ICEE-PDRP 2016 : Second Day News Letter!

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This is the high time to save our cultural
urbanism destroyed by the recent disaster
n his key note speech Prof. Dr.
Sudarsan Raj Tiwari recalled the
negative impacts of the Gorkha
Earthquake 2015 in our traditional
cities, the comprising monuments
and the old residential houses. At the
opening remarks of his speech, he talked
about the devastation brought by the
Gorkha Earthquake 2015 which caused
loss of traditional houses and creation
of debris. He focussed on the term NAVI-KARAN - protecting integrity
by the use of traditional material and
complexity that arises as part of it due
to the poverty and complexity. Not
only has this earthquake devastated our
urbanism but also society and culture.
He also made aware of the fact that our
towns space is populated by spirited
stones and power places, Digudyos,
Dyochhen and Piths; monuments,
temples and trees; springs and canals;
etc. accumulated over centuries from
the Kirat, the Lichchhavi or the Malla
days. He stressed on the fabrics of
old historic cities that are built in
regard of the lives of deity as well as
lives of our ancestors. In addition, he
- Prof. Dr. Sudarshan Raj Tiwari
said that Newar urbanism exhibits a
complex weave of contemporary life
of the citizen with ‘inherited life’ of the
gods and the ancestors in its streets and
squares of settlements. He also focussed
on the negligence and ignorance on the
prevalent monuments and culturally
significant elements, be it the spirited
stone structures or the Pikhalakhu,
which are prominently damaged by the
usage of bulldozers during the debris
management. He highlighted on the
importance of the urban streets that aid
in offering restorative portions of sun
and shadows, clam and breeze, sights
and sounds, neutral ‘voids’ and spirited
spots, and in catering to psychological
and spiritual recuperation, rest and
Similarly, he elaborated on the
importance of the squares and their order
and usage by the cultural groups which
have been classified as Mono-cultural
Space which is used by family and clan
space, the courtyard, Phikhalakhu in
first order whereas well, pati and the
chhwasa in the second order. On the
other hand, Multi-cultural Spaces have
three significant orders the temple, the
conduit pit, the dabali and the plaza, the
Market square and the High Street ,the
Durbar square in the first, second and
third orders, respectively.
Finally, Dr. Tiwari recommended
that this is the high time to save our
cultural urbanism destroyed by the
recent disaster, which is proved to
be both opportunity and curse to our
society. Hence, the cultural Urbanism
can be retained by saving the route, the
stone on the street, the story – saving
the diversity and the complexity, the
‘dramatis personae’ and the stage public space and public land.
Application of High Strength
Steel on Damage Controlled
Braced Frame
- Kuo-Wei Lioa
The main objective in the presentation was to
evaluate the performance of high strength steel under seismic
excitation under which the two systems were discussed
namely dissipative and non-dissipative. He discussed the
hysteretic behavior, the modeling techniques used, creation
of user defined material in ABAQUS. At the end of the
presentation, results obtained from this study were discussed
regarding the drift ratio and stress values obtained which was
further discussed in question answer.
Performance of Base Isolated
Structure under Near Field
Ground Motion
- Aalok
The presenter from IIT Hyderbad
initiated his presentation by briefing the concept of Base
isolation and its advantage in elongation the time period of
any structure which leads to the reduction of overall damages.
Types of base isolated system that existed in the current use
were discussed. The major objective of the research was to
compare the performance of base isolated system for near field
and far field with that of non-base isolated system. Similarly,
mathematical model used in the analysis were discussed, and
results obtained from the analysis was presented showing
the reduction of roof acceleration and reduction of principal
Kinematic Spectra of an Incident
Wave Field
- L Eduardo Perez - Rocha
The presentation was based on
the study that was carried out to identify modes of surface
propagating in Mexico. The presenter discussed the rupture
area in Mexico. This was illustrated with relevant videos that
showed the wave propagation model. Methodology carried out
in this study was discussed, which was followed by the use of
power spectral density model, kinematic decomposition and
identification of waves in different modes. The concluding part
focussed on regarding estimation of frequency power spectral
with high resolution filter, kinematic separation of incoming
wave field in longitudinal and transverse components, and
high resolution estimators of the kinematic components of
power spectral density.
Effect in Seismic Response of
a Structure due to Installation
of Communication Tower on
Existing Building
- Sairam Neridu
The main objective of the study was to discuss
the behavior of structures when a communication tower is
present at the top of a building. The presentation had contents
ranging from the role of tower, behavior of this type of tower
under different types of natural calamities. Discussions were
made on the modeling techniques, the three types of timehistory data used to perform the time history analysis and
resulting deformation due to the presence of communication
tower on top of buildings. At the end of the presentation
conclusion was drawn for the improvements of connections
between the tower and floor which could be critical during
the time of seismic excitations.
