MDS 3.0 Chapter 3 - Section K V1.12

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CMS’s RAI Version 3.0 Manual
CH 3: MDS Items [K]
SECTION K: SWALLOWING/NUTRITIONAL STATUS
Intent: The items in this section are intended to assess the many conditions that could affect
the resident’s ability to maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. This section covers
swallowing disorders, height and weight, weight loss, and nutritional approaches. The assessor
should collaborate with the dietitian and dietary staff to ensure that items in this section have
been assessed and calculated accurately.
K0100: Swallowing Disorder
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
•
The ability to swallow safely can be affected by many disease processes and functional
decline.
Alterations in the ability to swallow can result in choking and aspiration, which can
increase the resident’s risk for malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia.
Planning for Care
•
•
•
•
Care planning should include provisions for monitoring the resident during mealtimes
and during functions/activities that include the consumption of food and liquids.
When necessary, the resident should be evaluated by the physician, speech language
pathologist and/or occupational therapist to assess for any need for swallowing therapy
and/or to provide recommendations regarding the consistency of food and liquids.
Assess for signs and symptoms that suggest a swallowing disorder that has not been
successfully treated or managed with diet modifications or other interventions (e.g., tube
feeding, double swallow, turning head to swallow, etc.) and therefore represents a
functional problem for the resident.
Care plan should be developed to assist resident to maintain safe and effective swallow
using compensatory techniques, alteration in diet consistency, and positioning during and
following meals.
Steps for Assessment
1. Ask the resident if he or she has had any difficulty swallowing during the 7-day look-back
period. Ask about each of the symptoms in K0100A through K0100D.
Observe the resident during meals or at other times when he or she is eating, drinking, or
swallowing to determine whether any of the listed symptoms of possible swallowing disorder
are exhibited.
2. Interview staff members on all shifts who work with the resident and ask if any of the four
listed symptoms were evident during the 7-day look-back period.
April 2012
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0100: Swallowing/Nutritional Status (cont.)
3. Review the medical record, including nursing, physician, dietician, and speech language
pathologist notes, and any available information on dental history or problems. Dental
problems may include poor fitting dentures, dental caries, edentulous, mouth sores, tumors
and/or pain with food consumption.
Coding Instructions
Check all that apply.
•
K0100A, loss of liquids/solids from mouth when eating or drinking. When
the resident has food or liquid in his or her mouth, the food or liquid dribbles down chin
or falls out of the mouth.
•
K0100B, holding food in mouth/cheeks or residual food in mouth after
meals. Holding food in mouth or cheeks for prolonged periods of time (sometimes
labeled pocketing) or food left in mouth because resident failed to empty mouth
completely.
•
K0100C, coughing or choking during meals or when swallowing
medications. The resident may cough or gag, turn red, have more labored breathing,
or have difficulty speaking when eating, drinking, or taking medications. The resident
may frequently complain of food or medications “going down the wrong way.”
•
K0100D, complaints of difficulty or pain with swallowing. Resident may
refuse food because it is painful or difficult to swallow.
•
K0100Z, none of the above: if none of the K0100A through K0100D signs or
symptoms were present during the look-back.
Coding Tips
•
•
Do not code a swallowing problem when interventions have been successful in treating
the problem and therefore the signs/symptoms of the problem (K0100A through
K0100D) did not occur during the 7-day look-back period.
Code even if the symptom occurred only once in the 7-day look-back period.
K0200: Height and Weight
April 2012
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0200: Height and Weight (cont.)
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
Diminished nutritional and hydration status can lead to debility that can adversely affect
health and safety as well as quality of life.
Planning for Care
•
Height and weight measurements assist staff with assessing the resident’s nutrition and
hydration status by providing a mechanism for monitoring stability of weight over a
period of time. The measurement of weight is one guide for determining nutritional
status.
Steps for Assessment for K0200A, Height
1. Base height on the most recent height since the most recent admission/entry or reentry.
Measure and record height in inches.
2. Measure height consistently over time in accordance with the facility policy and procedure,
which should reflect current standards of practice (shoes off, etc.).
