameznikov odnos do trajnostno grajenega
bivalnega okolja.
Slika 2: Dogajanje na posvetu dne 12. 0ktober 2013.
ABSTRACT
The topic of conference MAN AND SPACE was focused on the exchange of ideas from
the perspective of recognizing the contemporary principles of assuring quality of life
of individuals, families, neighbourhoods, communities, countries and nations. The
connection between unfit living conditions and human health has long been clear
and extensively researched. Only recently have we started to recognize the growing
number of facts suggesting that physical and mental health problems, such as depression, attention deficit disorders, asthma, heart diseases and eating disorders, are
connected with the built environment.
Inadequate living conditions are also expressed by stress indicators of individuals
or the society as a whole, directly affecting the response of the immune system and
leading to unnecessary deterioration of a person’s health. In parallel, we have to
consider factors such as growing patient expectations, aging population, new insight
into unhealthy lifestyles, and medical and technological breakthroughs. All of these
indirectly affect the system of integral health services and a person’s attitude to the
sustainability of the living environment.
Slika 3: Naslovnica publikacije (Gašper Mrak).
ČLOVEK MAN
IN AND
PROSTOR SPACE
Slika 4: Posvet je potekal v Brdih.
Slika 4: Grad Dobrovo, ena od lokacij predavanj.
ZBORNIK POVZETKOV
1. SLOVENSKI STROKOVNI
POSVET MEDICINE, ARHITEKTURE
IN URBANIZMA,
Goriška brda, 11. in 12. oktober
2013
BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
THE 1ST SLOVENIAN CONFERENCE
OF MEDICINE, ARCHITECTURE
AND URBAN DESIGN,
Goriška brda, Slovenia, 11 and 12
October
2013
123
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VII.
dodiplomska in
podiplomska dela
UNDERGRADUATE AND
POSTGRADUATE THESES
125
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Od pionirskeega orodja do strategije - kaj sledi?
From Pioneer Instrument to Strategy - What's Next?
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DISERTACIJA
dissertation
126
AVTOR AUTHOR
Andreas Dillinger, PhD
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
PhD
MENTORJA MENTORS
Hon. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Gerhard Schimak, Prof. Dr. A.K.F. Faludi
LETO YEAR
2010-2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Vienna University of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning,
Centre of Regional Planning and Regional Development
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Andreas Dillinger, PhD
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
“The term rural area or rural society refers to more than a geographic location: it includes social and economic fabrics as well as a various number of
different activities.” (vgl. Kom EG 1988, Einführung)
Nowadays the European policy of the development of rural areas still
follows this comprehension and holistic definition. With the foundation of
the European Economic Community 1957 the European integration-process starts. One of the very first common interests of the member states
deals with food safety under the ‘Common Agriculture Policy’ – generally
intelligible after the privations during the post-war years.
Overcoming the difficult time after Second World War and with the economic
upturn new topics arise and the European nations start to develop a new kind
of supra-national cooperation. In 1972 the ‘Regional Policy’ is defined as common policy of the community which is the basis of the Community Initiative
LEADER (1991–1994). This initiative is prolonged through LEADER II (1995—
1999) and as part of the Common Agriculture Policy this instrument is implemented under the title LEADER+ (2000–2006). From 2007 to 2013 LEADER is
used again to support activities in rural areas as part of the main-streaming
programme ‘rural development’ and will be also an important instrument for
the next programme period of the European Union from 2014–2020.
After joining the EU in 1995, Austria starts to participate at the European
conveying system including the common initiative LEADER II. Therefor a
‘Single Programming Document‘is prepared by the Austrian federal states
and under the supervision of the Federal Chancellery submitted to the
European Commission (NÖ 1996). After the approval of these strategy
documents regional cooperations (LEADER regions) begins with their
activities. In Lower Austria six LEADER regions are selected – 31 regions
totally. For LEADER+ the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture and
Forestry, Environment and Water Management is responsible for the programme and produced the necessary documents for the European Union
on its own. All in all 56 LEADER regions take part of the programme – 15
regions in Lower Austria. From 2007–2013 86 regions (18 regions in Lower
Austria) attend at the LEADER programme – still under the responsibility
of the same Austrian federal ministry (Figure 1).
The financial responsibility for LEADER II is divided into different funds.
Due to this multi-funds system different departments of Lower Austria
are involved in the implementation of the programme. The main responsibility lays by the department for spatial planning in close cooperation
with the department of agricultural development and the Lower Austrian
development agency .The programme coordination is done by the Federal
Chancellery supported by the Austrian LEADER network service. In 2000 the
LEADER programme switches from the ‘Regional policy’ to the second pillar
of the ‘Agriculture Policy’ which also leads to changes in the distributions
of competences in Austria. Within the federal government the programme
responsibility switches from the Federal Chancellery to the Austrian Federal
LEADER II
(1995-1999)
Regions (Projects)
LEADER +
(2000-2006)
Regions (Projects)
(2007-2013)
Regions (Projects)
EPPD
LES
LES
LF3
LF3
LF3
R/2
etc
LEADER 07-13
Figure 2: Research areas (graphic by author).
Programme LE
Programme LE
BMLFUW
BMLFUW
BKA
LEADER
(Community Initiative)
Figure 1: LEADER programme implementation in Austria 1995-2013
Agri
EAGFL
Regio
EFRE
Sozial
ESF
LEADER in 2. Säule GAP
LEADER
(Community Initiative)
(4th main focus of the Programme for
Rural Development
Agri
EAGFL
Agri
ELER
127
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Polity
Polity
(Legal) Framework EU
Politics
Politics
(Legal) Framework AT
Policy
Termination
Evaluation
Policy
Problem(re)definition
Agenda Setting
LEADER
Programme
Lower Austria
Formulation
Polity
Politics
Implementation
Policy
Polity
Politics
Policy
Polity
Figure 2: LEADER Policy Cycle
in Lower Austria within the
national and European context
Politics
Policy
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Environment and Water Management
– hence in Lower Austria form the department R/2 to the department LF3
affects the Austrian programme competence.
After four successful LEADER periods in the European Union (three in Austria) the LEADER concept is embedded in the main-streaming programme
‘rural development’. The LEADER approach which has been developed in
1991 still remains and becomes the programme basis:
■■ Area-based local development strategies
■■ Bottom-up elaboration and implementation of strategies
■■ Local public-private partnerships: Local Action Groups
■■ Integrated and multi-sectoral actions
■■ Innovation
within the Lower Austrian conveying system. The governance under the
programme responsibility of the department LF3 during LEADER+ and
LEADER 2007–2013 cuts down the scope of the LEADER regions.
After comprehensive and profound analysis of the three periods of LEADER
in Lower Austria in the context of national and European developments the
following recommendations for LEADER 2020 can be made:
■■ REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION: Being aware of the different progresses
in the LEADER region three types of regions should be established.
Therefore the regional responsibility has to increase together with the
requirements of the projects.
■■ DEMANDS ON THE MANAGEMENT: A criterion for success for regional
development is an on-going discussion and communication process.
Hence the management of the LEADER regions has to be supervised by
managers who are able to handle complex regional processes.
■■ INTRA- AND INTER INSTITUTIONAL COOPERATION: In order to meet the
various LEADER programme requirements the institutional forces have
to be bundled.
■■ PERCEPTION OF GOVERNANCE: With political encouragement the LEADER approach could be implemented more broadly.
■■ PROFESSIONALIZING PROJECT APPROVAL PROCESS: An expert-pool
should proof the selection of LEADER projects and amend the existing
system of project approvals.
■■ PROLONGING BOTTOM-UP PROCESSES: Additional personal support
could ensure an on-going public participation over the whole programme period.
■■ COMPACT REGIONAL STRATEGIES: Linking all types of regional and
micro-regional strategies and programmes in one approach would
increase efficiency of all strategies and programmes.
■■ ENCOURAGE COOPERATION: Additional personal support for trans-regional and trans-national cooperations of the LEADER regions.
■■ PURPOSEFUL EVALUATION: A different evaluation procedure as well as
less economical oriented indicators would increase the significance of
the evaluations and could be a real add value for involved people.
■■ Cooperation
■■ Networking
■■ Austria takes part again in LEADER from 2007 to 2013. This institutional
background does not change.
The implementation of the three LEADER periods with the focus on Lower
Austria is explored with the policy analysis from Schubert and Blum (Schubert 2011). Based on these results the different periods are examined using
the approach of the policy-styles (Figure 2).
For LEADER II new forms of institutional and regional cooperations are necessary and the financial approach of co-financing replaces the full-financing system. Hence the programme provokes a substantial policy change
128
Kom EG, (Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaft) (1988): Die Zukunft des ländlichen Raumes. Mitteilung
der Kommission. KOM(88) 501 endg.
Kom EU, (Kommission der Europäischen Union) (1996b): Entscheidung der Kommission. über die
Entscheidung eines Beitrags des EAGFL, EFRE und ESF für ein Operationelles Programm im Rahmen
der Gemeinschaftsinitiative LEADER II zugunsten des Ziel-5b-Fördergebietes in der Republik Österreich.