Seismic Characteristics of
Un-Reinforced Mud Masonry
Buildings in Nepal
- Binod Khadka
The presentation began with
the discussions that mainly focused on
the prevalent use of Masonry Building in Nepal. Discussions
revolved around the areas such as varying use of local
materials, haphazard use, and damages due to improper
practice, mixing of floor systems unequal height of house,
irregular and maximum number of floors. Lastly, conclusions
were drawn on the importance of engineered buildings and
capacity building of local masons and awareness amongst the
people who are unaware about earthquake.
Earthquake Resistant
Traditional knowledge
Systems in the Sikkim
Monasteries, India, in
the 2011 M6.9 Sikkim
Earthquake: Lessons
- Sutapa Joti
The presentation started with the description of
seismicity of India, Himalayan Belt and Buddhist monasteries.
The presenter shared her views regarding the spatial
configuration of typical monasteries and classification of
monasteries. The inherent advantage of traditional earthquake
construction system was illustrated with regard to the plan
configuration, mass distribution and types of stone masonry
that overcame the past seismic shakings. The conclusion was
made with the lamentation that was expressed for the halt of the
use of traditional types of system today in the construction.
Conservation and Redevelopment
of a Historic Urban Centre-a
Study of AsanChowk, Kathmandu
- Sushamna Shrestha.
This paper studies one of the main urban centers
- Asan - of the historic city of Kathmandu. Ironically, a
lively and enjoyable place in the past has become a place to
avoid due to the crowd and unmanaged situation caused by
the population growth and boom in commercial activities.
The 2015 Gorkha Earthquake was focussed as the cause
of different degree of damage to the buildings and the
vulnerability in the disaster situations.
In the question time, the issues such as the
implementations and adjustments of the design proposal,
façade treatments with the traditional elements the density
of the space were further discussed. Miss Shrestha stressed
on the active participation of both public and private stake
holders and actors in the betterment and the restoration of
urban fabric along with the community. focussing on the
amendments of existing byelaws.
Exterior Design Elements
of Townhouses and Their
Distribution in and Out of
the UNESCO’s World Cultural
Heritage Monument Zone in
- Masaya Masui
Masaya Masui, presented on the exterior or facades
the buildings which were on the Monumental Zone in
Bhaktapur core city. The study was about the distribution
of the types of the town houses. During his session, he
pointed out the need of the guidelines to maintain the historic
landscapes after the damage. The purpose of the study was to
establish the extended designs for the Nepali town houses in
the Monumental Zone(MZ). During the survey of the study,
the basic elements considered were the number of the storey,
types of the houses, the extensions that were made after which
were related to the exterior view of the buildings.
The different types of the buildings in the monumental
zone were suggested showing the different types of facades
consisting different structural elements in the building. To
the end of the session Dr. Pant had the query about the study
on whether the facades are related to the social and cultural
connection of the zone and Masui suggested the traditional
facades that contain both the social and cultural attachments.
The main purpose of the study was to establish the format
of extended design for Nepali townhouses. The presentation
with the typical format of facades came to be very fruitful in
the Monumental zone.
The Regeneration of a Historic
Urban Neighborhood-the Case of
KhaumaTole, Bhaktapur
- Rabita Shilpakar
This paper focussed on the study of one of the core
areas of historic city, called KhaumaTole at Bhaktapur. The
neighbourhood borders the Bhaktapur Palace Square at the
west and is within the buffer zone of World Heritage Site. The
study of the existing situation showed a number of problems in
the community and dwelling environment. The 2015 Gorkha
Earthquake caused further damage to the historic buildings and
to the common residential dwellings of the neighbourhood.
In the nutshell, the regeneration project intended
to address the conscience among the community to give life
to the dying heritages. The already dilapidated state can be
rehabilitated with regenerating functions if we are able to
make timely address to the need and context of the site.
The discussion issue was on the proposed a museum
for Shilpakar community and the housing issue in Khauma
Tole. Miss Shilpakar responded that the museum could
enhance the Shilpkar community and which is self sustainable
since the site has the large majority of Shilpakar by proposing
the cooperative housing.