3. For subsequent assessments, check the medical record. If the last height recorded was more
than one year ago, measure and record the resident’s height again.
Coding Instructions for K0200A, Height
•
•
Record height to the nearest whole inch.
Use mathematical rounding (i.e., if height measurement is X.5 inches or greater, round
height upward to the nearest whole inch. If height measurement number is X.1 to X.4
inches, round down to the nearest whole inch). For example, a height of 62.5 inches would
be rounded to 63 inches and a height of 62.4 inches would be rounded to 62 inches.
Steps for Assessment for K0200B, Weight
1. Base weight on the most recent measure in the last 30 days.
2. Measure weight consistently over time in accordance with facility policy and procedure,
which should reflect current standards of practice (shoes off, etc.).
3. For subsequent assessments, check the medical record and enter the weight taken within 30
days of the ARD of this assessment.
4. If the last recorded weight was taken more than 30 days prior to the ARD of this assessment
or previous weight is not available, weigh the resident again.
5. If the resident’s weight was taken more than once during the preceding month, record the
most recent weight.
Coding Instructions for K0200B, Weight
•
Use mathematical rounding (i.e., If weight is X.5 pounds [lbs] or more, round weight
upward to the nearest whole pound. If weight is X.1 to X.4 lbs, round down to the nearest
whole pound). For example, a weight of 152.5 lbs would be rounded to 153 lbs and a
weight of 152.4 lbs would be rounded to 152 lbs.
April 2012
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0200: Height and Weight (cont.)
•
If a resident cannot be weighed, for example because of extreme pain, immobility, or risk
of pathological fractures, use the standard no-information code (-) and document rationale
on the resident’s medical record.
K0300: Weight Loss
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
•
•
Weight loss can result in debility and adversely affect
health, safety, and quality of life.
For persons with morbid obesity, controlled and careful
weight loss can improve mobility and health status.
For persons with a large volume (fluid) overload,
controlled and careful diuresis can improve health
status.
Planning for Care
•
•
•
Weight loss may be an important indicator of a change
in the resident’s health status or environment.
If significant weight loss is noted, the interdisciplinary
team should review for possible causes of changed
intake, changed caloric need, change in medication
(e.g., diuretics), or changed fluid volume status.
Weight loss should be monitored on a continuing basis;
weight loss should be assessed and care planned at the
time of detection and not delayed until the next MDS
assessment.
Steps for Assessment
DEFINITIONS
5% WEIGHT LOSS IN 30
DAYS
Start with the resident’s
weight closest to 30 days
ago and multiply it by .95 (or
95%). The resulting figure
represents a 5% loss from
the weight 30 days ago. If the
resident’s current weight is
equal to or less than the
resulting figure, the resident
has lost more than 5% body
weight.
10% WEIGHT LOSS IN
180 DAYS
Start with the resident’s
weight closest to 180 days
ago and multiply it by .90 (or
90%). The resulting figure
represents a 10% loss from
the weight 180 days ago. If
the resident’s current weight
is equal to or less than the
resulting figure, the resident
has lost 10% or more body
weight.
This item compares the resident’s weight in the current observation period with his or her weight
at two snapshots in time:
•
•
At a point closest to 30-days preceding the current weight.
At a point closest to 180-days preceding the current weight.
May 2013
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0300: Weight Loss (cont.)
This item does not consider weight fluctuation outside of these two time points, although the
resident’s weight should be monitored on a continual basis and weight loss assessed and
addressed on the care plan as necessary.
For a New Admission
1. Ask the resident, family, or significant other about weight
loss over the past 30 and 180 days.
2. Consult the resident’s physician, review transfer
documentation, and compare with admission weight.
3. If the admission weight is less than the previous weight,
calculate the percentage of weight loss.
4. Complete the same process to determine and calculate
weight loss comparing the admission weight to the weight
30 and 180 days ago.
For Subsequent Assessments
1. From the medical record, compare the resident’s weight in
the current observation period to his or her weight in the
observation period 30 days ago.
2. If the current weight is less than the weight in the
observation period 30 days ago, calculate the percentage of
weight loss.
