WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E Digital Power Meter User’s Manual IM WT310E-01EN

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WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E
Digital Power Meter
User’s Manual
IM WT310E-01EN
1st Edition
Thank you for purchasing the WT310E, WT310EH, WT332E, or WT333E Digital Power Meter. This instrument
is a power measurement instrument that can measure parameters such as voltage, current, and power.
This User’s Manual explains the features of this instrument and how to use them. To ensure correct
use, please read this manual thoroughly before beginning operation.
Keep this manual in a safe place for quick reference in the event that a question arises.
List of Manuals
The following manuals, including this one, are provided as manuals for this instrument. Please read all manuals.
Manual Title
Manual No.
Description
WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E IM WT310E-01EN This manual. The manual explains all features of this
Digital Power Meter User’s Manual
instrument, except for the communication interface
features, and how to use them.
WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E IM WT310E-02EN Provided as a printed manual. This manual explains
Digital Power Meter Getting Started
the handling precautions and basic operations of this
Guide
instrument and provides an overview of its features.
WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E IM WT310E-17EN This manual explains the communication interface
Digital Power Meter Communication
features of this instrument and how to use them.
Interface User’s Manual
WT310E/WT310EH/WT332E/WT333E IM WT310E-92Z1 Document for China
Digital Power Meter
PDF files of all the manuals above are included in the accompanying CD.
The “EN” and “Z1” in the manual numbers are the language codes.
Contact information of Yokogawa offices worldwide is provided on the following sheet.
Document No.
PIM 113-01Z2
Description
List of worldwide contacts
Notes
• The contents of this manual are subject to change without prior notice as a result of continuing
improvements to the instrument’s performance and functionality. The figures given in this manual
may differ from those that actually appear on your screen.
• Every effort has been made in the preparation of this manual to ensure the accuracy of its contents. However,
should you have any questions or find any errors, please contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer.
• Copying or reproducing all or any part of the contents of this manual without the permission of
YOKOGAWA is strictly prohibited.
• Safety precautions are provided in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN. Be sure to
observe the safety precautions.
• The TCP/IP software of this product and the documents concerning it have been developed/created
by YOKOGAWA based on the BSD Networking Software, Release 1 that has been licensed from
the Regents of the University of California.
Trademarks
• Microsoft, Internet Explorer, MS-DOS, Windows, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, and
Windows 8.1 are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United
States and/or other countries.
• Adobe and Acrobat are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
• Modbus is a registered trademark of AEG Schneider.
• In this manual, the ® and TM symbols do not accompany their respective registered trademark or
trademark names.
• Other company and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.
Revisions
• September 2015
1st Edition
1st Edition: September 2015 (YMI)
All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 2015 Yokogawa Meters & Instruments Corporation
IM WT310E-01EN
i
Symbols and Notation Used in This Manual
Units
k: Denotes 1000.
K:Denotes 1024.
Example: 100 kHz (frequency)
Example: 720 KB (file size)
Notes
The notes and cautions in this manual are categorized using the following symbols.
Improper handling or use can lead to injury to the user or damage to the
instrument. This symbol appears on the instrument to indicate that the user must
refer to the user’s manual for special instructions. The same symbol appears in
the corresponding place in the user’s manual to identify those instructions. In the
user’s manual, the symbol is used in conjunction with the word “WARNING” or
“CAUTION.”
WARNING
Calls attention to actions or conditions that could cause serious or fatal injury to
the user, and precautions that can be taken to prevent such occurrences.
CAUTION
Calls attention to actions or conditions that could cause light injury to the user
or cause damage to the instrument or user’s data, and precautions that can be
taken to prevent such occurrences.
French
AVERTISSEMENT
ATTENTION
Note
Attire l’attention sur des gestes ou des conditions susceptibles
de provoquer des blessures graves (voire mortelles), et sur les
précautions de sécurité pouvant prévenir de tels accidents.
Attire l’attention sur des gestes ou des conditions susceptibles de
provoquer des blessures légères ou d’endommager l’instrument ou les
données de l’utilisateur, et sur les précautions de sécurité susceptibles
de prévenir de tels accidents.
Calls attention to information that is important for the proper operation of the
software.
Characters That Appear on the 7-Segment LED
Because this instrument uses a 7-segment LED display, numbers, letters, and mathematical symbols
are displayed using special characters in the manner shown below. Some of the characters shown
below are not used by this instrument.
ii
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
Lowercase c
Lowercase h
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
+
×
÷
^ (exponentiation)
IM WT310E-01EN
Conventions Used in This Manual
Symbols and Conventions Used in Procedural Explanations
The contents of the procedural explanations are indicated using the following symbols.
This mark appears on the right side of the page to indicate features and settings that can be
operated and configured using the WTViewerFreePlus application software, which comes with the
instrument.
Procedure
Operations are explained using flowcharts. See the example below for an
explanation of how various operations are indicated. All procedures are written
under the assumption that you are starting operation at the beginning of the
procedure, so you may not need to carry out all the steps in a procedure when
you are changing the settings.
Example: Operations for turning the storage feature on and off
1.
Configure the storage feature.
(Display B)
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
Confirm the
setting.
6.
Close menu.
The above flow chart indicates the following operations.
You can configure items that are blinking.
1. Press the SHIFT key so that it illuminates, and then press SETUP (UTILITY).
A menu appears in display B.
2.Use ▲ or ▼ to select StorE.
Pressing either key cycles through 9 menu items.
3.Press SET to confirm the selection of StorE.
The StorE function menu that you selected in step 2 appears in display C.
4.Use ▲ or ▼ to select oFF or on.
Pressing either key cycles through 3 menu items.
5.Press SET to confirm the selection of oFF.
The selected or set item is confirmed when you press SET.
A menu appears in display B.
6.Press HOLD (ESC) to return the menu display to the measured data display.
• When you are making a number positive (no sign) or negative (–) or setting a number, when the
digit in the display that the input will be added to is blank, an underscore flashes at the position of
the digit.
• While you are performing menu operations, to leave the menu display, press HOLD (ESC). All
setting changes that you have confirmed by pressing the SET key will be reflected in the settings.
Explanation This section describes the setup items and the limitations regarding the
procedures. It may not give a detailed explanation of the feature. For a detailed
explanation of the feature, see chapter 1.
IM WT310E-01EN
iii
Entering Values
Selecting a Value
The digit that is blinking is the one that is currently being set.
Use ▲ or ▼ to select a number.
Moving the Digit That Is Being Set
Press SHIFT+▼ (►) to move the digit that is being set to the right.
If you press SHIFT+▼ (►) when the digit that is being set is the digit that is furthest to the right, the
digit that is being set will switch to the leftmost digit that can be set.
Moving the Decimal Point
Press SHIFT+▲ (.) to move the decimal point to the right.
If you press SHIFT+▲ (.) when the decimal point is as far to the right as it can be, the decimal point
will move to the leftmost possible position.
Increases
the number
Reduces
the number
iv
+
Moves the decimal point to the right
+
Moves the digit that is being set to the right
IM WT310E-01EN
Contents
1
Symbols and Notation Used in This Manual...................................................................................... ii
Entering Values................................................................................................................................. iv
2
Chapter 1 Features
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
Items That This Instrument Can Measure (Measurement functions)................................ 1-1
Measurement Conditions.................................................................................................. 1-5
Holding Measured Values and Performing Single Measurements.................................. 1-13
Measuring Power............................................................................................................ 1-14
Integrated Power (Watt hour).......................................................................................... 1-15
Harmonic Measurement (Option).................................................................................... 1-17
Storing Measured Data and Saving and Loading Setup Parameters.............................. 1-18
Communication Functions............................................................................................... 1-19
Other Features................................................................................................................ 1-20
3
4
5
Chapter 2 Measurement Conditions
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10
2.11 Setting the Measurement Mode........................................................................................ 2-1
Configuring the Wiring System Settings (WT332E/WT333E only).................................... 2-3
Setting the Measurement Range When Using Direct Input............................................... 2-4
Setting the Measurement Ranges When Using an External Current Sensor (Option)...... 2-9
Setting the Scaling Feature When Using a VT or CT...................................................... 2-13
Configuring Measurement Range Skipping..................................................................... 2-16
Setting the Crest Factor.................................................................................................. 2-17
Setting the Measurement Period..................................................................................... 2-18
Configuring the Input Filters............................................................................................ 2-19
Setting the Data Update Interval..................................................................................... 2-21
Setting Averaging............................................................................................................ 2-23
4.6
4.7
Index
Displaying Voltages, Currents, and Active Powers............................................................ 4-1
Displaying Apparent Powers, Reactive Powers, and Power Factors................................ 4-3
Displaying Phase Angles and Frequencies....................................................................... 4-5
Displaying Peak Values..................................................................................................... 4-7
Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations
Using Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers.................................................................. 4-8
Setting the MAX Hold Feature......................................................................................... 4-15
Setting the Number of Displayed Digits........................................................................... 4-16
Chapter 5 Integration
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 IM WT310E-01EN
8
Holding Measured Values................................................................................................. 3-1
Performing Single Measurements..................................................................................... 3-2
Chapter 4 Measuring Power
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
7
App
Chapter 3 Holding Measured Values and Performing Single Measurements
3.1
3.2
6
Integration Feature............................................................................................................ 5-1
Setting the Integration Mode and Timer............................................................................ 5-5
Displaying Integrated Values............................................................................................. 5-6
Notes about Using Integration........................................................................................... 5-9
v
Contents
Chapter 6 Harmonic Measurement (Option)
6.1 6.2 6.3
Harmonic Measurement Feature....................................................................................... 6-1
Displaying Harmonic Measurement Data.......................................................................... 6-3
Setting the PLL Source, Measured Harmonic Order, and THD Equation.......................... 6-6
Chapter 7 Storing Measured Data and Saving and Loading Setup Parameters
7.1 7.2 Storing Measured Data..................................................................................................... 7-1
Saving and Loading Setup Parameters............................................................................. 7-3
Chapter 8 Other Features
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Appendix
Viewing System Information.............................................................................................. 8-1
Initializing the Settings....................................................................................................... 8-2
Performing Zero-Level Compensation.............................................................................. 8-4
Configuring D/A Output Items (Option).............................................................................. 8-5
Enabling Key Protection...................................................................................................8-11
Carrying Out Self-Tests (Selftest).................................................................................... 8-12
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Symbols and Determination of Measurement Functions.................................... App-1
Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits).................................... App-6
Power Range.................................................................................................... App-14
Setting the Measurement Period....................................................................... App-17
Measurement Accuracy and Measurement Error.............................................. App-21
Menu Transition Diagram.................................................................................. App-26
Block Diagram................................................................................................... App-34
Index
vi
IM WT310E-01EN
Chapter 1
1.1
Features
Items That This Instrument Can Measure
(Measurement functions)
1
Features
2
The items that you can measure with this instrument are listed below. For details about how the
values of measurement functions are determined, see appendix 1. For explanations of the terms
measurement function, input element, wiring unit, and Σ function, see “What Is a Measurement
Function?” (page 1-4).
3
WT310E and WT310EH
The WT310E and WT310EH are only equipped with one input element. Because of this, they
can only measure single-phase measurement functions. They cannot measure comprehensive
measurement functions that treat multiple input elements as a single wiring unit (Σ functions).
4
WT332E/WT333E
The WT332E/WT333E is equipped with two or three input elements. Because of this, the WT332E/
WT333E can measure not only single-phase measurement functions for each input element but
also measure measurement functions that treat multiple phases as a single wiring unit (Σ functions).
5
The measurement functions that you can measure using this instrument are divided into normal
measurement and harmonic measurement and listed in the following table.
6
Measurement Functions Used in Normal Measurement
7
Voltage
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
Panel Indicator Description
Light1
Measured for
Each Input
Element
U (RMS)
U (VOLTAGE MEAN)
V
V
Yes
Yes
Measured for
Wiring Units
(WT332E/
WT333E only)
Yes
Yes
U (DC)
U+pk
U-pk
Cf U2
V
Vpk
Vpk
MATH
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
True rms voltage
Rectified mean voltage calibrated
to the rms value
Linear voltage average
Maximum voltage
Minimum voltage
Voltage crest factor
App
Yes: Measured. No: Not measured.
1 Panel indicators indicate the unit of the measured value and the item that is being measured.
They appear on the right or left side of the 7-segment LED display that shows the measured data.
2 This measurement function is set using the MATH feature of this instrument.
Current
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
Panel Indicator Description
Light
Measured for
Each Input
Element
I (RMS)
I (DC)
I+pk
I-pk
Cf I*
A
A
Apk
Apk
MATH
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
True rms current
Linear current average
Maximum current
Minimum current
Current crest factor
Measured for
Wiring Units
(WT332E/
WT333E only)
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
* This measurement function is set using the MATH feature of this instrument.
IM WT310E-01EN
8
1-1
Index
1.1 Items That This Instrument Can Measure
Power
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
Panel Indicator Description
Light
Measured for
Each Input
Element
P
S
Q
λ
Φ
P+pk
P-pk
W
VA
var
PF
°
Wpk
Wpk
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Active power
Apparent power
Reactive power
Power factor
Phase difference
Maximum power
Minimum power
Measured for
Wiring Units
(WT332E/
WT333E only)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Frequency
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
Panel Indicator Description
Light
Measured for
Each Input
Element
fU
fI
fPLL (PLL U)
fPLL (PLL I)
VHz
AHz
VHz
AHz
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Voltage frequency
Current frequency
Frequency of PLL voltage*
Frequency of PLL current*
Measured for
Wiring Units
(WT332E/
WT333E only)
No
No
No
No
* Only on models with the harmonic measurement option
Integrated Power (Watt hour)
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
Panel Indicator Description
Light
Measured for
Each Input
Element
Time
WP
Time
Wh
Yes
Yes
Measured for
Wiring Units
(WT332E/
WT333E only)
No
Yes
WP±
q
Wh±
Ah
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
q±
AV P*
Ah±
MATH
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Integration time
Sum of positive and negative watt
hours
Positive or negative watt hours
Sum of positive and negative
ampere hours
Positive or negative ampere hour
Average active power during
integration
* This measurement function is set using the MATH feature of this instrument.
Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only)*
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
EFFi
Panel Indicator Description
Light
MATH
Efficiency
* This measurement function is set using the MATH feature of the WT332E/WT333E.
Basic Arithmetic*
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
A+B
A-B
A×B
A÷B
A÷B^2
A^2÷B
Panel Indicator
Light
Description
MATH
MATH
MATH
MATH
MATH
MATH
A+B
A-B
A×B
A÷B
A÷B2
A2÷B
* This measurement function is set using the MATH feature of this instrument.
1-2
IM WT310E-01EN
1.1 Items That This Instrument Can Measure
Measurement Functions Used in Harmonic Measurement (Option)
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
U(k)
I(k)
P(k)
λ(k)
Φ(k)
Panel Indicator Description
Light
Uthd
Ithd
Uhdf(k)
Ihdf(k)
Phdf(k)
ΦU(k)
THD V%
THD A%
V%
A%
W%
V°
ΦI(k)
A°
V
A
W
PF
V° or
A°
Rms voltage value of harmonic order k
Rms current value of harmonic order k
Active power of harmonic order k
Power factor of the fundamental wave (1st harmonic)
Phase difference between the fundamental voltage and fundamental
current when the harmonic order k is the 1st harmonic (fundamental
wave)
Total harmonic voltage distortion
Total harmonic current distortion
Harmonic distortion factor of voltage for harmonic order k
Harmonic distortion factor of current for harmonic order k
Harmonic distortion factor of power for harmonic order k
Phase difference between the voltage of harmonic order k and and the
fundamental voltage
Phase difference between the current of harmonic order k and the
fundamental current
Features
Harmonic measurement functions are measured for each input element and only work with singlephase measurement. They cannot measure comprehensive measurement functions that treat multiple
phases as a single wiring unit (Σ functions).
1
2
3
4
5
6
k: The harmonic order, which is indicated in display A.
7
Harmonic Measurement Function Orders
The harmonic orders that you can specify are indicated below.
Measurement
Function
(Symbol)
U(k)
I(k)
P(k)
λ(k)
Φ(k)
Uthd
Ithd
Uhdf(k)
Ihdf(k)
Phdf(k)
ΦU(k)
ΦI(k)
Panel Indicator Total Value (Total rms 1 (fundamental
Light
value)
wave)
Harmonics
V
A
W
PF
V° or
A°
THD V%
THD A%
V%
A%
W%
V°
A°
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
2 to 50*
8
App
Index
k: The harmonic order
* The maximum measured harmonic order varies depending on the frequency of the fundamental
wave. (See section 7.4, “Harmonic Measurement,” in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E02EN.)
IM WT310E-01EN
1-3
1.1 Items That This Instrument Can Measure
What Is a Measurement Function?
Measurement Function
The physical values—such as rms voltage, average current, power, and phase difference—that this
instrument measures and displays are called measurement functions. Each measurement function
is displayed using a symbol that corresponds to its physical value. For example, “U” corresponds to
the voltage. The unit is “V.” When the measurement mode is RMS (see section 1.2, “Measurement
Conditions”), the true rms voltage is displayed.
WT310E and WT310EH
Input Element
An input element is a set of input terminals that a single phase of voltage and current that you want
to measure can be applied to. The WT310E/WT310EH has one input element.
Input element
Current input
Voltage input
Wiring System
The WT310E/WT310EH uses a single-phase, two-wire system.
Wiring Units and Σ Functions
The WT310E/WT310EH does not have multiple input elements that can be combined into wiring
units and Σ functions.
WT332E/WT333E
Input Elements
An input element is a set of input terminals that a single phase of voltage and current that you
want to measure can be applied to. The WT333E can be equipped with three input elements. The
element numbers range from 1 to 3.
Wiring Systems
To measure the power of various single-phase and three phase power transmission systems using
the WT332E/WT333E, not only can you specify a single-phase, two-wire system, you can also
specify a single-phase, three-wire system; a three-phase, three-wire system; a three-phase, fourwire system; or a three-phase, three-wire system that uses the three-voltage, three-current method.
Wiring Unit
A wiring unit is a set of two or three input elements that are grouped to measure three-phase power.
Wiring units are represented by the Σ symbol.
Σ Functions
A measurement function of a wiring unit is called a Σ function. For example, “UΣ” corresponds
to the average of the voltages of the input elements that are assigned to wiring unit Σ. When the
measurement mode is RMS, the true rms voltage is displayed.
Input elements
Voltage input
Current input
1
2
3
Three-phase, four-wire
Wiring system
Σ
Symbol indicating the wiring unit.
1-4
IM WT310E-01EN
1.2
Measurement Conditions
1
Features
2
Voltage and Current Measurement Modes (For procedures, see
section 2.1)
You can select one of the following three voltage measurement modes: RMS, MEAN (VOLTAGE
MEAN), and DC.
You can select one of the following two current measurement modes: RMS and DC.
3
RMS (True RMS)
4
The true voltage or current rms value.
T
1
T 0
(t) 2 dt
f(t) : Input signal
T : One period of the input signal
5
MEAN (VOLTAGE MEAN, rectified mean value calibrated to the
rms value)
One period of the voltage is rectified and the resulting average is multiplied by the factor that would
yield the true rms value if the applied signal were a sine wave. When sine waves are measured, the
values obtained in this mode are the same as those obtained in RMS mode. The values differ from
those obtained in RMS mode when distorted waves or DC waves are measured.
π
·
2 2
1
T
T 0
(t) dt
8
The average of one period of the voltage or current. This mode is useful for determining the average
value of a DC input signal or the value of a DC signal that is superimposed on an AC signal.
1
T 0
(t) dt
7
f(t) : Input signal
T : One period of the input signal
DC (Linear average)
T
6
App
f(t) : Input signal
T : One period of the input signal
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
1-5
1.2 Measurement Conditions
Wiring Systems (For procedures, see section 2.1)
The wiring systems that you can select vary depending on the model.
WT310E and WT310EH
The WT310E and WT310EH are only equipped with one input element. You can measure singlephase, two-wire systems. Because there is only one input element, you cannot select different wiring
systems.
WT332E (Two Input Element Model)
The WT332E is equipped with two input elements (element 1 and element 3). On the WT332E, you
can select the following wiring systems.
Wiring System
1P3W
3P3W
Description
Single-phase, three-wire
Three-phase, three-wire
Elements
Element 1 and element 3
Element 1 and element 3
The measured data when a single-phase, two-wire system (1P2W) has been specified is the measured
data for elements 1 and 3.
The measured data for a single-phase, two-wire system will be measured correctly regardless of which
of the above wiring systems you select.
WT333E (Three Input Element Model)
The WT333E is equipped with three input elements (element 1, element 2, and element 3). On the
WT333E, you can select the following wiring systems.
Wiring System
1P3W
3P3W
3P4W
3V3A
Description
Single-phase, three-wire
Three-phase, three-wire
Three-phase, four-wire
Three-voltage, threecurrent method
Elements
Element 1 and element 3. Element 2 is 1P2W.
Element 1 and element 3. Element 2 is 1P2W.
Elements 1, 2, and 3
Elements 1, 2, and 3
The measured data when a single-phase, two-wire system (1P2W) has been specified is the
measured data for elements 1, 2, and 3. The measured data for a single-phase, two-wire system will
be measured correctly regardless of which of the above wiring systems you select.
1-6
IM WT310E-01EN
1.2 Measurement Conditions
1
Measurement Ranges (For procedures, see section 2.3)
Features
Specify the measurement ranges in accordance with the rms values of the voltage and current that you
want to measure. You can specify fixed measurement ranges or have the ranges set automatically.
2
Fixed Ranges
You can select a range from various options. Even if the size of the input signal changes, the selected
range will not change. For voltage, when the crest factor is set to 3, the maximum range that you can
select is 600 V, and the minimum range that you can select is 15 V.
When the crest factor is set to 6 or 6a, the maximum range that you can select is 300 V, and the
minimum range that you can select is 7.5 V.
Auto Range
This instrument automatically switches the range according to the size of the input signal. The ranges
that this instrument switches between are the same ranges that you can select as fixed ranges.
Range Increase
3
4
5
The range is increased when any of the following conditions is met.
• Crest factor 3
Urms or Irms exceeds 130% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 300% of the currently set measurement range.
• Crest factor 6
Urms or Irms exceeds 130% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 600% of the currently set measurement range.
• Crest factor 6A
Urms or Irms exceeds 260% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 600% of the currently set measurement range.
On the WT332E/WT333E, when any of the equipped input elements meets any of the above
conditions, the measurement range is increased.
6
7
8
Range Decrease
The range is decreased when all of the following conditions are met.
• Crest factor 3
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 30% of the measurement range.
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 125% of the next lower measurement range.
• Upk or Ipk is less than or equal to 300% of the next lower measurement range.
• Crest factor 6, 6A
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 30% of the measurement range.
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 125% of the next lower measurement range.
• Upk or Ipk is less than or equal to 600% of the next lower measurement range.
On the WT332E/WT333E, when all the input elements meet all the above conditions, the
measurement range is decreased.
App
Index
Range Skipping (For procedures, see section 2.6)
You can select which measurement ranges to skip (range configuration). Measurement ranges that are
not used are skipped, and this instrument switches between the measurement ranges that you have
chosen to enable. For example, when using the auto range feature to measure the current of a device
that produces 5 A in operation mode and 500 mA in standby mode, you can configure range skipping
so that the 1 A and 2 A ranges are disabled. When you are measuring the current of the device in
standby mode in the 500 mA range and the device switches to operation mode, the intermediate 1 A
and 2 A ranges are skipped, and the device switches to the 5 A range. Range skipping can reduce the
loss of measured data that can occur when ranges are switched one by one.
You can turn range skipping on and off from the display menu of this instrument. You can specify
which measurement ranges to skip by sending communication commands through the communication
interface or by using WTViewerFreePlus.
IM WT310E-01EN
1-7
1.2 Measurement Conditions
Measurement range
When range skipping is off
5A
2A
1A
0.5A
When range skipping is on
Range skip check box
Peak Over Jump
You can set the measurement range to switch to when a peak over-range occurs and the auto range feature
is enabled. You can set this feature by sending communication commands through the communication
interface or by using WTViewerFreePlus. When this feature is disabled and a peak over-range occurs, this
instrument raises the measurement range to the next range that has not been set to be skipped.
Setting Measurement Ranges (For procedures, see section 2.3)
There are two ways to set measurement ranges.
Setting Measurement Ranges Using the Measurement Range Menu
The measurement range menu appears when you press VOLTAGE or CURRENT. Set the
measurement range using the ▼ and ▲ keys, and then press SET. The measurement range will
change, and the measured data display will reappear.
Setting Measurement Ranges without Displaying the Measurement Range Menu
The measurement range menu does not appear when you press VOLTAGE or CURRENT. You can
set the measurement range using the ▼ and ▲ keys.
Press ▼ or ▲ to switch the measurement range. For a fixed period of time, after the current range
is displayed, the measured data display will reappear.
There is no need to press SET, so this way of setting the measurement range is convenient in the
following situations.
• When you switch the measurement range frequently
• When you want to switch between measurement ranges one by one and check the measured
data each time
Example: When you are searching for a measurement range within which over ranges and peak
over-ranges do not occur.
Power Range
The measurement range (power range) for measuring active power, apparent power, and reactive
power is determined as indicated below in accordance with the wiring system, voltage range, and
current range. See appendix 3 for specific power range values.
Wiring System
1P2W (single-phase, two-wire)
1P3W (single-phase, three-wire)
3P3W (three-phase, three-wire)
3V3A (three-voltage, three-current method)
3P4W (three-phase, four-wire)
Power Range
Voltage range × current range
Voltage range × current range × 2
Voltage range × current range × 3
External Current Sensor Range (Option; for procedures, see
section 2.4)
The output of current sensors that produce voltage, such as shunts and clamps, can be applied to an
element’s external current sensor input terminal (EXT) and measured.
The auto range feature can be used for this applied voltage as well.
External Current Sensor Conversion Ratio (Option; for
procedures, see section 2.4)
Set the conversion ratio used to measure the signal received by the external current sensor input
terminal (EXT) from a current sensor that produces voltage. Set how many millivolts the current sensor
transmits when 1 A of current is applied (conversion ratio).
When using a current sensor that produces current, set the conversion ratio as the CT ratio.
1-8
IM WT310E-01EN
1.2 Measurement Conditions
1
Scaling (For procedures, see section 2.5)
Features
You can set coefficients for when you apply a voltage or current signal from an external voltage
transformer1 or current transformer.2
1 VT (voltage transformer)
2 CT (current transformer)
2
VT Ratio and CT Ratio
You can set the VT or CT ratio to convert the values in the applied signal and display the voltage or
current values or waveform from before the voltage or current transformation.
3
Power Coefficient
By setting the power coefficient (F), you can display the measured active power, apparent power, and
reactive power after they have been multiplied by a coefficient.