Niederösterreich. K(96) 1578/1. Brüssel.
Schubert, K. (Institut für Politikwissenschaften, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster) (Hg.) (2011):
Elemente der Politik. Politikfeldanalyse. Lehrbuch. Unter Mitarbeit von S. Blum. 2. Auflage. Wiesbaden: VS
Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Figure 3: Summary of institutional
implementation of LEADER in
Lower Austria 1995-2013
POVZETEK
LEADER je skupna evropska pobuda za premagovanje izzivov podeželja v
državah članicah. Evropska unija od leta 1991 razvija pomembno orodje, ki
podpira podeželske regije, da izboljšujejo svojo konkurenčnost in zagotavljajo
preživljanje svojih prebivalcev.
Dejavniki uspeha pobude LEADER so območne lokalne razvojne strategije, izdelava in izvajanje strategij od spodaj navzgor, lokalna javno-zasebna partnerstva – LAS (lokalne akcijske skupine), celostni in večsektorski ukrepi, inovacije,
sodelovanje in mreženje.
Zvezna dežela Avstrija – Spodnja Avstrija v tem programu sodeluje od leta
1995. Doktorat se ukvarja z institucionalnim izvajanjem pobude LEADER in
prikazuje režim financiranja v državnem in evropskem kontekstu.
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Prostorska umestitev Dravske kolesarske poti
Spatial Placement of the Drava Cycling Path
med Dravogradom in Središčem ob Dravi
Between Dravograd and Središče ob Dravi
UVODNIK
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130
AVTOR AUTHOR
Uroš Rozman
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Magistrski študijski program druge stopnje Prostorsko načrtovanje
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Magistrsko delo
MENTOR MENTOR
doc. dr. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek
LETO YEAR
2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Uroš Rozman, mag. prost. načrt., dipl. inž grad. (UN)
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
Rozman, U. 2014. Prostorska umestitev Dravske kolesarske poti med Dravogradom in
Središčem ob Dravi. Magistrsko delo, Ljubljana,Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo (samozaložba U. Rozman): 140 f. [COBISS.SI-ID 6531681]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Predlog poteka Dravske kolesarske poti (vir: lasten).
VSEBINA
V magistrskem delu je obravnavno načrtovanje daljinskih kolesarskih povezav v
Sloveniji, podrobneje kolesarsko pot ob reki Dravi, med Dravogradom in Središčem
ob Dravi. V uvodu smo podali opis daljinske kolesarske poti ter ugotovili, da enotna
definicija še ne obstaja. Opisali smo značilnosti in potrebe daljinskih kolesarjev ter
njihove pozitivne posledice na turistični razvoj regije. Ker je daljinsko kolesarjenje
t.i. turistično kolesarjenje, so bližina narave, atraktivnost ter turistična ponudba
(ob kvalitetni in od ostalega prometa odmaknjeni infrastrukturi) najpomembnejši
dejavniki, ki zagotavljajo uspeh kolesarske poti kot turistične ponudbe. Daljinski
kolesarji so tudi odličen potrošnik, saj je količina prtljage zelo omejena, poveča pa
se tudi uporaba javnega prometa, saj za vračanje na začetno točko praviloma uporabljajo vlak ali avtobus.
Zaradi pomanjkanja daljinskih kolesarskih poti v Sloveniji smo dobre primere rečnih daljinskih kolesarskih poti morali poiskati v sosednji Avstriji (Dravska kolesarska
pot, Kolesarska pot ob reki Muri) ter jih primerjali s krajšimi odseki urejenih kolesarskih poti po Sloveniji (Porečanka, Kolesarska pot Treh dežel – Kranjska Gora). Ugotovili smo, da je kolesarska infrastruktura v Avstriji celovitejša in omogoča večdnevno
kolesarjenje po ločenih kolesarskih poteh, medtem ko imamo v Sloveniji le manjše
število krajših, nepovezani kolesarskih poti, ki ne omogočajo večdnevnega kolesarjenja, ki proizvaja nočitve. Razlike so tako tudi pri obliki infrastrukture, saj imamo v
Sloveniji v celoti asfaltirane in popolnoma opremljene kolesarske poti, medtem ko
je v Avstriji polovica kolesarskih poti makadamskih (umeščenih po javnih, poljskih
in gozdnih poteh), s čimer so zmanjšali stroške začetne investicije (makadamske
kolesarske poti sedaj postopoma asfaltirajo).
Slika 2: Prikaz umestitve Dravske kolesarske poti - Dravsko polje (vir: lasten).
Analizirali smo širše območje ob Dravi ter naredili popis obstoječe kolesarske infrastrukture. Reka Drava nudi neizmerno doživetje narave, tako v Dravski dolini na
Koroškem kot v obliki Stare struge na Dravsko – Ptujskem polju. Atraktivnost pa
dopolnjujejo krajinski parki ter umetna jezera. Ugotovili smo, da je potek obstoječe
Dravske kolesarske povezave v veliki meri nesprejemljiv, zato smo predvideli nove
možne koridorje kolesarskih poti. Obiskali smo občine ob Dravi, kjer so nam predstavili njihove obstoječe projekte oz. želje, povezane z načrtovanjem daljinskih kolesarskih povezav. Interes lokalnih skupnosti je bil velik.
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Slika 3: Prikaz umestitve Dravske kolesarske poti - Mariborski otok (vir: lasten).
Ob upoštevanju obstoječih projektov, želja občin ter terenskega ogleda smo predlagali več možnih variant, ki smo jih nato vrednotili glede na izbrane kriterije. Izpostavili smo predvsem prostorski vidik (bližino narave, reke Drave, atraktivnost,
turistična ponudba, usklajenost s predlogi občin, lastniška struktura), saj je le ta
ključen za kasnejši uspeh kolesarske poti ter njeno izvedbo. Na končno oceno pa je
najmanj vplival varstveni vidik, saj imajo lahko zavarovana območja tako negativen
(težje pridobivanje soglasij oz. dodatni pogoji pri umeščanju) kot tudi pozitiven
vpliv (turistična ponudba, neokrnjena narava, atraktivnost). V končnem predlogu
smo tako združili najboljše možne variante na posameznih odsekih glede na dane
možnosti v prostoru.
V delu smo dokazali, da lahko večje infrastrukturne projekte uspešno umeščamo
le s celovitim načrtovanjem. Ker se je Direkcija RS za ceste v preteklosti pokazala
kot neuspešna pri načrtovanju daljinskih kolesarskih poti, predlagamo vzpostavi-
Slika 5: Prikaz umestitve Dravske kolesarske poti - Ptuj (vir: lasten).
Slika 4: Predlog poteka Dravske kolesarske poti - Radlje ob Dravi (vir: lasten).
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Slika 6: Makadamska kolesarska pot med
železnico in reko Dravo - Avstrija (vir: lasten).
Slika 7: Turistična ponudba na Dravski kolesarski poti - Avstrija (vir: lasten).
Slika 8: Kolesarska pot ob reki Dravi s
turistično ponudbo - Avstrija (vir: lasten).
Slika 9: Kolesarska pot ob reki Dravi - Avstrija (vir: lasten).
tev pokrajin, ki bi reševala tovrstno problematiko, saj bi le-te bile dovolj velike, da
bi imele pristojnosti za vzpostavitev tovrstnih regionalnih projektov, obenem pa
bi bolje poznale regionalno problematiko. Le-te bi skrbele tako za načrtovanje, izvedbo, kasnejše primerno vzdrževanje ter trženje Dravske kolesarske poti v celoti.
Le s pravilnim pristopom in sodelovanjem se bo v prihodnosti lahko tudi Slovenija
približala kolesarsko razvitim evropskim državam.
ABSTRACT
Drava bicycle path in Slovenia as a tourist offer already exists, but is placed on more
or less busy roads and is not comparable to similar riverside cycling paths in the more
developed European environments.. Using the criteria and norms of the practical characteristics of placement, the analysis area along the river Drava and talks with stakeholders in the area, we are able to determine the possible variants. It was evaluated on
spatial, functional and nature aspects. With comprehensive planning and utilization
of existing infrastructure and public, forest and field paths, we show a more effective,
faster and financially cheaper way of placing long-distance cycling routes.
Slika 10: Kolesarski most na Dravski kolesarski poti - Avstrija (vir: lasten).
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'Nihče ni vedel, kaj pričakovati': vplivi avstrijskega
'Nobody knew what to expect': The effects of Austria's EU
članstva v Evropski uniji na prostorske plane in
membership on spatial planning and planning actors
prostorske deležnike
UVODNIK
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MASTER THESIS
134
AVTOR AUTHOR
Dipl.-Ing. Eva Purkarthofer
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Prostorsko načrtovanje Spatial Planning
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Master thesis
MENTOR MENTOR
Assistant Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Thomas Dillinger
LETO YEAR
2013
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Vienna University of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning,
Centre of Regional Planning and Regional Development
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Dipl.-Ing. Eva Purkarthofer
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
CONTENT
Research interest & methodological approach
Almost 20 years went by since Austria decided to join the European Union, a decision that nowadays influences almost all areas of Austrian politics and administration
including the field of spatial planning and regional development. Planning with its
interdisciplinary approach tangents and connects several distinct political fields and
is therefore affected on many different levels. To simplify the numerous impacts, four
research areas were defined: strategies and concepts, regional policy and structural
funds, spatially relevant sector policies and planning culture.