3. From the medical record, compare the resident’s weight in
the current observation period to his or her weight in the
observation period 180 days ago.
4. If the current weight is less than the weight in the
observation period 180 days ago, calculate the percentage
of weight loss.
Coding Instructions
DEFINITIONS
PHYSICIANPRESCRIBED WEIGHTLOSS REGIMEN
A weight reduction plan
ordered by the resident’s
physician with the care plan
goal of weight reduction. May
employ a calorie-restricted
diet or other weight loss diets
and exercise. Also includes
planned diuresis. It is
important that weight loss is
intentional.
BODY MASS INDEX
(BMI)
Number calculated from a
person’s weight and height.
BMI is used as a screening
tool to identify possible
weight problems for adults.
Visit http://
www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/
assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/
index.html.
Mathematically round weights as described in Section K0200B before completing the weight loss
calculation.
•
Code 0, no or unknown: if the resident has not experienced weight loss of 5% or
more in the past 30 days or 10% or more in the last 180 days or if information about prior
weight is not available.
•
Code 1, yes on physician-prescribed weight-loss regimen: if the resident
has experienced a weight loss of 5% or more in the past 30 days or 10% or more in the
last 180 days, and the weight loss was planned and pursuant to a physician’s order. In
cases where a resident has a weight loss of 5% or more in 30 days or 10% or more in 180
days as a result of any physician ordered diet plan or expected weight loss due to loss of
fluid with physician orders for diuretics, K0300 can be coded as 1.
May 2013
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0300: Weight Loss (cont.)
•
Code 2, yes, not on physician-prescribed weight-loss regimen: if the
resident has experienced a weight loss of 5% or more in the past 30 days or 10% or more
in the last 180 days, and the weight loss was not planned and prescribed by a physician.
Coding Tips
•
•
•
•
A resident may experience weight variances in between the snapshot time periods.
Although these require follow up at the time, they are not captured on the MDS.
If the resident is losing a significant amount of weight, the facility should not wait for the
30- or 180-day timeframe to address the problem. Weight changes of 5% in 1 month,
7.5% in 3 months, or 10% in 6 months should prompt a thorough assessment of the
resident’s nutritional status.
To code K0300 as 1, yes, the expressed goal of the weight loss diet or the expected
weight loss of edema through the use of diuretics must be documented.
On occasion, a resident with normal BMI or even low BMI is placed on a diabetic or
otherwise calorie-restricted diet. In this instance, the intent of the diet is not to induce
weight loss, and it would not be considered a physician-ordered weight-loss regimen.
Examples
1. Mrs. J has been on a physician ordered calorie-restricted diet for the past year. She and her
physician agreed to a plan of weight reduction. Her current weight is 169 lbs. Her weight 30
days ago was 172 lbs. Her weight 180 days ago was 192 lbs.
Coding: K0300 would be coded 1, yes, on physician-prescribed weightloss regimen.
Rationale:
•
•
April 2012
30-day calculation: 172 x 0.95 = 163.4. Since the resident’s current weight of
169 lbs is more than 163.4 lbs, which is the 5% point, she has not lost 5% body
weight in the last 30 days.
180-day calculation: 192 x .90 = 172.8. Since the resident’s current weight of
169 lbs is less than 172.8 lbs, which is the 10% point, she has lost 10% or more
of body weight in the last 180 days.
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0300: Weight Loss (cont.)
2. Mr. S has had increasing need for assistance with eating over the past 6 months. His current
weight is 195 lbs. His weight 30 days ago was 197 lbs. His weight 180 days ago was 185 lbs.
Coding: K0300 would be coded 0, No.
Rationale:
•
30-day calculation: 197 x 0.95 = 187.15. Because the resident’s current weight
of 195 lbs is more than 187.15 lbs, which is the 5% point, he has not lost 5%
body weight in the last 30 days.
• 180-day calculation: Mr. S’s current weight of 195 lbs is greater than his weight 180
days ago, so there is no need to calculate his weight loss. He has gained weight over
this time period.