Measurement Function
Voltage U
Current I
Active power P
Apparent power S
Reactive power Q
Max./min. voltage Upk
Max./min. current Ipk
Data before Transformation
U2 (secondary output of the VT)
I2 (secondary output of the CT)
P2
S2
Q2
Upk2 (secondary output of the VT)
Ipk2 (secondary output of the CT)
Transformation Result
U2×V
I2×C
P2×V×C×F
S2×V×C×F
Q2×V×C×F
Upk2×V
Ipk2×C
V: VT ratio
C: CT ratio
F: Power coefficient
7
The crest factor is defined as the ratio of the peak value of the waveform to the rms value. It is also
referred to as the peak-to-rms ratio.
Crest factor (CF, peak-to-rms ratio) =
5
6
Crest Factor (For procedures, see section 2.7)
4
Peak value
Rms value
8
Peak value
Rms value
App
Input signal waveform
Index
On this instrument, the crest factor is the ratio of the maximum applicable peak value to the
measurement range.
Crest factor (CF, peak-to-rms ratio) =
Peak value that can be input
Measurement range
You can set the crest factor to 3, 6 or 6A. The measurable crest factor is as follows.
Crest factor (CF) =
{Measurement range × CF setting (3 or 6)}
Measured value (rms value)
* However, the peak value of the input signal must be less than or equal to the maximum allowable
input.
If the crest factor of the input signal is greater than the specifications of this instrument (the crest factor
defined at the rated input), you can measure the signal by setting a greater measurement range. For
example, even if the crest factor is set to 3, measurement is possible for signals with a crest factor
greater than or equal to 5 when the measured value (rms value) is less than 60% of the measurement
range. If the minimum effective input (1% of the measurement range) is being applied when the crest
factor is set to 3, measurement at a crest factor of 300 is possible.
The voltage range, current range, effective input range, and measurement accuracy vary depending
on the crest factor setting. For details, see chapter 7 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
IM WT310E-01EN
1-9
1.2 Measurement Conditions
Measurement Period (For procedures, see section 2.8)
Measurement Period for Measurement Functions Used in Normal
Measurement
The measurement period is determined by the input signal that is used as the reference (synchronization
source). The measurement period is set within the data update interval between the first point where the
sync source crosses the level-zero point (center of the amplitude) on a rising slope (or falling slope) and
the last point where the sync source crosses the level-zero point on a rising slope (or falling slope).
Data update interval:
Measurement period
Synchronization
source
Rising zero crossing
Falling zero crossing
If there is not more than one rising or falling slope within the data update interval, the entire data
update interval is set as the measurement period.
Data update interval:
Measurement period
Synchronization
source
The measurement period for determining the numeric data of the peak voltage or peak current is
always the entire span of the data update interval. Therefore, the measurement period for the following
measurement functions, which are determined on the basis of the maximum voltage or current, is also
the entire span of the data update interval.
Peak voltage (U+pk/U-pk), peak current (I+pk/I-pk), and peak power (P+pk/P-pk)
For details, see appendix 5.
Measurement Period for Measurement Functions Used in
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
The measurement period extends from the first sample in the data update interval for 1024 points,
counted at the harmonic sampling frequency.
This instrument determines the harmonic sampling frequency automatically based on the period of
the signal that is set as the PLL source. The sampling data and measurement period that are used
to determine the values of harmonic measurement functions may be different from those used to
determine the values of normal measurement functions.
Data Update Interval (For procedures, see section 2.10)
The data update interval is the interval at which sampled data is acquired and measurement functions
are computed, displayed, transmitted, and output through D/A conversion.
You can select the data update interval from the options below.
0.1 s, 0.25 s, 0.5 s, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s or Auto
At each data update interval, the numeric data is updated, stored, converted and output as analog
signals, and transmitted through the communication interface.
When set to Auto, every time a period of the input waveform specified as the synchronization source
is detected, measured data is updated, output as analog signals, and transmitted through the
communication interface.
To capture relatively fast load fluctuations in the power system, select a fast data update interval. To
capture low frequency signals, select a slow data update interval.
If the fluctuation in the input signal period is large, select Auto.
1-10
IM WT310E-01EN
1.2 Measurement Conditions
1
Input Filters (For procedures, see section 2.9)
Line Filter
Because the line filter is inserted into the voltage and current measurement input circuits, it directly
affects voltage, current, and power measurements (see the block diagram in appendix 7). When the
line filter is turned on, measured values do not contain high frequency components. Thus, the voltage,
current, and power of inverter waveforms, distorted waveforms, etc., can be measured with their high
frequency components eliminated.
Frequency Filter
The frequency filter is inserted into the frequency measurement input circuit and affects frequency
measurements. It also affects the detection of the measurement period for voltage, current, and power
measurements (see appendix 4). In this case, the filter also acts as a filter for detecting the zerocrossing of the synchronization source signal more accurately. The frequency filter is not inserted
into the voltage and current measurement input circuits. Therefore, the measured values include high
frequency components even when the frequency filter is turned on.
You can take exponential or moving averages of the numeric data. The averaging function is useful
when because of large changes in the power or load or a low input signal frequency, the numeric
display fluctuates and is difficult to read.
Turning Averaging On and Off
Measurement Functions Used in Normal Measurement
You can select whether to average values. When you enable averaging (ON), the AVG indicator
illuminates.
Measurement Functions Used in Harmonic Measurement (Option)
• If averaging is turned on, and the averaging type is EP (exponential averaging), averaging is
performed on harmonic measurement functions.
• Even if averaging is turned on, if the averaging type is Lin (moving average), averaging is not
performed on harmonic measurement functions.
Averaging Types
You can use exponential or moving averages.
Exponential Averaging
With the specified attenuation constant, the numeric data is exponentially averaged according to the
equation below.
(Mn−Dn−1)
K
Dn: Displayed value that has been exponentially averaged n times. (The first displayed value, D1, is
equal to M1.)
Dn–1: Displayed value that has been exponentially averaged n–1 times.
Mn: Numeric data at the nth time.
K: Attenuation constant (select from 8, 16, 32, and 64)
IM WT310E-01EN
2
3
4
5
6
Averaging (For procedures, see section 2.11)
Dn = Dn−1+
Features
There are two types of input filters: the line filter and the frequency filter.
1-11
7
8
App
Index
1.2 Measurement Conditions
Moving Average
The specified average count is used to compute linear averages according to the equation below.
Mn−(m−1)+ • • • Mn−2+Mn−1+Mn
Dn =
m
Dn: Displayed value of the linear average of m items of numeric data from the n–(m–1)th to the nth
time
Mn–(m–1): Numeric data at the n–(m–1)th time
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
Mn–2: Numeric data at the n–2th time
Mn-1: Numeric data at the n–1th time
Mn: Numeric data at the nth time
m: Average count (select from 8, 16, 32, and 64)
Measurement Functions That Are Averaged
The measurement functions that are directly averaged are indicated below. Other functions that use
these functions in their computation are also affected by averaging. For details about how the values
of measurement functions are determined, see appendix 1 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E02EN.
Measurement Functions Used in Normal Measurement
• U, I, P, S, and Q
• λ, Φ, Cf U, and Cf I are computed using the averaged values of Urms, Irms, P, S, and Q.
Measurement Functions Used in Harmonic Measurement (Option)
• U(k), I(k), and P(k)
• λ(k) and Φ(k) are computed using the averaged values of P(k) and Q(k).
• Uthd, Ithd, Uhdf(k), Ihdf(k), and Phdf(k) are computed using the averaged values of U(k), I(k),
and P(k).
k: The harmonic order
Q(k): reactive power of harmonic order k
Measurement Functions That Are Not Averaged
The following measurement functions are not averaged.
Measurement Functions Used in Normal Measurement
fU, fI, U+pk, U–pk, I+pk, I–pk, P+pk, P−pk, Time, WP, WP+, WP–, q, q+, and q–
Measurement Functions Used in Harmonic Measurement (Option)
ΦU(k), ΦI(k), and fPLL
1-12
IM WT310E-01EN
1.3
Holding Measured Values and Performing
Single Measurements
1
You can use the hold operation to stop measuring and displaying the measured data at each data
update interval and hold the display of all measurement function data. The D/A output, communication
output, and other values reflect the held values.
Features
Holding Measured Values (HOLD; for procedures, see section 3.1)
2
3
Single Measurement (SINGLE; for procedures, see section 3.2)
While the display is held, the signal is measured once at the data update interval, and then the display
is re-held. If you press SHIFT+HOLD (SINGLE) when the display is not held, measurement restarts
from that point.
4
5
6
7
8
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
1-13
1.4
Measuring Power
Displaying Measured Data (For procedures, see section 4.1 to 4.5)
You can display voltage, current, and power values and other measurement data on the display. The
measured data is displayed on four red, high-intensity, 7-segment LED displays. You can observe 4
values at the same time. For information about the measurement function symbols that are displayed
and their meanings, see “Items That This Instrument Can Measure.”
MAX Hold (For procedures, see section 4.6)
You can hold the maximum values of U, I, P, S, Q, U+pk, U-pk, I+pk, I-pk, P+pk, and P-pk. While the
MAX hold feature is on, maximum values are held.
Computation Functions
Efficiency (Only applies to the WT332E/WT333E; for procedures,
see section 4.5)
You can compute the efficiency.
Crest Factor (For procedures, see section 4.5)
Determines the voltage or current crest factor by dividing the peak value by the rms value.
Basic Arithmetic (For procedures, see section 4.5)
Displays six types of computed results. (A+B, A–B, A*B, A/B, A2/B, and A/B2)
Average Active Power during Integration (For procedures, see
section 4.5)
You can compute the average active power within the integrated period. This instrument determines
the average active power by dividing the watt hour (integrated active power) by the integration time.
1-14
IM WT310E-01EN
1.5
Integrated Power (Watt hour)
1
Features
You can integrate the active power (watt hour) and current (ampere hour).
For information about the measurement function symbols for integrated power (watt hour) and their
meanings, see “Items That This Instrument Can Measure.”
2
3
Integration Modes (For procedures, see section 5.2)
The integration feature has the following three modes.
Integration Mode
Manual integration mode
Standard integration mode
Continuous (repetitive) integration
mode
Start
Key operation
Key operation
Key operation
Stop
Key operation
Stopped by the timer
Key operation
Repetition
----Repeats when the timer
expires
4
5
Manual Integration Mode
When you set the integration mode to standard integration mode (nor) and set the integration timer
to 00000:00:00, this instrument performs integration in manual integration mode. When you press
START, integration starts, and it continues until you press STOP. However, if either of the conditions
below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time and integrated value are held.
• The integration time reaches the maximum integration time (10000 hours).
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
7
Hold
Hold
Integrated
value
8
When the maximum
integrated value is reached
App
Hold
Hold
Integration
time
Index
Start
IM WT310E-01EN
6
Stop
Reset Start
Reset
1-15
1.5 Integrated Power (Watt hour)
Standard Integration Mode
You can set a relative integration time (set a timer). Integration starts when you press START. When
one of the conditions below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time and integrated value
are held.
• The specified timer time elapses.
• You press STOP.
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
Hold
Integrated
value
Hold
Integration
time
Timer value
Start
Reset
Continuous Integration Mode
You can set a relative integration time. Integration starts when you press START. When the specified
integration timer time elapses, integration is automatically reset and restarted. Integration repeats until
you press Stop. If either of the conditions below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time
and integrated value are held.
• You press STOP.
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
Integrated
value
Integration
time
Hold
Hold
Timer
value
Start
Timer
value
Timer
value
Stop
Reset
Integration Methods (Equations)
For information on the equations used for integration, see appendix 1.
1-16
IM WT310E-01EN
1.6
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
1
Features
Using harmonic measurement, you can measure voltage, current, and active power up to the 50th
harmonic; the harmonic distortion factor for each harmonic order; and the phase angle of each
harmonic order with respect to the fundamental wave (1st harmonic). You can also compute the
total rms values (fundamental wave + harmonics) for voltage, current, and active power and the total
harmonic distortion (THD).
For a list of the symbols for the measurement functions that can be measured with harmonic
measurement and their descriptions, see “Harmonic Measurement Functions” under “Items That This
Instrument Can Measure.”
2
3
4
PLL Source (For procedures, see section 6.3)
For harmonics to be measured, the fundamental period (the period of the fundamental signal) that will
be used to analyze the harmonics must be determined. The signal for determining the fundamental
period is the PLL (phase locked loop) source. For stable harmonic measurement, use an input signal
with low distortion and few fluctuations as the PLL source.
For explanations of the terms fundamental wave, harmonics, harmonic orders, and other terms, see
appendix 2.
5
6
Measured Harmonic Order (For procedures, see section 6.3)
You can set the upper limit of measured harmonic order in the range of 2 to 50. However, the range
varies depending on the fundamental (1st harmonic) frequency. This is because the upper limit of
harmonics that are computed varies depending on the fundamental frequency. The default value is 50.
Total Harmonic Distortion Equation (For procedures, see section
6.3)
You can select the equation for determining the total harmonic distortion from the options listed below.
The following explanations are for when the upper limit of measured harmonic order is 50. If the
maximum number of measured harmonic orders is less than 50, the equation will be applied to the
harmonic orders up to the specified maximum number.
• IEC: The ratio of the rms value of harmonics 2 to 50 to the rms value of the fundamental wave (1st
harmonic) is calculated.
• CSA: The ratio of the rms value of harmonics 2 to 50 to the rms value of harmonics 1 to 50 is
calculated.
IM WT310E-01EN
1-17
7
8
App
Index
1.7
Storing Measured Data and Saving and
Loading Setup Parameters
Measured data and setup parameters are stored in internal memory.
Storing Measured Data (For procedures, see section 7.1)
All of the data obtained in a single data update interval is stored as a single block. The number of
data items varies depending on the number of equipped input elements. As a result, the number
of blocks that can be stored varies depending on the device. You cannot load and display stored
measurement data on the display of this instrument. You can use communication functions to send
stored measurement data to a PC, and you can then view the data on the PC.
Saving and Loading Setup Parameters (For procedures, see
section 7.2)
You can save four sets of setup parameters on this instrument.
You can load saved setup parameters and restore the saved settings.
1-18
IM WT310E-01EN
1.8
Communication Functions
1
This instrument can be equipped with the following communication interfaces.
•USB
• GP-IB (suffix code: -C1)
• RS-232 (suffix code: -C2)
• Ethernet (suffix code: /C7)
Features
When you connect this instrument to a PC, you can save measured data to the PC and change the
settings of this instrument from the PC.
2
3
4
WTViewerFreePlus
You can use the WTViewerFreePlus application that comes with this instrument to save measured
data to a PC and change the settings of this instrument without creating your own communication
control programs.
5
PC monitor
6
WT332E/WT333E
WT310E/WT310EH
7
Saved data
8
Setting changes
Example of a window for configuring
this instrument
Example of a window showing measured data
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
1-19
1.9
Other Features
Initializing Setup Parameters (For procedures, see section 8.2)
You can use this feature to restore the setup parameters to the factory default settings.
Zero-Level Compensation (For procedures, see section 8.3)
Zero-level compensation refers to the process wherein this instrument creates a zero input condition in
its internal circuitry and sets the zero level to the level at that point. Zero-level compensation must be
performed to satisfy the specifications of this instrument. When the measurement range is changed,
zero-level compensation is performed automatically. However, if the measurement range is not
changed for a long time, the zero level may shift due to environmental changes around the instrument.
In this case, you can manually perform zero-level compensation.
D/A Output (Option; for procedures, see section 8.4)
You can output voltage, current, active power, apparent power, reactive power, power factor, phase
angle, frequency, voltage peak, current peak, and integrated values as a ±5 V FS DC voltage. You
can output values using 4 output channels on the WT310E/WT310EH and 12 output channels on the
WT332E/WT333E.
Remote Control (Option; for details, see chapter 5 of the Getting
Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN)
On models with the /DA4 or /DA12 option, you can control this instrument using a negative TTL pulse
signal and output logic signals.
External Input
The following five types of control signals are available.
• EXT HOLD
Holds displayed values or releases the held state.
• EXT TRIG
Updates the displayed values when they are being held.
• EXT START
Starts integration.
• EXT STOP
Stops integration.
• EXT RESET
Resets the integration result.
External Output
The following signal is output during integration.
INTEG BUSY
This signal is output continuously from the start to the stop of integration.
Key Protection (For procedures, see section 8.5)
You can disable all panel keys other than the power switch and the KEY PROTECT switch.
1-20
IM WT310E-01EN
Chapter 2
2.1
Measurement Conditions
Setting the Measurement Mode
1
2
Procedure
Measurement Conditions
Press SHIFT+VOLTAGE (MODE) to select the measurement mode.
Each time you press SHIFT+VOLTAGE (MODE), the measurement mode changes in the order shown
below.
3
4
Explanation
Measurement Mode
One of the following measurement modes can be selected for the measurement of voltage and current.
The default setting is RMS.
Indicator
RMS
VOLTAGE MEAN
Voltage
True rms value
Rectified mean value
calibrated to the rms value
Linear average
DC
Current
True rms value
True rms value
6
Linear average
7
Theoretical Equations
RMS
8
Select this mode to display the true rms values of the voltage and current.
1
T
T
0
(t) 2 dt
5
f(t) : Input signal
T : One period of the input signal
App
VOLTAGE MEAN
Select this mode to display the voltage as a rectified mean value calibrated to the rms value. A sine
wave is used to calibrate the value to the rms value, so when sine waves are measured, the values
obtained in this mode are the same as those obtained in RMS mode. The values differ from those
obtained in RMS mode when waves other than sine waves, such as distorted waves and DC waves,
are measured.
T
π
1
·
T 0
2 2
(t) dt
f(t) : Input signal
T : One period of the input signal
DC
Select this mode when the input voltage or current is DC. The input signal is linearly averaged, and the
result is displayed.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-1
Index
2.1 Setting the Measurement Mode
Typical Waveform Types and Differences in Measured Values
between Measurement Modes
This instrument does not support the rectified mean value measurement mode shown in the table
below.
Measurement Mode
Name
Display
Waveform
Sine wave
Half-wave
rectification
Full-wave
rectification
0
0
π
0
2π
Direct
current
Triangular
wave
Square
wave
0
π
0
π
2π
2
2
π
Ep
Ep
Ep
2
π
Ep
2
2
π
Ep
Ep
Ep
Ep
Ep
3
2
Ep
Ep
Ep
2π
2π
τ
Ep
0
• Ep
2π
• Ep
2π
Ep
2
2
2
π
2
π
4
2
π
2
2
πτ
4π 2
2
π
Ep
π
2
Ep
2
πD
D • Ep
0
2
2
• Ep
• Ep
Ep
• Ep
0
• Ep
0
• Ep
When the above is expressed using duty D (=
D • Ep
2-2
τ
DC
Ep
• Ep
Ep
Linear
Average
VOLTAGE
MEAN
• Ep
Ep
τ
Pulse
―
Ep
2π
2π
Rectified Mean
Rectified
Value Calibrated to
Mean Value the Rms Value
RMS
Ep
π
π
Rms Value
• Ep
τ
2π
• Ep
τ
)
2π
D• Ep
IM WT310E-01EN
2.2
Configuring the Wiring System Settings
(WT332E/WT333E only)
1
2
Procedure
WT332E
(2 input elements)
1P3W
3P3W
3P4W
3V3A
1P3W
3P3W
3P4W
3V3A
WT333E
(3 input elements)
Measurement Conditions
Press WIRING to select the wiring system.
Each time you press WIRING, the wiring system changes in the order shown below.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no wiring system selection.
3
4
5
Explanation
Wiring System
6
The wiring systems that you can select vary depending on the model.
WT310E and WT310EH
The WT310E and WT310EH are only equipped with one input element. You can measure single-phase,
two-wire systems. Because there is only one input element, you cannot select different wiring systems.
7
WT332E (Two Input Element Model)
The WT332E is equipped with two input elements (element 1 and element 3).
On the WT332E, you can select the following wiring systems.
Wiring System
1P3W
3P3W
Description
Single-phase, three-wire
Three-phase, three-wire
8
Elements
Element 1 and element 3.
Element 1 and element 3.
The measured data when a single-phase, two-wire system (1P2W) has been specified is the measured
data for elements 1 and 3.
The measured data for a single-phase, two-wire system will be measured correctly regardless of which
of the above wiring systems you select.
WT333E (Three Input Element Model)
The WT333E is equipped with three input elements (element 1, element 2, and element 3). On the
WT333E, you can select the following wiring systems.
Wiring System
1P3W
Description
Single-phase, three-wire
3P3W
Three-phase, three-wire
3P4W
3V3A
Three-phase, four-wire
Three-voltage, three-current method
Elements
Element 1 and element 3. Element 2 is for a singlephase, two-wire system.
Element 1 and element 3. Element 2 is for a singlephase, two-wire system.
Elements 1, 2, and 3.
Elements 1, 2, and 3.
The measured data when a single-phase, two-wire system (1P2W) has been specified is the
measured data for elements 1, 2, and 3. The measured data for a single-phase, two-wire system will
be measured correctly regardless of which of the above wiring systems you select.
Note
• Select a wiring system that matches the connected circuit under measurement. The internal processing
of this instrument varies depending on the selected wiring system. If the selected wiring system does not
match the actual circuit, measurements and computation will not be correct.
• For the relationship between the wiring systems and the method of determining the measured values or
computed values, see page appendix 1.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-3
App
Index
2.3
Setting the Measurement Range When Using
Direct Input
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Measurement Range Mode
Select the measurement range mode.
(Display B)
1.
2.
3.
(Display C)
5.
4.
(Display D)
6.
7.
8.
Confirm
Close menu.
the setting.
Voltage Range in Menu Configuration Mode
1.
(Display C)
2.
3.
Confirm the setting.
The options on the left appear when
the crest factor has been set to 3. The
following options appear when the
crest factor has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto, 300, 150, 75, 30, 15, 7.5
Current Range in Menu Configuration Mode
WT310E
1.
(Display C)
2.
3.
Confirm
the setting.
The unit is “A.”
The options on the left appear when
the crest factor has been set to 3.
The following options appear when the
crest factor has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto
10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 ←A
100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5 ←mA
SEnSor
The unit is “mA.”
2-4
IM WT310E-01EN
2.3 Setting the Measurement Range When Using Direct Input
1
WT310EH
1.
(Display C)
2.
3.
Confirm
the setting.
2
Measurement Conditions
3
4
The above options appear when the crest factor has been
set to 3. The following options appear when the crest factor
has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto, 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, SEnSor
5
WT332E/WT333E
1.
(Display C)
2.
3.
6
Confirm
the setting.
7
8
The above options appear when the crest factor has been
set to 3. The following options appear when the crest factor
has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25, SEnSor
App
Note
SEnSor only appears when the external current sensor input option is installed. For details about the
procedure when selecting SEnSor, see section 2.4.
Index
Voltage and Current Range in Quick Configuration Mode
1. Press the VOLTAGE or CURRENT key.
In quick configuration mode, the VOLTAGE or CURRENT key and the ▼ and ▲ keys illuminate. No display
appears on the menu. The currently set range appears temporarily in display B, for the voltage range, or
display D, for the current range, and then the measured data reappears.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-5
2.3 Setting the Measurement Range When Using Direct Input
2. Use ▲ or ▼ to select the range.
While you are changing the range, the range appears temporarily in display B, for the voltage range, or
display D, for the current range.
3. Press SHIFT+▲ (■) to turn the auto range feature on and off.
4. Press the VOLTAGE or CURRENT key to confirm the setting.
The VOLTAGE or CURRENT key light and the ▼ and ▲ key lights turn off.
Explanation
Measurement Range Modes
There are two modes for setting the measurement range: menu configuration mode (on) and quick
configuration mode (oFF). The default setting is menu configuration mode (on).
Menu Configuration Mode (on)
A menu for setting the range is displayed. You can select the measurement range in display C.
Measured data is not displayed while you are configuring the setting.
Quick Configuration Mode (oFF)
You can switch the measurement range or enable the auto range feature while displaying the
measured data. The settings that you can choose from are the same as those that you can choose
from in menu configuration mode. This mode is useful in the following circumstances.
• When you switch the measurement range frequently
• When you want to switch between measurement ranges one by one and check the display in each
range (when you are searching for a measurement range within which over ranges and peak overranges do not occur)
Note
• In quick configuration mode, when you press the VOLTAGE or CURRENT key, the VOLTAGE or
CURRENT key and the ▼ and ▲ keys illuminate.
• When you press SETUP or some other menu key in quick configuration mode, quick configuration
mode is temporarily disabled. When you return to the display of the measured data, quick setup mode is
enabled again.
Fixed (Manual) Ranges and Auto Range
Set the measurement ranges according to the rms value levels. You can specify fixed measurement
ranges or have the ranges set automatically. The default setting is to have the ranges set automatically.
Fixed Ranges
You can select a fixed voltage range from a list of options. Even if the size of the input signal changes,
the selected voltage range will not change. Set the ranges according to the rms values of the input
signal.
Voltage Ranges
• When the crest factor is 3, you can select 600 V, 300 V, 150 V, 60 V, 30 V, or 15 V.
• When the crest factor is 6 or 6A, you can select 300 V, 150 V, 75V, 30 V, 15V, or 7.5 V.
2-6
IM WT310E-01EN
2.3 Setting the Measurement Range When Using Direct Input
1
Current Range
WT310E
WT310EH
2
Measurement Conditions
• When the crest factor is 3, you can select 20 A, 10 A, 5 A, 2 A, 1 A, 0.5 A, 200 mA, 100 mA, 50
mA, 20 mA, 10 mA, or 5 mA.
• When the crest factor is 6 or 6A, you can select 10 A, 5 A, 2.5 A, 1 A, 0.5 A, 0.25 A, 100 mA,
50 mA, 25 mA, 10 mA, 5 mA, or 2.5 mA.
3
• When the crest factor is 3, you can select 40 A, 20 A, 10 A, 5 A, 2 A, or 1 A.
• When the crest factor is 6 or 6A, you can select 20 A, 10 A, 5 A, 2.5 A, 1 A, or 0.5 A.
WT332E/WT333E
• When the crest factor is 3, you can select 20 A, 10 A, 5 A, 2 A, 1 A, or 0.5 A.
• When the crest factor is 6 or 6A, you can select 10 A, 5 A, 2.5 A, 1 A, 0.5 A, or 0.25 A.
4
Note
When the WT310E is measuring using one of the following fixed current ranges and receives excessive input
for a given period of time, to protect the input circuit, the WT310E forcefully changes the current range to 1 A
(0.5 A if the crest factor is 6 or 6A) and switches from fixed range mode to auto range mode.
• When the crest factor is 3, you can select 200 mA, 100 mA, 50 mA, 20 mA, 10 mA, or 5 mA.
• When the crest factor is 6 or 6A, you can select 100 mA, 50 mA, 25 mA, 10 mA, 5 mA, or 2.5 mA.
5
6
Auto Range (Auto)
This instrument automatically switches the range according to the size of the input signal.
7
Range Increase
The range is increased when any of the following conditions is met.
• Crest factor 3
Urms or Irms exceeds 130% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 300% of the currently set measurement range.
• Crest factor 6
Urms or Irms exceeds 130% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 600% of the currently set measurement range.
• Crest factor 6A
Urms or Irms exceeds 260% of the measurement range.
Upk or Ipk exceeds approximately 600% of the currently set measurement range.
