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Transcript

Understanding Text Structures
What is a text structure?
• A “structure” is a
building or
framework
• “Text structure”
refers to how a
piece of text is built
What is a text structure?
• Builders can use
different kinds of
structures to build
different things
• A skyscraper, for
example, is a
different kind of
structure from a
house
What is a text structure?
• Writers use different
structures to build
their ideas
• Each text structure
communicates ideas
in a different way
Chronological order
• Authors use
chronological order
to explain how
things happen in
order
• Chronological order
is also called
sequence or time
order
Chronological order
• You will know that
you are reading a
text in chronological
order because you
will see words like
first, next, later,
then, and finally
Chronological order
• You will often see chronological order in
directions:
Have you ever made macaroni and cheese?
It’s simple! First, boil some water and make
some macaroni. Then, make your cheese
sauce. After the cheese sauce is ready, mix
it with the macaroni. Bake the entire thing
in the oven. Finally, it’s time to eat!
Chronological order
• You will often see chronological order in
directions:
Have you ever made macaroni and cheese?
It’s simple! First, boil some water and make
some macaroni. Then, make your cheese
sauce. After the cheese sauce is ready, mix
it with the macaroni. Bake the entire thing
in the oven. Finally, it’s time to eat!
Which paragraph is in
chronological order?
Pennsylvania has many
historic sites. You can visit
Revolutionary war sites, like
Valley Forge. You can also
visit important locations
from the Civil War, like
Gettysburg. Finally, you can
also see the site of the first
oil well in Titusville.
Pennsylvania has many neat
places to visit!
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was
the site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
Which paragraph is in
chronological order?
This is the
paragraph in
chronological
order. Can you
find the clue
words that show
this order?
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was
the site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
Which paragraph is in
chronological order?
This is the
paragraph in
chronological
order. Can you
find the clue
words that show
this order?
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was
the site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
Think about it!
• What is a structure?
• What does chronological order
mean?
• What are some clue words that
show chronological order?
Another text structure
• But what if an author
doesn’t want to
show how
something
happened in
sequence?
• The author would
need to use another
text structure!
Another text structure
• Suppose an author
wanted to explain how
these two birds are
similar and different
• Chronological order
wouldn’t work---there is
no order of events
• The author would need
to use compare and
contrast
Another text structure
The cardinal and the cedar
waxwing are two common birds.
Both have crests on their heads.
Both are common at birdfeeders. But
the birds have some differences. The
male cardinal is a bright red, while
the waxwing is brown. The cedar
waxwing often migrates from place to
place. On the other hand, the
cardinal stays in one place year after
year.
Compare and contrast clue words
When authors use the
text structure of compare
and contrast, they often
use special clue words to
show this text structure.
Can you find the clue
words in the paragraph?
Can you find the clue words?
The cardinal and the cedar
waxwing are two common birds.
Both have crests on their heads.
Both are common at birdfeeders. But
the birds have some differences. The
male cardinal is a bright red, while
the waxwing is brown. The cedar
waxwing often migrates from place to
place. On the other hand, the
cardinal stays in one place year after
year.
Here they are!
The cardinal and the cedar
waxwing are two common birds.
Both have crests on their heads.
Both are common at birdfeeders. But
the birds have some differences. The
male cardinal is a bright red, while
the waxwing is brown. The cedar
waxwing often migrates from place to
place. On the other hand, the
cardinal stays in one place year after
year.
Compare and contrast graphic organizer
• To organize details
from a paragraph in
compare and
contrast, use a Venn
diagram
Review
• Can you explain the difference between
chronological order and compare and
contrast?
• How can clue words help you as a
reader?
Another text structure
• Sometimes, a writer will want to explain
how one event leads to another
• This kind of text structure is called cause
and effect
Cause and effect clue words
• When authors write
paragraphs to show
causes and effects,
they use words like
cause, effect, as a
result,
consequently, and
so
Can you find the clue words?
The night’s snowstorm had many
effects. People were out shoveling snow
from their sidewalks. The power lines
were draped with ice. Snow plows drove
down every street. Children were the
happiest of all. The unexpected snow
caused school to be cancelled!
Can you find the clue words?
The night’s snowstorm had many
effects. People were out shoveling snow
from their sidewalks. The power lines
were draped with ice. Snow plows drove
down every street. Children were the
happiest of all. The unexpected snow
caused school to be cancelled!
More with cause and effect
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
More with cause and effect
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
This is the
cause
More with cause and effect
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
This is the
effect
Review
• Which text structure tells about how things
are similar and different?