The methodological base of the research is formed by 20 interviews with Austrian
planning experts, complemented with the thorough analysis of European and Austrian
policy, strategy and evaluation papers. Professional reflections, experiences related to
practice and personal opinions of the interviewees, revealing different viewpoints on
the subject, account for one of the main added values of the thesis, since these aspects
were never broadly captured in a study before.
Unfortunately, the experts' statements cannot be summarised in a short extract without
losing their originality, accuracy and play on words but they add up giving a good insight into how EU decisions, regulations and funds make their way into Austrian planning
reality and whether the outcomes are desirable or not (from an Austrian point of view).
Results & key findings
Changes regarding the institutional setting of planning do not seem far-fetched, since
the EU represents a superior institutional level that affects administrative units (federal
states and municipalities) in Austria.. At the same time, the EU communicates almost
exclusively with the Austrian state, a fact that causes both friction and additional bureaucracy within Austria. In this context, a significant increase of importance can be noticed regarding the 'ÖROK' (Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning), an organisation
that serves as coordination and communication platform between different planning
actors.
More surprising is the growing relevance of regional and local planning authorities. In
most cases they don't have formal competences in the field of spatial planning but their
compatibility with European funds and structures, for example through the LEADER
programme, increases their decision-making power.
Also the strategic aspect of planning in Austria was supported by the European Union
– through strategy papers at national and European level, for example Europe 2020
or the STRAT.AT, on the one and increased financial reliability through programming
periods of 5 to 7 years on the other hand. Due to the principle of co-financing this continuity applies not only to EU funds but also to the national budget that is otherwise
negotiated yearly.
Financial resources, contrary to the widely spread perceptions, do not account for one
of the main changing factors due to the accession. Austria's high development level
and net contributor status lead to relatively small funding amounts. However, especially in times of economic crisis, European regional policy ensured investment in development projects that might have been cut otherwise.
Austria's legal framework is nowadays strongly affected by the European Union. Nevertheless many guidelines that relate to the field of planning, for example regarding
environment, already existed in Austria even before the accession. Another aspect that
should be kept in mind is the allocation of competences within Austria. Since the federal states are generally responsible for nature protection, EU guidelines are translated
into 9 distinct laws in Austria – in some cases with significant differences concerning
interpretation or implementation.
Not least the EU also changed planning practice and mental attitude in Austria. While
exchange and evaluation led to more professionalism and gave planning an international dimension, the increased complexity made processes more bureaucratic and less
flexible.
Figure 1: The six fields of EU influence (graphic by author).
Figure 2: Research areas (graphic by author).
POVZETEK
»Evropska unija se ukvarja s številnimi različnimi področji politik na različne
načine, to pa tudi za strokovnjake predstavlja velik problem pri dojemanju celotne slike«1. Ta magistrska naloga je namenjena predvsem razumevanju, opisu
in analizi vplivov Evropske unije na področje planiranja v Avstriji. Na podlagi 20
intervjujev z avstrijskimi planerskimi strokovnjaki in pregleda ustrezne literature
smo prišli do zaključka, da spremembe opazimo na šestih področjih, in sicer v
povezavi z institucionalnimi, strateškimi, finančnimi, pravnimi, praktičnimi in
psihološkimi vidiki načrtovanja.
1 Ravesteyn, Nico van / Evers, David (2004): Unseen Europe. A survey of EU politics
and its impact on spatial development in the Netherlands. The Hague. Page 139.
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Urbanistična študija območja ob Gruberjevem prekopu
Urbanistic Study of Gruber Canal Area and
in idejna zasnova revitalizacije Športnega parka
Revitalization of Sports Park Kodeljevo in Ljubljana
Kodeljevo v Ljubljani
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
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MASTER THESIS
136
AVTOR AUTHOR
Gregor Turnšek
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Enoviti magistrski študijski program arhitektura
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Magistrsko delo
MENTORJA MENTORS
doc. mag. Tomaž Krušec, doc. dr. Ilka Čerpes
LETO YEAR
2013/2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Gregor Turnšek
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
TURNŠEK, Gregor. Urbanistična študija območja ob Gruberjevem prekopu in idejna zasnova revitalizacije Športnega parka Kodeljevo v Ljubljani [magistrsko delo]. Ljubljana:
G. Turnšek, 2014. [COBISS.SI-ID 3015556]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Prostorski prikaz intervencij ob Gruberjevem prekopu.
VSEBINA
Gruberjev prekop v Ljubljani je infrastrukturni poseg, ki je nastal v drugi
polovici 18. stoletja z namenom varovanja mestnega središča pred poplavami.
Skozi čas se je na območje prekopa razširilo mestno tkivo, tako da je dandanes
pravzaprav povsem obdano z značilnimi predeli mesta. Prekop je močen rob v
prostoru, obenem pa v veliki meri tudi neprepustna meja med mestnimi predeli in zelenimi pobočji Grajskega griča ter Golovca. Je »skriti« vodni koridor v
Ljubljani, ki zaradi neurejenosti površin ob njem ne deluje kot del mesta.
Urbanistična študija ilustrira razvojni potencial območja ob prekopu z
navezavo na predele v neposredni bližini, predvideva nove povezave ter
vzpostavlja vozlišča dejavnosti. Preobrazba v športno-rekreacijski pas
integrira vodni koridor z mestom. Cilj študije je tako obogatitev prekopa z
novimi programi, ki so z obstoječimi prostorskimi kvalitetami povezani v
enotno mrežo odprtih prostorov.
V nasprotju z današnjim stanjem, ko prekop velikokrat predstavlja ostro
ločnico različnih mestnih predelov, predlagana vizija kaže, kako bi prekop
lahko postal mehka meja spontanega prehajanja. Ključna zamisel intervencij ob Gruberjevem prekopu je zato v kontinuiranem sistemu javnih poti
vzdolž in preko prekopa, ki bi omogočile gibanje ljudi. Na ta sistem se vežejo raznoliki programi – centri dejavnosti. Ti ne pomenijo zgolj novih vozlišč
ob Gruberjevem prekopu temveč tudi konceptualne oporne točke mesta, ki
vzpostavljajo kontekst z danimi kvalitetami.
Območje Športnega parka Kodeljevo je največje obstoječe športno-rekreacijsko območje ob Gruberjevem prekopu. Ker je območje že danes del
mreže športnih območij v Ljubljani in ima prepoznaven pomen v zavesti
meščanov, sta oživitev in nadgradnja z novimi programi toliko bolj smiselna.
Revitalizacija tega območja pomeni eno ključnih inicialnih točk prihodnjega
razvoja pasu ob Gruberjevem prekopu.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 2: Pogled izpred Fakultete za šport proti štadionu in Golovcu.
Slika 5: Situacija novega Športnega centra Kodeljevo.
Slika 3: Nov javni prostor na severnem delu štadiona pred Fakulteto za šport.
Slika 4: Nove tribune ob štadionu.
138
Športni park Kodeljevo sestoji iz štirih značilnih območij. Na območju kopališča se predvidi popolna preureditev z novim kopališkim kompleksom in
umestitvijo 50-metrskega pokritega bazena ter podzemne garaže. Območje osrednjega parka se striktno ohrani kot zelena površina. Številna teniška
igrišča ter košarkarski igrišči se premestijo na primernejšo lokacijo pod
vznožjem Golovca, park pa se skupaj z Gradom Kodeljevo in kapelo prenovi. Šolski kompleks osnovne šole in fakultete se ohrani, uredijo se zunanje
površine, predvsem stoječi promet ter vhodna predprostora obeh ustanov.
Zaradi slabe umeščenosti v prostor in nekvalitetne prostorske navezave se
na območju ob štadionu za rušenje predvidita obstoječa športna dvorana
ter sklop zunanjih tribun. Štadion se ohrani na istem mestu. Na vzhodni rob
lokacije se umestita nadomestna športna dvorana ter nova atletska dvorana s spremljevalnim programom. Predvidijo se tudi nadomestne tribune za
zunanji štadion ter nova podzemna garaža. Zaradi bližine pobočja Golovca
se ustvari nova povezava preko Gruberjevega prekopa in Poljanske ceste, ki
v širšem smislu poveže Kodeljevo z Golovcem.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 6: Pogled s sprehajališča ob Gruberjevem prekopu proti športnemu centru.