On the WT332E/WT333E, when any of the equipped input elements meets any of the above
conditions, the measurement range is increased.
8
App
Index
Range Decrease
The range is decreased when all of the following conditions are met.
• Crest factor 3
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 30% of the measurement range.
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 125% of the next lower measurement range.
• Upk or Ipk is less than or equal to 300% of the next lower measurement range.
• Crest factor 6 or 6A
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 30% of the measurement range.
• Urms or Irms is less than or equal to 125% of the next lower measurement range.
• Upk or Ipk is less than or equal to 600% of the next lower measurement range.
On the WT332E/WT333E, when all the input elements meet all the above conditions, the
measurement range is decreased.
Note
When the auto range feature is enabled and an irregular pulse waveform is applied, a steady range may not
be maintained. If this occurs, specify a fixed range.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-7
2.3 Setting the Measurement Range When Using Direct Input
Checking a Range
To check the currently set range during measurement, press VOLTAGE or CURRENT. The set range
will appear on the display.
To return to the measured value display in menu configuration mode, press the same key again. In
quick configuration mode, the range is only displayed for the duration of the data update interval before
the measured value display is restored.
Measured value display
Measured value display
Power Range
The measurement range (power range) for measuring active power, apparent power, and reactive
power is determined as indicated below in accordance with the wiring system, voltage range, and
current range.
Wiring System
1P2W (single-phase, two-wire)
1P3W (single-phase, three-wire)
3P3W (three-phase, three-wire)
3V3A (three-voltage, three-current method)
3P4W (three-phase, four-wire)
Power Range
Voltage range × current range
Voltage range × current range × 2
Voltage range × current range × 3
• The maximum display is 99999 (when the number of displayed digits is set to 5).
• When the result of multiplying the voltage range by the current range reaches or exceeds 1000
W, the unit on the display will change to “kW.” When the result exceeds 1000 kW, the unit on the
display will change to “MW.”
• For specific voltage and current range combinations and power range values, see appendix 3.
Note
• In auto range mode, because the voltage and current ranges switch independently according to range
increase and decrease conditions, different power ranges may be set for the same measured or computed
power value.
• If you open the voltage input terminal, a voltage value of up to 0.3 V may be displayed due to hum noise
at the power line frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz and other phenomena. This is because of the high input
resistance of the voltage input terminal. Shorting the terminal will result in a value of 0 V.
2-8
IM WT310E-01EN
2.4 Setting the Measurement Ranges When Using
an External Current Sensor (Option)
1
Procedure
2
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
External Current Sensor Scaling Constant
1.
Select the external current sensor feature.
(Display B)
3.
2.
4
5
6
On the WT310E/WT310EH
Set all the values.
5.
(Display C)
4.
Press
and
6.
7
Confirm the setting. Close menu.
to set the number.
Press
to move the digit.
Press
to move the decimal point.
On the WT332E/WT333E
Select the setting method.
(Display C)
5.
4.
8
Set all the values.
7.
(Display D)
Confirm the setting.
6.
Press
and
Close menu.
to set the number.
Press
to move the digit.
Press
to move the decimal point.
5.
Set element 1.
(Display B)
App
8.
Index
7.
6. The same operation
as step 6.
12.
11.
Close menu.
Confirm
the setting.
Set element 3.
(Display D)
9.
10. The same as step 6.
Set element 2.
(Display C)
8. The same as step 6.
Note
The setting method selection menu (which allows you to select ALL or EACH) will not appear on the WT310E
or WT310EH.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-9
2.4 Setting the Measurement Ranges When Using an External Current Sensor (Option)
External Current Sensor Measurement Range in Menu
Configuration Mode
1.
(Display C)
2.
3.
When the /EX1 option is installed
(Display C)
5.
4.
Confirm the setting.
The unit is “V.”
The above options appear when the crest factor has been
set to 3. The following options appear when the crest factor
has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto, E 5, E 2.5, E 1.25, dirECt
When the /EX2 option is installed
(Display C)
5.
4.
Confirm the setting.
The unit is “V.”
The unit is “mV.”
The above options appear when the crest factor has been
set to 3. The following options appear when the crest factor
has been set to 6 or 6A.
Auto, E 1, E 0.5, E 250, E 100, E 50, E 25, dirECt
The above menu is displayed on the WT332E/WT333E.
On the WT310E, SEnSor appears after the 5 mA range.
On the WT310EH, SEnSor appears after the 1 A range.
External Current Sensor Measurement Range in Quick
Configuration Mode
1.Press CURRENT.
In quick configuration mode, the CURRENT key and the ▼ and ▲ keys illuminate. No display appears on
the menu.
2-10
IM WT310E-01EN
2.4 Setting the Measurement Ranges When Using an External Current Sensor (Option)
2. Press SHIFT+▼(►) to switch between direct input and external current sensor input.
1
2
Measurement Conditions
3. Use ▲ or ▼ to select the range.
Display D shows the range temporarily while you are changing it.
3
4. Press CURRENT to confirm the setting.
4
The CURRENT and ▼ and ▲ key lights turn off.
Note
For information on how to switch between the menu configuration and quick configuration modes for the
menu range, see section 2.3.
5
Explanation
6
External Current Sensor
The output of current sensors that produce voltage, such as shunts and clamps, can be applied to an
element’s external current sensor input terminal (EXT) and measured. Set the scaling constant and
the measurement range according to the external sensor’s conversion ratio before using the external
sensor for measurement.
Note
8
When using a current sensor that produces current, set the conversion ratio as the CT ratio.
External Current Sensor Scaling Constant
The conversion ratio is the number of mV that the external current sensor outputs when a current of 1
A flows through it. Set the scaling constant to the conversion ratio.
Determining the Scaling Constant
For example, if you use the Yokogawa 96030 Clamp-on Probe, the conversion ratio is 2.5 mV/A,
so when 1 A of current flows through the probe, the current sensor output is 2.5 mV. Set the scaling
constant to 2.500.
In the same manner, when you use the 96031, the conversion ratio is 1 mV/A, so set the scaling
constant to 1.000.
When you use the 96001, the conversion ratio is 10 mV/A, so set the scaling constant to 10.00.
Note
The method of computing the scaling constant will be different if you use this instrument and an external
current sensor to replace the WT110, WT110E, WT130, WT200, WT210, or WT230, so you may have to
change the scaling constant. Set the scaling constant to the correct value in accordance with the above
explanation.
Setting All the Values or Individual Values (WT332E/WT333E)
On the WT332E/WT333E0, you can set the method for setting the scaling constant to ALL or EACH. The
default setting is ALL. The setting method selection menu will not appear on the WT310E or WT310EH.
• ALL: Select this option to set all the scaling constants of each element to the same value.
• EACH: Select this option to set the scaling constants of each element individually.
IM WT310E-01EN
7
2-11
App
Index
2.4 Setting the Measurement Ranges When Using an External Current Sensor (Option)
Scaling Constant
The procedure for setting scaling constants varies depending on the setting method that you have
selected. You can set a scaling constant to a value between 0.001 and 9999. The default setting is
10.00. On the WT310E and WT310EH, the scaling constant is set in display C.
• When the Setting Method Has Been Set to ALL
In display D, you can set the scaling constant for all the elements.
• When the Setting Method Has Been Set to EACH
• In display B, you can set the scaling constant for element 1.
• In display C, you can set the scaling constant for element 2. The setting menu for element 2 is
not displayed on the WT332E.
• In display D, you can set the scaling constant for element 3.
External Current Sensor Measurement Range
After you have set the scaling constant, select a measurement range that corresponds to the rated
output of the external current sensor. You can also select to enable the auto range feature.
In menu configuration mode, the measurement range is set from the current measurement range
setting menu. In quick configuration mode, you can set the measurement range while continuing to
display the measured data.
For information about how to select menu configuration mode or quick configuration mode, see section
2.3.
Selecting a Current Range (External Current Sensor Range)
Example 1:
If you are using the 96030 Clamp-on Probe (which has a 2.5 mV/A conversion ratio) to measure a
current of 200 A, the output voltage of the probe will be 2.5 mV/A × 200 A = 500 mV.
Therefore, you should set the current range (external current sensor range) this instrument to the
500 mV range that is available when the /EX2 option is installed.
Example 2:
If you are using the 96030 Clamp-on Probe (which has a 2.5 mV/A conversion ratio) to measure a
current of 60 A, the output voltage of the probe will be 2.5 mV/A × 60 A = 150 mV.
Therefore, you should set the current range (external current sensor range) of this instrument to the
200 mV range that is available when the /EX2 option is installed.
Example 3:
If you are using the 96031 Clamp-on Probe (which has a 1 mV/A conversion ratio) to measure a
current of 200 A, the output voltage of the probe will be 1 mV/A × 200 A = 200 mV.
Therefore, you should set the current range (external current sensor range) of this instrument to the
200 mV range that is available when the /EX2 option is installed.
Example 4:
If you are using the 96001 Clamp-on Probe (which has a 10mV/A conversion ratio) to measure a
current of 200 A, the output voltage of the probe will be 10mV/A × 200 A = 2000 mV = 2 V.
Therefore, you should set the current range (external current sensor range) of this instrument to the
2.5 V range that is available when the /EX1 option is installed.
2-12
IM WT310E-01EN
2.5 Setting the Scaling Feature When Using a VT
or CT
1
Procedure
2
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
Scaling Coefficients
Select the scaling feature.
(Display B)
3.
1.
(Display C)
2.
4
4.
5.
5
6
On the WT310E/WT310EH
Set the VT ratio.
(Display B) 7.
Set the CT ratio.
(Display C) 9.
6.
Press
and
Set the power coefficient.
11.
(Display D)
Confirm the setting.
8. The same as step 6.
10. The same as step 6.
to set the number.
12.
7
Close menu.
8
Press
to move the digit.
Press
to move the decimal point.
On the WT332E/WT333E
App
13.
Select an input element.
(Display C)
7.
6.,14.
Set the VT ratio.
(Display B)
9.
8.
10. The same as step 8.
Press
15.
Set the CT ratio.
(Display C)
11.
and
to set the number.
Press
to move the digit.
Press
to move the decimal point.
Set the power
coefficient.
(Display D)
Index
12. The same as
step 8.
16.
Confirm the setting.
Close menu.
Note
The input element selection menu (ALL/EL1/EL2/EL3/End) will not appear on the WT310E or WT310EH.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-13
2.5 Setting the Scaling Feature When Using a VT or CT
Turning Scaling On and Off
Select the scaling feature.
(Display B)
3.
1.
2.
(Display C)
4.
5.
Confirm the
setting.
6.
Close menu.
Explanation
Scaling
You can set coefficients for when you apply a voltage or current signal from an external voltage
transformer1 or current transformer.2
The coefficients that you can set using scaling are the VT ratio, CT ratio, and power coefficient (SF).
1 VT (voltage transformer)
2 CT (current transformer)
VT Ratio and CT Ratio
You can set the VT or CT ratio to convert measured data to numeric data or waveform display data of
voltage or current at the point before the voltage or current transformation.
Power Coefficient
By setting the power coefficient (F), you can display the measured active power, apparent power, and
reactive power after they have been multiplied by a coefficient.
Measurement Function
Voltage U
Current I
Active power P
Apparent power S
Reactive power Q
Max./min. voltage Upk
Max./min. current Ipk
Data before Transformation
U2 (secondary output of the VT)
I2 (secondary output of the CT)
P2
S2
Q2
Upk2 (secondary output of the VT)
Ipk2 (secondary output of the CT)
Transformation Result
U2×V
I2×C
P2×V×C×F
S2×V×C×F
Q2×V×C×F
Upk2×V
Ipk2×C
V: VT ratio
C: CT ratio
F: Power coefficient
Scaling Coefficient
Setting All the Coefficients or Individual Coefficients
On the WT332E/WT333E, you can select the elements whose coefficients you want to set. The default
setting is ALL. The setting method selection menu will not appear on the WT310E or WT310EH.
• ALL: Select this option to set all the coefficients of each element to the same value.
• EL: Select this option to set the coefficient of element 1.
• EL2: Select this option to set the coefficient of element 2. On the WT332E, this option does not
appear.
• EL3: Select this option to set the coefficient of element 3.
• End: Select this option after you have finished configuring the settings or if you have chosen not to
change the settings.
2-14
IM WT310E-01EN
2.5 Setting the Scaling Feature When Using a VT or CT
1
Types of Coefficients and the Order in Which They Are Set
2
Measurement Conditions
You can set coefficients in the following order. You can set a coefficient to a value between 0.001 and
9999. The default setting is 1.000.
• V: The VT ratio is shown on display B.
• C: The CT ratio is shown on display C.
• F: The power coefficient is shown on display D.
On the WT310E and WT310EH, coefficients are set in the following order: V, C, F. When you have
finished setting the coefficients, press SET.
On the WT332E/WT333E, select End in the input element selection menu after you have finished
setting the coefficients.
3
4
Turning Scaling On and Off
After you have set the coefficients, select whether to set scaling to on or oFF. The default setting is
oFF.
• on: Scaling starts, and the SCALING indicator illuminates.
• oFF: Scaling is stopped. The SCALING indicator turns off.
Note
• When the product of the coefficient and the measurement range exceeds 9999 M (106) , the computation
overflow indication (--oF--) appears.
• When you use an external current sensor for measurement and scaling is enabled, the external current
sensor’s scaling constant is further multiplied by the VT or CT ratio. The scaling constant is different from
the scaling feature that is explained in this section. For details, see section 2.4.
5
6
7
8
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
2-15
2.6
Configuring Measurement Range Skipping
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
1.
Select the measurement range mode.
(Display B)
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
(Display D)
6.
7.
8.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
Explanation
Turning Measurement Range Skipping On and Off
You can select which measurement ranges to skip (range configuration). When the auto range feature
is enabled, measurement ranges that are not used are skipped, and this instrument switches between
the measurement ranges that you have chosen to enable. Range skipping can reduce the loss of
measured data that can occur when ranges are switched one by one. The default setting is oFF.
•on: Range skipping is enabled.
• oFF: Range skipping is disabled.
Measurement Ranges That Are Skipped (Range configuration)
You can specify which measurement ranges to skip by sending communication commands through the
communication interface. You cannot specify which measurement ranges to skip from the display men
of this instrument. For details, see the Communication Interface User’s Manual, IM WT310E-17EN.
You can also specify which measurement ranges to skip using the WTViewerFreePlus software.
When using communication commands, select the enabled measurement ranges, not the ranges to
skip.
Peak Over Jump
In addition to measurement range skipping, you can set the measurement range to switch to when a
peak over-range occurs and the auto range feature is enabled. You can set this feature by sending
communication commands through the communication interface. You cannot set this feature from
the display men of this instrument. For details, see the Communication Interface User’s Manual, IM
WT310E-17EN. You can also specify which measurement ranges to skip using the WTViewerFreePlus
software.
• If set to OFF, the measurement range will increase in order through the enabled measurement
ranges when a peak over-range occurs.
• If measurement range skip is set to OFF, peak over jump will also not function.
2-16
IM WT310E-01EN
2.7
Setting the Crest Factor
1
2
Procedure
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select the crest factor.
(Display B)
1.
3
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
4
Confirm the setting
and close menu.
5
6
Explanation
Crest Factor
The crest factor is defined as the ratio of the peak value of the waveform to the rms value. It is also
referred to as the peak-to-rms ratio.
Crest factor (CF, peak-to-rms ratio) =
Peak value
Rms value
On this instrument, the crest factor indicates the maximum multiple of the measurement range that can
be applied as a peak value. The crest factor can be set to 3, 6, or 6A. The default setting is 3.
When the crest factor is set to 6A, the input range of the measurement range is expanded as follows
as compared to when the crest factor is set to 6. This is used to suppress frequent range changes
when measuring a distorted waveform in auto range mode.
• Condition for increasing the range in auto range mode (for details, see section 2.3).
The voltage or current exceeds 260% of the currently set measurement range.
• Condition that cause an over-range indication (“- - - o L -”) (for details, see section 7.4 in the Getting
Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN)
The measured voltage or current exceeds 280%* of its rated range.
* 220% for the maximum range (20 A range for crest factor 6) on the WT310EH
Note
• When you set the crest factor and are using fixed ranges, the voltage and current ranges are set to their
maximum values.
• If you set the crest factor when auto range is in use, the voltage and current ranges are set to their
maximum ranges, and then auto range is applied.
• Set the crest factor to six to meet the measurement condition of a crest factor of 5 or greater, which is
required by IEC62018, etc.
• The voltage range, current range, effective input range, and measurement accuracy vary depending on
the crest factor value. For details, see chapter 7 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-17
7
8
App
Index
2.8
Setting the Measurement Period
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select the measurement period.
(Display B)
1.
2.
(Display C)
3.
4.
5.
6.
Confirm
Close menu.
the setting.
Explanation
Measurement Period
The measurement period is determined by the input signal that is used as the reference (synchronization
source). The measurement period is set within the data update interval between the first point where the
sync source crosses the level-zero point (center of the amplitude) on a rising slope (or falling slope) and
the last point where the sync source crosses the level-zero point on a rising slope (or falling slope).
If there is not more than one rising or falling slope within the data update interval, the entire data
update interval is set as the measurement period.
Synchronization Source
Because the periods of input signal are detected from both voltage and current signals, you can set
the synchronization source to a voltage signal (VoLt) or a current signal (Curr). The default setting is
VoLt for the WT310E and WT310EH and Curr for the WT332E/WT333E.
•VoLt
Priority is given to the detection of the period of the voltage signal, and the voltage signal is used
as the synchronization source. The voltage signal of each element is used as the synchronization
source for the element. When the period of the voltage signal cannot be detected, the current signal
is used as the synchronization source. When the period of the current signal cannot be detected
either, the measurement period is set to the entire duration of the data update interval.
•Curr
Priority is given to the detection of the period of the current signal, and the current signal is used
as the synchronization source. The current signal of each element is used as the synchronization
source for the element. When the period of the current signal cannot be detected, the voltage signal
is used as the synchronization source. When the period of the voltage signal cannot be detected
either, the measurement period is set to the entire duration of the data update interval.
•oFF
Measurement is not performed in sync with the voltage or current signal. Instead, the measurement
period is set to the entire duration of the data update interval.
Note
• The measurement period for determining the numeric data of the peak voltage or peak current (peak
values) is always the entire span of the data update interval.
• For details about setting the measurement period, see appendix 4.
• When the data update interval (see section 2.10) is set to Auto, the measurement period is determined by
the synchronization source set from the menu described in section 2.10.
• For information about the measurement period for measurement functions used in harmonic measurement
(option), see section 6.3.
2-18
IM WT310E-01EN
2.9
Configuring the Input Filters
1
2
Procedure
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
Turning the Line Filter On or Off
1.
Select the filter feature.
(Display B)
4
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
6.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
5
6
Turning the Frequency Filter On or Off
1.
Select the filter feature.
(Display B)
7
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
8
6.
Confirm
Close menu.
the setting.
App
Explanation
Index
There are two types of input filters: the line filter and the frequency filter. You can use these filters
to eliminate the noise of inverter waveforms, distorted waveforms, and the like, and acquire stable
measured values.
Line Filter
The line filter is only applied to the measurement circuit. The line filter removes noise components from
the input signal. The cutoff frequency is 500 Hz. The default setting is oFF.
• on: The line filter is enabled and the LINE indicator illuminates.
• oFF: The line filter is disabled. The LINE indicator turns off.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-19
2.9 Configuring the Input Filters
Frequency Filter
This filter is only applied to the frequency measurement circuit. The cutoff frequency is 500 Hz.
Because this instrument makes measurements in sync with the input signal, the frequency of the input
signal must be measured correctly. The default setting is oFF.
• on: The frequency filter is enabled and the FREQ indicator illuminates.
• oFF: The frequency filter is disabled. The FREQ indicator turns off.
Even if you enable the frequency filter, the measured voltage and current values will include harmonic
components.
Note
You cannot enable or disable input filters between the time when integration is started and the time when it is
stopped and reset.
2-20
IM WT310E-01EN
2.10 Setting the Data Update Interval
1
Procedure
2
1.
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select the data update interval.
(Display B)
3
2.
4
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
6.
Confirm
Close menu.
the setting.
5
6
5.
Set the timeout value.
7.
(Display D)
6.
7
8
Set the synchronization source.
10.
9.
(Display D)
8.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
App
An example for the WT333E
The display varies depending
on the installed elements.
Index
Explanation
Data Update Interval
The data update interval is the period at which sampling data for determining measurement functions
is acquired.
You can select the data update interval from the options below. The default setting is 0.25 s.
0.1 s, 0.25 s, 0.5 s, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s or Auto
• At each data update interval, the numeric data is updated, stored, converted, and output as analog
signals, and transmitted through the communication interface.
• The UPDATE indicator blinks in sync with the selected interval.
• When set to Auto, every time a period* of the input waveform specified as the synchronization
source (described later) is detected, the UPDATE indicator blinks, measured data is updated, output
as analog signals, and transmitted through the communication interface.
* 100 ms or more.
• To capture relatively fast load fluctuations in the power system, select a fast data update interval. To
capture low frequency signals, select a slow data update interval.
• If the fluctuation in the input signal period is large, select Auto.
IM WT310E-01EN
2-21
2.10 Setting the Data Update Interval
Configuration When the Data Update Interval Is Auto
Set the following items.
Synchronization Source
• The synchronization source that you will set in this section is a special synchronization source that
is used only when the data update interval is Auto is used.*
* For details on synchronization sources, see section 2.8.
• You can select the synchronization source from the options listed below. The default value is U1 for
the WT310E/WT310EH and I1 for the WT332E/WT333E.
• U1: The synchronization source is set to the voltage of element 1.
• I1: The synchronization source is set to the current of element 1.
• U2: The synchronization source is set to the voltage of element 2. (WT333E only)
• I2: The synchronization source is set to the current of element 2. (WT333E only)
• U3: The synchronization source is set to the voltage of element 3. (WT332E and WT333E)
• I3: The synchronization source is set to the current of element 3. (WT332E and WT333E)
Timeout
• Timeout is the time limit for detecting the period of the input waveform.
• Select 1s, 5s, 10s, or 20s. The default value is 1s.
• If the input signal frequency is low and the period of the synchronization source cannot be detected
within the timeout period, the frequency data will be outside the measurement range and will result
in error. The measurement functions of normal measurement determine measured values using the
entire period up to the timeout as the measurement period.
Functional Limitations
The following limitations apply when the data update interval is set to Auto.
• The integration function cannot be used. If you try to start it, error 886 will occur.
• The measurement data storage function cannot be used. If you try to start it, error 886 will occur.
2-22
IM WT310E-01EN
2.11 Setting Averaging
1
Procedure
2
Measurement Conditions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
Averaging Type
Select averaging.
(Display B)
1.
2.
4
5
3.
(Display C)
4.
Select the type of processing.
(Display C)
7.
5.
6
6.
Set the coefficient.
(Display D)
8.
7
10.
9.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
8
App
Turning Averaging On and Off
Select averaging.
(Display B)
1.
Index
2.
(Display C)
3.
4.
IM WT310E-01EN
5.
Confirm
the setting.
6.
Close menu.
2-23
2.11 Setting Averaging
Explanation
Averaging
You can take exponential or moving averages of the numeric data. The averaging function is useful
when because of large changes in the power or load or a low input signal frequency, the numeric
display fluctuates and is difficult to read.
Measurement Functions That Are Averaged
The measurement functions that are directly averaged are indicated below. Other functions that use
these functions in their computation are also affected by averaging.
• U, I, P, S, and Q
• λ, Φ, Cf U, and Cf I are computed using the averaged values of Urms, Irms, P, S, and Q.
Measurement Functions That Are Not Averaged
Measurement functions that would lose their meaning if they were averaged, such as the peak values
(Upk and Ipk), are not averaged.
• fU, fI, U+pk, U–pk, I+pk, I–pk, P+pk, P−pk, Time, WP, WP+, WP–, q, q+, and q-
Averaging Type
You can use exponential (EP) or moving (Lin) averages. The default setting is Lin.
Exponential Averaging (EP)
With the specified attenuation constant, the numeric data is exponentially averaged according to the
equation below.
Dn = Dn−1 +
(Mn−Dn−1)
K
Dn: Displayed value that has been exponentially averaged n times. (The first displayed value, D1, is
equal to M1.)
Dn–1: Displayed value that has been exponentially averaged n–1 times.
Mn: Numeric data at the nth time
K: Attenuation constant
Moving Average (Lin)
The specified average count is used to compute linear averages according to the equation below.
Dn =
Mn−(m−1) + • • • Mn−2 + Mn−1 + Mn
m
Dn: Displayed value of the linear average of a total of m items of numeric data from the n–(m–1)th to
the nth time
Mn–(m–1): Numeric data at the n–(m–1)th time
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
Mn–2: Numeric data at the n–2th time
Mn-1: Numeric data at the n–1th time
Mn: Numeric data at the nth time
m: Average count
2-24
IM WT310E-01EN
2.11 Setting Averaging
1
Averaging Coefficient (Attenuation Constant or Average Count)
You can select the attenuation constant (for exponential averages) or average count (for moving
averages) from the following options. The default setting for both values is 8.
8, 16, 32, and 64
2
You can set separate averaging coefficients for exponential averages and moving averages.
Measurement Conditions
Note
3
Turning Averaging On and Off
After you set the averaging coefficient (the attenuation constant or average count), select whether to
set averaging to on or oFF. The default setting is oFF.
• on: Averaging starts, and the AVG indicator illuminates.
• oFF: Averaging is stopped. The AVG indicator turns off.
Note
• When you start integration, averaging is disabled. Even after integration stops and is reset, averaging is
not enabled again.
• In harmonic measurement, only exponential averaging is available. For details, see section 6.1.
4
5
6
7
8
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
2-25
Chapter 3
Holding Measured Values and Performing Single Measurements
3.1
Holding Measured Values
1
2
Procedure
Holding Measured Values
Press HOLD. The HOLD key illuminates, and the display of the measured values is held.
3
Press HOLD when the measured values are being held. The hold key light will turn off and the display
will be updated.
Holding Measured Values and Performing Single Measurements
Releasing the Held State
4
5
Explanation
Hold
You can use the hold operation to stop measuring and displaying the measured data at each data
update interval and hold the display of all measurement function data. The D/A output, communication
output, and other values reflect the held values.
6
7
Note
For information about holding during integration, see section 5.1.
8
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
3-1
3.2
Performing Single Measurements
Procedure
Single Measurement
Press SHIFT+HOLD (SINGLE) when the measured values are being held. A single measurement is
performed, and then this instrument holds the measured values.
Explanation
Single Measurement
While the display is held, measurement is performed once. After the measured data is updated, the
display is re-held. If you press SHIFT+HOLD (SINGLE) when the display is not held, measurement
restarts from that point.
Holding the SHIFT key for at least two seconds makes the shifted state continuous (SHIFT lock
feature). If you plan on performing single measurements frequently, you can enable the SHIFT lock
and perform single measurements just by pressing HOLD. To disable the SHIFT lock, press SHIFT.