• Compare and contrast
• Which text structure explains how things
happen in time order?
• Chronological order
Another kind of text structure
• Sometimes, an author
will want to explain a
problem, and then
show one or more
solutions
• This kind of text
structure is called
problem and solution
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a
terrible problem. Every
day at recess, students
would argue over the
slides. Teachers had to
spend time every day
taking care of the
arguments. Finally, one
teacher came up with a
great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a terrible
problem. Every day at
recess, students would
argue over the slides.
Teachers had to spend
time every day taking care
of the arguments. Finally,
one teacher came up with
a great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
• Can you find the
problem and the
solution in this
paragraph?
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a terrible
problem. Every day at
recess, students would
argue over the slides.
Teachers had to spend
time every day taking care
of the arguments. Finally,
one teacher came up with
a great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
Here is the
problem
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a terrible
problem. Every day at
recess, students would
argue over the slides.
Teachers had to spend
time every day taking care
of the arguments. Finally,
one teacher came up with
a great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
Here is the
problem
Here is the
solution
Of course, problem and solution is not
always so simple
• Often, authors will
signal problem and
solution structure with
clue words like
problem and solution,
just like in the last
paragraph
• Sometimes, authors
will use related words
Of course, problem and solution is not
always so simple
• Synonyms for problem
include difficulty,
struggle, uncertainty,
worry, threat, and
trouble
• Synonyms for solution
include possibility,
hope, bright spot,
answer, and future
A more difficult problem and solution
paragraph
The Chesapeake Bay faces an
uncertain future. Issues such as
pesticides, too many nutrients,
and habitat loss all threaten the
Bay’s water quality and animal
life. However, scientists are
hopeful that the future may be
brighter. If everyone in the
Chesapeake Bay watershed
works together, solutions may be
found.
A more difficult problem and solution
paragraph
What is the
problem?
What is the
solution?
The Chesapeake Bay faces an
uncertain future. Issues such as
pesticides, too many nutrients,
and habitat loss all threaten the
Bay’s water quality and animal
life. However, scientists are
hopeful that the future may be
brighter. If everyone in the
Chesapeake Bay watershed
works together, solutions may be
found.
A more difficult problem and solution
paragraph
Problem
Solution
The Chesapeake Bay faces an
uncertain future. Issues such as
pesticides, too many nutrients,
and habitat loss all threaten the
Bay’s water quality and animal
life. However, scientists are
hopeful that the future may be
brighter. If everyone in the
Chesapeake Bay watershed
works together, solutions may be
found.
Text structures we’ve learned
so far
•
•
•
•
Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Match the clue words!
Can you figure out the text structure that these clue
words point to?
however, on the other
hand, similarity, like,
unlike
Compare and
contrast
Match the clue words!
Can you figure out the text structure that these clue
words point to?
as a result,
consequently,
therefore, so, cause,
effect
Cause and effect
Match the clue words!
Can you figure out the text structure that these clue
words point to?
problem, solution,
threat, difficulty, hope,
answer, possibility
Problem and
solution
Are there any other text
structures?
Most paragraphs that we write in
school can be called main idea,
description, or statement and support
paragraphs
Main idea paragraphs
• In this kind of
paragraph, the author
offers a main idea
statement, and then
supports that statement
with several details
Main idea paragraphs
The pond was a beautiful
place to visit. The falling
leaves, all different colors,
decorated the surface of the
water. At the edges of the
pond, small wildflowers grew.
The golden forest glowed
faintly in the distance.
Main idea paragraphs
Main idea
The pond was a beautiful
place to visit. The falling
leaves, all different colors,
decorated the surface of the
water. At the edges of the
pond, small wildflowers grew.
The golden forest glowed
faintly in the distance.
Main idea paragraphs
Main idea
All of the other sentences
explain why the main
idea is true
The pond was a beautiful
place to visit. The falling
leaves, all different colors,
decorated the surface of the
water. At the edges of the
pond, small wildflowers grew.
The golden forest glowed
faintly in the distance.
Main idea paragraphs
• Clue words in these
paragraphs may
include:
• One reason, another
reason, and for
example
Now it’s your turn!
• On the next few slides,
you will read some
paragraphs about the
Great Chicago Fire
• Your task is to decide on
the text structure for each
one
• Understanding the text
structure will help you to
understand each paragraph
What’s the text structure?
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and
effect
• Problem and
solution
• Main idea
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
What’s the text structure?
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Problem and
solution
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
What’s the text structure?
• Chronological
order
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
What’s the text structure?
• Chronological
order
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
What’s the text structure?