Vzgib pri zasnovi novega športnega centra je v gibanju in hitrosti športnikov – atletov. Motiv arhitekturne zasnove so zato horizontalne plošče,
ki poudarjajo zvezno gibanje in pretočnost prostora. Predlagani športni
kompleks definira nov zunanji predprostor Fakultete za šport ter odpira
prostor med vhodom v fakulteto in atletskim štadionom. Vizualno se ustvari
povezava proti pobočju Golovca. Med glavnima volumnoma dvoran se z
zasukom geometrij tvori nov javni prostor okrog odprtega atrija, in sicer na
dveh nivojih, kar smiselno ločuje vhode različnih uporabnikov. Povezava
med vhodom v Fakulteto za šport in vhodoma v novi dvorani, je artikulirana
z dolgo klančino. Ta povezava se nadaljuje vzdolž obeh dvoran in atletskega
štadiona proti Gruberjevemu prekopu, nato pa se z mostom preko njega
izteče na pobočje Golovca, kjer se nadaljuje z rekreacijsko potjo. Navedena
povezava vzpostavlja hrbtenico celotne kompozicije.
ABSTRACT
Gruber Canal is an infrastructural intervention in Ljubljana that occurred in the
second half of the 18th century in order to protect the town centre from flooding. Urban study illustrates the developmental potential of the areas along the
canal. Transformation into recreation zone would integrate the water corridor
with the city.
The largest existing sports area along the Gruber Canal is Sports Park Kodeljevo.
Its revitalization represents one of the key points for future development. Sports
hall replacement and implementation of a new athletic centre with additional
programmes would enrich the sports park and establish a new coherent whole
around the existing stadium. A new public path would connect the area over the
canal to the hillside of Golovec.
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Urbanistična ureditev obsavskega parka s celovito
Urbanistic Design for the Sava River Park and a Comprehensive
prenovo in zgostitvijo naselja Stožice
Extension and Renovation of the Village Stožice
UVODNIK
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MASTER THESIS
140
AVTOR AUTHOR
Alja Košir
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Enoviti magistrski študijski program arhitektura
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Magistrsko delo
MENTORJA MENTORS
izr. prof. Jurij Kobe, asistent Rok Žnidaršič
LETO YEAR
2013/2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Alja Košir
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
KOŠIR, Alja. Urbanistična ureditev obsavskega parka s celovito prenovo in zgostitvijo
naselja Stožice: diplomsko delo. Ljubljana: [A. Košir], 2014. [COBISS.SI-ID 2987396]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Razglednica Ljubljane iz začetka 20. stoletja prikazuje savsko poplavno ravnico (vir: dlib.si)
Slika 2: Vse plasti obsavskega parka (od zgoraj navzdol: rekreacijske
površine; sistem poti; rečni in obrečni prostor s poplavnim logom,
ježami ter umetnim mokriščem; nazadnje: preplet vseh plasti)
Slika 3: Nazaj vzpostavljeni naravni habitat na reki Savi (fotomontaža)
VSEBINA
Izbrani prostor obravnave med ljubljansko severno obvoznico, Dunajsko cesto, črnuškim mostom ter štajersko vpadnico bo v prihodnjem območje intenzivnega urejanja. Na tem prostoru se poleg širitve Dunajske ceste, gradnje ene izmed srednjesavskih hidroelektrarn ter urejanja obsavskega parka ter hipodromskih objektov
načrtuje tudi intenzivna zgostitev starejših obsavskih naselij ter njihova integracija
v mestno tkivo.
Skozi študijo različnih možnosti izvedbe vseh načrtovanih predlogov ter z mislijo
na ohranitev identitete morfološko in zgodovinsko samostojnih obsavskih entitet,
trajnostnost nove infrastrukture ter novo socialno dinamiko znotraj prostora, sem v
svojem magistrskem delu poskušala naselje Stožice prenoviti in zgostiti v trajnostno
vrtno mesto z vstavljanjem nove stanovanjske, družbene ter rekreacijske arhitekture ter z ustvarjanjem prepleta produktivne krajine in urbane narave, ki reko Savo
poveže z mestnim tkivom.
Naloga se deli na štiri intervencije.
A. Prenova nabrežij reke Save (sliki 2, 3)
Reka Sava je pred regulacijo zavzemala zelo širok pas Ljubljanskega polja: za njen
tok so bili značilni številni meandri ter mrtvi rokavi ter široka aluvialna ravnica. Po
dveh regulacijah se je reka dokončno uravnala, prodna ravnica se je omejila, poplavni logi pa so se posušili.
V nalogi se odzovem na tretjo regulacijo, ki reko čaka z izgradnjo pretočne hidroelektrarne: v tem posegu vidim priložnost, da se obsavski prostor končno uredi kot
mestni rekreacijski in prostočasni prostor ter da se obnovi ekosistem poplavnih ravnic z urejanjem nadomestnih habitatov, ki večajo samo samočistilno sposobnost
reke. Uredijo se tudi mreža poti in ploščadi, čolnarna in naravno kopališče.
B. Plasti kulturne krajine (sliki 4, 5)
Človeški posegi v naravo na tem območju prikazujejo različne načine, kako lahko
človek izkoristi krajino sebi v prid. Vsem obstoječim plastem kulturne krajine (travnikom, pokopališču, rečnim ježam, poljem s kozolci, reki, črnuškim vrtičkom itd.) se
doda še plast umetnega mokrišča; nato se vse plasti preprede z novo mrežo pešpoti
in odprtih urbanih prostorov, ki povežejo hitri svet ob Dunajski cesti z mirnim območjem rečnega parka.
C. Medgeneracijski center in športni objekti (sliki 6, 7)
V nalogi sem želela vzpostaviti nov vaški center, ki služil tudi širši okolici Posavja ter
Ljubljane. Intervencija obsega nov konjeniški center, večnamensko športno dvorano, večnamensko kulturno dvorano, tržnico in medgeneracijski center z vrtcem,
oskrbovanimi stanovanji ter prostori za kreativno podjetništvo.
Športni objekti so integrirani v rečno ježo in tvorijo prehodni prostor med parkom
in naseljem, medgeneracijski center s spremljevalnimi objekti pa stoji na ježi naselja
ter oblikovno zrcali starejšo zidavo nanizanih kmetijskih objektov. Obstoječa polja
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 4: Vse plasti kulturne krajine (od zgoraj navzdol: vegetacija;
sistem poti in javnih prostorov; pas kulturne krajine – travnik,
pokopališče, polja s kozolci, mokrišče s kopališčem, reka, vrtički;
nazadnje: preplet vseh plasti)
Slika 5: Pogled iz mokrišč proti cerkvi in Dunajski cesti (fotomontaža)
Slika 7: Pogled iz novega centra proti stari
zidavi s polji in kozolci (fotomontaža)
Slika 6: Shema gradnje; arhitektura uokvirja ohranjena polja
da si bivanjski prostor prilagodijo po potrebi: tako vsaka enota izraža individualnosti njenih uporabnikov, hkrati pa se vzdržuje uniformiran izgled ter osnovni gabarit
naselja.
Vsak prostor v sebi skriva svojevrsten potencial. Skozi svojo nalogo nisem želela
dajati strogih oblikovalskih navodil, kako potencial naselja Stožice razkriti na en in
edini pravilen način, temveč sem skozi različne vzvode analitično-strukturnega oblikovanja poskušala odkriti tisto nedoločeno, nikoli dokončano in spremenljivo četrto
dimenzijo arhitekture in urbanizma. Naloga je tako skupek mehanizmov, ki bi v prostor lahko prinesli določen nedefiniran red, mu dodali vrednost ter ga na edinstven
način vpeli v red nevidne strukture.
ABSTRACT
The extensive project, dealing with proposed urban changes in vicinity of the river
Sava in northern Ljubljana, focuses mainly on possibilities of merging nature with
urban environment.
in kozolce ohrani, se jim prilagodi, ter jih ujame v notranje atrije objektov, kjer se
spremenijo v odprte zelene prostore otroških igrišč ali bivalnih vrtov oskrbovanih
stanovanj.
D. Stanovanjska arhitektura (sliki 8, 9)
V želji, da bi se naselje zgostilo, toda ohranilo značaj vrtnega mesta, se predvidi kompaktna arhitektura vrstnih hiš, dvojčkov v vrsti in pa minimalnih enot prostostoječih
hiš. Vsi objekti so predvideni kot samozadosten skelet, ki dovoljuje uporabnikom,
142
The project is set in a rural suburbia of Ljubljana that is rapidly absorbed into the
urban fabric of the city, but still retains all the rural advantages of its past. Four
interventions are implemented: regulation of the waterfront with a nod to the natural flora and fauna of the river; connecting the city with the river through all the
layers of cultural landscape; establishing a new social, cultural and sports center;
and rethinking the modern dwelling through ideas of the garden city and anti-architecture.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 8: Shema različnih možnosti poselitve
samozadostne strukture stanovanjske zazidave
Slika 9: Stanovanjska arhitektura kljub različni izrabi prostora ohranja gabarit in enoten izgled naselja (fotomontaža)
Slika 10: Načrt situacije
Šta
jers
ka
c
esta
6
7
23
est
a
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èièe
va
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22
Brn
4
Sava
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15
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17
17
10
Vojkova cesta
20
17
11
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12
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17
17
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16
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star
a tras
a Dun
ajsk
e ce
ste
18
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severna
obvozni
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Nem
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sta
Dunajska cesta
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Projekt dveh stolpov na Dunajski cesti
Twin Towers on Dunajska Avenue
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
144
AVTOR AUTHOR
Marko Coloni
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Univerzitetni študijski program arhitektura
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Diplomsko delo
MENTOR MENTOR
prof. Janez Koželj
LETO YEAR
2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Marko Coloni
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
Coloni, Marko; Projekt dveh stolpov na Dunajski cesti (diplomsko delo / Marko Coloni)
Ostali avtorji: Koželj, Janez; Ljubljana, 2014; 81 f. : ilustr., načrti ; 43 cm; COBISS.SI-ID :
2986116
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Pogled z Linhartove ceste.