3-2
IM WT310E-01EN
Chapter 4
Measuring Power
4.1Displaying Voltages, Currents, and Active
Powers
1
Procedure
2
Displayed Function
Press FUNCTION to select V (voltage), A (current), or W (active power).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
A
V
A
3
W
4
V
A
W
C
V
A
W
Measuring Power
B
5
6
D
V
A
W
• Vpk, Apk, Wpk, Wh±, and Ah± all illuminate twice. The first time is for the positive measurements and the
second time is for the negative measurements.
• The MATH and THD indications are on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
8
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press ELEMENT to select which element to display.
Each time you press ELEMENT, the input element changes in the order shown below.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
WT332E
(2 input elements)
1
WT333E
(3 input elements)
1
3
Σ
3
Σ
App
2
Index
Explanation
Displayed Function
Select which measurement function to show on the display.
• V: Voltage U is displayed.
• A: Current I is displayed.
• W: Active power P is displayed.
IM WT310E-01EN
7
4-1
4.1 Displaying Voltages, Currents, and Active Powers
Continuous Maximum Allowable Input
Voltage
Peak voltage of 1.5 kV or rms value of 1.0 kV, whichever is less.
Current
Direct Input
• WT310E/WT332E/WT333E
When the crest factor is 3: 0.5 A to 20 A
When the crest factor is 6 or 6A: 0.25 A to 10 A
Peak value of 100 A or rms value of 30 A, whichever is less.
• WT310E
When the crest factor is 3: 5 mA to 200 mA
When the crest factor is 6 or 6A: 2.5 mA to 100 mA
Peak value of 30 A or rms value of 20 A, whichever is less.
• WT310EH
When the crest factor is 3: 1 A to 40 A
When the crest factor is 6 or 6A: 0.5 A to 20 A
Peak value of 100 A or rms value of 44 A, whichever is less.
External Current Sensor Input
Peak value less than or equal to 5 times the measurement range
Maximum Displayed Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
• Maximum displayed value: 99999 for voltage, current, and active power (when the number of
displayed digits is set to 5)
• Units: V for voltage, A for current, and W for active power
• Unit prefix: m, k, or M
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
The elements that you can select vary depending on the model. Check the model when selecting
elements.
• 1, 2, or 3: Display the measured values of element 1, 2, or 3.
• Σ: The displayed values vary as indicated below depending on the displayed function and the wiring
system.
Wiring System
1P3W
3P3W
3P4W
4-2
3V3A
UΣ
U1+U3
IΣ
I1+I3
U1+U3
I1+I3
P1+P3
U1+U2+U3
I1+I2+I3
P1+P2+P3
U1+U2+U3
I1+I2+I3
P1+P3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
Wiring System
λΣ
ΦΣ
1P3W
3P3W
3P4W
3V3A
PΣ
SΣ
cos-1λΣ
PΣ
SΣ
QΣ
P1+P3
U1I1+U3I3
Q1+Q3
3 ( U1I1+U3I3 )
2
U1I1+U2I2+U3I3
3 (
)
3 U1I1+U2I2+U3I3
Q1+Q3
Q1+Q2+Q3
Q1+Q3
IM WT310E-01EN
4.2Displaying Apparent Powers, Reactive Powers,
and Power Factors
1
Procedure
2
Displayed Function
Press the FUNCTION key for display A, B, or D to select VA (apparent power), var (reactive power), or
PF (power factor).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
VA
B
PF
var
4
Measuring Power
A
3
5
D
PF
• The THD indicator is on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
6
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press the ELEMENT key of the display that you selected the display function for (display A, B, or D),
and then select an input element.
The procedure for selecting an input element is the same as the procedure in section 4.1.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
7
8
Explanation
Displayed Function
App
Select which measurement function to show on the display.
• VA: Apparent power S is displayed.
• var: Reactive power Q is displayed.
• PF: Power factor λ is displayed.
Index
Maximum Displayed Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
• Maximum displayed apparent power and reactive power: 99999 (when the number of displayed
digits is set to 5)
• Power factor display range: –1.0000 to 1.0000 (when the number of displayed digits is set to 5)
• Units: VA for apparent power, var for reactive power, and no unit for power factors
• Unit prefix: m, k, or M
IM WT310E-01EN
4-3
4.2 Displaying Apparent Powers, Reactive Powers, and Power Factors
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
The elements that you can select vary depending on the model. Check the model when selecting
elements.
• 1, 2, or 3: Display the measured values of element 1, 2, or 3.
• Σ: See section 4.1.
Note
• A power factor of 1.0001 to 2.0000 is displayed as 1.0000. A power factor of 2.0001 or greater is displayed
as an error (“Error”). A power factor of –2.0000 to –1.0001 is displayed as –1.0000. A power factor of –
2.0001 or less is displayed as an error (“Error”).
• Even when the input signal is the same, the display may change if you change the measurement mode
(RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN, or DC). For details on measurement modes, see section 2.1.
• When either the voltage or current falls to 0.5% or less (1% or less if the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of
the measurement range, the power factor will be displayed as an error (“Error”).
4-4
IM WT310E-01EN
4.3
Displaying Phase Angles and Frequencies
1
2
Procedure
Displayed Function
Press the FUNCTION key for display B or D to select ° (phase angle), V Hz (voltage frequency), or A
Hz (current frequency).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
°
D
VHz
4
Measuring Power
B
3
AHz
5
• The THD indicator is on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press the ELEMENT key of the display that you selected the display function for (display B or D), and
then select an input element.
The procedure for selecting an input element is the same as the procedure in section 4.1.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
6
7
Explanation
Displayed Function
8
Select which measurement function to show on the display.
• °: Phase angle Φ is displayed.
• V Hz: Voltage frequency fU is displayed.
• A Hz: Current frequency fI is displayed.
App
Maximum Displayed Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
•
•
•
•
IM WT310E-01EN
Phase angle display range: G180.0 to d180.0 (G is the lag and d is the lead)
Maximum displayed frequency: 99999 (when the number of displayed digits is set to 5)
Units: ° for phase angles and Hz for frequency
Unit prefix: m or k (only for frequencies)
Index
4-5
4.3 Displaying Phase Angles and Frequencies
Frequency Measurement Ranges
• The measurement range varies as shown below depending on the data update interval (see section 2.10).
Data Update Interval
0.1 s
0.25 s
0.5 s
1s
2s
5s
10 s
20 s
Auto*
Measurement Range
20 Hz to 100 kHz
10 Hz to 100 kHz
5 Hz to 100 kHz
2.0 Hz to 100 kHz
1.0 Hz to 100 kHz
0.5 Hz to 100 kHz
0.2 Hz to 100 kHz
0.1 Hz to 100 kHz
0.1 Hz to 100 kHz
* If the data update interval is set to Auto, the lowest measurable frequency is as follows
depending on the timeout setting (see section 2.10).
TImeout
1s
5s
10 s
20 s
Lower Frequency Limit
2.0 Hz
0.5 Hz
0.2 Hz
0.1 Hz
• This instrument automatically switches between the following six measurement ranges: 1 Hz, 10
Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, and 100 kHz.
• The WT332E/WT333E simultaneously measures the voltage frequency and the current frequency
of the element selected in display D.
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
The elements that you can select vary depending on the model. Check the model when selecting elements.
• 1, 2, or 3: Display the measured values of element 1, 2, or 3.
• Σ: For the display when the phase angle is being measured, see section 4.1. When the frequency is
being measured, hyphens (------) are displayed instead of measured values.
Note
Phase Angle
• Even when the input signal is the same, the display may change if you change the measurement mode
(RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN, or DC). For details on measurement modes, see section 2.1.
• When either the voltage or current falls to 0.5% or less (1% or less if the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of
the measurement range, the phase angle will be displayed as an error (“Error”).
• A proper distinction between phase lag and lead can only be made when both the voltage and current are sine
waves and the ratios of the voltage and current input to the measurement range are not significantly different.
• When the power factor is greater than 1, the phase angle is displayed as follows.
• When the power factor is between 1.0001 and 2.0000, the phase angle is displayed as 0.0.
• When the power factor is between –1.0001 and –2.0000, the phase angle is displayed as 180.0.
• When the power factor is greater than or equal to 2.0001 or less than or equal to –2.0001, the phase
angle is displayed as “Error.”
Frequency
• The period cannot be detected if the AC amplitude is small. For information on the detectable frequency
levels, see the conditions listed under “Accuracy” under “Frequency Measurement” in chapter 7, “Features,”
in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
• This instrument measures the frequency by synchronizing with the cycle of the input signal. We
recommend that you enable the frequency filter when measuring an inverted waveform or a waveform
with a high noise level. However, depending on the signal’s frequency and level, the frequency may be
displayed as “Error.” This is because the filter, which has a cutoff frequency of 500 Hz, may attenuate the
signal to a level at which no input signal is recognized.
• Even when the frequency filter is disabled, the frequency may be displayed as “Error” if the frequency is
greater than the measurement range and the internal circuit attenuates the signal to a level at which no
input signal is recognized.
4-6
IM WT310E-01EN
4.4
Displaying Peak Values
1
2
Procedure
Displayed Function
Press the FUNCTION key for display C to select Vpk (voltage peak value), Apk (current peak value),
or Wpk (power peak value).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
C
Vpk(+)
Vpk(-)
Apk(+)
Apk(-)
Wpk(+)
4
Wpk(-)
Measuring Power
• Vpk, Apk, Wpk, Wh±, and Ah± all illuminate twice. The first time is for the positive measurements and the
second time is for the negative measurements.
• The MATH indicator is on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
5
6
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press the ELEMENT key for display C to select which element to display.
The procedure for selecting an input element is the same as the procedure in section 4.1.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
7
Explanation
8
Displayed Function
Select which measurement function to show on the display.
• Vpk: The peak voltage is displayed. Select U+pk to display the highest voltage and U-pk to display
the lowest voltage.
• Apk: The peak current is displayed. Select I+pk to display the highest current and I-pk to display the
lowest current.
• Wpk: The peak power is displayed. Select P+pk to display the highest power and P-pk to display
the lowest power.
Maximum Displayed Peak Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
• Maximum displayed value: 99999 (when the number of displayed digits is set to 5)
• Units: V for the peak voltage, A for the peak current, and W for the peak power
• Unit prefix: m, k, or M
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
The elements that you can select vary depending on the model. Check the model when selecting
elements.
• 1, 2, or 3: Display the measured values of element 1, 2, or 3.
• Σ: Hyphens (------) are displayed instead of measured values.
IM WT310E-01EN
3
4-7
App
Index
4.5
Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only),
Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
Procedure
Computation Functions
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select the basic arithmetic feature.
(Display B)
1.
2.
(Display C)
3.
4.
5.
Confirm
the setting.
6.
Close menu.
Example of the display on the
WT333E.
The display changes depending
on the number of elements that
are equipped.
Example of the display on the
WT333E.
The display changes depending
on the number of elements that
are equipped.
Displayed Function
Press the FUNCTION key for display C to select MATH (computation functions).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
C
MATH
• Vpk, Apk, Wpk, Wh±, and Ah± all illuminate twice. The first time is for the positive measurements and the
second time is for the negative measurements.
• The MATH indicator is on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
When the displayed function is set to MATH, there is no element indication.
Pressing ELEMENT has no effect.
4-8
IM WT310E-01EN
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
1
Explanation
Computation Functions
There are four types of computation functions: efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), crest factor, basic
arithmetic, and average active power. The default setting is the crest factor function (CF u1) on the
WT310E/WT310EH and the efficiency function (EFFi) on the WT332E/WT333E.
2
Efficiency (EFFi; WT332E/WT333E only)
3
The efficiency of the DUT is computed.
Efficiency Equation
Primary side
P1
5
Secondary side
Inverter
4
Measuring Power
•WT332E
The WT332E/WT333E computes the efficiency by taking the active power measured by element
1 (P1) as the active power applied to the primary side of the inverter and the active power
measured by element 3 (P3) as the power consumed by the secondary side of the inverter.
P3
6
Output side
Equation
Efficiency =
7
P3
× 100 (%)
P1
•WT333E
The WT333E computes the efficiency by taking the active power measured by element 2 (P2)
as the active power applied to the primary side of the inverter and the active power measured by
elements 1 and 3 (P1 and P3) as the power consumed by the secondary side of the inverter.
Primary side
P2
Secondary side
App
P1
Inverter
P3
Index
Output side
Equation
Efficiency =
P1+P3
× 100 (%)
P2
Note
If the denominator of the above equation is less than or equal to 0.0001% of the rated range, the efficiency
will be displayed as an error (“Error”).
IM WT310E-01EN
8
4-9
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
Crest Factor (CF U and CF I)
This instrument determines the voltage or current crest factor by dividing the peak value by the rms
value.
Crest Factor Equations and Displayed Values
• CF u1: The result of dividing the U1 peak by the U1 rms value is displayed.
• CF u2: The result of dividing the U2 peak by the U2 rms value is displayed (WT333E only).
• CF u3: The result of dividing the U3 peak by the U3 rms value is displayed (WT332E and
WT333E).
• CF i1: The result of dividing the I1 peak by the I1 rms value is displayed.
• CF i2: The result of dividing the I2 peak by the I2 rms value is displayed (WT333E only).
• CF i3: The result of dividing the I3 peak by the I3 rms value is displayed (WT332E and WT333E).
Note
• When the rms value falls to 0.5% or less (1% or less if the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of the rated range
value, the crest factor will be displayed as an error (“Error”).
• You can compute the crest factor even when the measurement mode is VOLTAGE MEAN or DC.
Basic Arithmetic
There are six different types of computation that you can perform (A + B, A – B, A × B, A ÷ B, A2 ÷ B, A
÷ B2).
The values of display A and display B are used in the computation, and the results of the computation
are shown in display C.
:A+B
:A–B
: A×B
: A÷B
: A÷B
2
: A ÷B
2
Note
• The meanings of the displayed symbols are explained below.
: + (Addition)
: − (Subtraction)
: × (Multiplication)
: ÷ (Division)
: ^ (exponentiation)
• When the function displayed in display A is the elapsed integration time (TIME), the computed result is
displayed using the no data indication (------).
• In division, if the value of the display B function is less than or equal to 0.0001% of the rated value, the
computed value will be displayed as an error (“Error”).
4-10
IM WT310E-01EN
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
1
Examples
A+B: The result of adding the values of display A and display B (total power) is displayed.
Computation example:
Display A
Display B
Display C
Wiring System
P1
P2 or P3
P1+P2
or P1+P3
Any
2
3
P1
Inverter
P2 or P3
4
Display A
Display B
Display C
P1
P3
P1–P3
Measuring Power
A-B: The result of subtracting the value of display B from the value of display A (power loss) is
displayed.
Computation example 1:
5
Wiring System
Any
6
Inverter
P1
P3
7
Computation example 2:
Display A
Display B
PΣ(=P1+P3)
P2
Display C
Wiring System
PΣ–P2
8
3P3W
App
P1
P2
Inverter
P3
Index
Computation example 3:
Display A
P2
Display B
PΣ(=P1+P3)
P2
Display C
Wiring System
P2–PΣ
3P3W
P1
Inverter
P3
IM WT310E-01EN
4-11
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
A×B: The product of the values of display A and display B is displayed.
This feature is useful when you are displaying a function other than VA (apparent power S) in
display A and you want to display apparent power S in display C.
Computation example:
Display A
Display B
U1rms
I1rms
Display C
U1rms × I1rms
Wiring System
Any
A÷B: The result of dividing the value of display A by the value of display B is displayed.
When computing the absolute impedance value
Computation example 1:
Display A
Display B
Display C
U1rms
I1rms
|Z|=
U1rms
I1rms
Wiring System
Any
Power supply
Load
U1
I1
When computing the line voltage ratio and line current ratio for three-phase wiring
Computation example 2:
Display A
Display B
Display C
U1rms
U3rms
U1rms
U3rms
I1rms
I3rms
I1rms
I3rms
Wiring System
3P3W
I1
U1
Power supply
Load
U3
I3
A÷B2: The result of dividing the value of display A by the square of the value of display B is
displayed.
When computing impedance (Z), resistance (R), or reactance (X)
Computation example:
Display A
Display B
Display C
S1 (VA)
I1rms
|Z|=
P1 (W)
I1rms
R=
Q1 (var)
I1rms
|X|=
Power supply
U1
S1
(I1rms)2
Wiring System
Any
P1
(I1rms)2
Q1
(I1rms)2
Load
I1
4-12
IM WT310E-01EN
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
1
A2÷B: The result of dividing the square of the value of display A by the value of display B is
displayed.
When computing resistance (R)
Computation example:
Display A
U1rms
Display B
P1
Display C
R=
2
Wiring System
(U1rms)
P1
2
Any
3
Power supply
U1
Load
I1
4
The average active power within the integrated period is computed. This instrument determines the
average active power by dividing the watt hour (integrated active power) by the integration time.
Average active power during integration (W) =
Watt hour (Wh)
Elapsed integration time (h)
Equations and Displayed Values for the Average Active Power during Integration
• AV P1: The result of dividing the watt hour of element 1 (WP1) by the elapsed integration time is
displayed.
• AV P2: The result of dividing the watt hour of element 2 (WP2) by the elapsed integration time is
displayed (WT333E only).
• AV P3: The result of dividing the watt hour of element 3 (WP3) by the elapsed integration time is
displayed (WT332E and W333).
• AV P4: The result of dividing the watt hour of element Σ (WPΣ) by the elapsed integration time is
displayed (WT332E and W333).
* Watt hour WPΣ varies depending on the wiring system. The equations for computing the value
are the same as those listed in section 4.1 when “P” is replaced with “WP.”
Note
This computation function is only valid during integration (during integration or after integration has been
aborted). If you reset integration, the watt hour and elapsed integration time values become zero, and the no
data indication (------) is displayed. For details about integration, see chapter 5.
IM WT310E-01EN
4-13
Measuring Power
Average Active Power during Integration (AV P)
5
6
7
8
App
Index
4.5 Displaying the Efficiency (WT332E/WT333E only), Crest Factors, the Results of Computations Using
Basic Arithmetic, and Average Active Powers
Displayed Function
When you select MATH, the results of the computation that you have specified (efficiency, crest factor,
basic arithmetic, or average active power) are shown in display C.
Only the WT332E/WT333E can compute efficiency.
Maximum Displayed Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
• Maximum Display (Display range)
• Efficiency: 0.000 to 99.999 to 100.00 to 999.99 (%)
• Other computations (crest factor, basic arithmetic, and average active power): 99999
• Units
• Average active power: The unit is W, but it does not appear on the display.
• Efficiency: The unit is %, but it does not appear on the display.
• Crest factor and four arithmetic operation: No unit
• Unit Prefixes
• Basic arithmetic and average active power: m, k, or M
• Other computations (efficiency and crest factor): No prefix
When the displayed function is set to MATH, there is no element indication.
Pressing ELEMENT has no effect.
4-14
IM WT310E-01EN
4.6
Setting the MAX Hold Feature
1
2
Procedure
Press SHIFT+CURRENT (MAX HOLD) to turn the MAX hold feature on and off.
Pressing SHIFT+CURRENT (MAX HOLD) turns the MAX hold feature on and off.
Illuminated
3
Off
4
MAX Hold
The maximum value that has occurred while the MAX hold feature has been enabled is held. If a value
larger than the currently held value is measured, the larger value is held.
You can hold the following maximum values. The default setting is oFF.
U (voltage), I (current), P (active power), S (apparent power), Q (reactive power), U+pk and U-pk (peak
voltage), I+pk and I-pk (peak current), and P+pk and P-pk (peak power)
• on: The MAX HOLD indicator illuminates, and the MAX hold feature is enabled.
• oFF: The MAX HOLD indicator turns off, and the MAX hold feature is disabled.
Measuring Power
Explanation
5
6
7
Note
The D/A output, communication output, and other values reflect the held maximum values.
8
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
4-15
4.7
Setting the Number of Displayed Digits
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select the number of displayed digits.
(Display B)
1.
2.
3.
(Display C)
4.
5.
6.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
Explanation
Number of Displayed Digits
You can select the maximum number of displayed digits for displayed functions other than the phase
angle, integrated values, and the elapsed integration time. The default setting is Hi.
• Hi: 5 digits are displayed (99999).
• Lo: 4 digits are displayed (9999).
Note
• The actual number of displayed digits may be lower than the maximum number of displayed digits as a
result of voltage and current range combinations and automatic digit increases.
• The displays of the phase angle, integrated value, and elapsed integration time are not affected by the
displayed digit setting in this section. Please see the various sections that explain these items.
4-16
IM WT310E-01EN
Chapter 5
5.1
Integration
Integration Feature
1
You can integrate the active power (watt hour) and current (ampere hour).
During integration, you can display the integrated value (watt hour or ampere hour), the elapsed
integration time, and other measured or computed values.
Also, you can display integrated values for individual polarities. This means that you can separately
display the watt hour (ampere hour) consumed on the positive side and the watt hour (ampere hour is
available only when the measurement mode is DC) returned to the power supply on the negative side.
Integration Modes
Stop
Key operation
Stopped by the timer
Key operation
Repetition
----Repeats when the timer
expires
5
Integration
Start
Key operation
Key operation
Key operation
6
Manual Integration Mode
When you set the integration mode to standard integration mode (nor) and set the integration timer
to 00000:00:00, this instrument performs integration in manual integration mode. When you press
START, integration starts, and it continues until you press STOP. However, if either of the conditions
below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time and integrated value are held.
• The integration time reaches the maximum integration time (10000 hours).
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
Hold
Integrated
value
Hold
When the maximum
integrated value is reached
Integration
time
IM WT310E-01EN
Stop
Reset
Start
7
8
App
Index
Hold
Hold
Start
3
4
The integration feature has the following three modes.
Integration Mode
Manual integration mode
Standard integration mode
Continuous (repetitive) integration
mode
2
Reset
5-1
5.1 Integration Feature
Standard Integration Mode
You can set a relative integration time (set a timer). Integration starts when you press START. When
one of the conditions below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time and integrated value
are held.
• The specified timer time elapses.
• You press STOP.
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
Integration
time
Hold
Hold
Integrated
value
Timer value
Start
Reset
Continuous Integration Mode
Integration
time
You can set a relative integration time. Integration starts when you press START. When the specified
integration timer time elapses, integration is automatically reset and restarted. Integration repeats until
you press Stop. If either of the conditions below is met, integration is stopped, and the integration time
and integrated value are held.
• You press STOP.
• The integrated value reaches its maximum or minimum displayable value.
Integrated
value
Hold
Hold
Timer
value
Start
5-2
Timer
value
Timer
value
Stop
Reset
IM WT310E-01EN
5.1 Integration Feature
1
Integration Methods
The following expressions are used. The result is displayed using time conversion.
n
2
ui • i i
Power integration
i=1
N
I
RMS
3
I
I=1
Current integration
n
ii
DC
i=1
4
ui and ii are the instantaneous voltage and current values.
n is the number of samples.
II is the measured current for each data update interval.
N is the number of data updates.
5
Note
If you stop integration, the integration process stops at the integrated value and elapsed integration time of
the previous display update. The measured values between the previous display update and the execution of
the integration stop are not integrated.
Integration
In power integration and, when the measurement mode is set to DC, current integration, the
instantaneous power or current values are integrated. When the measurement mode has been set to
RMS, the current values measured at each data update interval (see section 2.10) are integrated.
6
7
8
Display Resolution during Integration
The display resolution of integrated values is normally 99999 counts. The display resolution can go up
to 999999 counts when the unit is MWh or MAh.
When the integrated value becomes large and reaches 100000 counts, the decimal point is
automatically moved. For example, when 0.0001 mWh is added to 9.9999 mWh, the display switches
to 10.000 mWh.
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
5-3
5.1 Integration Feature
Displayed Integrated Value Functions
You can display integrated values for different polarities separately by choosing the appropriate
functions to display.
Displayed Function
Wh
Wh±1
Wh±1
Ah
Ah±2
Ah±2
Measurement Mode
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN, DC
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN, DC
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN, DC
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN
DC
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN
DC
RMS, VOLTAGE MEAN
DC
Display Details
Sum of positive and negative watt hours
Positive watt hours
Negative watt hours
Sum of ampere hours
Sum of positive and negative ampere hours
Total ampere hours (same as Ah)
Positive ampere hours
–0 is displayed
Negative ampere hours
1 When Wh is the displayed function, the displayed function will be Wh± whether you press the
FUNCTION key once or twice. When you press the function key once and switch to Wh±, the
positive watt hour will be displayed. If you press the FUNCTION key once more, the negative watt
hour for Wh± will be displayed. When the negative watt hour is being displayed, the displayed value
is preceded by a minus sign.
2 When Ah is the displayed function, the displayed function will be Ah± whether you press the
FUNCTION key once or twice. When you press the function key once and switch to Ah±, the
positive ampere hour will be displayed. If you press the FUNCTION key once more, the negative
ampere hour for Ah± will be displayed. When the negative watt hour is being displayed, the
displayed value is preceded by a minus sign.
Note
• When negative integrated values are displayed, the minimum display reading will become –99999 MWh/
MAh because of the added minus character.
• During the period from when integration is started until it is reset, there are limits to the changes that you
can make to other functions. For details, see section 5.4.
Using an External Signal to Control Integration (Option)
On models with the D/A output option (/DA4 or /DA12), you can use the remote control feature to use
an external signal to start, stop, and reset integration. For information about the remote control feature,
see section 5.2 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
5-4
IM WT310E-01EN
5.2
Setting the Integration Mode and Timer
1
2
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Integration Mode
1.
(Display B)
2.
Select a mode.
(Display C)
3.
4.
(See section
8.4.)
5.
6.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
3
4
5
Integration Timer
(Display B)
3.
2.
Hours
(Display B)
(See section 4. Press
8.4.)
5.
and
Press
Minutes
(Display C)
6. The same as
step 4.
7.
Seconds
(Display D)
8. The same as
step 4.
Integration
1.
6
to set the number.
to move the digit.
7
9.
Confirm
the setting.
10.
Close menu.
8
Explanation
App
Integration Mode
You can select from the following options. The default setting is nor.
• nor: Select this setting for manual or standard integration mode.
This instrument will automatically determine the appropriate mode in accordance with the integration
timer setting.
• When the integration timer is set to 0.00.00, the mode is set to manual integration mode.
• When the integration timer is set to a value other than 0.00.00, the mode is set to standard
integration mode.
• Cont: Select this setting to set the mode to continuous integration mode.
Integration Timer
Set the integration time. You can set the integration time to a value between 0.00.00 (0 h, 0 min, 0 s)
and 10000.00.00 (10000 h, 0 min, 0 s). The default setting is 0.00.00.
• 0.00.00: When the integration mode is set to nor, this instrument sets the mode to manual
integration mode. When the integration mode is set to Cont, this instrument will display an error
code when you try to start integration, and integration will not be performed.
• 0.00.01 to 10000.00.00: Set the integration time to a value within this range when the mode is
standard integration mode or continuous integration mode. You can choose between standard
integration mode and continuous integration mode in the integration mode menu.