• Chronological
order
• Notice how
the paragraph
shows how
events happen
in time order
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
What’s the text structure?
• Understanding
that this text is
written in
chronological
order can help
you to
understand
how the Great
Fire started
Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the
flames coming from the O’Leary barn at
around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem
with the alarm box made it impossible for
the people in the area to call for the fire
department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block
was blazing. In another 3 hours, there
were fires all over Chicago. The heavy
wind coming from the lake only made the
fire bigger. It would be another day before
the fire would be completely out. By that
time, 17,500 buildings had been burned.
Try another!
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and
effect
• Problem and
solution
• Main idea
Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
departments and fire alarms. One
reason for the terrible fire is that the
alarm malfunctioned. The local fire
company noticed the fire by accident
as it was returning from another fire.
As another problem, a watchman who
saw the flames directed other fire
companies to a location that was nearly
a mile away from the fire. Because of
these two problems, a fire that could
have been controlled rapidly spread
across the city.
Try another!
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and
effect
• Problem and
solution
Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
departments and fire alarms. One
reason for the terrible fire is that the
alarm malfunctioned. The local fire
company noticed the fire by accident
as it was returning from another fire.
As another problem, a watchman who
saw the flames directed other fire
companies to a location that was nearly
a mile away from the fire. Because of
these two problems, a fire that could
have been controlled rapidly spread
across the city.
Try another!
• Cause and
effect
Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
departments and fire alarms. One
reason for the terrible fire is that the
alarm malfunctioned. The local fire
company noticed the fire by accident
as it was returning from another fire.
As another problem, a watchman who
saw the flames directed other fire
companies to a location that was nearly
a mile away from the fire. Because of
these two problems, a fire that could
have been controlled rapidly spread
across the city.
Try another!
Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
departments and fire alarms. One
• Cause and
effect
• Notice how
the causes (in
blue) lead to
the effect (in
yellow)
reason for the terrible fire is that the
alarm malfunctioned. The local fire
company noticed the fire by accident
as it was returning from another fire.
As another problem, a watchman who
saw the flames directed other fire
companies to a location that was nearly
a mile away from the fire. Because of
these two problems, a fire that could
have been controlled rapidly spread
across the city.
What text structure is here?
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and effect
• Problem and
solution
• Main idea
After the fire, thousands of people were
left homeless. Many escaped the fire with
nothing except the clothes on their
backs. Providing all of these people with
food, clean water, and shelter was a
huge task. Luckily, the city quickly
formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
group started giving out the food
donations that were pouring in from other
cities. The society built places for people
to live, gathered the tools that people
needed to rebuild their houses, and even
vaccinated 64,000 people against
smallpox.
What text structure is here?
• Chronological
order
• Cause and effect
• Problem and
solution
After the fire, thousands of people were
left homeless. Many escaped the fire with
nothing except the clothes on their
backs. Providing all of these people with
food, clean water, and shelter was a
huge task. Luckily, the city quickly
formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
group started giving out the food
donations that were pouring in from other
cities. The society built places for people
to live, gathered the tools that people
needed to rebuild their houses, and even
vaccinated 64,000 people against
smallpox.
What text structure is here?
• Problem and
solution
After the fire, thousands of people were
left homeless. Many escaped the fire with
nothing except the clothes on their
backs. Providing all of these people with
food, clean water, and shelter was a
huge task. Luckily, the city quickly
formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
group started giving out the food
donations that were pouring in from other
cities. The society built places for people
to live, gathered the tools that people
needed to rebuild their houses, and even
vaccinated 64,000 people against
smallpox.
What text structure is here?
• Problem and
solution
• Here is the
problem
After the fire, thousands of people were
left homeless. Many escaped the fire with
nothing except the clothes on their
backs. Providing all of these people with
food, clean water, and shelter was a
huge task. Luckily, the city quickly
formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
group started giving out the food
donations that were pouring in from other
cities. The society built places for people
to live, gathered the tools that people
needed to rebuild their houses, and even
vaccinated 64,000 people against
smallpox.
What text structure is here?
• Problem and
solution
• Here is the
solution
After the fire, thousands of people were
left homeless. Many escaped the fire with
nothing except the clothes on their
backs. Providing all of these people with
food, clean water, and shelter was a
huge task. Luckily, the city quickly
formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
group started giving out the food
donations that were pouring in from other
cities. The society built places for people
to live, gathered the tools that people
needed to rebuild their houses, and even
vaccinated 64,000 people against
smallpox.
Can you find the text structure?