Urban Regeneration of
Taulachhen Tole Bhaktapur
- Sujan Das Shrestha
This paper focussed on
the study of a traditional residential quarter-Taulachhen
Tole, at Bhaktapur. To the majority of the residents already
living in unfavorable physical circumstances, the 2015
Gorkha Earthquake further rendered the neighborhood into
uninhabitable space. In order to rehabilitate and improve the
livelihood of the resident community, this study documented
living conditions of the neighborhood quarter in terms of
physical parameters such as living space, physical condition
of the dwelling and damage situation on the one hand, and
cultural aspects such as community structures and their forms
on the other.
This paper also focussed on the cooperative housing
environment, which emphasizes on preservation of the
traditional urban fabric as well as the religious and social
features to provide continuity and preservation of the social,
spatial and ritual structures along with the rehabilitation of
the existing households with substantial increase in the living
space, open space and other facilities. The discussion was
made further on the urban regeneration regarding Taulachhen
Tole and the presenter responded that there is a declination
and degradation social, economical and cultural factors
therefore the need for regeneration process is sought.
Structural Study for
Restoration of the Prambanan
World Heritage Temple
Damaged by Central Java
Earthquake of 2006
- Toshikazu Hanazato
The presenter from Japan talked about the
characteristics of central Java earthquake of 2006, and
description was made regarding the unique story related to
the heritage site. The presentation was continued with the
description of methodology that included Geotechnical,
Structural Survey, material properties used in generation
of mathematical model, micro tremor measurement, and
creation of 3D finite element method. Towards the end of the
presentation analysis’ results were presented and conclusion
was drawn implying that this study could be referred in future
for restoration project.
Challenges and Possible Solutions
for Building Back Better in Nepal
- Ulina Shakya
The presenter commenced her
presentation by providing a description of
a non-profit organization Build Change which collaborated
with Mercy Corps in bringing change and providing
assistance. A brief description regarding the performance
of different building typologies that were used in the study
was discussed. Concerns were raised regarding the lack of
approval for the construction of buildings that were to be
constructed. At the end, she suggested the use of throughstones in masonry buildings, lighter material for gable wall
and use of tie band to preserve the integrity.
Observation of Damaged
Buildings and the
Distribution on the South
East Area of the Old Town in
- Yoichi Mukai
The presenter provided a brief introduction citing
the objectives of the study. The feature of observing area,
geological states around survey area, distribution of building
situation, suffering situation of masonry building and
damage categories were described in brief. The results were
presented in the form of damaged building distribution vs.
surrounding soil condition, and collapse of gable wall. At the
end conclusions were drawn regarding the deficiencies of old
building and ways to improve it.
Rapid Visual Damage
Assessment of Masonry
Buildings after 2015 Gorkha
Earthquake: A case Study of
Bhaktapur Municipality
- Manjip Shakya
This presentation talked about the methodology
used to study the damage due to the Gorkha Earthquake to
the masonry buildings. As this study was conducted soon
after the aftermath of the devastating earthquake a rapid
visual screening procedure was adopted to assess the damage
to masonry and vulnerability of masonry buildings. The
number of buildings that suffered damages due to the Gorkha
earthquake was presented in the presentation, and detailed
statistics of this was provided. Types of the damages were
also characterized, and final results werepresented to describe
the increase in damage with the increase of story height.
Risk Targeted Seismic Hazard
Assessment for RC Frame
Buildings in Delhi
- Aakash Khatri
This presentation started with
the introduction of uniform hazard
ground motion and the need for risk
targeted hazard. The presentation was continued by pointing
the importance of site specific hazard analysis and its
development. Likewise, seismic vulnerability parameter was
defined and the procedure adopted to conduct this research
was pointed out for the development of fragility functions
for complete damage. Similarly, evaluation of risk integral
and risk assessment procedure was. At the end results were
provided to make a comparison of site specific hazard and
hazard curve provided by IS code.
Retrofitting Design of
Kathmandu University
Staff Quarter 32 ”A” after
Gorkha Earthquake, 2015
- Pramod Rai
The presenter introduced
Gorkha Earthquake and defined
retrofitting. The case study
specifications were pointed out
along with the building description and methodology. The
methodology constituted two steps namely, the preliminary
and the detailed evaluation. Different parameters considered
in the preliminary evaluation were pointed out to be the shear
stress, axial stress, storey drift. This was followed by the
computational model and description of Column Jacketing,
and FRP design was described. The obtained results from
the analysis model were presented the number of columns
that were retrofitted using the column jacketing and FRP
Perception of Residents
on Housing Alternatives
in the 2015 Gorkha
Earthquake Post Disaster
Reconstruction – A Case
study of Bhaktapur
- Mohan Moorti Pant
The paper presented the results of the survey
done in Taulachhen and Khalaa toles of Bhaktapur. In the
study, the residents were presented with three possible
reconstruction alternatives, namely rebuilding in the same
existing lot (Type A), readjustment of lots in cluster (Type
B), and rearrangement of lots and community cooperative
management of dwelling units (Type C). The results of the
study showed that two thirds of the households chose for
readjustment of lots. Half of the households in Taulachhen
chose for co-operative dwelling units (T ype C), and half of
the households in Khalaa chose for readjustment of plots
(Type B). Households facing the main street or courtyard
have certain inclination towards maintaining the existing
state (Type A), as concluded in the presentation.