IM WT310E-01EN
5-5
Index
5.3
Displaying Integrated Values
Procedure
Displayed Function
Press the FUNCTION key for display A or C to select TIME (elapsed integration time), Wh/Wh±
(integrated power), Ah/Ah± (current integration), or MATH (average active power during integration).
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display
A
TIME
C
MATH
Ah±(-)
Ah±(+)
Ah
Wh±(-)
Wh±(+)
Wh
• Vpk, Apk, Wpk, Wh±, and Ah± all illuminate twice. The first time is for the positive measurements and the
second time is for the negative measurements.
• The MATH indicator is on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press the ELEMENT key for display C to select which element to display.
The procedure for selecting an input element is the same as the procedure in section 4.1.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
Starting and Stopping Integration
1. Press START.
The START key illuminates, and integration starts. The integrated value (or the average active power during
integration) is shown on display C, and the elapsed integration time is shown on display A.
2. Press HOLD.
The HOLD key illuminates, and the displayed value is held.
3. Press HOLD when the measured values are being held.
The HOLD key light turns off, the held state is released, and the display of the integration results is
updated.
4. Press SHIFT+HOLD (SINGLE) when the measured values are being held.
This instrument will perform a single measurement, update the display, and hold the new values.
5. Press STOP.
Integration stops. The START key light turns off, and the STOP key illuminates. The displayed integration
value is held.
5-6
IM WT310E-01EN
5.3 Displaying Integrated Values
1
6. To reset integration, press SHIFT+STOP (RESET).
The STOP key light will turn off, and displays A and C will show hyphens (”------”).
2
Explanation
Displayed Function
3
4
5
Integration
Select which measurement function to show on the display.
• TIME: The elapsed integration time is displayed.
• Wh: The sum of positive and negative watt hours WP is displayed.
• Wh±: The positive and negative watt hours are displayed. Positive watt hour is WP+, and negative
watt hour is WP-.
• Ah: The total ampere hour q is displayed.
• Ah±: The total ampere hour is displayed or the positive and negative ampere hours are displayed.
Positive ampere hour is q+, and negative ampere hour is q-.
• MATH: When the computation function is set to the average active power during integration, the
average active power during integration is displayed.
6
Maximum Displayed Value, Units, and Unit Prefixes
• Maximum display
Elapsed integration time: 10000
Integrated values: 99999 (999999 when the unit is MWh or MAh) or –99999 when a negative value
is displayed.
• Units: Wh for the integrated power (watt hour) and Ah for the integrated current (ampere hour)
• Unit prefix: m, k, or M (for integrated values)
7
8
Display and Resolution of the Elapsed Integration Time
The elapsed integration time can be displayed using up to 9 total digits for hours, minutes, and
seconds. This instrument shows the elapsed integration time in display A. Because the maximum
number of displayed digits in display A is 6, there are times when all the digits in the elapsed
integration time cannot be displayed.
The number of digits in the displayed time varies as indicated below depending on the elapsed
integration time.
Elapsed Integration Time
0 to 99 h, 59 m, 59 s
100 h to 9999 h, 59 m, 59 s
Display A Indication
0.00.00 to 99.59.59
100.00 to 9999.59
Display Resolution
1s
1m
10000 h
10000
1h
App
Index
Note
• For details about Wh, Wh±, Ah, and Ah±, see section 5.1.
• For details about the average active power during integration, see section 4.5.
• Regardless of the MAX hold feature, this instrument determines and displays the integrated value by
summing the value that is measured at every data update interval.
IM WT310E-01EN
5-7
5.3 Displaying Integrated Values
Input Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
The elements that you can select vary depending on the model. Check the model when selecting
elements.
• 1, 2, or 3: Display the integrated results for element 1, 2, or 3.
• Σ: Display the sum of the integrated values of all equipped elements. The equation for computing
the sum varies depending on the wiring system. The equations for computing the values are the
same as those listed in section 4.1 when “P” is replaced with “WP” or “q.”
Note
When the displayed function in display A is TIME (elapsed integration time), there is no element indication for
display A. Pressing the ELEMENT key for display A has no effect.
Starting and Stopping Integration
Starting Integration
When integration is started, the integration of the active power (watt hour) and the integration of the
current (ampere hour) begin.
Note
The integration function cannot be used when the data update interval is set to Auto.
Holding Displayed Values
• When values are held, their displays are not updated, but integration continues inside the
instrument. Because the UPDATE indicator blinks whenever the internal data is updated, it will
continue to blink. When the hold on the displayed values is released, the integration results (values
and time) at the point in time when the hold is released will be displayed.
• For details on how START/STOP key operations relate to held values, see section 5.4.
Stopping Integration
If you stop integration, the integration process stops at the integrated value and elapsed integration
time of the previous display update. The measured values between the previous display update and
the execution of the integration stop are not integrated.
Resetting Integration
• When integration is reset, the integrated values are returned to what they were before integration
started.
• The SHIFT+STOP (RESET) key is valid after integration has been stopped.
• For details on how START/STOP key operations relate to held values, see section 5.4.
Display When There Is an Integration Overflow
• When the integrated values reach their maximum value (999999 MWh/MAh) or minimum value (–
99999MWh/MAh), integration stops and the display of the integration results at that point in time is
held.
• When the elapsed integration time reaches the maximum integration time (10000 hours), integration
is stopped and the display of the integration results at that point in time is held.
• When integration overflow occurs, both the START and STOP keys illuminate.
5-8
IM WT310E-01EN
5.4
Notes about Using Integration
1
2
Relationship between the Holding of Integration and START/
STOP Key Operations
After you hold the display by pressing HOLD, the displayed integration results and communication
output are held, but integration continues. The relationship between the holding of integration and
START/STOP key operations is explained below.
• Starting integration when values are held
The display and communication output do not change. If you release the hold on the displayed
values or perform a single measurement (by pressing SHIFT+HOLD (SINGLE)), the integration
results at that point in time are displayed and output through communication.
3
4
ON
HOLD
OFF
5
Integration
Displayed
value
6
(The dotted line is the integrated value.)
Elapsed
integration time
STOP
START
RESET
• Stopping integration when values are held
Display and communication output values do not change from the held values. If you release the
hold on the displayed values or perform a single measurement, the integration results at the time
that you stopped integration are displayed and output through communication.
ON
HOLD
OFF
SINGLE
ON
ON
ON
Displayed
Index
(The dotted line is the integrated value.)
Elapsed
integration time
IM WT310E-01EN
8
App
value
START
7
STOP
RESET
5-9
5.4 Notes about Using Integration
Relationship between Resetting Integration and START/STOP
Key Operations
The relationship is shown in the figure below.
Automatic stop
Interruption
Interruption
Reset
Reset
Restart
Restart
Start
Integrated
value
Set integration timer value
Elapsed
integration
time
START
STOP
START
STOP
RESET
START
RESET
Data When a Power Failure Occurs during Integration
• Even if a power failure occurs during integration, the integrated results will be retained in memory. If
the power is restored after a failure, this instrument will be in the following conditions.
• Integration will be stopped.
• Both the START and STOP keys will be illuminated.
• Integration results up to the point when the power failure occurred will be displayed.
• After the power is restored, you cannot simply restart integration where you left off. Reset
integration before starting it again.
Integration Resume Function at Power Failure Recovery
When the integration resume function at power failure recovery is set to ON, the integration operation
can be resumed if a power failure occurs and recovers while integration is in progress.
Description
If this function is set to ON and a power failure occurs and then recovers while integration is in
progress (the START key is illuminated) or while integration is paused (the STOP key is illuminated),
this instrument behaves in the following manner.
• The integration result before the power failure is displayed, and this instrument enters a
integration paused state (the STOP key is illuminated).
• Integration can be restarted with the START key or a command.
• The integration data after restarting is added to the results before the power failure.
Turning the Function On
Turn the power on while holding down SHIFT+FUNCTION A+VOLTAGE.
A start message “WT300E/SYSTEM/START” appears, and then all the LEDs illuminate.
Hold down the keys until all the LEDs illuminate.
Then, “OPT.01/ON” appears.
Turning the Function Off
Performing the above procedure when the function is on will turn it off.
In this case, “OPT.01/OFF” appears.
Checking the On/Off State of the Function
From the menu select UTILITY(SHIFT+SETUP) →“inFo”→“VEr.”
For details how to select from the menu, see section 8.1.
If the function is on, display D shows “OPT.01.”
5-10
IM WT310E-01EN
5.4 Notes about Using Integration
1
Limitations on Changing Settings during Integration
During integration, the settings that you can change are limited as indicated below.
START key
STOP key
Integration Condition
Integrating
Integration Paused
On
Off
Off
On
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No1
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No1
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
3
4
5
6
7
8
• Yes: Settings can be changed.
• No: Settings cannot be changed. An error code will be displayed if you attempt to change the
settings.
1 Measurement ranges can be changed by the auto range feature, but you cannot change ranges
manually.
2 When you start integration, averaging is disabled. Even after integration stops and is reset,
averaging is not enabled again.
Auto Range Feature and Range Skipping
If you start integration when the auto range feature is enabled, integration will take place with the auto
range feature enabled.
• When the auto range feature is enabled, the measurement ranges for both the voltage and current
will be automatically switched in accordance with the size of the input signal.
• For information about the conditions under which the range is automatically increased or decreased,
see section 2.3.
Also, when the auto range feature is enabled, you can enable range skipping, in which measurement
ranges that are not used are skipped, and this instrument switches between the measurement ranges
that you have chosen to enable. For details, see section 2.6.
Note
When an irregular pulse waveform is applied, a steady range may not be maintained. If this occurs, use a
fixed range.
IM WT310E-01EN
2
Integration
Function
Measurement mode
Wiring system (WT332E/WT333E only)
Measurement range
Scaling
Crest factor
Measurement synchronization source
Input filter
Data update interval
Averaging
Hold
Single
Display function
Input element (WT332E/WT333E only)
MAX hold
Number of displayed digits
Integration
Integration mode
Integration timer
Start
Stop
Reset
Harmonic measurement (option)
Display on/off
PLL source
Measured harmonic order
Distortion factor equation
Storage
Zero-level compensation
Integration Reset
Off
Off
5-11
App
Index
5.4 Notes about Using Integration
Data Correction When the Auto Range Feature Switches the
Range
Measurement does not take place while the range is being switched by the auto range feature. After
the measurement range is determined, the first measured data for the period of time over which
measurement did not take place is added to the integrated value.
• When the Range Is Increased
Each time the range is increased, up to three of the first items of data measured after the
determination of the measurement range is added to the integrated value immediately before the
conditions for increasing the range were met.
• When the Range Is Decreased
Each time the range is decreased, up to two of the first items of data measured after the
determination of the measurement range is added to the integrated value immediately before the
conditions for reducing the range were met.
Checking Whether the Range Has Been Changed by the Auto
Range Feature
During integration, when the measurement range is changed by the auto range feature, a hyphen is
added to the measurement range information that is output through communication.
Computation of the Integrated Value When the Measured Value
Exceeds the Measurement Limit (for Fixed Ranges)
When the sampled instantaneous voltage or current value exceeds approximately 333% (approximately
666% when the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of the measurement range, the value is processed as
if it were approximately 333% (approximately 666% when the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of the
measurement range.
Integration When the Applied Current Is Small
When the measurement mode is RMS or VOLTAGE MEAN and the applied current is less than or
equal to 0.5% (1% when the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A) of the rated range, integration takes place as
if the current value were zero.
Valid Frequency Ranges for Integration
The sample rate is approximately 100 kHz. The voltage and current signal frequencies that are valid
for integration are indicated below.
Integrated Item
Active power
Current
When the measurement mode is RMS
When the measurement mode is
VOLTAGE MEAN
When the measurement mode is DC
5-12
Valid Frequency Range for Integration
DC to 45 kHz
DC or the lower frequency limit determined by the data update
interval to approximately 45 kHz
DC or the lower frequency limit determined by the data update
interval to approximately 45 kHz
DC to 45 kHz
IM WT310E-01EN
Chapter 6
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
6.1
Harmonic Measurement Feature
1
The previous chapters described normal voltage, current, and power measurements. This chapter
describes the harmonic measurement feature.
The harmonic measurement feature can compute (1) the voltage, current, and active power for each
harmonic up to the 50th harmonic, (2) the harmonic distortion factor of each harmonic, and (3) the
phase angles of each harmonic relative to the fundamental wave (1st harmonic). It can also compute
the rms voltage, rms current, and rms active power of the fundamental and harmonics as well as the
distortion factor (THD).
This instrument displays the harmonic components of voltage, current, and active power. Depending
on the display function setting, displays A, B, C, and D change as shown below.
V
Display function off
Display function off:
Display function V, A, W:
V
A
Display function
Display
C
V
A
Display function
Display
D
V
A
Display function
IM WT310E-01EN
W
A
W
Shows the harmonic order (1 to 50).
Shows all rms voltages, currents, and active powers (computed values)
from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
V%
A%
W%
V
°
A
6
°
7
V
A
W
V%
A%
W%
V°
: Shows the measured voltage for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: Shows the measured current for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: Shows the measured active power for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of voltage for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of current for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of active power for the harmonic order shown in display A.
: • When display A is showing the 1st harmonic (fundamental)
Shows the phase angle of the 1st harmonic current with respect to the fundamental voltage.
• When display A is showing a harmonic between 2 and 50
Shows the phase angle of the harmonic voltage with respect to the fundamental voltage.
A ° : • When display A is showing the fundamental
Shows the phase angle of the fundamental current with respect
to the 1st order voltage (same as V °).
• When display A is showing a harmonic between 2 and 50
Shows the phase angle of the harmonic current with respect to the fundamental current.
W
V, A, W : Shows all rms voltages, currents, and active powers (computed values)
from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
W
PF
VHz
AHz
THD V%
5
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
Display
B
3
4
Displayed Items
Display
A
2
THD A%
V, A, W : Shows all rms voltages, currents, and active powers (computed values)
from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
PF : Shows the power factor of the fundamental wave (1st harmonic).
VHz : Shows the voltage frequency.
AHz : Shows the current frequency.
THD V % : Shows the total harmonic distortion of voltage.
THD A % : Shows the total harmonic distortion of current.
6-1
8
App
Index
6.1 Harmonic Measurement Feature
Auto Range Operation
The auto range operation when harmonic measurement data is displayed is the same as the operation
during normal measurement. For details, see section 2.3.
Note
If the range changes repeatedly in auto range mode, PLL synchronization is lost, and resynchronization is
repeated. Consequently, this instrument is unable to obtain correct measurements, and this may lead to
further instability in the range setting. In such cases, set a fixed range appropriate for the measured values.
Data Update Interval, Holding Measured Values, and Updating
Display Data
Same as normal measurement.
Error Display
When the Fundamental Frequency of the PLL Source Is Outside
the Measurement Range
The fundamental frequency range of the PLL source is 10 Hz to 1200 Hz. If the frequency is not within
this range, all harmonic measurements will be displayed as no data (------).
Note
The measurement range of the harmonic frequency in harmonic measurement is different from the frequency
measurement range of normal measurement. For details, see section 7.3 in the Getting Started Guide, IM
WT310E-02EN.
Over Range Indication
Harmonic measurements do not have over range indication (---oL-) or indication for measured values
that are too small.
* See “Indications When the Measured Value Is Too Small” on page 1-12 in the Getting Started
Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
Measurement Suspension/No Data Indication (Hyphens)
Hyphens are displayed in the following circumstances.
• When there is no analysis data to display during harmonic measurement data display
• Immediately after the harmonic measurement data display is turned on
• When PLL synchronization is lost and resynchronization is taking place
• Until the first measurement data is acquired after the settings are changed
• When the harmonic order of display A exceeds the upper limit of measured harmonic, which is
determined by the fundamental frequency
Averaging
If the averaging type is set to EP (exponential averaging), averaging is performed using the specified
attenuation constant.
Effects of Aliasing
This instrument does not have anti-aliasing filters. Aliasing errors occur in the following circumstances.
Fundamental Frequency f (Hz)
10 ≤ f < 75
75 ≤ f < 150
150 ≤ f < 300
300 ≤ f < 600
600 ≤ f < 1200
6-2
Aliasing Occurs When
512th and higher harmonic components are present
256th and higher harmonic components are present
128th and higher harmonic components are present
64th and higher harmonic components are present
32th and higher harmonic components are present
IM WT310E-01EN
6.2
Displaying Harmonic Measurement Data
1
2
Procedure
Turning the Harmonic Measurement Data Display On and Off
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
1.
Set the display.
(Display C)
3.
(Display B)
2.
4.
3
5.
Confirm the setting
and close menu.
4
5
Display Function
Press FUNCTION to select harmonic measurement data.
Each time you press FUNCTION, the displayed function changes in the order shown below.
Display function off
Display
B
V
Display
C
V
Display
D
V
A
W
A
V
V%
A%
PF
VHz
6
W
A
W%
V
°
A
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
Display
A
°
7
W
A
W
AHz
THD V%
8
THD A%
• THD is displayed on the left side of the 7-segment LED display.
• Press SHIFT before pressing FUNCTION to change the displayed function in reverse order.
App
Source Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Press ELEMENT to select which element to display.
Each time you press ELEMENT, the input element changes in the order shown below.
The WT310E and WT310EH only have one input element, so there is no input element selection.
WT332E
(2 input elements)
1
WT333E
(3 input elements)
1
Index
3
2
3
Explanation
Turning the Harmonic Measurement Data Display On and Off
• on: The harmonic measurement data display is turned on, and the HARMONICS indicator
illuminates.
• oFF: The harmonic measurement data display is turned off, and normal measurement data is
displayed. The HARMONICS indicator turns off.
IM WT310E-01EN
6-3
6.2 Displaying Harmonic Measurement Data
Display Function
Select the measurement function that you want to display.
The following explanation is for when the upper limit of measured harmonic order is 50. If the upper
limit is less than 50, computation is performed to the upper limit, and the results are displayed.
Display A
• Display function off: Shows the harmonic order (1 to 50).
• V: Shows all rms voltages (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. This is the same as
display C described below.
• A: Shows all rms currents (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. This is the same as
display C described below.
• W: Shows all rms active powers (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. This is the
same as display C described below.
Display B
•
•
•
•
V: Shows the measured voltage for the harmonic shown in display A.
A: Shows the measured current for the harmonic shown in display A.
W: Shows the measured active power for the harmonic shown in display A.
V%: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of voltage for the harmonic shown in display A. When the
number of displayed digits is 5, the display range is 0.000 to 99.999 and 100.00 to 999.99%.
• A%: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of current for the harmonic shown in display A. When the
number of displayed digits is 5, the display range is 0.000 to 99.999 and 100.00 to 999.99%.
• W%: Shows the harmonic distortion factor of active power for the harmonic shown in display A.
When the number of displayed digits is 5, the display range is 0.000 to 99.999 and 100.00 to
999.99%.
•V°:
• When display A is showing the 1st harmonic (fundamental)
Shows the phase angle of the fundamental current with respect to the fundamental voltage. G
appears in front of the value when the current lags the voltage; d appears when the current leads
the voltage.
• When display A is showing a harmonic between 2 and 50
Shows the phase angle of the harmonic voltage with respect to the fundamental voltage. A minus
sign (–) appears in front of the value when the harmonic lags the 1st harmonic. The display
range is –180.0 to 180.0°.
•A°:
• When display A is showing the 1st harmonic (fundamental)
The same as V°.
• When display A is showing a harmonic between 2 and 50
Shows the phase angle of the harmonic current with respect to the fundamental current. A minus
sign (–) appears in front of the value when the harmonic lags the 1st harmonic. The display
range is –180.0 to 180.0°.
6-4
IM WT310E-01EN
6.2 Displaying Harmonic Measurement Data
1
Display C
• V: Shows all rms voltages (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
• A: Shows all rms currents (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
• W: Shows all rms active powers (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic.
2
Equation
n
V=
(Uk)2
k=1
n
A=
(Ik)
3
2
k=1
n
4
W= Pk
k=1
• Uk, Ik, Pk: 1st to the 50th harmonic components of voltage, current, and active power
• k: Measured harmonic order
• n: Upper limit of measured harmonic order. This value varies depending on the fundamental
frequency of the PLL source.
5
Display D
7
8
App
Index
Note
• If you press the FUNCTION key of display A to set the display function to V, A, or W, display A shows the
same measurement item as V, A, or W on display C or D.
• Unless specified otherwise in this section, the maximum display, display range, unit, unit prefix, and so on
are the same as those of normal measurement.
Source Element (WT332E/WT333E only)
Set the input element that you want to display harmonic measurement data of. The element types that
you can select vary depending on the model. Check your model when selecting.
• 1/2/3: Shows the measured data of element 1, 2, or 3.
Note
If harmonic measurement data display is set to ON, the element display will not move to Σ even if you press
ELEMENT.
IM WT310E-01EN
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
• V: Shows all rms voltages (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. The same as
display C.
• A: Shows all rms currents (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. The same as
display C.
• W: Shows all rms active powers (computed values) from the 1st to the 50th harmonic. The same as
display C.
• PF: Shows the power factor of the fundamental wave (1st harmonic).
• VHz: Shows the voltage frequency.
• AHz: Shows the current frequency.
• THD V%: Shows the voltage distortion factor. There are two types of equations. For details, see
section 6.3. The display range is 0.000 to 99.999 and 100.00 to 999.99%.
• THD A%: Shows the current distortion factor. There are two types of equations. For details, see
section 6.3. The display range is 0.000 to 99.999 and 100.00 to 999.99%.
6
6-5
6.3
Setting the PLL Source, Measured Harmonic
Order, and THD Equation
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
PLL Source
1.
(Display B)
Set the PLL source.
5.
(Display C)
3.
2.
4.
Confirm
the setting.
6.
Close menu.
An example for the WT333E
The display varies depending
on the installed elements.
Measured Harmonic Order
1.
(Display B)
2.
3.
Set the harmonic order.
5.
(Display C)
4.
Confirm
the setting.
6.
Close menu.
THD Equation
1.
(Display B)
2.
Set the equation.
(Display C)
3.
4.
5.
Confirm
the setting.
6.
Close menu.
Explanation
PLL Source
Set the PLL (Phase Locked Loop; frequency synchronization) source, which is used to determine the
fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency is the reference for the measured harmonics of
harmonic measurement. The default value is U1.
Be sure to specify a signal with the same period as the harmonic measurement source waveform.
Selecting an input signal with small distortion and fluctuation for the PLL source will enable stable
harmonic measurement.
• U1: The PLL source is set to the voltage of element 1.
• I1: The PLL source is set to the current of element 1.
• U2: The PLL source is set to the voltage of element 2 (WT333E only).
• I2: The PLL source is set to the current of element 2 (WT333E only).
• U3: The PLL source is set to the voltage of element 3 (WT332E and WT333E).
• I3: The PLL source is set to the current of element 3 (WT332E and WT333E).
6-6
IM WT310E-01EN
6.3 Setting the PLL Source, Measured Harmonic Order, and THD Equation
Note
• If the fundamental frequency of the PLL source cannot be measured due to fluctuations or distortion,
correct measurement results cannot be obtained. We suggest that you set the PLL source to the voltage,
which has relatively smaller distortion than the current.
• If the fundamental frequency is 200 Hz or less and high frequency components are present, we suggest
that you turn on the frequency filter (500 Hz cutoff frequency).
• If the amplitude of the PLL source input signal is small compared to the rated range, PLL synchronization
may fail. Change the measurement range so that the amplitude level of the PLL source is 50% or higher
than the rated range (100% or higher if the crest factor is set to 6 or 6A).
Measured Harmonic Order
You can set the upper limit of measured harmonic order in the range of 2 to 50. However, the range
varies depending on the fundamental (1st harmonic) frequency. This is because the upper limit of
harmonics that are computed varies depending on the fundamental frequency. The default value is 50.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
• Up to 50 when the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz
• Up to 4 when the fundamental frequency is 1.2 kHz
Note
THD equation
Select the THD equation from below. The default value is iEC.
The following explanation is for when the upper limit of measured harmonic order is 50. If the upper
limit is less than 50, computation is performed to the upper limit.
• iEC: Computes the ratio of the rms value of the 2nd to 50th harmonic component to that of the
fundamental (1st order).
• CSA: Computes the ratio of the rms value of the 2nd to 50th harmonic component to that of the rms
value of the 1st to 50th component.
6
Harmonic Measurement (Option)
• When a harmonic order exceeding the upper limit is specified, display B shows hyphens (-----).
• For details on the upper limit of measured harmonic order, see section 7.3 in the Getting Started Guide,
IM WT310E-02EN.
7
8
App
Equation
Index
iEC
n
(Ck)2
/ C1 ×100
(Ck)2
/
k=2
CSA
n
k=2
n
(Ck)2 ×100
k=1
•C1: Fundamental (1st harmonic) component
•Ck: Fundamental or harmonic component
• k: Measured harmonic order
• n: Upper limit of measured harmonic order. This value varies depending on the fundamental
frequency of the PLL source.
IM WT310E-01EN
6-7
Chapter 7
7.1
Storing Measured Data and Saving and Loading Setup Parameters
Storing Measured Data
1
2
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
Storage Interval for Measured Data
Select the storage feature.
(Display B)
1.
4
2.
3.
5
(Display C)
4.
5.
Set the interval.
(Display D)
7.
hour min sec
Confirm
the setting.
6. Press
and
6.
Close menu.
to set the number.
Press
to move the digit.
7
Turning Measured Data Storage On and Off
Select the storage feature.
(Display B)
8
2.
3.
Storing Measured Data and Saving and Loading Setup Parameters
1.
6
(Display C)
4.
5.
6.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
App
Index
Explanation
Storing Measured Data
You can store measured data to the internal memory.
Stored Items
All measured data, computed data, integrated data, and frequencies (voltage and current) are stored.
If the harmonic data display is set to ON (see section 6.2) on a model with the harmonic measurement
option, all measured data, computed data, integrated data, and frequencies (voltage and current)
including those of harmonic measurement are stored.
IM WT310E-01EN
7-1
7.1 Storing Measured Data
Number of Blocks Stored
All data values that can be acquired within a single data update interval are stored as one block.
The number of data values vary depending on the number of installed elements, so the number of
blocks that can be stored varies depending on the product. The number of data blocks that can be
stores in the internal memory is shown below.
Model
Normal Measurement Data Only
WT310E or WT310EH
WT332E
WT333E
9000 blocks
4000 blocks
3000 blocks
Normal Measurement Data and Harmonic
Measurement Data*
700 blocks
300 blocks
200 blocks
* When the harmonic data display is set to ON on a model with the harmonic measurement option
Stopping Storage
Storage stops in the following circumstances.
• When data has been stored to all blocks indicated above
• When the storage setting is set to oFF (while storage is in progress)
Note
• Measured data that has been stored cannot be recalled on the screen of this instrument.
• Measured data that has been stored can be transmitted to a PC through the communication feature. You
can view the data on the PC. For details, see the Communication Interface User’s Manual, IM WT310E17EN.
Storage Interval
Set the time interval for repeating the storage operation. The default value is00.00.00.
• Range: 00.00.00 (00 h, 00 min, 00 s) to 99.59.59 (99 h, 59 min, 59 s)
When set to 00.00.00, the storage interval is equal to the specified data update interval.