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and
effect
• Problem and
solution
• Main idea
Chicago changed in many ways after
the fire. Before the fire, most of the
buildings were less than five stories
high. The buildings that were
constructed after the fire, however,
were some of the first skyscrapers in
the country. Before the fire, most of
the houses were made of wood. After
the fire, people chose to build their
houses out of stone or brick. There were
changes in where people lived, as well.
The poor people in the city lived close to
the center of the city before the fire.
After the fire, they moved into
neighborhoods that were farther away
from the downtown area.
Can you find the text structure?
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and
effect
• Main idea
Chicago changed in many ways after
the fire. Before the fire, most of the
buildings were less than five stories
high. The buildings that were
constructed after the fire, however,
were some of the first skyscrapers in
the country. Before the fire, most of
the houses were made of wood. After
the fire, people chose to build their
houses out of stone or brick. There were
changes in where people lived, as well.
The poor people in the city lived close to
the center of the city before the fire.
After the fire, they moved into
neighborhoods that were farther away
from the downtown area.
Can you find the text structure?
• Compare and
contrast
Chicago changed in many ways after
the fire. Before the fire, most of the
buildings were less than five stories
high. The buildings that were
constructed after the fire, however,
were some of the first skyscrapers in
the country. Before the fire, most of
the houses were made of wood. After
the fire, people chose to build their
houses out of stone or brick. There were
changes in where people lived, as well.
The poor people in the city lived close to
the center of the city before the fire.
After the fire, they moved into
neighborhoods that were farther away
from the downtown area.
Can you find the text structure?
• Compare and
contrast
Notice how
this paragraph is
comparing
Chicago
BEFORE the
fire to Chicago
AFTER the fire
Chicago changed in many ways after
the fire. Before the fire, most of the
buildings were less than five stories
high. The buildings that were
constructed after the fire, however,
were some of the first skyscrapers in
the country. Before the fire, most of
the houses were made of wood. After
the fire, people chose to build their
houses out of stone or brick. There were
changes in where people lived, as well.
The poor people in the city lived close to
the center of the city before the fire.
After the fire, they moved into
neighborhoods that were farther away
from the downtown area.
Can you find the text structure?
• Compare and
contrast
Notice how
this paragraph is
comparing
Chicago
BEFORE the
fire to Chicago
AFTER the fire
Chicago changed in many ways after
the fire. Before the fire, most of the
buildings were less than five stories
high. The buildings that were
constructed after the fire, however,
were some of the first skyscrapers in
the country. Before the fire, most of
the houses were made of wood. After
the fire, people chose to build their
houses out of stone or brick. There were
changes in where people lived, as well.
The poor people in the city lived close to
the center of the city before the fire.
After the fire, they moved into
neighborhoods that were farther away
from the downtown area.
One more paragraph!
By Monday night, the town of
Chicago was burning. People
described it as terrible, but
amazing. The flames were
brighter than anything people
had ever seen. The harsh
winds swept the fire across the
city with terrible speed. For
many who watched, it was a
sight to remember for the rest
of their lives.
• Chronological
order
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and effect
• Problem and
solution
• Main idea
One more paragraph!
By Monday night, the town of
Chicago was burning. People
described it as terrible, but
amazing. The flames were
brighter than anything people
had ever seen. The harsh
winds swept the fire across the
city with terrible speed. For
many who watched, it was a
sight to remember for the rest
of their lives.
• Compare and
contrast
• Cause and effect
• Main idea
One more paragraph!
By Monday night, the town of
Chicago was burning. People
described it as terrible, but
amazing. The flames were
brighter than anything people
had ever seen. The harsh
winds swept the fire across the
city with terrible speed. For
many who watched, it was a
sight to remember for the rest
of their lives.
• Main idea
One more paragraph!
By Monday night, the town of
Chicago was burning. People
described it as terrible, but
amazing. The flames were
brighter than anything people
had ever seen. The harsh
winds swept the fire across the
city with terrible speed. For
many who watched, it was a
sight to remember for the rest
of their lives.
• Main idea
• Notice the
main idea
One more paragraph!
By Monday night, the town of
Chicago was burning. People
described it as terrible, but
amazing. The flames were
brighter than anything people
had ever seen. The harsh
winds swept the fire across the
city with terrible speed. For
many who watched, it was a
sight to remember for the rest
of their lives.
• Main idea
• Notice the
main idea
• The rest of the
sentences
explain the
main idea
What have you learned about text
structures?
• Share your ideas with a partner
• Be sure to explain how you can find the text
structure of a paragraph
by Emily Kissner

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