3. Ms. K underwent a BKA (below the knee amputation). Her preoperative weight 30 days ago
was 130 lbs. Her most recent postoperative weight is 102 lbs. The amputated leg weighed 8
lbs. Her weight 180 days ago was 125 lbs.
Was the change in weight significant? Calculation of change in weight must take into account
the weight of the amputated limb (which in this case is 6% of 130 lbs = 7.8 lbs).
•
30-day calculation:
Step 1: Add the weight of the amputated limb to the current weight to obtain the
weight if no amputation occurred:
102 lbs (current weight) + 8 lbs (weight of leg) = 110 lbs (current body weight taking
the amputated leg into account)
Step 2: Calculate the difference between the most recent weight (including weight of
the limb) and the previous weight (at 30 days )
130 lbs (preoperative weight) - 110 lbs (present weight if had two legs) = 20 lbs
(weight lost)
Step 3: Calculate the percent weight change relative to the initial weight:
20 lbs (weight change) /130 lbs (preoperative weight) = 15% weight loss
Step 4: The percent weight change is significant if >5% at 30 days
Therefore, the most recent postoperative weight of 102 lbs (110 lbs, taking the
amputated limb into account) is >5% weight loss (significant at 30 days).
•
180-day calculation:
Step 1: Add the weight of the amputated limb to the current weight to obtain the
weight if no amputation occurred:
102 lbs (current weight) + 8 lbs (weight of leg) = 110 lbs (current body weight taking
the amputated leg into account)
Step 2: Calculate the difference between the most recent weight (including weight of
the limb) and the previous weight (at 180 days):
125 lbs (preoperative weight 180 days ago) - 110 lbs (present weight if had two legs) =
15 lbs (weight lost)
Step 3: Calculate the percent weight change relative to the initial weight:
15 lbs (weight change) / 130 lbs (preoperative weight) = 12% weight loss
Step 4: The percent weight change is significant if >10% at 180 days
October 2011
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0300: Weight Loss (cont.)
The most recent postoperative weight of 110 lbs (110 lbs, taking the amputated limb
into account) is >10% weight loss (significant at 180 days).
Present weight of 110 lbs >10% weight loss (significant at 180 days).
Coding: K0300 would be coded 2, yes, weight change is significant; not on
physician-prescribed weight-loss regimen.
Rationale: The resident had a significant weight loss of >5% in 30 days and did have a
weight loss of >10% in 180 days, the item would be coded as 2, yes weight change is
significant; not on physician-prescribed weight–loss regime, with one of the items being
triggered. This item is coded for either a 5% 30-day weight loss or a 10% 180-day weight
loss. In this example both items, the criteria are met but the coding does not change as
long as one of them are met.
K0310: Weight Gain
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
Weight gain can result in debility and adversely affect
health, safety, and quality of life.
Planning for Care
•
•
•
Weight gain may be an important indicator of a change
in the resident’s health status or environment.
If significant weight gain is noted, the interdisciplinary
team should review for possible causes of changed
intake, changed caloric need, change in medication
(e.g., steroidals), or changed fluid volume status.
Weight gain should be monitored on a continuing
basis; weight gain should be assessed and care planned
at the time of detection and not delayed until the next
MDS assessment.
Steps for Assessment
This item compares the resident’s weight in the current
observation period with his or her weight at two snapshots in
time:
• At a point closest to 30-days preceding the current
weight.
• At a point closest to 180-days preceding the current
weight.
May 2013
DEFINITIONS
5% WEIGHT GAIN IN 30
DAYS
Start with the resident’s
weight closest to 30 days
ago and multiply it by 1.05
(or 105%). The resulting
figure represents a 5% gain
from the weight 30 days ago.
If the resident’s current
weight is equal to or more
than the resulting figure, the
resident has gained more
than 5% body weight.
10% WEIGHT GAIN IN
180 DAYS
Start with the resident’s
weight closest to 180 days
ago and multiply it by 1.10
(or 110%). The resulting
figure represents a 10% gain
from the weight 180 days
ago. If the resident’s current
weight is equal to or more
than the resulting figure, the
resident has gained more
than 10% body weight.