Turning the Storage On and Off
After you set the storage interval, select whether to set the storage feature to ON or OFF. The default
value is oFF.
• on: Storage starts, and the STORE indicator blinks at the pace at which storage is taking place.
• oFF: Storage stops, and the STORE indicator stops blinking.
Note
• When you stop storage and restart it, the data in the memory will be overwritten.
• Stored data will be deleted if you:
• Turn off the power.
• Initialize the settings (section 5.2).
• Load setup parameters (section 7.2).
• If the fundamental frequency is high and harmonic measured data does not exist up to the 50th harmonic,
“no-data” values are stored for the non-existing harmonics.
• While storage is in progress, you cannot change measurement conditions except for the measurement range.
• If you press the HOLD key to hold the display while storage is in progress, the measurement operation
and the storage interval time counter are held (paused), which causes the storage operation itself to
be held. If integration is in progress, this instrument continues measurement and integration in the
background.
• When the MAX hold feature (see section 4.6) is enabled, the displayed values for U (voltage), I (current),
P (active power), S (apparent power), Q (reactive power), U+pk, U-pk (voltage peak), I+pk, I-pk (current
peak), P+pk, and P-pk (power peak) will be the maximum held values. D/A output and communication
output values will also be the maximum held values. In addition, stored measured data will be the
maximum held values.
• While storage is in progress, do not change the MAX hold feature settings.
• If the data update interval is set to Auto, measured data cannot be saved.
7-2
IM WT310E-01EN
7.2
Saving and Loading Setup Parameters
1
2
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Saving Setup Parameters
Select to save setup parameters.
(Display B)
1.
2.
3.
3
Set the destination.
(Display C)
4.
5.
4
Confirm the setting
and close menu.
5
If you select a file that contains previously saved setup parameters,
display D shows “
.”
If you select a file that does not contain previously saved setup parameters,
display D shows “
6
.”
Loading Setup Parameters
Select to load setup parameters.
3.
(Display B)
1.
2.
Set the load source.
(Display C)
5.
Confirm the setting
and close menu.
Storing Measured Data and Saving and Loading Setup Parameters
4.
7
8
If you select a file that contains previously saved setup parameters,
display D shows “
.”
If you select a file that does not contain previously saved setup parameters,
display D shows “
.”
Explanation
Saving Setup Parameters
You can save four sets of setup parameters to the internal memory. Set the save destination to FiLE1,
FiLE2, FiLE3, or FiLE4. The current setup parameters shown below will be saved.
Measurement range, measurement mode, measurement synchronization source, scaling settings,
averaging settings, input filter settings, MAX hold ON/OFF setting, computation settings, number of
displayed digits, data update interval, crest factor, integration settings, harmonic settings, storage
settings, communication settings, etc.
Note
• For files that contain previously saved data, display D shows “SAVEd.” Pressing the SET key in this
condition will result in overwriting the previously saved setup parameters.
• Setup parameters are saved to a different internal memory than that of measured data.
• Saved setup parameters are retained by a lithium battery. For information on the service life of the lithium
battery, see section 5.3 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
Loading Setup Parameters
You can load setup parameters that have been saved to restore the settings. This instrument is
configured according to the loaded setup parameters. After the settings are loaded, this instrument
starts measuring.
IM WT310E-01EN
7-3
App
Index
Chapter 8
8.1
Other Features
Viewing System Information
1
2
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
1.
Select system information.
(Display B)
3.
2.
(Display B)
4.
5.
3
Confirm the setting.
Measurement screen returns.
4
5
6
Explanation
System Information
You can display the following information about this instrument.
7
Meaning
Model
Suffix code
The rest of the suffix code
Instrument number
Firmware version
8
For details on models and suffix codes, see page ii in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
Other Features
Item
Model
Suff.1
Suff.2
No.
Ver.
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
8-1
8.2
Initializing the Settings
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Select initialization.
(Display B)
1.
2.
Confirm that you want to
initialize the settings.
(Display C)
5.
3.
4.
Confirm the setting.
Execute initialization.
Explanation
Initializing Setup Parameters
You can initialize the setup parameters to their factory defaults. This feature is useful when you want to
cancel all of the settings that you have entered or when you want to redo measurement from scratch.
The default settings are shown below.
Item
Display A
Display B
Display C
Display D
Number of displayed digits
Data update interval
Line filter
Frequency filter
Measurement synchronization source
Measurement range
Measurement range skip
Measurement mode
Wiring system (WT332E/WT333E only)
Hold
MAX hold
Scaling
External current sensor scaling constant
Averaging
Crest factor
MATH equation
Frequency
Integration
Harmonic measurement (option)
Storage
D/A output (option)
8-2
Default setting
Display function: V, element: 1
Display function: A, element: 1
Display function: W, element: 1
Display function: PF, element: 1
Hi (5 digits)
0.25 s
When set to
Synchronization source
Auto
WT310E/WT310EH: U1
WT332E/WT333E: I1
Timeout: 1s
OFF
OFF
WT310E/WT310EH: VoLt (voltage)
WT332E/WT333E: Curr (current)
Auto range
OFF
RMS
1P3W
OFF
OFF
V:1.000, C: 1.000, F: 1.000
Scaling ON/OFF: OFF
10.00
Averaging type: Lin (moving average), averaging coefficient: 8
Averaging ON/OFF: OFF
3
WT310E/WT310EH: Voltage crest factor
WT332E/WT333E: Efficiency
Voltage frequency and current frequency of element 1
Reset condition, integration mode: manual
Integration timer value: 0 hr, 00 min, 00 s
PLL source: U1, total harmonic distortion equation: iEC, maximum
measured harmonic order: 50
Harmonic measurement data display ON/OFF: OFF
Interval: 0 hr, 00 min, 00 s, storage ON/OFF: OFF
Output items: default normal measurement items, rated integration
time: 1 hr, 00 min, 00 s
IM WT310E-01EN
8.2 Initializing Settings
Item
GP-IB
RS-232
Ethernet (option)
Command mode
Default setting
Address: 1
Handshaking method: 0, data format: 0, baud rate: 9600, terminator:
Cr+Lf
DHCP: ON
When DHCP is set to OFF
IP address: 192.168.0.100
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Default gateway: 192.168.0.1
WT300E
1
2
3
Settings That Cannot Be Reset to Their Factory Default Values
• Communication (GP-IB, RS-232, Ethernet, and command mode) settings
4
Data
•
•
Stored measured data
When you initialize the settings, stored measured data is lost.
Setup parameters
The setup parameters that are stored in internal memory are retained even if you initialize the
settings.
5
6
Note
Only initialize this instrument if you are sure that it is okay for all of the settings to be returned to their default
values. You cannot undo an initialization. We recommend that you save the setup parameters before you
initialize this instrument (see section 7.2).
Initializing Using Communication Commands
App
Initializing at Power-On
If you turn on the power while holding down SET, this instrument will start up with the default settings.
Continue holding SET until after all the LEDs have lit and turned off (part 2 under “Power-on
Messages” on page 2-10 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN). All of the setup parameters,
including the communication settings, will be initialized.
The message “CodE.3” will appear to indicate that the settings have been initialized. This is not a
malfunction.
IM WT310E-01EN
8
Other Features
Initialization of setup parameters executed through communication commands (*RST command) works
in the same way as the initialization executed through the UTILITY key, as describe above.
7
8-3
Index
8.3
Performing Zero-Level Compensation
Procedure
Press SHIFT+SET (CAL) to execute zero-level compensation.
Explanation
Zero-Level Compensation
Zero-level compensation is the process of creating a zero-input condition using the internal circuit of
this instrument and setting the level at that point to the zero input level. It must be performed to meet
the specifications of this instrument (see chapter 7 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN).
Zero-level compensation is automatically performed when you change the measurement range.
Note
• To make accurate measurements, we recommend that you execute zero-level compensation after
warming up the instrument for at least 30 minutes. Also, the ambient temperature should be stable and
within the specified range (see chapter 7 in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN).
• If the measurement range remains the same for a long period of time, the zero level may change due to
the changes in the instrument’s environment. If this happens, we recommend that you execute zero-level
compensation.
8-4
IM WT310E-01EN
8.4
Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
1
2
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
3
D/A Output Format
Select the D/A output feature.
(Display B)
1.
2.
4
5
Select the output format.
5.
(Display C)
3.
4.
6.
6
Confirm the setting. Close menu.
(Default setting)
(original
configuration)
Set the output channel.
(Display B) 7.
6,12.
8.
11.
8
2
Confirm the setting.
Other Features
Confirm
the setting.
Set the output item.
(Display C)
7
App
Only on the
WT332E/WT333E1
Index
14.
13.
Confirm
the setting.
Close menu.
A
8. Press
B
and
to set area A (the output function).
On the WT332E/WT333E, select the element in the following steps 9 and 10.
9. Press
10. Press
to move to area B.
and
3
to select an element (you cannot select an element for
).
1 The number of channels varies depending on the specific option that is installed.
• /DA4 option on the WT310E/WT310EH: 4 channels
• /DA12 option on the WT332E/WT333E: 12 channels
2 When you press SET in step 11, the output channel shown in display B changes to the next channel. For
example, ch1 changes to ch2.
3 The numbers (element numbers) that you can select vary depending on the model. For details, see
“Explanation” in this section.
IM WT310E-01EN
8-5
8.4 Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
Rated Integration Time
Select the rated integration time.
(Display B)
1.
2.
Hours
(Display B)
3.
4. Press
5.
and
Press
Minutes
(Display C)
7.
6. The same as
step 4.
Seconds
(Display D)
9.
8. The same as
Confirm
the setting.
step 4.
to set the number.
to move the digit.
10.
Close menu.
Explanation
D/A Output
You can output voltage, current, active power, apparent power, reactive power, power factor, phase
angle, frequency, voltage peak, current peak, and integrated values using a ±5 V FS DC analog
voltage.
Number of Channels
The number of channels varies depending on the specific option that is installed.
• /DA4 option on the WT310E/WT310EH: 4 channels
• /DA12 option on the WT332E/WT333E: 12 channels
Output Format
You can select a preconfigured output format or configure your own original format.
Using the Default Settings
Select one of the default settings to output preconfigured (default) items.
Default Values for Normal Measurement: dFLt-n
Select this setting to output normal measurement values. The output settings are as follows:
Suffix Code
/DA4
Product Name WT310E
WT310EH
Output channel ch1
U1
ch2
I1
ch3
P1
ch4
fU
1
ch5
ch6
ch7
ch8
ch9
ch10
ch11
ch12
/DA12
WT332E
WT333E
U1
U3
UΣ
I1
I3
IΣ
P1
P3
PΣ
U1
U2
U3
UΣ
I1
I2
I3
IΣ
P1
P2
P3
PΣ
1 These channels cannot be set.
2 The numbers are used to indicate input elements 1, 2, and 3.
8-6
IM WT310E-01EN
8.4 Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
1
Default Values for Integration: dFLt-i
Select this setting to output integrated values. The output settings are as follows:
Suffix code
/DA4
Product Name WT310E
WT310EH
Output channel ch1
P1
ch2
WP1
ch3
q1
ch4
fU
1
ch5
ch6
ch7
ch8
ch9
ch10
ch11
ch12
/DA12
WT332E
WT333E
P1
P3
PΣ
WP1
WP3
WPΣ
q1
q3
qΣ
P1
P2
P3
PΣ
WP1
WP2
WP3
WPΣ
q1
q2
q3
qΣ
2
3
4
5
1 These channels cannot be set.
2 The numbers are used to indicate input elements 1, 2, and 3.
Configuring an Original Output Format
6
You can specify output items (output functions and elements) for each output channel.
Output Functions (Area A in step 8 in the procedural explanation for setting the D/A
output format)
You can select from the following options.
u (voltage U), i (current I), P (active power P), VA (apparent power S),
VAr (reactive power Q), PF (power factor), dEG (phase angle Φ),
uFrq (voltage frequency fU), iFrq (current frequency fI),
uP (voltage peak Upk), iP (current peak Ipk),
Ph (total watt hour Wp), Ph+ (positive watt hour Wp+), Ph– (negative watt hour Wp–),
Ah (total ampere hour q), Ah+ (positive ampere hour* q+), Ah– (negative ampere hour* q–),
MATH (computation),
– – – – – (D/A output 0 V; no further elements can be set)
8
App
* For details on the positive ampere-hour, see “Display Function for Integrated Values” in section 5.1.
Elements (Area B in step 10 in the procedural explanation for setting the D/A output
format)
Product Name
WT310E or WT310EH
WT332E
WT333E
Element
1
1, 3, 4
1, 2, 3, 4
Element number 4 represents Σ.
IM WT310E-01EN
7
Other Features
8-7
Index
8.4 Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
Rated Integration Time
In the D/A output of integrated values, this instrument assumes the integrated value that would be
obtained if a rated value (same value as the measurement range) is continuously received over the
specified duration to be 100% and assigns this value to 5 V.
The default setting is 1.00.00 (1 h, 00 min, 00 s).
• Range: 0.00.00 (00 h, 00 min, 00 s) to 10000.00.00 (10000 h, 00 min, 00 s)
If you set the rated integration time to 0.00.00, the D/A output value will be 0 V.
For the relationship between measured integrated D/A output and voltage, see “Relationship between
Output Items and D/A Output Voltage.”
Note
• When the MAX hold feature (see section 4.6) is enabled, the maximum held values (MAX values) for the
following items are displayed. The maximum held values (MAX values) are also output in D/A output.
Voltage, current, active power, apparent power, peak voltage, peak current
• D/A output is performed for each output item with 100% (5 V) representing the application of the rated
range value for voltage, current, and power.
• If a scaling coefficient such as a VT ratio, CT ratio, or power coefficient is applied to a voltage, current,
or power value and scaling is enabled, this instrument produces 100% D/A output (5 V) when the scaled
measured value is the same as the scaled rated value (measurement range × scaling factor).
• Even if the elements have different scaling constants, when you set the element to Σ, this instrument
produces 100% D/A output (5 V) when scaled rated values are applied to the elements.
• The D/A output for all math functions except for those indicated below is 0 V.
Efficiency, average active power during integration
D/A Output Range Mode (Range Mode)
You can select the D/A output range mode from the following options. The default setting is Fixed.
You can set this feature by sending communication commands through the communication
interface. You cannot set this feature from the display menu of this instrument. For details, see the
Communication Interface User’s Manual, IM WT310E-17EN.
Fixed (Fixed range mode)
When a measurement function’s rated value is received, +5 V is output. For details, see “Relationship
between Output Items and the D/A Output Voltage” on page 8-10.
Manual (Manual range mode)
You can set which measurement function values result in a D/A output of -5 V, and which result
in a D/A output of +5 V. By doing so, you can enlarge or reduce (zoom) the D/A output of each
channel. For example, if you are measuring a current that fluctuates between 0.6 A and 0.8 A with
a measurement range of 1 A, when the D/A output range mode is Fixed, the D/A output voltage will
fluctuate between 3.0 V and 4.0 V. When you want to observe the fluctuations more closely, you can
use the D/A zoom feature. If you set the D/A output range mode to Manual and set the minimum
value to 0.6 and the maximum value to 0.8, this instrument will produce –5 V when the measured
current value is 0.6 A and +5 V when the measured current value is 0.8 A.
8-8
IM WT310E-01EN
8.4 Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
Fixed range mode
Measured current
D/A output
Manual range mode
(DA zoom)
D/A output
1.0 A
5.0 V
5.0 V
0.8 A
4.0 V
0.6 A
3.0 V
1
2
3
Time
Time
4
5
–5.0 V
Compare (Comparator Mode)
By comparing with the comparator limits, this instrument outputs +5 V, 0 V, or –5 V. To replace the
output with a relay contact output, like the WT210/WT230 comparator function, provide your own
relay and relay driving circuit.
• Below the lower limit:
–5 V output
• Greater than or equal to the lower limit and less than the upper limit: 0 V output
• Greater than or equal to the upper limit:
+5 V output
Maximum and Minimum Values in Manual Range Mode and Comparison Upper and
Lower Limits in Comparator Mode
Manual Range Mode
Comparator Mode
Maximum Value
Minimum Value
Comparison Upper Limit
Comparison Lower Limit
7
8
Other Features
You can select a value between -9.999E+12 and 9.999E+12.
The default settings are shown below.
6
100.0
-100.0
100.0
-100.0
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
8-9
8.4 Configuring D/A Output Items (Option)
Relationship between Output Items and D/A Output Voltage
Frequency
D/A output
Approx. 7.5 V
5.0 V
0.5 V
10 Hz
0.1 Hz
100 kHz
1 kHz
100 Hz
10 kHz
1 Hz
Displayed value
Integrated Value
D/A output
Approx. 7.0 V
5.0 V
When 140% of the rated input
is applied
When the rated input is applied
0
Integration time
t0
t0: Rated integration time
Other Items
D/A output
Approx. 7.5 V
Approx. 7.0 V
Displayed Value
140%
100%
0%
–100%
–140%
Output
Approx. 7.0 V
5.0 V
0V
–5.0 V
Approx. - 7.0 V
5.0 V
–140 –100
0
100 140
Displayed value (%)
–5.0V
Approx. –7.0 V
Approx. –7.5 V
• The range between +5 to +7 V and –5 to –7 V is not output for λ and Φ. When an error occurs, the output
is approximately ±7.5 V.
• For the efficiency math function, +5 V represents 100%.
• For Upk and Ipk, ±5 V represents the application of 3 times the rated range value (6 times the rated range
value when the crest factor is 6 or 6A).
• When the selected output function is “----” or there is no numerical data, the output is 0 V.
8-10
IM WT310E-01EN
8.5
Enabling Key Protection
1
2
Procedure
Key Protection
Press SHIFT+INTERFACE (KEY PROTECT). The KEY PROTECT indicator illuminates, and all keys
except for the power switch and KEY PROTECT are disabled.
3
4
Disabling Key Protection
In the key protected condition, press SHIFT+INTERFACE (KEY PROTECT). The KEY PROTECT
indicator turns off, and all keys are enabled.
5
Explanation
6
Key Protection
You can disable (lock) the front panel keys. The following switch and key are exceptions.
• Power switch
• KEY PROTECT (to disable key lock)
7
8
Other Features
App
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
8-11
8.6
Carrying Out Self-Tests (Selftest)
Procedure
Follow the procedure indicated by the thick lines in the following menu.
Memory Test
Execute self-test.
(Display B)
1.
2.
Test item
(Display C)
3.
4.
5.
6.
Execute test.
The display changes in this order.
7.
8.
End test.
Close menu.
Panel Key Test
Execute self-test.
(Display B)
1.
2.
Test item
(Display C)
3.
4.
5.
Execute test.
7.
Press SHIFT
twice to end
the test.
8-12
6.
Pressing a key
causes the
corresponding
number to
appear.
8.
Close menu.
IM WT310E-01EN
8.6 Carrying Out Self-Tests (Selftest)
1
LED Test
Execute self-test.
(Display B)
1.
2
2.
3
Test item
(Display C)
3.
4
4.
5.
Execute test.
7.
End test.
8.
6.
5
Pressing the
keys causes
the LED to
illuminate
one by one.
6
Close menu.
Ending a Test
1.
7
Execute self-test.
(Display B)
2.
8
Other Features
App
Test item
(Display C)
3.
Index
4.
5.
End test.
IM WT310E-01EN
6.
Close menu.
8-13
8.6 Carrying Out Self-Tests (Selftest)
Explanation
Self-test (Selftest)
You can test whether the memory, keys, and LEDs are operating properly.
Memory Test (MEMorY)
The memory test checks the internal memory. The test is successful if the following messages
appear in order.
•rEAdy
• 1-4 oK
• 2-4 oK
• 3-4 oK
• 4-4 oK
Panel Key Test (PAnEL)
• The panel key test checks the front panel keys. The test is successful if the numbers
corresponding to the pressed keys are displayed.
• To exit from the key test, press SHIFT twice.
LED Test (LEd)
• The LED test checks the front panel indicators. The test is successful if you press the ▲ and ▼
arrow keys and the front panel LEDs turn on and off one by one.
• To exit from the LED test, press SHIFT.
Ending the Self-Test (End)
The self-test ends.
If an Error Occurs during a Self-Test
If any of the tests fail after trying them a few times, contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer.
8-14
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix
Appendix 1 Symbols and Determination of
Measurement Functions
1
2
Measurement Functions Used in Normal Measurement
(Table 1/2)
Methods of Computation and Determination
For information about the symbols in the equations,
see the notes on the next page.
Measurement Function
Voltage
U [V]
True rms value Urms
Rectified mean value calibrated
to the rms value Umn
Simple average Udc
Current
I [A]
True rms value Irms
Simple average Idc
Urms
Umn
π
AVG[u(n)2]
2
2
Udc
AVG[ u(n) ]
Irms
Idc
AVG[i(n)]
AVG[i(n)2]
AVG[u(n) • i(n) ]
Apparent power S [VA]
Select from Urms • Irms, Umn • Irms, and Udc • Idc.
Reactive power Q [var]
s • S2 – P2
s is -1 for a lead phase and 1 for a lag phase
6
7
( )
P
cos
S
The phase angle displays lead (D) and lag (G).
–1
8
The voltage frequency (fU) and current frequency (fI) are measured
by detecting the zero-crossing points.
Measures fU and fI for the element set in display D of the WT
Maximum voltage: U + pk [V]
The maximum u(n) for every data update
The minimum u(n) for every data update
The maximum i(n) for every data update
Minimum current: I - pk [A]
The minimum i(n) for every data update
Maximum power: P + pk [W]
The maximum u(n) • i(n) for every data update
Minimum power: P – pk [W]
The minimum u(n) • i(n) for every data update
Voltage crest factor CfU =
Upk= |U+pk| or |U-pk|,
whichever is larger
Upk
Urms
Current crest factor CfI =
Ipk = |I+pk| or |I-pk|,
whichever is larger
App
Index
Ipk
Irms
(Continued on next page)
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix
Minimum voltage: U – pk [V]
Maximum current: I + pk [A]
Voltage crest factor: CfU
Current crest factor: CfI
5
P
S
Power factor λ
Voltage frequency: fU (FreqU) [Hz]
Current frequency: fI (FreqI) [Hz]
4
AVG[u(n)]
Active power P [W]
Phase difference Φ [°]
3
App-1
Appendix 1 Symbols and Determination of Measurement Functions
(Table 2/2)
Methods of Computation and Determination
For information about the symbols in the equations see the notes.
Measurement Function
Integration time
Time
[h:m:s]
Time from integration start to integration stop
N
WP
WP+
WP–
Watt
hours
[Wh]
1
u(n) • i(n)
Nn=1
•
Time
N is the integration time sampling count. The unit of Time is hours.
WP is the sum of positive and negative watt hours.
WP+ is the sum of the above equations for all iterations where u(n) • i(n) is positive.
WP– is the sum of the above equations for all iterations where u(n) • i(n) is negative.
N
rms
Ampere
hours
[Ah]
q
q+
q–
Integration
1
I(n) • Time
Nn=1
I(n) is the nth measured current value.
N is the number of data updates.
The unit of time is hours.
N
1
i(n) • Time
Nn=1
dc
Wiring system
UΣ [V]
i(n) is the nth sampled data of the current signal.
N is the number of data samples.
The unit of time is hours.
q is the sum of i(n)'s positive and negative ampere hours.
q+ is the sum of the above equations for all iterations where i(n) is positive.
q– is the sum of the above equations for all iterations where i(n) is negative.
Three-voltage, threeSingle-phase,
Three-phase,
three-wire 1P3W three-wire 3P3W current measurement 3V3A
(U1 + U3) / 2
(I1 + I3) / 2
IΣ [A]
Σ functions
S1 + S3
SΣ [VA]
QΣ [var]
WPΣ
WPΣ [Wh] WP+Σ
qΣ [Ah]
(U1 + U2 + U3) / 3
(I1 + I2 + I3) / 3
P1 + P2 + P3
P1 + P3
PΣ [W]
WP–Σ
qΣ
q+Σ
q–Σ
Three-phase,
four-wire 3P4W
3
(S1 + S2 + S3)
3
3
(S1 + S3)
2
S1 + S2 + S3
Q1 + Q3
Q1 + Q2 + Q3
WP1 + WP3
WP+1 + WP+3
WP–1 + WP–3
q1 + q3
q+1 + q+3
WP1 + WP2 + WP3
WP+1 + WP+2 + WP+3
q–1 + q–3
q–1 + q–2 + q–3
λΣ
PΣ
SΣ
ΦΣ [°]
COS-1
WP–1 + WP–2 + WP–3
q1 + q2 + q3
q+1 + q+2 + q+3
( PΣ
SΣ )
Note
• u(n) denotes instantaneous voltage.
• i(n) denotes instantaneous current.
• n denotes the nth measurement period. The measurement period is determined by the synchronization
source setting.
• AVG[ ] denotes the simple average of the item in brackets determined over the data measurement
interval. The data measurement interval is determined by the synchronization source setting.
• PΣ denotes the active power of wiring unit Σ. Input elements are assigned to wiring unit Σ differently
depending on the number of input elements that are installed in this instrument and the selected wiring
system pattern.
• The numbers 1, 2, and 3 used in the equations for UΣ, IΣ, PΣ, SΣ, QΣ, WPΣ, and qΣ indicate the case
when input elements 1, 2, and 3 are set to the wiring system shown in the table.
App-2
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 1 Symbols and Determination of Measurement Functions
• On this instrument, S, Q, λ, and Φ are derived through the computation of the measured values of voltage,
current, and active power. Therefore, for distorted signal input, the value obtained on this instrument may
differ from that obtained on other instruments that use a different method.
• For Q, when the current leads the voltage, the Q value is displayed as a negative value; when the current
lags the voltage, the Q value is displayed as a positive value. The value of QΣ may be negative, because
it is calculated from the Q of each element with the signs included.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-3
Appendix 1 Symbols and Determination of Measurement Functions
Measurement Functions Used in Harmonic Measurement (Option)
(Table 1/2)
Methods of Computation and Determination
Harmonic order
Measurement Function
1
(fundamental wave)
Voltage U( ) [V]
U(k) =
Current I( ) [A]
I(k) =
2 to max
(harmonics)
Rms value of
all components
(Total value)
max
Ur(k)2 + Uj(k)2
U(k)2
U=
k=1
max
Ir(k)2 + Ij(k)2
I(k)2
I=
k=1
max
Active power P( ) [W]
Power factor λ ( )
Phase difference
ΦU( ) [°]
Phase difference
ΦI( ) [°]
PLL source frequency
fU, fI [Hz]
P=
P(k) = Ur(k) • Ir(k) + Uj(k) • Ij(k)
P(k)
k=1
P(1)
S(1)
Phase difference
between I(1) and U(1)
λ(1) =
Same as above
—
—
ΦU(k) = The phase difference
between U(k) and U(1)
—
ΦI(k) = The phase difference
between I(k) and I(1)
—
Fundamental frequency of the voltage or current set as the PLL source
(Continued on next page)
Note
• k denotes a harmonic order, r denotes the real part, and j denotes the imaginary part.