VSEBINA
Predlagana zazidava v merilu mestne magistrale (Dunajske ceste)
redefinira ravnotežje v prostoru poslovnega območja glavnega
mesta Ljubljane in zapolnjuje vrzel na degradiranem in slabo izkoriščenem zemljišču JV dela območja Plave lagune. Nedvomno kakovostni objekti slovenske moderne arhitekture 70-ih let minulega
stoletja, ki označujejo ta prostor. Arhitektura Savina Severja, Otona
Jugovca, Milana Miheliča, Branka Simičiča, J. Usenika in drugih potrebujejo »pendant« ali protiutež predvsem v prostorskem smislu,
kot zaključek neke nedokončane urbanistične poteze. Arhitekturni
jezik v tem pogledu nadaljuje modernistično izraznost in jo nadgrajuje z sodobnimi oblikovnimi elementi.
Manjkajoči vogal na križišču Dunajske in Linhartove ceste označujeta dva, med seboj po diagonali zamaknjena stolpa, ki smiselno
koristita danosti lokacije. Linhartova cesta tako dobi zaključek z
vertikalno dominanto, ki obenem uravnoteži igro nizkih in visokih
objektov na levi in desni strani Dunajske ceste. Podolgovata lokacija večjih dimenzij, maksimalna višina zidave, zagotavljanje kakovostnega osončenja in pogledov ter na to vezana smiselna globina in proporci tlorisa, so pripeljali do odločitve o postavitvi dveh
stolpov. S to zasnovo se, ob doseganju maksimalnega izkoristka
parcele, sprosti parter in ustvari kvaliteten javni prostor.
Na degradiranem območju med Slovenijalesom, Akademskim kolegijem (arh. Plečnik) in Linhartovo cesto je predvidena hibridna
parkovno/arhitekturna ureditev. Objekt, zasnovan kot 'landscape'
ali 'landscraper', daje pri koncipiranju volumna prednost krajinski
ureditvi pred arhitekturno. Oblikovan je kot hrib presekan s potjo,
ki vodi v notranjost objekta, kjer se v podzemni etaži nahajajo dvorane za kulturne in razstaviščne prireditve v sklopu Gospodarskega razstavišča. Pod njimi so parkirišča v treh etažah. Streha objekta
je mestni park.
Oblikovna zasnova stolpov privzema začrtane modernistične smernice in prostorske vzorce konteksta okolice, jih izčisti in izkristalizira.
Volumen posameznega objekta je preplet dveh ortogonalnih vertikalnih lamel, ki sta zamaknjeni tako v horizontalni ravnini kot po
vertikali, kar ustvarja občutek, da prvi volumen nosi drugega. Na ta
način je poudarjena vertikalnost in vitkost stolpa. To preprosto modernistično transformacijo, ki vzpostavlja vez s kontekstom, lahko
zasledimo tudi pri bližnjih stolpnicah Petrola in Avtotehne.
Sodoben stolp je živ organizem, splet dejavnosti, funkcij, energij,
ki jih narekuje sodobni način bivanja in delovanja. Stolpa stojita
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 2: Ureditvena situacija.
v območju, kjer se prepletajo poslovni, trgovski,
razstaviščni, kulturni in stanovanjski programi. S
svojim ustrojem morata pritegniti in dopolnjevati
funkcije območja. Čeprav je to takoimenovano osrednje poslovno območje (central business district),
je smiselno zagotoviti tudi stanovanjski program.
Zavedanje, da sta poslovni in stanovanjski program
povsem različna po svojem funkcionalnem ustroju,
konstrukcijski in tehnološki naravi, etažnih višinah,
zasnovi ovoja, zasnovi jedra in tudi sporočilnosti, je
pripeljalo do odločitve o dveh programsko različnih
stolpih. V nasprotju s ‘klasičnim’ hibridom, pri katerem so vse funkcije združene v enem objektu, sta
stolpa namenjena različnim osnovnim dejavnostim
s spremljajočim programom. Gre torej za polifunkcionalno zasnovo stavb, s pisarnami ali stanovanji,
kulturno, storilno, trgovsko in gostinsko dejavnostjo
v parterju, wellness/fitnes klubom in restavracijo/lounge klubom v vrhnjih etažah. Celotnemu kompleksu stavbi nadeneta značaj urbanega centra, ki živi
24 ur na dan in presega klasične poslovne stavbe, ki
zvečer utonejo v molk in temo.
ABSTRACT
Slika 3:Pogled z vrha stolpnice Astra.
146
Proposed development, in the scale of city's main street, redefines spatial balance and fills the void on degraded and underexploited plot of land in the central
business district of capital city Ljubljana. The missing
corner at the junction of the Dunajska in Linhartova
Avenue is marked by two diagonally staggered towers
that optimally exploit the conditions of the plot. Linhartova Avenue is concluded with a vertical dominant,
which in turn balances composition of low and high
buildings on left and right side of the Dunajska Avenue.
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 4: Pogled iz parka.
Slika 6: Poslovni stolp - tloris pritličja
(zgoraj) in tipične etaže (spodaj)
Slika 5: Vzdolžni prerez.
Slika 7: Stanovanjski stolp - tloris pritličja (zgoraj) in tipične etaže (spodaj)
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Preteklost za prihodnost, programsko-idejna zasnova
The Past for the Future, Programme and Architectural Development
južnega predela ob cerkvi sv. Martina na Ponikvi
of the Southern Area next to the Church of St. Martin, Ponikva
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
148
AVTOR AUTHOR
Tina Kolar Mušič
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Univerzitetni študijski program arhitektura
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Diplomsko delo
MENTOR MENTOR
izr. prof. Maruša Zorec
LETO YEAR
2013/2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Tina Kolar Mušič
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
KOLAR MUŠIČ, Tina. Preteklost za prihodnost : programsko-idejna zasnova južnega predela ob cerkvi sv. Martina na Ponikvi : diplomska naloga / Tina Kolar Mušič. - Ljubljana :
[T. Kolar Mušič], 2014. - 1 zv. (loč. pag.) : ilustr., načrti ; 31 x 43 cm;
Vsebuje načrte večjega formata. - Mentorica Maruša Zorec. - Bibliografija. - Univ. v
Ljubljani, Fak. za arhitekturo. [COBISS.SI-ID 2997124]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
Projekt obravnava Ponikvo, vas ki leži severovzhodno od Šentjurja pri Celju.
Osredotoča se na južno območje ob cerkvi sv. Martina, sakralnem in arhitekturnem spomeniku baroka in dominanti jedra, naselja in pokrajine. Pomembna dragocenost obravnavanega območja je ohranjeno protiturško obzidje,
posebna značilnost pa tudi prvotna podoba volumnov, ki oklepajo osrednji
prostor vaškega jedra. Programsko in arhitekturno neartikulirano območje s
pričujočim projektom postane južni vstop v vaško jedro. Ob spoštovanju obstoječe pozidave in njenih vrednot, predvsem baročne cerkve na dominantni, gornji terasi, in ohranjenega gospodarskega poslopja na spodnji terasi,
je izoblikovana arhitektura novih ureditev. Razširjeni javni prostor vaškega
jedra (a) in privlačna povezava obeh teras (b), arheološki muzej (c) in hostel
v obstoječem gospodarskem poslopju (d) vzpostavljajo dialog med dvema
časoma, pričevanje preteklosti, ki se je pustila v obravnavanem območju razodeti za prihodnost. Osrednji motiv povezovanja obeh nivojev je glavna pot
obiskovalcev, ki se blago vzpenja s spodnje terase na razširjeni parter ob cerkvi. Arheološki muzej je v konceptnem izhodišču antiteza stavbe. Je tektonski
zamik, zareza v globino terena. Arhitekturna interpretacija ponikve, lokalne
značilnosti kraškega terena, inverzija zunanjega sveta, ki se prevesi, ponika v
njegovo lastno notranjost. Muzej je pod novim južnim delom trga ob cerkvi.
V zunanjem prostoru je zastrt in odmaknjen v globino terena, kjer ga posebej
bogati ohranjeno taborsko obzidje z obrambnim stolpom. Med to arheološko prezentacijo in situ, ki sklenjeno določa rob muzeja, in drugo vzdolžno
stranico s stalno razstavo dragocenih najdb, je odprt večnamenski prostor.