Post Earthquake Development
in Rural Area of Nepal : Study
of Gudel VDC, Solukhumbu
and Barpak Village, Gorkha
- Milan Bagale
This paper compared the latest developments in the
two rural areas of Nepal, namely Barpak village of Gorkha
and Gudel VDC of Solukhumbu after the recent Gorkha
earthquake of 2015. The first part of the presentation showed
comparative picture of the existing vernacular architecture,
the settlement pattern, and the levels of the earthquake
damage in the two areas respectively. The study revealed the
vernacular construction system to be a bit better in Gudel
VDC than in Barpak, regarding features like use of mud
mortar and timber ties/ bands as specified by NBC Code.
His presentation noted that immediately after the extensive
earthquake damage in Barpak, people built temporary shelters
of tent, CGI box as well as transitional shelters made of debris
of collapsed buildings, and the people have started building
their dwellings in modern RCC framed structure, without
adequate engineering design and supervision. The presenter
stated that this form of RCC construction does not suit the
climate of the area, it may be a potential threat to tourism.
He discussed the communities who have relocated from their
original places to government land due to fear of landslides.
It was concluded with the information of model house is
currently under construction using the same technology.
Assessment Tools for
Local Building Cultures
– A Case Study in Nepal
- Julien Hosta
He presented the results of
the assessment of local building cultures done in 3 districts of
Nepal, viz. Ramechhap, Dolakha and Sindhuli. The important
features identified were double structure – mud mortar stone
masonry walls with timber frames, horizontal (seismic) timber
bands and stitches at different levels, canopies and wide roof
overhangs protecting the joints, timber frames and bands and
wall-tops. The changes in elements were identified as weak
points for example, gable walls, bracing of roof structure and
joints between the walls and the joints. Alternate materials
used were found to be stonecrete when through stones were
not available, and strong mortar with wire mesh for seismic
bands near ground, in the place of wooden bands.
Reconstruction and
Recovery Process
in Earthquake
Affected Residential
Neighborhoods : Cases
of Ward Nos. 2 and 10 in
the Historic Core Area of
Bhaktapur Municipality
- Bijaya Krishna Shrestha
The presentation was concentrated on reconstruction
and recovery after a big earthquake like the recent Gorkha
earthquake, which require the co-ordinated efforts of many
stakeholders like the community, the local and national
government and the professional design team. The study was
done in Jenla (ward no. 2) and Byasi (ward no. 10) of the
Bhaktapur Municipality, which are the most affected from the
recent earthquake. He noted that out of the existing problems,
the irregular-sized plots with narrow frontage (less than
8Ft), due to property-division among the heirs and narrow
lanes preventing adequate light and ventilation are the major
issues. One solution proposed by the presenter is combining
these tiny plots and going for combined construction. For that
he proposed the use of common staircase, serving the group
of dwelling units, which result in the regularization of the
plots, safer and stable building forms, cost-effectiveness and
increase in the area of habitable spaces.
A Tool for Planning
Evacuation Procedure
During or after a Disaster
- Guru Prakash Ramaguru
The presenter developed the
evacuation tool with evacuation time and evacuation route for
minimizing the casualties during evacuation. He noted that
due to lack of awareness, improper block drill training and
lack of knowledge of evacuation sites, there is much casualty,
and hence, there should be proper planning and evacuation
tool should be followed for minimizing the causalities.
He argued that this tool could model evacuation
scenario however major improvements should include use of
different shapes to model scenario natures of evacuations and
Out-of-Plane Behavior
of Masonry Walls with
Imperfect Reinforced
- Milos Drdacky
The presenter identified
the solution for retrofitting adobe
masonry reinforced with Polyethylene nets which was
validated with experimental results. He concluded that low
cost nets are more suitable than high performance renders
regarding availability and ease of use and also the high
renders have significant difference regarding deformation
properties. He also recommended that regular maintenance
and retrofitting could minimize the possible damages.