• U(k), Ur(k), Uj(k), I(k), Ir(k), and Ij(k) are expressed using rms values.
• The upper limit of measured harmonic order is denoted by max. max is either an automatically determined
value or the specified maximum measured harmonic order, whichever is smaller.
• Harmonic measurement functions are measured only for input elements, not Σ functions.
App-4
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 1 Symbols and Determination of Measurement Functions
(Table 2/2)
Methods of Computation and Determination
Measurement Function
When the Denominator of the
THD Equation Is the Total Value (CSA)
Harmonic distortion factor
of voltage
Uhdf( ) [%]
U(k)
U(Total)*
Harmonic distortion factor
of current
Ihdf( ) [%]
I(k)
I(Total)*
Harmonic distortion factor
of active power
Phdf( ) [%]
P(k)
P(Total)*
U(k)
• 100
U(1)
• 100
P(k)
• 100
P(1)
• 100
k=2
U(Total)*
k=2
• 100
k=2
I(k)
max
k=1
• 100
5
max
2
I(Total)*
U(k)2 ,
U(k)2
U(1)
max
Total harmonic current
distortion
Ithd [%]
4
max
U(k)2
k=2
• 100
I(Total) =
I(k)
I(1)
max
I(k)2 ,
k=1
max
P(Total) =
2
3
I(k)
• 100
I(1)
• 100
max
Total harmonic voltage
distortion
Uthd [%]
U(Total) =
*
When the Denominator of the
THD Equation Is the Fundamental Wave (IEC)
1
2
• 100
6
P(k)
k=1
Note
• k denotes a harmonic order.
• The upper limit of measured harmonic order is denoted by max. max is either an automatically determined
value or the specified maximum measured harmonic order, whichever is smaller.
7
8
App
Appendix
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-5
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and
AC RLC circuits)
This section explains the basics of power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits.
Power
Electrical energy can be converted into other forms of energy and used. For example, it can be
converted into the heat in an electric heater, the torque in a motor, or the light in a fluorescent or
mercury lamp. In these kinds of examples, the work that electricity performs in a given period of time (or
the electrical energy expended) is referred to as electric power. The unit of electric power is watts (W).
1 watt is equivalent to 1 joule of work performed in 1 second.
DC Power
The DC power P (in watts) is determined by multiplying the applied voltage U (in volts) by the current I (in
amps).
P = UI [W]
In the example below, the amount of electrical energy determined by the equation above is retrieved
from the power supply and consumed by resistance R (in ohms) every second.
I
U
R
Alternating Current
Normally, the power supplied by power companies is alternating current with sinusoidal waveforms.
The magnitude of alternating current can be expressed using values such as instantaneous, maximum,
rms, and mean values. Normally, it is expressed using rms values.
The instantaneous value i of a sinusoidal alternating current is expressed by Imsinωt (where Am is the
maximum value of the current, ω is the angular velocity defined as ω = 2πf, and f is the frequency of
the sinusoidal alternating current). The thermal action of this alternating current is proportional to i2,
and varies as shown in the figure below.*
*Thermal action is the phenomenon in which watt hour is converted to heat energy when a current
flows through a resistance.
Im2
i2
Im
The areas are the same.
Rms value I
π
2π
Average of i
2
ωt
i = Imsinωt
The rms value (effective value) is the DC value that generates the same thermal action as the
alternating current. With I as the DC value that produces the same thermal action as the alternating
current:
I=
2
The mean of i over one period =
1
2π
2π
2
0
i dωt =
Im
2
Because this value corresponds to the root mean square of the instantaneous values over 1 period,
the effective value is normally denoted using the abbreviation “rms.”
App-6
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
To determine the mean value, the average is taken over 1 period of absolute values, because simply
taking the average over 1 period of the sine wave results in a value of zero. With Imn as the mean
value of the instantaneous current i (which is equal to Imsinωt):
1
2π
2
1
Imn= The mean of i over one period = 2π
0
2
i dωt = π Im
These relationships also apply to sinusoidal voltages.
3
The maximum value, rms value, and mean value of a sinusoidal alternating current are related as
shown below. The crest factor and form factor are used to define the tendency of an AC waveform.
Maximum value
Crest factor =
rms value
Form factor =
rms value
Mean value
5
Vector Display of Alternating Current
In general, instantaneous voltage and current values are expressed using the equations listed below.
Voltage:u = Umsinωt
Current:i = Imsin(ωt – Φ)
The time offset between the voltage and current is called the phase difference, and Φ is the phase
angle. The time offset is mainly caused by the load that the power is supplied to. In general, the phase
difference is zero when the load is purely resistive. The current lags the voltage when the load is
inductive (is coiled). The current leads the voltage when the load is capacitive.
When the current lags the voltage
u
2π
ωt
π
0
2π
App
ωt
Appendix
Φ
Φ
Index
A vector display is used to clearly convey the magnitude and phase relationships between the voltage
and current. A positive phase angle is represented by a counterclockwise angle with respect to the
vertical axis.
Normally, a dot is placed above the symbol representing a quantity to explicitly indicate that it is a
vector. The magnitude of a vector represents the rms value.
When the current lags the voltage
When the current leads the voltage
U
U
Φ
I
IM WT310E-01EN
7
i
π
0
6
8
When the current leads the voltage
u
i
4
I
Φ
App-7
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
Three-Phase AC Wiring
Generally three-phase AC power lines are connected in star wiring configurations or delta wiring
configurations.
Star wiring
Delta wiring
R
R
T
S
T
S
Vector Display of Three-Phase Alternating Current
In typical three-phase AC power, the voltage of each phase is offset by 120°. The figure below
expresses this offset using vectors. The voltage of each phase is called the phase voltage, and the
voltage between each phase is called the line voltage.
R
Phase voltage
Line voltage
S
T
If a power supply or load is connected in a delta wiring configuration and no neutral line is present,
the phase voltage cannot be measured. In this case, the line voltage is measured. Sometimes the line
voltage is also measured when measuring three-phase AC power using two single-phase wattmeters
(the two-wattmeter method). If the magnitude of each phase voltage is equal and each phase is offset
by 120°, the magnitude of the line voltage is
voltage phase is offset by 30°.
times the magnitude of the phase voltage, and the line
Below is a vector representation of the relationship between the phase voltages and line currents of a
three-phase AC voltage when the current lags the voltage by Φ°.
U1
I1
Φ
I3
Φ
Φ
U3
App-8
U2
I2
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
1
AC Power
AC power cannot be determined as easily as DC power, because of the phase difference between the
voltage and current caused by load.
If the instantaneous voltage u = Umsinωt and the instantaneous current i = Imsin(ωt – Φ), the
instantaneous AC power p is as follows:
p = u×i = Umsinωt×Imsin(ωt – Φ) = UIcosΦ – UIcos(2ωt – Φ)
U and I represent the rms voltage and rms current, respectively.
p is the sum of the time-independent term, UIcosΦ, and the AC component term of the voltage or
current at twice the frequency, –UIcos(2ωt – Φ).
AC power refers to the mean power over 1 period. When the mean over 1 period is taken, AC power P
is as follows:
P = UIcosΦ [W]
Even if the voltage and current are the same, the power varies depending on the phase difference Φ.
The section above the horizontal axis in the figure below represents positive power (power supplied
to the load), and the section below the horizontal axis represents negative power (power fed back
from the load). The difference between the positive and negative powers is the power consumed by
the load. As the phase difference between the voltage and current increases, the negative power
increases. At Φ = π/2, the positive and negative powers are equal, and the load consumes no power.
π
2π
i
ωt
App
Appendix
p
i
Index
Average power
P = UIcosΦ
π
2π
ωt
Negative
power
Φ
When phase difference
π
between voltage and current is 2
u
p
0
π
2
Average power
π
P = UIcos = 0
2
i
π
2π
ωt
The positive and negative powers are the same.
IM WT310E-01EN
5
8
When the phase difference
between voltage and current is Φ
u
Positive power
0
4
7
Average power
P = UI
0
3
6
When the phase difference
between voltage and current is 0
p
Positive
power
u
2
App-9
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
Active Power and the Power Factor
In alternating electrical current, not all of the power calculated by the product of voltage and current,
UI, is consumed. The product of U and I is called the apparent power. It is expressed as S. The unit of
apparent power is the volt-ampere (VA). The apparent power is used to express the electrical capacity
of a device that runs on AC electricity.
The true power that a device consumes is called active power (or effective power). It is expressed as P.
This power corresponds to the AC power discussed in the previous section.
S = UI [VA]
P = UIcosΦ [W]
cosΦ is called the power factor and is expressed as λ. It indicates the portion of the apparent power
that becomes true power.
Reactive Power
If current I lags voltage U by Φ, current I can be broken down into a component in the same direction
as voltage U, IcosΦ, and a perpendicular component, IsinΦ. Active power P, which is equal to UIcosΦ,
is the product of voltage U and the current component IcosΦ. The product of voltage U and the current
component IsinΦ is called the reactive power. It is expressed as Q. The unit of reactive power is the
var.
Q = UIsinΦ [var]
U
IsinΦ
IcosΦ
I
Φ
The relationship between S, the apparent power, P, the active power, and Q, the reactive power is as
follows:
S2 = P2 + Q2
App-10
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
1
Harmonics
Harmonics refer to all sine waves whose frequency is an integer multiple of the fundamental wave
(normally a 50 Hz or 60 Hz sinusoidal power line signal) except for the fundamental wave itself. The
input currents that flow through the power rectification circuits, phase control circuits, and other circuits
used in various kinds of electrical equipment generate harmonic currents and voltages in power lines.
When the fundamental wave and harmonic waves are combined, waveforms become distorted, and
interference sometimes occurs in equipment connected to the power line.
3
Terminology
Interference Caused by Harmonics
Some of the effects of harmonics on electrical devices and equipment are explained in the list below.
• Synchronization capacitors and series reactors
Harmonic current reduces circuit impedance. This causes excessive current flow, which can result
in vibration, humming, overheat, or burnout.
•Cables
Harmonic current flow through the neutral line of a three-phase, four-wire system will cause the
neutral line to overheat.
• Voltage transformers
Harmonics cause magnetostrictive noise in the iron core and increase iron and copper loss.
• Breakers and fuses
Excessive harmonic current can cause erroneous operation and blow fuses.
• Communication cables
The electromagnetic induction caused by harmonics creates noise voltage.
• Control devices
Harmonic distortion of control signals can lead to erroneous operation.
• Audio visual devices
Harmonics can cause degradation of performance and service life, noise-related video flickering,
and damaged parts.
App-11
4
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
The terminology related to harmonics is described below.
• Fundamental wave (fundamental component)
The sine wave with the longest period among the different sine waves contained in a periodic
complex wave. Or the sine wave that has the fundamental frequency within the components of the
complex wave.
• Fundamental frequency
The frequency corresponding to the longest period in a periodic complex wave. The frequency of
the fundamental wave.
• Distorted wave
A wave that differs from the fundamental wave.
• Higher harmonic
A sine wave with a frequency that is an integer multiple (twice or more) of the fundamental
frequency.
• Harmonic component
A waveform component with a frequency that is an integer multiple (twice or more) of the
fundamental frequency.
• Harmonic distortion factor
The ratio of the rms value of the specified nth order harmonic contained in the distorted wave to the
rms value of the fundamental wave (or all signals).
• Harmonic order
The integer ratio of the harmonic frequency with respect to the fundamental frequency.
• Total harmonic distortion
The ratio of the rms value of all harmonics to the rms value of the fundamental wave (or all signals).
IM WT310E-01EN
2
Index
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
AC RLC Circuits
Resistance
The current i when an AC voltage whose instantaneous value u = Umsinωt is applied to load
resistance R [Ω] is expressed by the equation below. Im denotes the maximum current.
i=
Um
R
sinωt = Im sinωt
Expressed using rms values, the equation is I = U/R.
There is no phase difference between the current flowing through a resistive circuit and the voltage.
I
R
u
U
i
I
U
Inductance
The current i when an AC voltage whose instantaneous value u = Umsinωt is applied to a coil load of
inductance L [H] is expressed by the equation below.
i=
Um
π
π
= Im sin ωt –
sin ωt –
2
2
XL
Expressed using rms values, the equation is I = U/XL. XL is called inductive reactance and is defined
as XL = ωL. The unit of inductive reactance is Ω.
Inductance works to counter current changes (increase or decrease), and causes the current to lag the
voltage.
I
L
u
U
i
π
U
2
π
I
2
Capacitance
The current i when an AC voltage whose instantaneous value u = Umsinωt is applied to capacitance C
[F] is expressed by the equation below.
i=
Um
π
sin ωt +
XC
2
= Im sin ωt +
π
2
Expressed using rms values, the equation is I = U/XC. XC is called capacitive reactance and is defined
as XC = 1/ωC. The unit of capacitive reactance is Ω.
When the polarity of the voltage changes, the largest charging current with the same polarity as the
voltage flows through the capacitor. When the voltage decreases, discharge current with the opposite
polarity of the voltage flows. Thus, the current phase leads the voltage.
I
App-12
C
U
U
I
π
2
u
i
π
2
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 2 Power Basics (Power, harmonics, and AC RLC circuits)
1
Series RLC Circuits
The equations below express the voltage relationships when resistance RS [Ω], inductance L [H], and
capacitance C [F] are connected in series.
U = (URS)2 + (UL – UC)2 =
2
(IRS)2 + (IXL – IXC)2
= I (RS)2 + (XL – XC)2 = I RS2 + XS2
I=
U
Φ = tan– 1
XS
RS
RS
L
C
U RS
UL
UC
RS + XS
2
2
,
3
UL
I
I
UC
U
4
U RS
Φ
U
5
The relationship between resistance RS, reactance XS, and impedance Z is expressed by the
equations below.
6
XS = XL – XC
Z=
RS2 + XS2
7
Parallel RLC Circuits
The equations below express the current relationships when resistance RP [Ω], inductance L [H], and
capacitance C [F] are connected in parallel.
U
RP
I = (IRP)2 + (IL – IC)2 =
= U
+
1
1
–
XL
XC
IRPXP
RP2 + XP2
IC
C
IL
L
IRP
RP
I
2
,
U
U
–
XL
XC
+
2
1
RP
= U
Φ = tan– 1
2
+
2
1
XP
App
2
RP
XP
Index
IL
U
IRP
I
IC
Φ
U
The relationship between resistance RP, reactance XP, and impedance Z is expressed by the equations
below.
XP =
Z=
IM WT310E-01EN
8
Appendix
U=
1
RP
2
XLXC
XC – XL
RPXP
RP2 + XP2
App-13
Appendix 3 Power Range
• The table below shows actual voltage and current range combinations and the power ranges that
result from them. The table shows the active power range (unit: W). The same ranges are set for
apparent power (unit: VA) and reactive power (unit: var). Just read the unit as VA or var.
• The table is for when the number of displayed digits is five. If the number of displayed digits is 4,
the least significant digit is removed from the values in the table. For information on how to set the
number of displayed digits, see section 4.7.
WT310E
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 3
Voltage Range
(V)
15.000
30.000
60.000
150.00
300.00
600.00
Current Range
500.00 mA
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
1.0000 A
15.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
2.0000 A
30.000 W
60.000 W
120.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
5.0000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
10.000 A
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
20.000 A
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
12.000 kW
Voltage Range
(V)
15.000
30.000
60.000
150.00
300.00
600.00
Current Range
5.0000 mA
75.000 mW
150.00 mW
300.00 mW
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
10.000 mA
150.00 mW
300.00 mW
600.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
6.0000 W
20.000 mA
300.00 mW
600.00 mW
1.2000 W
3.0000 W
6.0000 W
12.000 W
50.000 mA
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
100.00 mA
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
6.0000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
200.00 mA
3.0000 W
6.0000 W
12.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
120.00 W
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 6 or 6A
App-14
Voltage Range
(V)
7.5000
15.000
30.000
75.000
150.00
300.00
Current Range
250.00 mA
1.8750 W
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
18.750 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
500.00 mA
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
1.0000 A
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
2.5000 A
18.750 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
187.50 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
5.0000 A
37.500 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
10.000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
Voltage Range
(V)
7.5000
15.000
30.000
75.000
150.00
300.00
Current Range
2.5000 mA
18.750 mW
37.500 mW
75.000 mW
187.50 mW
375.00 mW
750.00 mW
5.0000 mA
37.500 mW
75.000 mW
150.00 mW
375.00 mW
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
10.000 mA
75.000 mW
150.00 mW
300.00 mW
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
25.000 mA
187.50 mW
375.00 mW
750.00 mW
1.8750 W
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
50.000 mA
375.00 mW
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
100.00 mA
750.00 mW
1.5000 W
3.0000 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 3 Power Range
1
WT310EH
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 3
Voltage Range
(V)
15.000
30.000
60.000
150.00
300.00
600.00
Current Range
1.0000 A
15.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
2.0000 A
30.000 W
60.000 W
120.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
5.0000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
10.000 A
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
20.000 A
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
12.000 kW
40.000 A
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
2.4000 kW
6.0000 kW
12.000 kW
24.000 kW
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 6 or 6A
Voltage Range
(V)
7.5000
15.000
30.000
75.000
150.00
300.00
Current Range
500.00 mA
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
1.0000 A
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
2.5000 A
18.750 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
187.50 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
5.0000 A
37.500 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
2
3
4
10.000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
20.000 A
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-15
Appendix 3 Power Range
WT332E/WT333E
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 3
Wiring System
Voltage Range
(V)
Single-phase, two-wire 15.000
(1P2W)
30.000
60.000
150.00
300.00
600.00
Single-phase, three-wire 15.000
(1P3W),
30.000
Three-phase, three-wire 60.000
(3P3W),
150.00
Three-voltage, three300.00
current measurement
method
(3V3A)
600.00
Three-phase, four-wire 15.000
(3P4W)
30.000
60.000
150.00
300.00
600.00
Current Range
500.00 mA
1.0000 A
7.5000 W
15.000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
60.000 W
120.00 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
2.0000 A
30.000 W
60.000 W
120.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
60.000 W
120.00 W
240.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
5.0000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
10.000 A
150.00 W
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
20.000 A
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
3.0000 kW
6.0000 kW
12.000 kW
600.00 W
1.2000 kW
2.4000 kW
6.0000 kW
12.000 kW
600.00 W
22.500 W
45.000 W
90.000 W
225.00 W
450.00 W
900.00 W
2.4000 kW
90.000 W
180.00 W
360.00 W
900.00 W
1.8000 kW
3.6000 kW
6.0000 kW
225.00 W
450.00 W
900.00 W
2.2500 kW
4.5000 kW
9.0000 kW
12.000 kW
450.00 W
900.00 W
1.8000 kW
4.5000 kW
9.0000 kW
18.000 kW
24.000 kW
900.00 W
1.8000 kW
3.6000 kW
9.0000 kW
18.000 kW
36.000 kW
1.2000 kW
45.000 W
90.000 W
180.00 W
450.00 W
900.00 W
1.8000 kW
When the Crest Factor Is Set to 6 or 6A
Wiring System
Voltage Range
(V)
Single-phase, two-wire 7.5000
(1P2W)
15.000
30.000
75.000
150.00
300.00
Single-phase, three7.5000
wire
(1P3W),
15.000
Three-phase, three-wire 30.000
(3P3W),
75.000
Three-voltage, three150.00
current measurement
method
(3V3A)
300.00
Three-phase, four-wire 7.5000
(3P4W)
15.000
30.000
75.000
150.00
300.00
App-16
Current Range
250.00 mA
500.00 mA
1.8750 W
3.7500 W
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
18.750 W
37.500 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
3.7500 W
7.5000 W
1.0000 A
7.5000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
15.000 W
2.5000 A
18.750 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
187.50 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
37.500 W
5.0000 A
37.500 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
75.000 W
10.000 A
75.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
150.00 W
7.5000 W
15.000 W
37.500 W
75.000 W
15.000 W
30.000 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
30.000 W
60.000 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
75.000 W
150.00 W
375.00 W
750.00 W
150.00 W
300.00 W
750.00 W
1.5000 kW
300.00 W
600.00 W
1.5000 kW
3.0000 kW
150.00 W
5.6250 W
11.250 W
22.500 W
56.250 W
112.50 W
225.00 W
300.00 W
11.250 W
22.500 W
45.000 W
112.50 W
225.00 W
450.00 W
600.00 W
22.500 W
45.000 W
90.000 W
225.00 W
450.00 W
900.00 W
1.5000 kW
56.250 W
112.50 W
225.00 W
562.50 W
1.1250 kW
2.2500 kW
3.0000 kW
112.50 W
225.00 W
450.00 W
1.1250 kW
2.2500 kW
4.5000 kW
6.0000 kW
225.00 W
450.00 W
900.00 W
2.2500 kW
4.5000 kW
9.0000 kW
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 4 Setting the Measurement Period
1
To make correct measurements on this instrument, you must set its measurement period properly.
This instrument uses its frequency measurement circuit (see appendix 11) to detect the period of the
input signal that is selected using the measurement period setting. The measurement period is an
integer multiple of this detected period. This instrument determines the measured values by averaging
the data sampled in the measurement period. The input signal used to determine the measurement
period is called the synchronization source.
The measurement period is automatically determined inside this instrument when you specify the
synchronization source.
You can select the synchronization source signal from the options listed below.
Voltage (VoLt), Current (Curr), OFF
For example, if the synchronization source is set to current, an integer multiple of the period of the
current becomes the measurement period. By averaging the sampled data in this measurement
period, this instrument computes the measured values, such as U, I, and P.
Deciding Whether to Use Voltage or Current Input as the
Synchronization Source
Select input signals with stable input levels and frequencies (with little distortion) as synchronization
sources. Correct measured values can only be obtained if the period of the synchronization source
signal is detected accurately. On this instrument, display the frequency of the input signal that you
have selected as the synchronization source, and confirm that the frequency is being measured
correctly. The most suitable synchronization source is the input signal that is the most stable and that
provides accurate measured results.
For example, if a switching power supply is being measured and the voltage waveform distortion is
smaller than the current waveform distortion, set the synchronization source to the voltage signal.
4
5
6
7
8
App
Index
Synchronization source
set to the voltage signal
Current
waveform
IM WT310E-01EN
3
Appendix
Voltage
waveform
2
App-17
Appendix 4 Setting the Measurement Period
As another example, if an inverter is being measured and the current waveform distortion is smaller
than the voltage waveform distortion, set the synchronization source to the current signal.
Voltage
waveform
Synchronization source
set to the current signal
Current
waveform
Zero Crossing
• The rising (or falling) zero crossing is the time when the synchronization source passes through
level zero (the center of the amplitude) on a rising (or falling) slope. The measurement period on
this instrument is between the first rising (or falling) zero crossing and the last rising (or falling) zero
crossing in the data update interval.
• This instrument determines the measurement period on the basis of the first rising or falling zero
crossing within the data update interval.
Data update interval
Measurement period
Synchronization
source
● Rising zero crossing
○ Falling zero crossing
When the Period of the Synchronization Source Cannot Be
Detected
If the total number of rising and falling zero crossings on the input signal that has been set as the
synchronization source is less than two within the data update interval, the period cannot be detected.
Also, the period cannot be detected if the AC amplitude is small. For information on the detectable
frequency levels, see the conditions listed under “Accuracy” under “Frequency Measurement” in
section 7.4, “Features,” in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
If the synchronization is set to voltage and this instrument cannot detect the voltage period, it will
detect and use the current period. If this instrument cannot detect the current period either, the entire
data update interval is used to average the sampled data.
Likewise, if the synchronization is set to current and this instrument cannot detect the current period,
it will detect and use the voltage period. If this instrument cannot detect the voltage period either, the
measurement interval is the entire data update interval.
Data update interval
Measurement period
App-18
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 4 Setting the Measurement Period
Because of the reasons described above, the measured voltage and current values may be unstable.
If this happens, lower the data update interval so that more periods of the input signal fit within the
data update interval.
1
When the Waveform of the Synchronization Source Is Distorted
2
Change the synchronization source to a signal that allows for more stable detection of the period (switch
from voltage to current or from current to voltage). Also, turn on the frequency filter.
This instrument reduces the effects of noise by using hysteresis when it detects zero crossings. If the
synchronization source is distorted or harmonics and noise are superposed on the signal to a level
exceeding this hysteresis, harmonic components will cause zero crossing detection to occur frequently,
and the zero crossing of the fundamental frequency will not be detected stably. Consequently, the
measured voltage and current may be unstable. When high frequency components are superposed
on the current waveform such as in the aforementioned inverter example, turn the frequency filter
on to stably detect zero crossings. Use of the filter is appropriate if it makes the measured frequency
accurate and more stable. Because the frequency filter can be used to facilitate the detection of the
synchronization source’s zero crossings, it is sometimes called the synchronization source filter or the
zero-crossing filter.
Frequency filter
ON
The measured values may be unstable if the period of the AC signal cannot be detected accurately.
Change the synchronization source to a signal that allows for more stable detection of the period (switch
from voltage to current or from current to voltage). The frequency detection circuit is AC coupled. Even
with AC signals in which there are no zero crossings because of an offset, the period can be detected
if the AC amplitude is greater than or equal to the detection level of the frequency measurement circuit.
With this feature, the measurement period is set to an integer multiple of the period of the AC signal.
Data update interval
Measurement period
AC coupling
7
8
App
Index
When Measuring a DC Signal
When there are ripples in the DC signal, if the level of the ripples is greater than or equal to the
detection level of the frequency measurement circuit and the period can be detected accurately and
stably, a more accurate DC measurement is possible. If a large AC signal is superposed on a DC
signal, you can achieve a more stable measurement by detecting the AC signal period and averaging
it.
In addition, if a small fluctuating pulse noise riding on the DC signal crosses level zero, that point
is detected as a zero crossing. As a result, sampled data is averaged over an unintended period,
and measured values such as voltage and current may be unstable. You can prevent these kinds of
erroneous detections by setting the synchronization source to OFF. All of the sampled data in the data
update interval is used to determine measured values. Set the synchronization source according to the
signal under measurement and the measurement objective.
* See the conditions listed under “Accuracy” under “Frequency Measurement” in section 7.4,
“Features,” in the Getting Started Guide, IM WT310E-02EN.
IM WT310E-01EN
5
Appendix
Signals
4
6
When Measuring a Signal That Has No Zero Crossings Because of
a DC Offset Superposed on the AC Signal
Data update interval
3
App-19
Appendix 4 Setting the Measurement Period
Data update interval
Data update interval
Measurement period
Measurement
period
Synchronization
source OFF
Unintended zero crossing caused by pulse noise
App-20
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 5 Measurement Accuracy and
Measurement Error
1
Instruments such as power meters have specifications for measurement accuracy or measurement
errors. For example, on this instrument, the voltage and current accuracy in the range of 45 Hz to 66
Hz is ±(0.1% of reading + 0.05 % of range).
2
3
Reading Error and Range Error
Reading error: of reading
The error indicated by “of reading” is called reading error. The error is calculated on the basis of the
measured reading. It is an error that is included at a given ratio of the measured values. The larger
the measured value, larger the reading error that is included. The smaller the measured value,
smaller the reading error that is included.