Dvorana, ki z različnimi uporabami pomembno bogati Ponikvo pa tudi širšo
regijo. Prisotnost muzeja v zunanjem prostoru nakazujejo le od glavne promenade, povezave obeh nivojev, diskretno odmaknjeni vhod in izginjajoči,
ponikujoči pogledi, ki se ob vzpenjanju na trg odpirajo v njegovo notranjost.
V poudarjeni horizontali, obrobi gornjega parterja, je vhod v muzej na spodnji
terasi izginjajoča vrzel, ponikva, med obema horizontoma. Je zarez v globino zemlje in časov. Zasnova hostela v obstoječem gospodarskem poslopju
ohranja in poudarja značilnosti slovenskega ljudskega stavbarstva. Prostran
volumen gospodarskega poslopja, ki ga določajo zidani obodni zidovi in latnik ter visoko privzdignjena dvokapna streha omogoča vstavljanje novih, v
lesu izvedenih stavbnih delov. Ohranjeni stebrni nadstrešek gospodarskega
poslopja, ki ga bogatijo lesene horizontale, je vhodni predel in pokrita družabna terasa hostela. Ob enostavni in privlačni ureditvi javnega, dnevnega dela v
očiščenem zgornjem in spodnjem pritličju, so novi vložki privzdignjene galerije s sobami ob notranjih gankih. Njihova lega ob vzdolžnih stranicah ohranja
osrednji prostor in predela ob čelnih fasadah z značilnimi, z opeko zamreženimi prezračevalnimi okni, povsem odprt. Zasnova torej vzpostavlja jasen in
čitljiv odnos prvotnega in ohranjenega ter novega in dodanega. Novi programi južnemu vstopu v vaško jedro zagotavljajo vitalnost, atraktivnost in utrip
sodobnega življenja. Predstavljajo preplet kulturnega in turističnega programa, ki se medsebojno dopolnjujeta in bogatita, ter dialog med podedovanimi
kvalitetami in novimi ureditvami, dialog med preteklostjo in prihodnostjo. Z
uvajanjem lokalnih znamenitosti v arhitekturno zasnovo, tako pričevanja arheološke preteklosti, fenomena fluviokrasa in ponikve, ponikanja površine
terena v njegovo lastno notranjost, ter oživljanja spomenika slovenskega
anonimnega ljudskega stavbarstva, projekt prerašča območje vsakdanjega in
racionalnega in prehaja v sfero duhovnosti in simbolnosti. Ob vsem tem pa
izpostavlja tudi realnost in nujnost uresničitve za oživljanje, vabljivost in dostopnost, s tem pa tudi za ohranjanje identitete in značilnosti tega, v mnogih
pomenih izjemnega predela Slovenije.
Slika 1: Fenomen fluviokrasa kot izhodišče koncepta.
To, kar daje naravnemu fenomenu fluviokrasa moč prehajanja s površja v globino zemlje, je lahko interpretirano tudi
v arhitekturnem jeziku. Celotna poteza glavne osi naselbinskega jedra, ki poteka v smeri sever/jug, je zaznamovana
z razgibanostjo terena fluviokrasa in potekom ob delno še ohranjeni prvotni pozidavi jedra. Predstavlja smiselno
nadaljevanje glavne osi ter njene izpeljave na južni strani naselja, kjer nastane nov vstop v vaško jedro in iztek v
naravno krajino z novima sodobnima in atraktivnima programoma muzeja ter hostela. Spodaj: južni vstop v vaško
jedro, razvoj koncepta in delovni postopek.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 2: Prikaz vhoda in obrambnega stolpa, ki se s parterja ob cerkvi spušča v
globino arheološkega muzeja, kjer preseneti obiskovalca s svojo navzočnostjo. Načrti prikazujejo spodnji nivo in parter ter prereza. 1. Baročna cerkev
sv. Martina. 2. Ohranjeno in prezentirano taborsko obzidje. 3. Razširitev
razgledne ploščadi ob cerkvi. 4. Povezava ploščadi ob cerkvi in spodnje terase
z gospodarskim poslopjem. Na severni strani se povezava izteka v razširjeno
površino trga. Na južni strani pa se navezuje na nove programe ter se v nadaljevanju usmerja proti naravnem pejsažu. 5. Arheološki muzej in večnamenski
prostor pod novim, južnim delom trga ob cerkvi. Prisotnost muzeja v prostoru
nakazujejo le od glavne promenade, povezave obeh nivojev, diskretno
odmaknjeni vhod in ponikujoči pogledi, ki se ob vzpenjanju na trg odpirajo
v njegovo notranjost. 6. Obstoječa stavba. 7. Župnišče. 8. Spodnja terasa z
gospodarskim poslopjem preurejenim v hostel. Zgoraj sta doživetji arheološke
in likovne razstave v muzeju.
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IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
ABSTRACT
Proposed cultural and tourist programmes breathe vitality, attractiveness and the pulsation of contemporary life to the southern village core entrance comprising an extended parterre by the church descending to the lower terrace and further, towards natural
landscape surroundings, the archaeological museum, enriched by fortification remains,
and the hostel in a preserved old barn. The concept derives from the architectural interpretation of the Fluviokarst and local »ponikva« phenomena, the inversion of the surface into its own depths and revival of characteristic example of traditional Slovene folk
architecture. In this manner, the project overcomes mundaneness and rationality thus
entering the spiritual and symbolic sphere.
Slika 3: Mogočni volumen gospodarskega poslopja s horizontalno zleknjenostjo nad katero se
vzpenja cerkveni zvonik. V preureditvi v hostel je posebna pozornost namenjena ohranjanju, obnovi
in prezentaciji značilnih, privlačnih motivov. Tako zanimivih lesenih konstrukcij, visoke in prostrane
dvokapne strehe, latnikov za sušenje sena ter prezračevalnih oken z opečnimi mrežami (levo). Zgoraj
sta prikaz v lesu izvedenih novih vmesnih nivojev s sobami, ki so vloženi v stavbni ovoj obstoječega in
ohranjenega gospodarskega poslopja in doživetje sobe ob prenovljenem ganku.
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Idejna zasnova letnega gledališča
Conceptual Design of the Sarajevo
za Sarajevski Filmski Festival v Sarajevu
Film Festival Open Air Theatre in Sarajevo
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
152
AVTOR AUTHOR
Nina Eminagić
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Univerzitetni študijski program arhitektura
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Diplomsko delo
MENTOR MENTOR
doc.dr. Alenka Fikfak
LETO YEAR
2013/2014
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Nina Eminagić
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
EMINAGIĆ, Nina. Idejna zasnova letnega gledališča za Sarajevski Filmski Festival v
Sarajevu: [diplomska naloga].Urednik publikacije Alenka Fikfak. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za
arhitekturo, 2014¬ [COBISS.SI-ID 2997124]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
VSEBINA
UVOD
Vsak, ki je kdaj obiskal Sarajevo, je prišel nazaj z neopisljivimi vtisi. To mesto, pravijo,
ima nek je ne sais quoi, ki lahko očara, na trenutke tudi ožalosti, a vsekakor nobenega ne pusti ravnodušnega. Temu je v veliki meri pripomogla njegova burna zgodovina, ki je na enem mestu spojila navidez nezdružljivo in tako oblikovala povsem
nenavaden skup arhitekture, kulture in ljudi, ki so skozi stoletja skupaj živeli v sožitju
in toleranci. In danes?
Skušala sem se izogniti devetdesetim letom, ki so svojo senco vrgle celo na znamenite Olimpijske igre 84’, a me je prej zastavljeno vprašanje usmerilo prav tja.
Nepričakovano, a prav med prelomnima letoma 1992 in 1996 se je v obleganem
mestu, ko tudi osnovne človeške potrebe niso bile zadovoljene, oblikovalo veliko
število kulturnih iniciativ. Krug 99, projekt Ars Aevi, PEN Centar, Sarajevo Jazz Festival, Centar za savremenu umjetnost, Obala Art Centar ... so samo nekatera od
mnogih.
Leta 1995 se oblikuje tudi prvi ‘vojni kino’, danes znan kot Sarajevo Film Festival.
Medtem ko večina ostalih zaradi bridke realnosti trenutnih razmer v zadnjih letih
sunkovito drvi navzdol, sem v SFF prepoznala velikopotezen projekt s svetlejšo prihodnostjo. Ta je namreč v današnje Sarajevo uspel privabiti svetovne reflektorje, ki
mesto enkrat na leto prikažejo še v drugi luči.
A tudi organizacija Festivala je močno otežena zaradi pomanjkanja potrebnih sredstev, pomoči mestne uprave in primernih lokacij.
Nastal je projekt letnega gledališča, ki zadovoljuje potrebe Festivala in hkrati tudi
ostalih združenj, ter morda še najpomembneje, za uporabo je na voljo vsem stanovalcem Sarajeva.