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0310: Weight Gain (cont.)
This item does not consider weight fluctuation outside of these two time points, although the
resident’s weight should be monitored on a continual basis and weight gain assessed and
addressed on the care plan as necessary.
For a New Admission
1. Ask the resident, family, or significant other about weight gain over the past 30 and 180 days.
2. Consult the resident’s physician, review transfer documentation, and compare with admission
weight.
3. If the admission weight is more than the previous weight, calculate the percentage of weight
gain.
4. Complete the same process to determine and calculate weight gain comparing the admission
weight to the weight 30 and 180 days ago.
For Subsequent Assessments
1. From the medical record, compare the resident’s weight in the current observation period to
his or her weight in the observation period 30 days ago.
2. If the current weight is more than the weight in the observation period 30 days ago, calculate
the percentage of weight gain.
3. From the medical record, compare the resident’s weight in the current observation period to
his or her weight in the observation period 180 days ago.
4. If the current weight is more than the weight in the observation period 180 days ago,
calculate the percentage of weight gain.
Coding Instructions
Mathematically round weights as described in Section K0200B before completing the weight
gain calculation.
•
Code 0, no or unknown: if the resident has not experienced weight gain of 5% or
more in the past 30 days or 10% or more in the last 180 days or if information about prior
weight is not available.
•
Code 1, yes on physician-prescribed weight-gain regimen: if the resident
has experienced a weight gain of 5% or more in the past 30 days or 10% or more in the
last 180 days, and the weight gain was planned and pursuant to a physician’s order. In
cases where a resident has a weight gain of 5% or more in 30 days or 10% or more in 180
days as a result of any physician ordered diet plan, K0310 can be coded as 1.
•
Code 2, yes, not on physician-prescribed weight-gain regimen: if the
resident has experienced a weight gain of 5% or more in the past 30 days or 10% or more
in the last 180 days, and the weight gain was not planned and prescribed by a physician.
Coding Tips
•
A resident may experience weight variances in between the snapshot time periods.
Although these require follow up at the time, they are not captured on the MDS.
May 2013
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0310: Weight Gain (cont.)
•
If the resident is gaining a significant amount of weight, the facility should not wait for
the 30- or 180-day timeframe to address the problem. Weight changes of 5% in 1 month,
7.5% in 3 months, or 10% in 6 months should prompt a thorough assessment of the
resident’s nutritional status.
•
To code K0310 as 1, yes, the expressed goal of the weight gain diet must be documented.
K0510: Nutritional Approaches
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
Nutritional approaches that vary from the normal (e.g.,
mechanically altered food) or that rely on alternative
methods (e.g., parenteral/IV or feeding tubes) can
diminish an individual’s sense of dignity and self-worth
as well as diminish pleasure from eating.
•
The resident’s clinical condition may potentially
benefit from the various nutritional approaches
included here. It is important to work with the resident
and family members to establish nutritional support
goals that balance the resident’s preferences and overall
clinical goals.
Planning for Care
•
Alternative nutritional approaches should be monitored
to validate effectiveness.
•
Care planning should include periodic reevaluation of
the appropriateness of the approach.
October 2014
DEFINITIONS
PARENTERAL/IV
FEEDING
Introduction of a nutritive
substance into the
body by means other than
the intestinal tract (e.g.,
subcutaneous, intravenous).
FEEDING TUBE
Presence of any type of tube
that can deliver food/
nutritional substances/ fluids/
medications directly into the
gastrointestinal system.
Examples include, but are
not limited to, nasogastric
tubes, gastrostomy tubes,
jejunostomy tubes,
percutaneous endoscopic
gastrostomy (PEG) tubes.
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K0510: Nutritional Approaches (cont.)
Steps for Assessment
•
Review the medical record to determine if any of the
listed nutritional approaches were performed during the
7-day look-back period.
Coding Instructions for Column 1
Check all nutritional approaches performed prior to
admission/entry or reentry to the facility and within the 7-day
look-back period. Leave Column 1 blank if the resident was
admitted/entered or reentered the facility more than 7 days ago.
