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NEW WEBSITE: www.ephesians-511.net
DECEMBER 2008, OCTOBER 2009
PSYCHOLOGY AND NEW AGE SPIRITUALITY – PART TWO
STREAMS OF LIVING WATER, the magazine of the Calcutta Catholic Charismatic Renewal, Kolkata, has, over the last
two years, been running a series of panel discussions which are meant to expose the deceptions in the systems of modern
psychological counseling. The series brings out the contrasting positions of three people, a secular counselor use the
human sciences, a Biblical counselor using the Word of God alone, and the pastoral approach followed by a Catholic priest.
They will help the Catholic to understand the limitations and inherent dangers of secular counseling techniques, many of
which are New Age, as well as the fullness of Catholic pastoral counseling as against Biblical counseling.
The series of 12 articles, 2007-2008, by a Catholic priest who has a doctorate in Canon Law, are at:
1. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_1_STRESS_MANAGEMENT.doc
2. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_2_COUNSELING.doc
3. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_3_SIN_OR_SICKNESS.doc
4. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_4_SELF-ESTEEM.doc
5. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_5_PHOBIAS.doc
6. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_6_INFERIORITY_COMPLEX.doc
7. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_7_PERSONALITY_DISORDERS.doc
8. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_8_NARCISSISM.doc
9. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_9_PARANOIA.doc
10. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_10_OBSESSIVE_COMPULSIVE_DISORDER.doc
11. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_11_ANTISOCIAL_PERSONALITY_DISORDER.doc
12. http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_12_SCHIZOID_PERSONALITY_DISORDER.doc
To understand the basic New Age-related aspects of psychology and psychoanalysis, an article titled PSYCHOLOGY AND
NEW AGE SPIRITUALITY 1, November 2007, was co-written by this writer and a priest who is a psychologist, and it too
was published in STREAMS in Dec 2007-Jan 2008 and Feb-Mar 2008. The article can be found at:
http://ephesians-511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_AND_NEW_AGE_SPIRITUALITY_1.doc
This writer attempts to develop the understanding of the subject further in this second part.
Man is spirit, soul and body [Genesis 2:7, 1 Thessalonians 5:23], a unique, tripartite creation of God. Man is also a social
being; his life develops within a framework of relationships- familial, marital, parental and societal. Sin, none excepted,
affects not only the sinner and his relationship with his Creator, but also with society. When man sins, therefore, apart from
healing and restoring his broken relationship with his heavenly Father, he needs to do the same with his fellowman.
The Sacrament of Reconciliation, instituted by the Son of God, Jesus Christ, meets that need in the person of the alter
Christus [another Christ], the priest who also represents the members of the Body of Christ, the Church.
From earliest times, Catholics made use of the confessional where, through this Sacrament, they obtained forgiveness of
sins and some words of old-fashioned advice which was good enough for most people, it seemed. Due to a number of
factors [a discussion of which is not within the scope of this article], the confessional has largely fallen into disuse.
The emergence of the Charismatic Renewal brought along retreats and “Life in the Spirit” seminars which incorporated the
"healing of memories", the "inner healing" of emotional wounds, and sometimes the "healing of the family tree".
In addition to the use of the Sacrament of Reconciliation [Confession], Biblical counseling [counseling based on and
applying the Word of God to one’s life-situation] is an integral part of most charismatic retreats.
The penitent / counselee is often guided by a “Word of Knowledge” from a spiritually-gifted [="charismatic"] counselor.
His whole-hearted and unconditional forgiveness of those deemed by him as responsible for his sins and his emotional
hurts, along with his sincere resolve to make restitution for his own sins against others, brought with it an unprecedented
and tangible spiritual and emotional freedom, which often manifested in his physical healing.
Psychosomatic [body-mind] and chronic diseases such as asthma, skin rashes and other allergies disappeared miraculously,
long-festering wounds healed and cancers simply disappeared.
SEE INDEX ON PAGE 79
A post-modern secularised, humanistic world had no such blessings. The previous century saw the emergence of the
psychiatric couch. Developments in psychiatric medicine and programs managed by socialist welfare states provided limited
solace to the mentally-ill. Medically-prescribed drugs were administered to such patients, but while they treated the physical
and mental components of the human person, the spiritual aspect was never considered. After all, Nietzsche, himself an
important cog in the psychoanalytic wheel, had declared, "God is dead". But, man is a spiritual being, and the spirit’s
hunger to be healed had to manifest itself eventually. Welcome modern psychology.