LOKACIJA
‘Metalac’ je znano šolsko igrišče v notranjem dvorišču mestnega kareja v samem
središču Sarajeva. To je tudi trenutno največje prizorišče Sarajevskega Filmskega
Festivala, kjer se za potrebe poletnih projekcij vsako leto znova vzpostavi celotna
scenografija. Izbrana lokacija je primerna za širok spekter javnih dejavnosti, saj se
nahaja na območju zgoščenega prometa in v bližini vse potrebne infrastrukture.
Slika 1: Koncept / oblikovna zasnova
Slika 2: 3D risani prikazi
IZHODIŠČA
■■ oživitev proste lokacije v središču mesta z novimi, raznolikimi in mestu
potrebnimi dejavnostmi
■■ ohranitev dosedanje funkcije šolskega športnega igrišča
■■ možnost neodvisne uporabe posameznih delov objekta
■■ oblikovanje večnamenskih prostorov, ki bi služili različnim potrebam
mestne skupnosti
■■ postavitev opaznih dostopov, ki bi obiskovalce vodili z ulic v notranje
dvorišče
■■ omogočanje enostavnih dostopov do vseh površin, organiziranih prehodov med različnimi deli objekta
■■ predvidenje nadkritja za možnost zaščite celotnega območja pred
slabim vremenom
REZULTAT
Nastali projekt je nekakšen urbani hibrid, ki na isti lokaciji združuje različne dejavnosti z možnostjo funkcioniranja skupaj in hkrati kot tudi povsem samostojno. Lahko je matično pribežališče raznih mestnih kulturnih skupin. Mesto komunikacije in
pretoka idej. Mesto druženja in kulturnega delovanja, raznih glasbenih in dramskih
uprizoritev, filmskih projekcij, umetnostnih razstav. Projekt zadovoljuje vse potrebe
153
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 5: Situacija
Slika 3: Fotografije makete
Slika 4: Fotografije s SFF-ja
SFF, kateremu je bil prvotno tudi namenjen. Predvideva zložljivo platneno streho, ki
omogoča nemotene projekcije tudi ob slabem vremenu, restavracijo, prostore za
pogovore in delavnice ter večje skladišče.
Kljub novi podobi in dodanemu programu, pa Metalac ostaja Metalac. Igrišče, ki je
namenjeno tako šolarjem Prve gimnazije kot vsem drugim obiskovalcem, je tako
ostalo osrednja točka tudi novega projekta.
Uporaba hladnih materialov, kot sta železo in lokalni kamen hreša, prizorišču daje
posebno urbano noto, zunanji betonski zid pa spodbuja mlade umetnike in grafiterje k puščanju svojega pečata.
Zaradi nekoliko skrite pozicije skuša objekt z izrazito, a nenasilno likovno potezo železnih dostopov pritegniti obiskovalce v mestno zaodrje in jim omogočiti intimno
izkušnjo v samem središču mesta.
Lokacija bi z novo podobo in vsestranskim programom postala epicenter dogajanja, območje komunikacije različnih ljudi in pozitivnega aktivizma, kar bi spodbudilo kulturni razvoj prostora in hkrati tudi dvignilo kvaliteto bivanja.
ABSTRACT
Due to its turbulent history Sarajevo has always been a sort of crossroads, gloriously
blurring the lines between East and West. The 90’s have brought a disastrous wave to the
city, breaking everything but its spirit! During the four year siege, when even the most
basic human needs weren’t met, the city saw a birth of numerous cultural initiatives,
including the formation of a ‘war cinema’.
Two decades later Sarajevo Film Festival is a success story, bringing the world’s attention
to the city and presenting it in a new light. But behind all the red carpet glare, the festival
is struggling without the necessary funds and most of all – a suitable venue.
The project aimed to provide a solution not only for SFF, but for other functioning cultural organizations as well as an inviting place of gathering and communication for a
broader public.
154
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 6: Tlorisi
Slika 7: Prereza
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Prilagajanje podnebnim spremembam z orodji
Adapting to Climate Change Using Landscape
krajinskega načrtovanja v Ljubljanski urbani regiji
Architecture Planning Tools in Ljubljana Urban Region
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
156
AVTOR AUTHOR
Pia Šooš, dipl. inž. kr. arh.
ŠTUDIJSKI PROGRAM STUDY PROGRAM
Univerzitetni študijski program krajinske arhitekture
TIP ZAKLJUČNEGA DELA TYPE OF THESIS
Diplomsko delo
MENTOR MENTOR
Prof. dr. Mojca Golobič
LETO YEAR
2012/2013
INŠTITUCIJA INSTITUTION
Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo
GRADIVO PRIPRAVIL MATERIALS PREPARED BY
Pia Šooš, dipl. inž. kr. arh.
COBISS Slovene Co-operative Online Bibliographic System and Services:
ŠOOŠ, Pia: Prilagajanje podnebnim spremembam z orodji krajinskega načrtovanja
v Ljubljanski urbani regiji : diplomsko delo = Adapting to climate change using
landscape architecture planning tools in Ljubljana urban region : graduation thesis /
Pia Šooš. - Ljubljana : [P. Šooš], 2013. - XIV, 108, [22] f. pril. : preglednice, načrti ; 30 cm.
- (Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo. Diplomska dela ; 344); Dipl.
delo univerzitetnega študijskega programa. - Mentorica Mojca Golobič. - Bibliografija:
f. 100-108. - Izvleček ; Abstract. - Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fak., Oddelek za krajinsko
arhitekturo; 711.1:551.583(497.4Ljubljana)(043.2); [COBISS.SI-ID 7819897]
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
Slika 1: Usmeritve krajinskega načrtovanja za
prilagajanje na podnebne spremembe in njihove posledice (pojavljanje poplav in plazov jeseni in visokih
temperatur poleti).
Legenda
0
10
20 km
Legenda
0
Usmeritve za prilagajanje na pojavljanje poplav
Preprečevanje poplav s tehničnimi ukrepi
Usmeritve za prilagajanje na višje temperature
Umikanje in načrtovanje poselitve zunaj območij,
ranljivih za pojavljanje poplav
Usmeritve za prilagajanje na pojavljanje plazov
Naselja
Slika 1: Usmeritve krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje na podnebne spremembe in njihove posledice
(pojavljanje poplav in plazov jeseni in visokih temperatur poleti)
VSEBINA
Podnebne spremembe so eden osrednjih globalnih izzivov saj njihove
posledice že danes povzročajo negativne vplive, ki zahtevajo odzivanje.
Prostorsko oz. krajinsko načrtovanje je ena od dejavnosti, ki lahko prispeva
tako k blaženju kot prilagajanju na podnebne spremembe. Problemsko
vprašanje diplomskega dela je bilo, kako z orodji krajinskega načrtovanja
v izbrani regiji pristopiti k prilagajanju podnebnim spremembam. Kot
cilj smo si zastavili prepoznati območja največje ranljivosti za podnebne
spremembe v Ljubljanski urbani regiji (LUR) z vidika kakovosti bivalnega
okolja, naselij in prometne infrastrukture ter izdelava usmeritev na področju
krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje na glavne vplive: pojavljanja poplav,
plazov in visokih temperatur zraka.
Osnovni korak k zasnovi prilagajanja predstavlja ocena ranljivosti, ki jo Intergovernmental Pannnel on Climate Change (IPCC) opredeljuje kot stopnjo,
do katere je sistem občutljiv na negativne učinke sprememb v podnebju.
Ocena ranljivosti nekega sistema je funkcija: izpostavljenosti (predvideni
podnebni scenariji), občutljivosti (odzivi sistemov na določeno izpostavljenost; npr. kako večja količina padavin vpliva na pojavljanje poplav),
potencialnih vplivov (lahko so pozitivni ali negativni za določen sistem) in
sposobnosti prilagajanja (kako sposoben je sistem, da se prilagodi PS, ublaži
potencialno škodo, se spopade s posledicami in izkoristi priložnosti).
2
4 km
Zagotavljanje in obnova poplavnega odtoka
Naselja
Ni ranljivo
Malo ranljivo
Srednje ranljivo
Ranljivo
Zelo ranljivo
Slika 2: Podrobnejši prikaz usmeritev krajinskega načrtovanja za pojavljanje poplav kot posledice podnebnih
sprememb na območju Ljubljanskega barja
Slika 2: Podrobnejši prikaz usmeritev krajinskega načrtovanja za pojavljanje
poplav kot posledice podnebnih sprememb na območju Ljubljanskega barja.
Na podlagi modelov občutljivosti in modelov sposobnosti prilagajanja smo
pripravili prostorske prikaze ranljivosti bivalnega okolja, naselij in prometne
infrastrukture za pojavljanje poplav in plazov ter visokih temperatur zraka.
V modele smo poskušali vključiti tudi izpostavljenost v okviru regionalnih
podnebnih scenarijev, a so bile zaradi vpliva drugih kriterijev in pomanjkljivosti programskega orodja razlike v scenarijih zanemarljive. Po predvidenih
potencialnih vplivih lahko rečemo, da se bodo območja ranljivosti v prihodnosti razširila. Tista, ki so danes najbolj ranljiva, pa bi lahko postala še bolj ranljiva.