Coding Instructions for Column 2
Check all nutritional approaches performed after
admission/entry or reentry to the facility and within the 7-day
look-back period.
Check all that apply. If none apply, check K0510Z, None of the
above
•
K0510A, parenteral/IV feeding
•
K0510B, feeding tube – nasogastric or abdominal
(PEG)
•
K0510C, mechanically altered diet – require change
in texture of food or liquids (e.g., pureed food,
thickened liquids)
CH 3: MDS Items [K]
DEFINITIONS
MECHANICALLY
ALTERED DIET
A diet specifically prepared to
alter the texture or
consistency of food to
facilitate oral intake.
Examples include soft
solids, puréed foods, ground
meat, and thickened liquids.
A mechanically altered diet
should not automatically be
considered a therapeutic
diet.
THERAPEUTIC DIET
A therapeutic diet is a diet
intervention ordered by a
health care practitioner as
part of the treatment for a
disease or clinical condition
manifesting an altered
nutritional status, to
eliminate, decrease, or
increase certain substances
in the diet (e.g. sodium,
potassium) (ADA, 2011).
•
K0510D, therapeutic diet (e.g., low salt, diabetic, low cholesterol)
•
K0510Z, none of the above
Coding Tips for K0510A
K0510A includes any and all nutrition and hydration received by the nursing home resident in
the last 7 days either at the nursing home, at the hospital as an outpatient or an inpatient,
provided they were administered for nutrition or hydration.
• Parenteral/IV feeding—The following fluids may be included when there is supporting
documentation that reflects the need for additional fluid intake specifically
addressing a nutrition or hydration need. This supporting documentation should be
noted in the resident’s medical record according to State and/or internal facility
policy:
— IV fluids or hyperalimentation, including total parenteral nutrition (TPN),
administered continuously or intermittently
— IV fluids running at KVO (Keep Vein Open)
— IV fluids contained in IV Piggybacks
— Hypodermoclysis and subcutaneous ports in hydration therapy
April 2012
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0510: Nutritional Approaches (cont.)
— IV fluids can be coded in K0510A if needed to prevent dehydration if the additional
fluid intake is specifically needed for nutrition and hydration. Prevention of
dehydration should be clinically indicated and supporting documentation should be
provided in the medical record.
• The following items are NOT to be coded in K0510A:
— IV Medications—Code these when appropriate in O0100H, IV Medications.
— IV fluids used to reconstitute and/or dilute medications for IV administration.
— IV fluids administered as a routine part of an operative or diagnostic procedure or
recovery room stay.
— IV fluids administered solely as flushes.
— Parenteral/IV fluids administered in conjunction with chemotherapy or dialysis.
• Guidelines on basic fluid and electrolyte replacement can be found online at
http://guidelines.gov/content.aspx?id=15590&search=fluid+and+electrolyte+replacement
+amda.
• Enteral feeding formulas:
— Should not be coded as a mechanically altered diet.
— Should only be coded as K0510D, Therapeutic Diet when the enteral formula is
altered to manage problematic health conditions, e.g. enteral formulas specific to
diabetics.
Coding Tips for K0510D
•
•
•
Therapeutic diets are not defined by the content of what is provided or when it is served,
but why the diet is required. Therapeutic diets provide the corresponding treatment that
addresses a particular disease or clinical condition which is manifesting an altered
nutritional status by providing the specific nutritional requirements to remedy the
alteration.
A nutritional supplement (house supplement or packaged) given as part of the treatment
for a disease or clinical condition manifesting an altered nutrition status, does not
constitute a therapeutic diet, but may be part of a therapeutic diet. Therefore, supplements
(whether given with, in-between, or instead of meals) are only coded in K0510D,
Therapeutic Diet when they are being administered as part of a therapeutic diet to manage
problematic health conditions (e.g. supplement for protein-calorie malnutrition).
Food elimination diets related to food allergies (e.g. peanut allergy) can be coded as a
therapeutic diet.
October 2013
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0510: Nutritional Approaches (cont.)