The Indian Catholic is today confronted with a multitude of offerings - influenced by developments in the West, and often
integrated with borrowings from the ancient occult and Eastern mysticism - which come under impressive names.
Not too long ago the choice was between psychologist and pastor. Today, priests advertise themselves as psychologists.
Catholic bookstores like St. Pauls have sections labeled "psychology", [one will find a whole lot of New Age and occult
books categorized as “psychology”] and Catholic institutes advertise psycho-spiritual retreats. Catholic colleges offer courses
in psychology, and many priests and lay persons in ministry are qualifying themselves with these programs and
incorporating their content in their counseling and in their retreats. Some of them are touted as human potential
development, positive-thinking, stress-busting, relaxation techniques, or self-help devices to help the individual tackle the
tensions of twenty-first century life.
What are we to make of them? May Catholics safely adopt them? Who are their founders of these psychologies?
This ministry will try to examine and analyse the situation from a Catholic perspective.
One or the other of certain characteristics, like those listed above, is inherent in one or all of these pseudopsychologies:
dreamwork or dream therapy, personality typing, affirmations [repetitions of positive statements], mantra meditations,
healing "the child within you" [or healing "the inner child"], genograms [healing the family tree], transactional analysis [I’m
OK, You’re OK…], transpersonal psychology, attitudinal healing, holotropic and other breathing techniques, prosperity
consciousness, use of intuition, visualization, enactments, and even plain old psychoanalysis and "pastoral counseling".
We may include the bizarre such as pillow-bashing and pillow-fighting, and even overtly occult and New Age tools such as
the enneagram, Jungian analysis, parapsychology, neurolinguistic programming, rebirthing, Bioenergetics, yoga, guided
imagery, past-life regression therapy, hypnosis, centering techniques, Gestalt Therapy, Reparenting, and many more.
There are also programs with names like Landmark Education [formerly Werner Erhard's Transformational Technologies] or
est [Erhard Seminar Training, and Latin for "it is"], one of the more successful entrants in the human potential movement.
One common characteristic in all these approaches is that there is no concept of sin [or at least the Biblical understanding
of it], and consequently no need for the forgiveness of sin and a personal Redeemer in Jesus Christ.
If seen from the Christian perspective, they are in fact alternatives to the salvation [wholeness] offered in and through Him.
These issues are discussed in my report on SANGAM INTEGRAL FORMATION AND SPIRITUALITY CENTRE,
GOA_NEW AGE PSYCHOLOGY, ETC at http://ephesians511.net/docs/PSYCHOLOGY_%20SANGAM%20INTEGRAL%20FORMATION%20AND%20SPIRITUALITY%20CENTRE_GOA.d
oc
The differences between the use of human sciences and Catholic pastoral counseling have been well presented through the
panel discussions in the “Human Wisdom vs. Divine Wisdom” series of debates [see page 1], especially:
Psychological Counseling, number 2 in the series, STREAMS issue of February-March 2007, and
Sin or Sickness?, number 3 in the series, STREAMS issue of April-May 2007.
Let us recall some significant disclosures, made by the panelists in those two debates, about the origins of psychology:
"Psychology is humanistic in nature. Humanism excludes God. Humanism at its core says that man is the centre, and there
is nothing beyond him. Psychology is man's way of trying to understand and repair the spiritual side of man without being
spiritual. Psychology removes God and spiritual things from the picture.
"I would like to go to the origins of psychology. One result from the teachings and philosophy of the well-known
psychiatrist, Sigmund Freud, has been what is known as the Freudian ethic. From this ethic, the term ‘mental illness’
arose. Once a person's problems are deemed to be an illness, they are no longer responsible. Psychiatry has let mankind off
the hook- he is no longer responsible. This is why some people commit murder and enter an insanity plea - so they are not
held responsible.
"Another major contributor to humanism and psychiatry is Carl Rogers, the father of Rogerian counseling. Roger's basic
presupposition was that mankind is basically good and the answer to a person's problems lies within himself. The
psychiatrist who has adopted this form of counseling is little more than a good listener. He merely reflects back to the
patient what the patient has been saying.
"C. G. Jung’s transpersonal psychology enters into the spiritual, though not in the same sense that Christians believe.
In fact the mixing of the occult is already taken place in transpersonal psychology and parapsychology. Clearly these
influences are major and many. They have been a part of psychology from its earliest years, as evidenced by Jung's selfprofessed interest in the occult and use of the ‘cosmic unconscious’ notion that is now a central theme of the New Age.
