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Chapter 2 Exercises Electric power is to be generated by installing a hydraulic turbine–generator at a site 120 m below the free surface of a large water reservoir that can supply water at a rate of 1500 kg/s steadily. Determine the power generation potential. A person gets into an elevator at the lobby level of a hotel together with his 30-kg suitcase, and gets out at the 10th floor 35 m above. Determine the amount of energy consumed by the motor of the elevator that is now stored in the suitcase The engine of a 1500-kg automobile has a power rating of 75 kW. Determine the time required to accelerate this car from rest to a speed of 100 km/h at full power on a level road. Is your answer realistic? A ski lift has a one-way length of 1 km and a vertical rise of 200 m. The chairs are spaced 20 m apart, and each chair can seat three people. The lift is operating at a steady speed of 10 km/h. Neglecting friction and air drag and assuming that the average mass of each loaded chair is 250 kg, determine the power required to operate this ski lift. Also estimate the power required to accelerate this ski lift in 5 s to its operating speed when it is first turned on. Water is being heated in a closed pan on top of a range while being stirred by a paddle wheel. During the process, 30 kJ of heat is transferred to the water, and 5 kJ of heat is lost to the surrounding air. The paddle-wheel work amounts to 500 N m. Determine the final energy of the system if its initial energy is 10 kJ. A classroom that normally contains 40 people is to be air-conditioned with window air-conditioning units of 5- kW cooling capacity. A person at rest may be assumed to dissipate heat at a rate of about 360 kJ/h. There are 10 light bulbs in the room, each with a rating of 100 W. The rate of heat transfer to the classroom through the walls and the windows is estimated to be 15,000 kJ/h. If the room air is to be maintained at a constant temperature of 21°C, determine the number of window airconditioning units required. Consider a 1400-kg car cruising at constant speed of 70 km/h. Now the car starts to pass another car, by accelerating to 110 km/h in 5 s. Determine the additional power needed to achieve this acceleration. What would your answer be if the total mass of the car were only 700 kg? A 75-hp (shaft output) motor that has an efficiency of 91.0 percent is worn out and is to be replaced by a high efficiency motor that has an efficiency of 95.4 percent. The motor operates 4368 hours a year at a load factor of 0.75. Taking the cost of electricity to be $0.08/kWh, determine the amount of energy and money saved as a result of installing the high-efficiency motor instead of the standard motor. Also, determine the simple payback period if the purchase prices of the standard and highefficiency motors are $5449 and $5520, respectively. Electric power is to be generated by installing a hydraulic turbine–generator at a site 70 m below the free surface of a large water reservoir that can supply water at a rate of 1500 kg/s steadily. If the mechanical power output of the turbine is 800 kW and the electric power generation is 750 kW, determine the turbine efficiency and the combined turbine– generator efficiency of this plant. Neglect losses in the pipes.