Examples
1. Mrs. H is receiving an antibiotic in 100 cc of normal saline via IV. She has a urinary tract
infection (UTI), fever, abnormal lab results (e.g., new pyuria, microscopic hematuria, urine
culture with growth >100,000 colony forming units of a urinary pathogen), and documented
inadequate fluid intake (i.e., output of fluids far exceeds fluid intake) with signs and
symptoms of dehydration. She is placed on the nursing home’s hydration plan to ensure
adequate hydration. Documentation shows IV fluids are being administered as part of the
already identified need for additional hydration.
Coding: K0510A would be checked. The IV medication would be coded at IV
Medications item (O0100H).
Rationale: The resident received 100 cc of IV fluid and there is supporting
documentation that reflected an identified need for additional fluid intake for hydration.
2. Mr. J is receiving an antibiotic in 100 cc of normal saline via IV. He has a UTI, no fever, and
documented adequate fluid intake. He is placed on the nursing home’s hydration plan to
ensure adequate hydration.
Coding: K0510A would NOT be checked. The IV medication would be coded at IV
Medications item (O0100H).
Rationale: Although the resident received the additional fluid, there is no
documentation to support a need for additional fluid intake.
K0710: Percent Intake by Artificial Route
Complete K0710 only if Column 1 and/or Column 2 are checked for K0510A and/or K0510B.
Item Rationale
Health-related Quality of Life
•
Nutritional approaches that vary from the normal, such as parenteral/IV or feeding tubes,
can diminish an individual’s sense of dignity and self-worth as well as diminish pleasure
from eating.
October 2013
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CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0710: Percent Intake by Artificial Route (cont.)
Planning for Care
•
•
The proportion of calories received through artificial routes should be monitored with
periodic reassessment to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration.
Periodic reassessment is necessary to facilitate transition to increased oral intake as
indicated by the resident’s condition.
K0710A, Proportion of Total Calories the Resident Received through
Parental or Tube Feeding
Steps for Assessment
1. Review intake records to determine actual intake through parenteral or tube feeding routes.
2. Calculate proportion of total calories received through these routes.
• If the resident took no food or fluids by mouth or took just sips of fluid, stop here and
code 3, 51% or more.
• If the resident had more substantial oral intake than this, consult with the dietician.
Coding Instructions
•
Select the best response:
1. 25% or less
2. 26% to 50%
3. 51% or more
Example
1. Calculation for Proportion of Total Calories from IV or Tube Feeding
Mr. H has had a feeding tube since his surgery two weeks ago. He is currently more alert and
feeling much better. He is very motivated to have the tube removed. He has been taking soft
solids by mouth, but only in small to medium amounts. For the past 7 days, he has been
receiving tube feedings for nutritional supplementation. The dietitian has totaled his calories
per day as follows:
Oral and Tube Feeding Intake
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
Total
October 2013
Oral
500
250
250
350
500
250
350
2,450
Tube
2,000
2,250
2,250
2,250
2,000
2,250
2,000
15,000
Page K-14
CMS’s RAI Version 3.0 Manual
CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0710: Percent Intake by Artificial Route (cont.)
Coding:
K0710A columns 2 and 3 would be coded 3, 51% or more.
Rationale: Total Oral intake is 2,450 calories
Total Tube intake is 15,000 calories
Total calories is 2,450 + 15,000 = 17,450
Calculation of the percentage of total calories by tube feeding:
15,000/17,450 = .859 X 100 = 85.9%
Mr. H received 85.9% of his calories by tube feeding, therefore K0710A
code 3, 51% or more is correct.
K0710B, Average Fluid Intake per Day by IV or Tube Feeding
Steps for Assessment
1.
2.
3.
4.
Review intake records from the last 7 days.
Add up the total amount of fluid received each day by IV and/or tube feedings only.
Divide the week’s total fluid intake by 7 to calculate the average of fluid intake per day.
Divide by 7 even if the resident did not receive IV fluids and/or tube feeding on each of the 7
days.
Coding Instructions
Code for the average number of cc per day of fluid the resident received via IV or tube feeding.
Record what was actually received by the resident, not what was ordered.