Probably the two biggest names in psychotherapy are Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Freud called religion inherently evil
and said it was a form of neurosis. Jung called religion a mental illness and said it was just an imaginary coping mechanism.
Both of these men dabbled in mysticism and the occult.
"[Alfred] Adler, [Abraham] Maslow, [Erich] Fromm, [Carl] Rogers, [Arthur] Janov - not a one believed in Jesus
Christ. Their theories were based solely on their own opinions of how they thought they could change people without God.
With the decline of true religion came the rise in psychology. Since its birth in the 1850's, the modern man can’t seem to
get enough therapy. Unfortunately, failures in living our religion have given space to psychology as an alternative."
The Christian panelists agree that "not to say that some research that has been done within the realm of psychology is not
useful - some can be. However, it should be viewed carefully, for even research and what psychologists and psychiatrists
would call hard data can be skewed to make it say what they want it to say."
They concur that the Word of God contains all the wisdom needed for any counseling: "Though psychological remedies are
helpful, the problems affecting the soul need God’s help. It is only then that we get real peace."
In the Sin and Sickness debate, the secular psychologist not unexpectedly denies the reality of sin and the role it plays in
human suffering. The pastor and the priest are in agreement that the evil of sin and man’s guilt must be recognized, confronted and dealt with through the atoning death of Jesus. The Catholic priest emphasises the efficacy of the Sacraments.
THE VATICAN DOCUMENT ON THE NEW AGE
For the study of psychology, a good starting point is the February 3, 2003 VATICAN DOCUMENT ON THE NEW AGE.
Psychology is a heavy and complicated subject, but the reader is request to stay with us to the end as we explain the
different issues and a clearer picture emerges [This writer’s explanations within such brackets].
"#2.3.2 The essential matrix of New Age thinking:
[Leading New Ager] Marilyn Ferguson devoted a chapter of [her book] The Aquarian Conspiracy to the precursors of the
[New] Age of Aquarius, those who had woven the threads of a transforming vision based on the expansion of
consciousness and the experience of self-transcendence. Two of those she mentioned were the American psychologist
William James and the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung.
William James defined religion as experience, not dogma, and he taught that human beings can change their mental
attitudes in such a way that they are able to become architects of their own destiny.
"THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
Carl Jung emphasized the transcendent character of consciousness and introduced the idea of the collective
unconscious, a kind of store for symbols and memories shared with people from various different ages and cultures.
According to Wouter Hanegraaff, both of these men contributed to a 'sacralisation [making sacred] of psychology',
something that has become an important element of New Age thought and practice. Jung, indeed, 'not only psychologized
esotericism [occultism] but he also sacralized psychology, by filling it with the contents of esoteric [occultic] speculation.
The result was a body of theories which enabled people to talk about God while really meaning their own psyche, and
about their own psyche while really meaning the divine. If the psyche is 'mind', and God is 'mind' as well, then to discuss
one must mean to discuss the other'. His response to the accusation that he had "psychologised" Christianity was that
"psychology is the modern myth and only in terms of the current myth can we understand the faith."*
*"NOTES #34 Thomas M. King S.J., Jung and Catholic Spirituality, in America [magazine], 3 April 1999, p. 14. The author
points out that New Age devotees 'quote passages dealing with the I Ching, astrology and Zen, while Catholics quote
passages dealing with Christian mystics, the liturgy and the psychological value of the sacrament of reconciliation’ (p. 12).
He also lists Catholic personalities and spiritual institutions clearly inspired and guided by Jung's psychology."
"#2.3.2 ctd. A central element in his [Jung’s] thought is the cult of the sun, where God is the vital energy (libido)**
within a person. As he himself said, 'this comparison is no mere play of words'. This is 'the god within' to which Jung refers,
the essential divinity he believed to be in every human being. The path to the inner universe is through the unconscious.
The inner world's correspondence to the outer one is in the collective unconscious." [continued on page 4 of this article]
HOLISM, ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AND NEW AGE HEALING
**HOW DOES THE DOCUMENT EXPLAIN THIS ‘VITAL ENERGY’?
[According to New Ager] "William Bloom’s 1992 Formulation of New Age… All life, in its different forms and states, is
interconnected energy…" [and one of New Ager David Spangler’s] "principal characteristics of the New Age vision is holistic
(globalising, because there is one single reality- energy)" Appendix #7.1.