Range error: of range
The error indicated by “of range” is called range error. The error is calculated on the basis of the
measurement range that is used in measurement. It is an error that is included at a given magnitude
in the measured values. The range error that is included is of the same magnitude regardless of
whether the measured value is large or small.
Reading error
+error
+error
Measured
value
–error
Input signal
6
7
Measured
value
–error
8
0
0
0
5
Reading error + range error
Range error
+error
Measured
value
–error
4
Input signal
Input signal
App
Appendix
Index
To see how much error is included in the measured values, let us look at several computation
examples for a 60 Hz sine wave input signal.
Voltage and Current Measurement Error
Example 1: Measuring 1 Arms Using the 1 A Measurement Range
When the measured value is 1.0000 [A], the reading error and range error are as follows:
• Reading error: 1.0000 [A]×0.1% = 0.001 [A]
• Range error: 1 [A]×0.05% = 0.0005 [A]
The error included in 1.0000 [A] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.0015 [A]. This
corresponds to 0.15% of the displayed value.
Note
Application of an input signal whose value is the same as the name of the measurement range is referred to
as rated range input. And, such input signals are called rated range signals.
IM WT310E-01EN
App-21
Appendix 5 Measurement Accuracy and Measurement Error
Example 2: Measuring 1 Arms Using the 5 A Measurement Range
In this example, we measure the same input using the 5 A range. When the measured value is 1.0000
[A], the reading error and range error are as follows:
• Reading error: 1.0000 [A]×0.1% = 0.001 [A]
• Range error: 5 [A]×0.05% = 0.0025 [A]
The error included in 1.0000 [A] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.0035 [A]. This
corresponds to 0.35% of the measured value.
The error has increased even though the same current signal as example 1 was measured. As this
example illustrates, using a measurement range that is unnecessarily large for an input signal results
in larger measurement errors. It is import to measure using a measurement range that is appropriate
for the input signal.
Note
If the input signal is not a sine wave and includes distortions and spikes, select a somewhat large
measurement range that would not cause peak over-ranges to occur.
Example 3: Measuring 0.5 Arms Using the 1 A Measurement
Range
Next, we measure 0.5 A using the 1 A measurement range (the same as example 1). When the
measured value is 0.5000 [A], the reading error and range error are as follows:
• Reading error: 0.5000 [A]×0.1% = 0.0005 [A]
• Range error: 1 [A]×0.05% = 0.0005 [A]
The error included in 0.5000 [A] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.001 [A]. This
corresponds to 0.2% of the measured value.
When we compare this result with that of example 1, we notice the following:
• The reading error has been reduced in accordance with the input amplitude.
• The range error has not changed.
As a result, the error is 0.2%, which is slightly larger than 0.15% of example 1. This is also because
the measurement range is large relative to the input signal. In this case, we should use the 0.5 A
measurement range.
Measurement Error of Active Power
On this instrument, the power accuracy in the range of 45 Hz to 66 Hz is ±(0.1% of reading + 0.05 %
of range).
Let us calculate the error for the following example.
• Voltage measurement range: 150 V, measured voltage: 100.00 V
• Current measurement range: 1A, measured current: 0.800 A
• Measured power: 80.00 W
• 60 Hz sine wave for both voltage and current
• Phase difference between the voltage and current signals = 0°
Power Range
The power measurement range is defined as voltage measurement range × current measurement
range. In this example, the power measurement range is 150 V×1 A = 150 W. We use this power
measurement range to calculate the range error.
The reading error and range error included in the measured power (80.00 W) are as follows:
• Reading error: 80.00 [W]×0.1% = 0.08 [W]
• Range error: 150 [W]×0.05% = 0.075 [W]
The error included in 80.00 [W] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.155 [W]. This
corresponds to 0.19375% of the displayed value.
App-22
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 5 Measurement Accuracy and Measurement Error
1
Power Factor Influence (Power Factor Error)
The previous example was for when the phase difference between the voltage and current signals was
0°, or in other words, when the power factor was 1. Next, we will calculate the error for an example in
which the power factor is not 1.
2
When the Power Factor is 0
This is an example for when the phase difference is 90°, or in other words, when the power factor is
0. Theoretically, the active power is 0 W, apparent power is 80 VA, and the reactive power is 80 var.
This assumes an ideal capacitive (C) load or an ideal inductive (L) load. For details, see appendix 2.
When the power factor (λ) = 0, the power error on this instrument is defined as follows:
±0.1% of S (S: apparent power) in the 45 Hz ≤ f ≤ 66 Hz range
3
4
When the measured apparent power is 80.00 [VA], the error in the measured power (0.00 W) is as
follows:
80.00 × ±0.1% = ±0.08 [W]
5
When the Power Factor Is Greater Than 0 but Less Than 1
As an example, let us calculate the error for when the power factor is 0.5, or in other words, when
the phase difference between the voltage and current (Φ) is 60°.
• Voltage measurement range: 150 V, measured voltage: 100.00 V
• Current measurement range: 1A, measured current: 0.800 A
• Power measurement range: 150 W, measured power: 40.00 W, measured apparent power:
80.00 VA, measured reactive power: 69.28 var
When 0 < λ < 1, the power error on this instrument is defined as follows:
(Power reading) × [(power reading error %) + (power range error %) × (power range/indicated
apparent power value) + {tan Φ × (influence when λ = 0)%}],
If we substitute the above value into this equation, the power error becomes as follows:
40.00 [W] × [ 0.1% + 0.05% × (150/80.00) + {tan60° × (influence (%) when λ = 0)}]
= 40.00 [W] × {0.1 + 0.05 × (150/80.00) + √3 × 0.1}%
= 0.1468 [W]
7
8
App
Appendix
6
The error in the measured power (40.00 W) is ±0.1468 [W].
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-23
Appendix 5 Measurement Accuracy and Measurement Error
Error in Three-Phase Power
The error when measuring power of a three-phase, three-wire system using elements 1 and 3 of the
WT332E/WT333E is explained with the next example.
• Voltage measurement range: 150 V, measured voltage: 100V for U1, U3, and UΣ
• Current measurement range: 1 A, measured current: 0.8 A for I1, I3, and IΣ
• Measured power: P1 = 69.28 W, P3 = 69.28W, PΣ = 138.56 W
• 60 Hz sine wave for both voltage and current
• Phase difference between the voltage and current signals = 0°
• Phase angle between phases = 60°
Three-Phase Measurement Range
For the three-phase measurement range, refer to the table of Σ function equations on page App-2.
This table shows the expressions that the WT332E/WT333E uses to internally calculate the measured
values. This table also applies to how to think about the measurement range. In this example, we will
apply the three-phase, three-wire (3P3W) column.
Voltage and Current
Three-phase voltage (UΣ) measurement range = (U1 measurement range + U3 measurement range)/2
= (150 + 150)/2 = 150
Three-phase current (IΣ) measurement range = (I1 measurement range + I3 measurement range)/2 = (1
+ 1)/2 = 1
The reading error and range error included in the measured three-phase voltage (UΣ; 100.00 V) are as
follows:
• Reading error: 100.00 [V]×0.1% = 0.1 [V]
• Range error: 150 [V]×0.05% = 0.075 [V]
The error included in 100.00 [V] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.175 [V]. This
corresponds to 0.175% of the displayed value. Because the measured values of U1 and U3 are the
same, UΣ also has the same error. The same calculation method applies for the currents.
Power
Referring to the table of Σ function equations on page App-2, the power range is as follows:
Three-phase power (PΣ) measurement range
= P1 measurement range + P3 measurement range
= (U1 measurement range × I1 measurement range) + (U3 measurement range × I3 measurement
range)
= (150 × 1) + (150 × 1)
= 300
The reading error and range error included in the measured three-phase power (PΣ; 138.56 W) are as
follows:
• Reading error: 138.56 [W]×0.1% = 0.13856 [W]
• Range error: 300 [W]×0.05% = 0.15 [W]
The error included in 138.56 [W] is the sum of the reading and range errors, which is ±0.28856 [W].
This corresponds to approximately 0.208% of the displayed value.
App-24
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 5 Measurement Accuracy and Measurement Error
Note
Accuracy and Precision
Measurement accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the true value. In other words, it indicates
the deviation of a measured value from the true value. Measurement precision refers to how close
measurements of the same quantity are to each other.
For example, let us consider the measured results of two voltmeters when 1.00 V is measured three times.
Voltmeter A
Voltmeter B
1st measurement
1.02 V
1.04 V
2nd measurement
1.00 V
1.05 V
3rd measurement
0.98 V
1.06 V
Voltmeter A measurements are closer to the true value (1.00 V). So we can say that voltmeter A is more
accurate than voltmeter B.
On the other hand, the three voltmeter B measurements are closer to each other than those of voltmeter A.
So we can say that voltmeter B is more precise than voltmeter A.
Measurement Error
A measurement error is the difference between the actual measurement and the true value.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-25
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
This section shows the characters on the 7-segment LED using their corresponding alphabet and
numbers.
SETUP Menu (WT310E/WT310EH, 1/2)
Measurement display
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
Sensor conversion ratio
(option)
Scaling
Measurement period
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S CA L E
r A t i o
S Y n C
o F F
A L L
E
Cu r r
Line filter
S E t u P
L. F i L t
o F F
To F.FiLt on the
next page F.FiLt
5 0. 0 0
(oN/oFF)
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S CA L E
r A t i o
S Y n C
o F F
o F F
o n
d A t A
E
5 0. 0 0
Cu r r
Cu r r
V o L t
o F F
S E t u P
L. F i L t
o F F
o F F
o n
(dAta)
d A t A
V
1. 0 0 0
C
1. 0 0 0
F
1. 0 0 0
Set V, C, and F.
App-26
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
1
SETUP Menu (WT310E/WT310EH, 2/2)
Frequency filter
To L.FiLt on
the previous
page
Data update interval*
MATH function
Averaging
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
F. F i L t
u. r A t E
A V G
MA t H
0. 2 5
o F F
o F F
(Not Auto)
u 1
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
F. F i L t
u. r A t E
A V G
MA T H
0. 2 5
o F F
o F F
o n
o F F
o n
t Y P E
(tYPE)
S E t u P
u. r A t E
A V G
t i. o u t
L i n
1
8
1
5
1 0
2 0
u 1
CF
CF
A
A
A
A
A ÷ b
A ^ 2
A V
u
i
+
×
÷
^
÷
P
5
1
1
b
b
b
b
2
b
1
6
7
8
L i n
E P
App
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
u. r A t E
u. r A t E
A V G
A u t o
S Y n C
L i n
u 1
8
u 1
CF
4
Appendix
* If the data update interval is
set to Auto, Timeout and
SyncSource are shown in
Display D.
0. 1
0. 2 5
0. 5
1
2
5
1 0
2 0
(Auto)
Au t o
S E t u P
Index
u 1
i 1
IM WT310E-01EN
2
3
(oN/oFF)
S E t u P
o F F
2 0
CF
To SCALE on
the previous
page
App-27
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
SETUP Menu (WT332E/WT333E, 1/2)
Measurement display
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
Sensor conversion ratio
(option)
Scaling
Measurement period
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S CA L E
r A t i o
S Y n C
o F F
A L L
E
Line filter
S E t u P
L. F i L t
Cu r r
o F F
To F.FiLt on
the next page
5 0. 0 0
(oN/oFF)
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S CA L E
r A t i o
S Y n C
o F F
A L L
E
L. F i L t
Cu r r
o F F
5 0. 0 0
o F F
o n
d A t A
(dAta)
S E t u P
Cu r r
V o L t
o F F
A L L
E A CH
(ALL)
o F F
o n
(EACH)
S E t u P
S E t u P
d A t A
r A t i o
E
5 0. 0 0
(ELEMENT1)
A L L
A L L
E
5 0. 0 0
(ELEMENT2)
5 0. 0 0
E
5 0. 0 0
(ELEMENT3)
E
(End)
A
E
E
E
E
L
L
L
L
n
L
1
2
3
d
E A CH
Set ELEMENT1, 2, 3
(ALL)
(EL1,EL2,EL3)
A L L
V
1. 0 0 0
C
1. 0 0 0
F
1. 0 0 0
Set V, C, and F.
App-28
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
1
SETUP Menu (WT332E/WT333E, 2/2)
Frequency filter
To L.FiLt on
the previous
page
Data update interval*
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
F. F i L t
u. r A t E
A V G
MA t H
0. 2 5
o F F
E F F i
o F F
(Not Auto)
S E t u P
S E t u P
F. F i L t
u. r A t E
A V G
MA T H
0. 2 5
o F F
E F F i
o F F
o n
t Y P E
(tYPE)
S E t u P
u. r A t E
A V G
t i. o u t
L i n
1
8
1
5
1 0
2 0
L i n
E P
S E t u P
S E t u P
S E t u P
u. r A t E
u. r A t E
A V G
A u t o
S Y n C
L i n
u 1
8
2 0
u 1
u
i
u
i
u
i
1
1
21
21
32
32
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
4
E F F i
u 1
F
u 2 (WT333E)
F
u 3
F
i 1
F
i 2 (WT333E)
F
i 3
F
A + b
A - b
A × b
A ÷ b
÷ b ^ 2
^ 2 ÷ b
P 1
V
P 2 (WT333E)
V
P 3
V
P 4
V
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
* If the data update interval is
set to Auto, Timeout and
SyncSource are shown in
Display D.
0. 1
0. 2 5
0. 5
1
2
5
1 0
2 0
(Auto)
Au t o
S E t u P
2
3
S E t u P
o F F
o n
To SCALE on
the previous
page
(oN/oFF)
S E t u P
o F F
IM WT310E-01EN
MATH function
Averaging
Index
1: WT333E
2: WT332E/WT333E
App-29
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
INTEG SET Menu
Measurement display
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
Integration mode
Rated integration time
(option)
Integration timer
i n t E G
i n t E G
i n t E G
Mo d E
t i ME r
d A t i ME
t i ME r
d A t i ME
n o r
i n t E G
Mo d E
n o r
n o r
Co n t
H
0
H
1
M
0 0
M
0 0
S
0 0
S
0 0
Set h, M, and S.
HARMONICS Menu (Option)
Measurement display
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
Display
Measured harmonic
order
PLL source
H r M.S E t
H r M.S E t
THD equation
H r M.S E t
H r M.S E t
d i S P
P L L. S r C
o r d E r
t Hd
o F F
u 1
5 0
i E C
H r M.S E t
H r M.S E t
H r M.S E t
H r M.S E t
d i S P
P L L. S r C
o r d E r
t Hd
o F F
u 1
5 0
i E C
o F F
o n
App-30
u
i
u
i
u
i
1
1
21
21
32
32
1 to 50
i E C
CS A
1: WT333E
2: WT332E/WT333E
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
1
SAVE/LOAD Menu
Measurement display
2
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to
return to the measurement display.
Load setup parameters.
Save setup parameters.
S E t u P
S E t u P
L o A d
S A V E
3
4
S E t u P
S E t u P
L o A d
S A V E
F i L F
E 1
F i L E 2
S A V E d
F r E E
F
F
F
F
i
i
i
i
L
L
L
L
E1
E2
E3
E4
F
F
F
F
i
i
i
i
L
L
L
L
5
6
E1
E2
E3
E4
7
8
INTERFACE Menu
Measurement display
App
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
GP-IB or RS-232 comes standard.
Ethernet
(option)
USB
RS-232
Command mode
i F
i F
i F
i F
i F
GP i b
r S 2 3 2
u S b
E t h E r
C o MA n d
A d d r
1
9 9 X X
1 0.
1 2.
t Y P E
9 9 9 9 9
2 0 2.
6 8.
W t 3 0 0
Instrument
number
i F
HA n d
1
Handshaking
GP i b
F o r
0
Format
B
A d d r
1
9 6 0 0
Cr + L F
Baud rate
Terminator
IP address
UTILITY menu
to set it
i F
C o MA n d
t Y P E
W t 3 0 0
W t 300E
W t 300
W t 200
IM WT310E-01EN
App-31
Appendix
GP-IB
Index
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
UTILITY Menu (1/2)
Measurement display
Press HOLD (ESC) while the menu is displayed to return to the measurement display.
System information
Number of
displayed digits
Initialization
Crest factor
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
i n F o
i n i t
r E S o
CF
Hi
3
To StorE on
the next page
(no)
i n F o
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
Mo d E L
i n i t
r E S o
CF
W t 3 1 0 E
n o
Hi
3
H
Mo d E L
S u F F. 1
S u F F. 2
n o.
V E r.
n o
Y E S
Hi
L o
3
6
6 A
(YES)
Suffix code (1/2)
Suffix code (2/2)
i n F o
i n F o
S u F F. 1
S u F F. 2
- C1 - d
Instrument number
C 7.
E X 1
G 5.
d A 4
Firmware version
i n F o
i n F o
n o.
V E r.
9 9 X X
1. 0 1
9 9 9 9 9
App-32
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 6 Menu Transition Diagram
1
UTILITY Menu (2/2)
Measurement data
storage
Measurement range
skip
Ethernet
(option)
D/A output
(option)
Self-test
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
u t i L
S t o r E
r A n GE
E t HE r
d A
t E S t
o F F
Hi
A
3
(dFLt-n)
(dFLt-i)
(oN/oFF)
u t i L
u t i L
S t o r E
r A n GE
o F F
ME N u
(End)
u t i L
u t i L
d HCP
d A
t E S t
o F F
d F L t - n
E t HE r
ME Mo r Y
B
oFF
on
i n t VL
d HCP
i P. A d r S
M AS K
GA t E
b i nd
ME n u
C o n Fi G
(intVL)
u t i L
S t o r E
i n t V L
0 0. 0 0. 0 0
(MEnu)
d FLt - n
d FLt - i
SE L
u t i L
E t HE r
r A n GE
d HCP
ME N u
o F F
d A
c h
1
u
1
o F F
r A n GE
o F F
1 0.
1 2.
7
8
App
(End)
(ch)
2 0 2. 1 0 5
(bind)
6
Appendix
Co n F i G
Returns to the
above if the test
end condition of
MEMory, PAnEL,
or LEd is met.
E t HE r
i P. A d r S
5
c h
En d
(iP.AdrS,MASK,GAtE)
u t i L
ME M o r Y
PAnEL
L Ed
En d
4
(MEMory)
(PAnEL)
(LEd)
(SEL)
(dHCP)
(ConFiG)
Index
d A
E t HE r
c h
1
b i n d
u
1
E X E C
A Press SET on the bind menu to return to A.
B Press SET on a menu other than the bind menu to return to B.
IM WT310E-01EN
2
App-33
Appendix 7 Block Diagram
Block Diagram
Input elements 2 and 3
Input element 1
Voltage input circuit
VOLTAGE
CPU
A/D
Voltage input
±
Zero
crossing
Detector
LPF
500 Hz
KEY
Isolator
FPGA
Peak
Detector
A/D
Current input
±
External current
sensor input
(EXT, option)
Zero
crossing
Detector
LPF
500Hz
USB port
(PC)
GP-IB
or
RS-232
Current input circuit
CURRENT
7 segment
LED
Isolator
Ethernet
(option)
D/A output
(option)
Peak
Detector
WT310E current input (CURRENT INPUT)
CURRENT
Current input circuit
A/D
Current input
LPF
500 Hz
±
Zero
crossing
Detector
Isolator
Peak
Detector
External current
sensor input
(EXT, option)
Input Signal Flow and Process
Input elements 1 through 3 consist of a voltage input circuit and a current input circuit. The input
circuits are mutually isolated. They are also isolated from the case.
The voltage signal that is applied to the voltage input terminal (VOLTAGE, ±) is normalized using the
voltage divider and the operational amplifier (op-amp) of the voltage input circuit. It is then sent to a
voltage A/D converter.
The current input circuit is equipped with two types of input terminals, a current input terminal
(CURRENT, ±) and an external current sensor input terminal (EXT). Only one can be used at any
given time. The voltage signal from the current sensor that is received at the external current sensor
input terminal is normalized using the voltage divider and the operational amplifier (op-amp). It is then
sent to a current A/D converter.
The current signal that is applied to the current input terminal is converted to a voltage signal by a
shunt. Then, it is sent to the current A/D converter in the same fashion as the voltage signal from the
current sensor.
App-34
IM WT310E-01EN
Appendix 7 Block Diagram
The voltage signal that is applied to the voltage A/D converter and current A/D converter is converted
to digital values at an interval of approximately 10 μs. These digital values are isolated by the isolator
and passed to the FPGA. In the FPGA, the measured values are derived based on the digital values.
The measured values are then transmitted to the CPU. Various computed values are determined from
the measured values by the CPU. The measured values and computed values are displayed and
transmitted (as D/A and communication output) as measurement functions of normal measurement.
1
The harmonic measurement functions (option) are derived in the following manner. The voltage signal
sent to the A/D converter is converted to digital values at a sampling frequency that is determined by
the PLL source signal. The CPU derives the measured value of each harmonic measurement item by
performing an FFT on the converted digital values.
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
App
Appendix
Index
IM WT310E-01EN
App-35
Index
SymbolsPage
HPage
Σ functions............................................................................... 1-4
1P2W....................................................................................... 2-3
1P3W....................................................................................... 2-3
3P3W....................................................................................... 2-3
3P4W....................................................................................... 2-3
3V3A........................................................................................ 2-3
harmonics................................................................... 6-1, App-11
higher harmonic................................................................. App-11
hold................................................................................. 1-13, 3-1
HOLD...................................................................................... 3-1
IPage
BPage
iEC........................................................................................... 6-7
inductance......................................................................... App-12
initialization..................................................................... 1-20, 8-2
input elements......................................................................... 1-4
input filters.................................................................... 1-11, 2-19
instrument number.................................................................. 8-1
integrated power.................................................................... 1-15
integrated value....................................................................... 5-6
integration................................................................................ 5-1
integration methods................................................................. 5-3
integration mode...................................................... 1-15, 5-1, 5-5
integration timer....................................................................... 5-5
basic arithmetic.............................................................. 1-14, 4-8
block diagram.................................................................... App-34
KPage
APage
active power............................................................... 4-1, App-10
apparent power....................................................................... 4-3
attenuation constant.............................................................. 2-25
auto range........................................................................ 1-7, 2-7
average active power..................................................... 1-14, 4-8
average count........................................................................ 2-25
averaging...................................................................... 1-11, 2-23
averaging type.............................................................. 1-11, 2-23
CPage
capacitance....................................................................... App-12
computation functions........................................................... 1-14
continuous integration........................................................... 1-16
continuous integration mode................................................. 1-16
crest factor......................................................1-9, 1-14, 2-17, 4-8
CSA......................................................................................... 6-7
CT ratio........................................................................... 1-9, 2-14
current..................................................................................... 4-1
current range........................................................................... 2-4
current transformer................................................................ 2-13
key protection............................................................... 1-20, 8-11
LPage
line filter........................................................................ 1-11, 2-19
line voltage.......................................................................... App-8
MPage
D/A output....................................................................... 1-20, 8-5
D/A output format.................................................................... 8-5
data update interval...................................................... 1-10, 2-21
DC.................................................................................... 1-5, 2-1
delta wiring.......................................................................... App-8
distorted wave................................................................... App-11
manual integration mode................................................ 1-15, 5-1
MAX hold...................................................................... 1-14, 4-15
mean....................................................................................... 1-5
measured harmonic order....................................................... 6-6
measurement error............................................................ App-21
measurement function............................................................. 1-4
measurement mode......................................................... 1-5, 2-1
measurement period.......................................1-10, 2-18, App-17
measurement range................................................................ 1-7
measurement range modes.................................................... 2-4
measurement range skipping................................................ 2-16
model....................................................................................... 8-1
moving average............................................................ 1-12, 2-24
EPage
NPage
efficiency......................................................................... 1-14, 4-8
elapsed integration time.......................................................... 5-7
element.................................................................................... 1-4
exponential averaging.................................................. 1-11, 2-24
external current sensor............................................................ 2-9
external current sensor conversion ratio................................. 1-8
external current sensor range................................................. 1-8
number of displayed digits..................................................... 4-16
DPage
FPage
fixed range........................................................................ 1-7, 2-6
form factor........................................................................... App-7
frequency................................................................................. 4-5
frequency filter.............................................................. 1-11, 2-19
IM WT310E-01EN
PPage
peak over jump............................................................... 1-8, 2-16
peak value............................................................................... 4-7
phase angle.................................................................. 4-5, App-7
phase difference.................................................................. App-7
phase voltage...................................................................... App-8
PLL source..................................................................... 1-17, 6-6
power................................................................................... App-6
power coefficient............................................................. 1-9, 2-14
power factor............................................................................. 4-3
power factor error.............................................................. App-23
power factor influence....................................................... App-23
power range........................................................1-8, 2-8, App-22
Index-1
Index
QPage
ZPage
quick configuration mode........................................................ 2-5
zero crossing..................................................................... App-18
zero-level compensation................................................ 1-20, 8-4
RPage
range configuration......................................................... 1-7, 2-16
range error......................................................................... App-21
range skipping................................................................ 1-7, 2-16
rated integration time............................................................... 8-8
reactive power............................................................ 4-3, App-10
reading error...................................................................... App-21
rectified mean value calibrated to the rms value.............. 1-5, 2-1
remote control....................................................................... 1-20
RESET..................................................................................... 5-7
resistance.......................................................................... App-12
rms........................................................................................... 1-5
RMS......................................................................................... 2-1
rms value................................................................................. 2-1
SPage
scaling coefficient.................................................................. 2-14
scaling feature................................................................ 1-9, 2-14
self-tests................................................................................ 8-12
setup parameters, loading....................................................... 7-3
setup parameters, saving............................................... 1-18, 7-3
SINGLE................................................................................... 3-2
single measurement....................................................... 1-13, 3-2
single-phase, three-wire system.............................................. 2-3
single-phase, two-wire system................................................ 2-3
standard integration mode.............................................. 1-16, 5-2
START..................................................................................... 5-6
star wiring............................................................................ App-8
STOP....................................................................................... 5-6
storage........................................................................... 1-18, 7-1
storage interval........................................................................ 7-1
suffix code............................................................................... 8-1
synchronization source....................................2-18, 2-22, App-17
system information.................................................................. 8-1
TPage
THD......................................................................................... 6-5
THD equation.......................................................................... 6-6
three-phase, four-wire system................................................. 2-3
three-phase, three-wire system............................................... 2-3
three-voltage, three-current method........................................ 2-3
timeout................................................................................... 2-22
total harmonic distortion.................................................... App-11
total harmonic distortion equation......................................... 1-17
trademarks...................................................................................i
VPage
version..................................................................................... 8-1
voltage..................................................................................... 4-1
voltage mean........................................................................... 1-5
VOLTAGE MEAN..................................................................... 2-1
voltage range........................................................................... 2-4
voltage transformer............................................................... 2-13
VT ratio........................................................................... 1-9, 2-14
WPage
watt hour................................................................................ 1-15
wiring systems........................................................... 1-4, 1-6, 2-3
wiring unit................................................................................ 1-4
WTViewerFreePlus................................................................ 1-19
Index-2
IM WT310E-01EN

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