Seismic Design of
Expanded Polysterene
Core Panel Based Building
- Avirup Sarkar
The presenter proposed the
composite sandwich panel as a low cost alternative building
material and performed numerical analysis. His finding was
that the structure built with EPC performs well and demand
capacity ratio is less than 1.
Retrofitting of Building
Damaged by 2015 Nepal
- Raju Sarkar
The presentation focussed on
the Gorkha Earthquake and devastating aftermath including
damage assessment of vulnerable building and retrofitting of
the structure. He discussed the consequences derived from
the april 25 the devastating earthquake.
The impacts as indicated includes geotechnical
hazard, damage of heritage building, critical facility, life
structures etc. He further discussed the retrofitting that he
conducted for TAMO SAMAJ buildings made of RCC
Structures with steel jacketing. Further he emphasized on
the need of update of the by-laws of building and need of
timely awareness program for the retrofitting decision of the
vulnerable structures before devastating earthquake, like the
Reinforcement Details
with Current Practice
to Earthquake Resistant
using Scaled Model for
Awareness Program
- Venkatesh Kalcheti
This presentation mainly focussed on creating
awareness amongst the general mass and masons. It dealt
with the fundamentals of ductile detailing and its importance
in creating a seismic resilient system. Ductile detailing model
for various structural components such as beams, columns,
footing were presented along with the proto-type model.
Different techniques to improve the overall ductility of a
building system was suggested at the end.
Simulation Test on RC
Beam Strengthened with
Externally Bonded FRP
Sheets Using ANSYS
- Girish Narayan Prajapti
commenced with the introduction
of FRP and its importance in the buildings that are susceptible
to change in its use in future. Characteristics of FRP were
described along with its geometry of specimen, modeling
techniques, material model incorporated in ANSYS. At the
end, result load deflection plot for control beam was presented
to show improved results after the FRP use. Conclusions of the
research showed improved strength characteristics in CFRP
against GFRP and matching of experimental results with
the results from the analytical model. Valuable suggestions
were forwarded from the audience to include the scope in the
Reincarnation: Energy and
- Tadashi Saito
The presentation focussed on
deficiency of water and energy during
the disaster. He noted that the deficiency
of energy could be solved using alternative sources like
electricity generated through wind, sunlight and fuel generated
from bio-gas and bio-coke.
As indicated in the presentation, solving energy and water
problem can assist the other if global goals are proposed by
united nation.
Presenter suggested conducting the global expo in
Nepal to attract the technology, funds and people from all
over the world.
Earliest Arrival
Contraflows for Evacuation
- Phanindra Prasad Bhandari
The presentation focussed
on the efficient route planning
with minimum time and maximum number of evacuees for
evacuation from dangerous site to safer within the limited
time frame. The evacuation generally consists of physical
hazard notification preparedness and response.
The presenter has approached ‘the earliest arrival
evacuation problem among the four given plannings. He
identified the contraflow in road networking to minimize
the network engross time and maximize the number of
evacuations, suggesting it as a tool of planning for disaster.
New Flexible Intervention
Solutions for Protection,
Strengthening and
Reconstruction of Damaged
Heritage Buildings
- Arkadiusz Adam Kwiecien
The presenter showed the application of polymer
flexible joints to repair the cracks which can resist large force
and also withstand large deformation. He noted that it could be
overlaid by brick dust or sand for aesthetical and architectural
view. He proposed the use of natural fibre with polymers and
found that it behaves better than epoxy adhesive.
Seismic Assessment and
Retrofitting of a RC (G+4)
Building with FRP Jacketing
and Steel Bracing
- Subhajit De
The Presentation discussed the seismic assessment
and retrofitting of building with FRP jacketing and Steel
Bracing. In this comparative study done with the analytical
model, he focussed on the local level retrofitting with FRP and
global level retrofitting with FRP.
He further argued that the poor construction practices,
deterioration of concrete, changes in occupancy level trigger
the vulnerability of the structures and require those structures
to be retrofitted.
He drew a conclusion that the CFRP strips increases
the strength and ductility of RC members. He further indicated
that the increase in strength and ductility with the use of CFRP
depends on sectional property of members.
Published by : Khwopa Engineering College | Khwopa College of Engineering | Libali, Bhaktapur-02, Nepal | P.O. Box: 84 | Tel: +977-1-5122098, 977-1-5122094 | Fax: +977-1-5122202 | Email:[email protected] |

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