[In the New Age] "the cosmos is seen as an organic whole- it is animated by an Energy which is also identified as the
divine Soul or Spirit" #2.3.3. "In New Age thinking… the energy animating the single organism which is the universe, is
‘spirit’ "#2.3.4.3. [Recall that Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung was one of the] "precursors of the Age of Aquarius", and, "a
central element in his thought is the cult of the sun, where God is the vital energy within a person" #2.3.2, [above]
[This monistic, impersonal vital energy, also known as chi, ki, qi, prana, etc., is the basis and medium of ‘healing’ in New
Age alternative therapies such as acupuncture, reiki, pranic healing, homoeopathy, etc. See following page.]
"#2.2.3 Health: Golden living:
Formal (allopathic) medicine today tends to limit itself to curing particular, isolated ailments, and fails to look at the broader
picture of a person's health:
this has given rise to a fair amount of understandable dissatisfaction. Alternative therapies have gained enormously in
popularity because they claim to look at the whole person and are about healing rather than curing. Holistic health, as it is
known, concentrates on the important role that the mind plays in physical healing.
The connection between the spiritual and the physical aspects of the person is said to be in the immune system or the
Indian chakra system. In a New Age perspective, illness and suffering come from working against nature; when one is in
tune with nature, one can expect a much healthier life, and even material prosperity; for some New Age healers, there
should actually be no need for us to die. Developing our human potential will put us in touch with our inner divinity, and
with those parts of our selves which have been alienated and suppressed. This is revealed above all in Altered States of
Consciousness (ASCs), which are induced either by drugs or by various mind-expanding techniques, particularly in
the context of 'transpersonal psychology'. The shaman is often seen as the specialist of altered states of
consciousness, one who is able to mediate between the transpersonal realms of spirits and gods and the world of humans.
There is a remarkable variety of approaches for promoting holistic health, some derived from ancient cultural traditions,
whether religious or esoteric, others connected with the psychological theories developed in Esalen [a leading New Age
centre] during the years 1960-1970. Advertising connected with New Age covers a wide range of practices as
acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic, kinesiology, homeopathy, iridology, massage and various kinds of
“bodywork” (such as orgonomy, Feldenkrais, reflexology, Rolfing, polarity massage, therapeutic touch etc.),
meditation and visualisation, nutritional therapies, psychic healing, various kinds of herbal medicine, healing
by crystals, metals, music or colours, reincarnation therapies and self-help groups.
The source of healing is said to be within ourselves, something we reach when we are in touch with our inner energy or
cosmic energy.
THE INDIVIDUAL SELF, "THE GOD WITHIN", AND THE HOLISTIC PARADIGM
"#2.4 'Inhabitants of myth rather than history'?: New Age and culture:
"Basically, the appeal of the New Age has to do with the culturally stimulated interest in the self, its value, capacities and
problems. Whereas traditionalised religiosity, with its hierarchical organization, is well-suited for the community,
detraditionalized spirituality is well-suited for the individual.
The New Age is 'of' the self in that it facilitates celebration of what it is to be and to become; and 'for' the self in that by
differing from much of the mainstream, it is positioned to handle identity problems generated by conventional forms of life”.
The rejection of tradition in the form of patriarchal, hierarchical social or ecclesial organisation implies the search for an
alternative form of society, one that is clearly inspired by the modern notion of the self. Many New Age writings argue that
one can do nothing (directly) to change the world, but everything to change oneself; changing individual consciousness is
understood to be the (indirect) way to change the world. The most important instrument for social change is personal
example. Worldwide recognition of these personal examples will steadily lead to the transformation of the collective mind
and such a transformation will be the major achievement of our time. This is clearly part of the holistic paradigm and
a re-statement of the classical philosophical question of the one and the many.
It is also linked to Jung's espousal of the theory of correspondence and his rejection of causality.
Individuals are fragmentary representations of the planetary hologram; by looking within one not only knows the universe,
but also changes it."
"#4 'The point of New Age techniques is to reproduce mystical states at will, as if it were a matter of laboratory material.
Rebirth, biofeedback, sensory isolation, holotropic breathing, hypnosis, mantras, fasting, sleep deprivation
and transcendental meditation are attempts to control these states and to experience them continuously'.