Na podlagi ocene ranljivosti bivalnega okolja, naselij in prometne infrastrukture za podnebne spremembe smo podali usmeritve za prilagajanje
z orodji krajinskega načrtovanja. Odločili smo se za splošnejše usmeritve,
ki za vsako stroko, ki bi lahko sodelovala pri izpopolnitvi in kasneje izvedbi
ukrepov, omogočajo širok nabor možnih podrobnejših ukrepov. Prostorski
prikaz usmeritev je prikazan na kartah 1-4.
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Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Slika 3: Usmeritve krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje
na pojavljanje plazov (jeseni) kot posledice podnebnih
sprememb na območju občine Dobrova – Polhov Gradec.
Slika 4: Podrobnejši prikaz usmeritev krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje na pojavljanje visokih temperatur
zraka poleti kot posledice podnebnih sprememb v LUR.
Legenda
0
Preprečevanje plazov s tehničnimi ukrepi
0.75
1.5 km
0
Ohranjanje in izboljšanje varovalne funkcije
varovalnih in drugih gozdov
Zagotavljanje trajne prisotnosti gozda
Naselja
Ohranjanje mokrišč
Ni ranljivo
Varovanje koridorjev za dotok svežega zraka
3 km
Zelo malo ranljivo
Malo ranljivo
Ranljivo
Zelo ranljivo
1.5
Naselja
Srednje ranljivo
158
Ohranjanje odprtega zelenega prostora
Malo ranljivo
UVODNIK
EDITORIAL
ČLANEK
ARTICLE
razprava
discussion
recenzija
review
PROJEKT
PROJECT
DELAVNICA
WORKSHOP
NATEČAJ
COMPETITION
PREDSTAVITEV
presentation
DIPLOMA
MASTER THESIS
Legenda
Srednje ranljivo
Ranljivo
Slika 3: Usmeritve krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje na pojavljanje plazov (jeseni) kot posledice podnebnih
sprememb na območju občine Dobrova – Polhov Gradec
Raziskovalno delo je potekalo predvsem na področju krajinskega načrtovanja, potrebno znanje z drugih področij (hidrologije, gozdarstva, idr.) pa smo
povzeli po dostopnih virih. Pri uporabi rezultatov je treba upoštevati tudi
negotovost podnebnih scenarijev, ki je posledica krajinske in podnebne
raznolikosti Slovenije in je zlasti pomembna pri zanesljivosti napovedovanja ekstremnih vremenskih dogodkov.
Povzamemo lahko, da je Ljubljanska urbana regija ranljiva za podnebne
spremembe, predvsem zaradi podnebnih trendov, visoke stopnje urbanizacije, goste poselitve in svoje gospodarske, izobraževalne, zdravstvene
in upravne funkcije. A prav zaradi svoje funkcije ima obenem tudi številne
možnosti za prilagoditev. Ključno je, kako bodo stroke in politika izkoristili
te možnosti. Krajinsko načrtovanje pri tem nedvomno predstavlja enega
ključnih akterjev. S svojimi orodji lahko določa smotrno oz. t.i. »podnebno
varno« rabo prostora in s tem nadaljuje s svojimi predpostavkami, metodami dela in vrednotami načrtovanja za spremenjeno podnebje, ki niso zanj
nič novega, saj so, kot je dejala prof. Golobič v pogovoru za Sobotno prilogo
januarja 2013, vgrajene že v njegov temelj.
Zelo ranljivo
Slika 4: Podrobnejši prikaz usmeritev krajinskega načrtovanja za prilagajanje na pojavljanje visokih temperatur
zraka poleti kot posledice podnebnih sprememb v LUR
ABSTRACT
Raziskovalno delo je potekalo predvsem na področju krajinskega načrtovanja, potrebno znanje z drugih področij
(hidrologije,
gozdarstva,
pa smochallenge
povzeli po dostopnih
virih. Pri uporabi
rezultatov jeGraduation
treba upoštevati tudi
Climate
change
is aidr.)
global
that demands
a response.
negotovost podnebnih scenarijev, ki je posledica krajinske in podnebne raznolikosti Slovenije in je zlasti
thesis
examines
climate
change
adaptation
from
the
landscape
planning
pomembna pri zanesljivosti napovedovanja ekstremnih vremenskih dogodkov.
perspective. The theoretical part first presents general information on climate
change, after which it introduces landscape planning tools that can be used
to successfully address it. These tools are then applied to the Ljubljana Urban
Region (LUR). The methodological framework of the IPCC is used to assess the
vulnerability of the quality of the living environment, settlement systems, and
transportation infrastructure and for the occurrence of floods and landslides
in autumn and excessively high temperatures in summer. The results identify
three different areas in the selected model region for which climate change adaptation guidelines are provided from the perspective of landscape
planning. The guidelines foresee land use to reduce the risk of occurrence
of floods, landslides and high temperatures in case of the realisation of the
climate change scenarios (IPCC).
VIII.
SEZNAM AVTORJEV
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
LIST OF CONTRIBUTERS
UVODNIKI EDITORIALS
Assist. Prof. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, PhD
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Civic and geodetic Engineering
Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 4768 642
Assist. Prof. Thomas Dillinger, PhD
Centre of Regional Planning and Regional Development
Department of Spatial Planning
Vienna University of Technology
Operngasse 11 / 5.OG, A-1040 Wien,
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +43 1 58 801 - 280702
Lektoriranje in prevod: Mojca Vilfan
Assist. Prof. Miha Dešman
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 2000 716
University of Ljubljana,
Biotechnical faculty
Department of Landscape Architecture
Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana
Urban Planning Institute of RS
Trnovski pristan 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 4201 322 (UI), +386 (1) 3203 060 (BF)
Lektoriranje in prevod: Mojca Vilfan
Aleksander Saša Ostan
Ostan-Pavlin arhitekti
Ulica na grad 8, 1000 Ljubljana
tel.:(01) 4218270, fax: 01 4218274
Gsm:+386 (0)40 204 021
mail: [email protected]
160
Sen. Lect. Mojca Foški, MSc
ČLANKI ARTICLES
Irena Ostojić
Assist. Gašper Mrak
Prostorsko načrtovanje, Irena Ostojić, s.p.
Mesarska 20, 1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 30 343 011
Assocc. Prof. Tadej Glažar, MSc
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Civic and geodetic Engineering
Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 2000 544
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 2000 730
Assist. Prof. Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, PhD
Anja Jutraž
Lektoriranje in prevod: Mojca Vilfan
Lektoriranje in prevod: Mojca Vilfan
Assocc. Prof. Mojca Golobič, PhD
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Civic and geodetic Engineering
Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 2000 716
Assist. Prof. Alenka Fikfak, PhD
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 2000 775
Mia Crnič
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 41 632 752
Assocc. Prof. Tadeja Zupančič, PhD
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected],
phone: +386 (1) 2000 715
Nuša Voda
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture
Zoisova 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 031 554 106
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Civic and geodetic Engineering
Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana
e-mail: [email protected]
phone: +386 (1) 4768 642
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning No. 2. / 2014
161
Št. 2. / 2014 IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI – teorija in praksa urejanja prostora | THE CREATIVITY GAME – Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Znanstvena revija, št. 2 / leto 2014
Univerza v Ljubljani
Fakulteta za arhitekturo in
Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo
Ljubljana, 2014
Naslov revije:
Scientific journal, no. 2 / Year 2014
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Architecture and
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering
Ljubljana, 2014
Title of the Journal:
IGRA USTVARJALNOSTI THE CREATIVITY GAME
teorija in praksa urejanja prostora Theory and Practice of Spatial Planning
Urednici: Alenka Fikfak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek
Uvodniki: Miha Dešman, Mojca Golobič,
Aleksander Saša Ostan, Thomas Dillinger, Matjaž Četina
Oblikovanje in naslovnica: Gašper Mrak
Lektoriranje: Mojca Vilfan
Prevod: Mojca Vilfan
Klasifikacija: (UDK) Renata Stella Čop, (DOI) Teja Koler Povh
Založila: Univerza v Ljubljani,
Fakulteta za arhitekturo in
Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo
Spletna stran revije:
http://www.iu-cg.org/
Spletna stran številke
http://www.iu-cg.org/paper/2014/iu02.html
ISSN 2350-3637
162
Editors: Alenka Fikfak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek
Editorials: Miha Dešman, Mojca Golobič,
Aleksander Saša Ostan, Thomas Dillinger, Matjaž Četina
Design and Title page: Gašper Mrak
Slovene text proofread by: Mojca Vilfan
Translation: Mojca Vilfan
Classification: (UDK) Renata Stella Čop, (DOI) Teja Koler Povh
Published by: University of Ljubljana,
Faculty of Architecture and
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering
Journal's Web Page:
http://www.iu-cg.org/
Currrent Issue LInk
http://www.iu-cg.org/paper/2014/cg02.html
ISSN 2350-3637
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