•
Code 1: 500 cc/day or less
•
Code 2: 501 cc/day or more
Examples
1. Calculation for Average Daily Fluid Intake
Ms. A, a long term care resident, has swallowing difficulties secondary to Huntington’s
disease. She is able to take oral fluids by mouth with supervision, but not enough to maintain
hydration. She received the following daily fluid totals by supplemental tube feedings
(including water, prepared nutritional supplements, juices) during the last 7 days.
IV Fluid Intake
Sun.
1250 cc
Mon.
775 cc
Tues.
925 cc
Wed.
1200 cc
Thurs.
1200 cc
Fri.
500 cc
Sat.
450 cc
Total
6,300 cc
October 2013
Page K-15
CMS’s RAI Version 3.0 Manual
CH 3: MDS Items [K]
K0710: Percent Intake by Artificial Route (cont.)
Coding:
K0710B columns 2 and 3 would be coded 2, 501cc/day or more.
Rationale: The total fluid intake by supplemental tube feedings = 6,300 cc
6,300 cc divided by 7 days = 900 cc/day
900 cc is greater than 500 cc, therefore code 2, 501 cc/day or more is
correct.
2. Calculation for Average Daily Fluid Intake
Mrs. G. received 1 liter of IV fluids in the hospital on the Tuesday prior to her admission to
the nursing home on Saturday afternoon. She received no other intake via IV or tube feeding
during the last 7 days.
IV Fluid Intake
Sun.
0 cc
Mon.
0 cc
Tues.
1,000 cc
Wed.
0 cc
Thurs.
0 cc
Fri.
0 cc
Sat.
0 cc
Total
1,000 cc
Coding:
K0710B column 1 would be coded 1, 500 cc/day or less.
Rationale: The total fluid intake by supplemental tube feedings = 1000 cc
1000 cc divided by 7 days = 142.9 cc/day
142.9 cc is less than 500 cc, therefore code 1, 500 cc/day or less is
correct.
3. Mr. K. has been able to take some fluids orally, however, due to his progressing multiple
sclerosis, his dysphagia is not allowing him to remain hydrated enough. Therefore, he
received the following fluid amounts over the last 7 days via supplemental tube feedings
while in the hospital and after he was admitted to the nursing home.
While in the Hospital
Mon.
400 cc
Tues.
520 cc
Weds.
500 cc
Thurs.
480 cc
Total
October 2014
1,900 cc
While in the Nursing
Home
Mon.
510 cc
Tues.
520 cc
Weds.
490 cc
Total
1,520 cc
Page K-16
CMS’s RAI Version 3.0 Manual
CH 3: MDS Items [K]
Coding:
K0710B1 would be coded 1, 500 cc/day or less. K0710B2 would be
coded 2, 501 cc/day or more, and K0710B3 would be coded 1, 500 cc/day
or less.
Rationale: The total fluid intake within the last 7 days while Mr. K. was not a
resident was 1,900 cc (400 cc + 520 cc + 500 cc + 480 cc = 1,900 cc).
Average fluid intake while not a resident totaled 475 cc (1,900 cc divided
by 4 days). 475 cc is less than 500 cc, therefore code 1, 500 cc/day or less
is correct for K0710B1, While NOT a Resident.
The total fluid intake within the last 7 days while Mr. K. was a resident of the nursing
home was 1,520 cc (510 cc + 520 cc + 490 cc = 1,520 cc). Average fluid intake while a
resident totaled 507 cc (1,520 cc divided by 3 days). 507 cc is greater than 500 cc,
therefore code 2, 501 cc/day or more is correct for K0710B2, While a Resident.
The total fluid intake during the entire 7 days (includes fluid intake while Mr. K. was in
the hospital AND while Mr. K. was a resident of the nursing home) was 3,420 cc (1,900
cc + 1,520 cc). Average fluid intake during the entire 7 days was 489 cc (3,420 cc divided
by 7 days). 489 cc is less than 500 cc, therefore code 1, 500 cc/day or less is correct for
K0710B3, During Entire 7 Days.
October 2014
Page K-17

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