These practices all create an atmosphere of psychic weakness (and vulnerability). When the object of the exercise is that
we should re-invent our selves, there is a real question of who "I" am. "God within us" and holistic union with the whole
cosmos underline this question. Isolated individual personalities would be pathological in terms of New Age (in particular
transpersonal psychology). But 'the real danger is the holistic paradigm. New Age is thinking based on totalitarian
unity and that is why it is a danger... ' More moderately: 'We are authentic when we 'take charge of' ourselves, when our
choice and reactions flow spontaneously from our deepest needs, when our behaviour and expressed feelings reflect our
personal wholeness'. The Human Potential Movement is the clearest example of the conviction that humans are
divine, or contain a divine spark within themselves."
THE HUMAN POTENTIAL MOVEMENT AND TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY
[ctd. from page 3] "#2.3.2 The tendency to interchange psychology and spirituality was firmly embedded in the Human
Potential Movement as it developed towards the end of the 1960s at the Esalen Institute in California.
Transpersonal psychology, strongly influenced by Eastern religions and by Jung, offers a contemplative journey
where science meets mysticism. The stress laid on bodiliness, the search for ways of expanding consciousness and the
cultivation of the myths of the collective unconscious were all encouragements to search for "the God within" oneself.
To realise one's potential, one had to go beyond one's ego in order to become the god that one is, deep down. This could
be done by choosing the appropriate therapy – meditation, parapsychological experiences, the use of hallucinogenic drugs.
These were all ways of achieving "peak experiences", "mystical" experiences of fusion with God and with the cosmos."
"#7.2 Human Potential Movement:
Since its beginnings (Esalen, California, in the 1960s), this has grown into a network of groups promoting the release of the
innate human capacity for creativity through self-realisation.
Various techniques of personal transformation are used more and more by companies in management training
programmes, ultimately for very normal economic reasons. Transpersonal Technologies, the Movement for Inner
Spiritual Awareness, Organisational Development and Organisational Transformation are all put forward as non-religious,
but in reality company employees can find themselves being submitted to an alien 'spirituality' in a situation which raises
questions about personal freedom. There are clear links between Eastern spirituality and psychotherapy, while
Jungian psychology and the Human Potential Movement have been very influential on Shamanism and
"reconstructed" forms of Paganism like Druidry and Wicca. In a general sense, "personal growth" can be
understood as the shape "religious salvation" takes in the New Age movement: it is affirmed that deliverance from human
suffering and weakness will be reached by developing our human potential, which results in our increasingly getting in
touch with our inner divinity."
"#2.3.4.1 What does New Age say about the human person?
New Age involves a fundamental belief in the perfectibility of the human person by means of a wide variety
of techniques and therapies (as opposed to the Christian view of co-operation with divine grace). There is a
general accord with Nietzsche's idea that Christianity has prevented the full manifestation of genuine humanity.
Perfection, in this context, means achieving self-fulfilment, according to an order of values which we ourselves create and
which we achieve by our own strength: hence one can speak of a self- creating self… At the centre of occultism is a will to
power based on the dream of becoming divine.
Mind-expanding techniques are meant to reveal to people their divine power; by using this power, people prepare the way
for the Age of Enlightenment. This exaltation of humanity overturns the correct relationship between Creator and creature,
and one of its extreme forms is Satanism…
In what might be termed a classical New Age account, people are born with a divine spark, in a sense which is reminiscent
of ancient gnosticism; this links them into the unity of the Whole. So they are seen as essentially divine, although they
participate in this cosmic divinity at different levels of consciousness. We are co- creators, and we create our own reality.
Many New Age authors maintain that we choose the circumstances of our lives (even our own illness and health), in a
vision where every individual is considered the creative source of the universe. But we need to make a journey in order fully
to understand where we fit into the unity of the cosmos.
"The journey is psychotherapy and the recognition of universal consciousness is salvation. There is no sin;
there is only imperfect knowledge. The identity of every human being is diluted in the universal being and in the process of
successive incarnations. People are subject to the determining influences of the stars, but can be opened to the divinity
which lives within them, in their continual search (by means of appropriate techniques) for an ever greater harmony
between the self and divine cosmic energy. There is no need for Revelation or Salvation which would come to people from
outside themselves, but simply a need to experience the salvation hidden within themselves (self-salvation), by mastering
psycho- physical techniques which lead to definitive enlightenment.
Some stages on the way to self-redemption are preparatory (meditation, body harmony, releasing self-healing energies).
They are the starting-point for processes of spiritualisation, perfection and enlightenment which help people to acquire
further self-control and psychic concentration on "transformation" of the individual self into "cosmic consciousness".
The destiny of the human person is a series of successive reincarnations of the soul in different bodies. This is understood
not as the cycle of samsara, in the sense of purification as punishment, but as a gradual ascent towards the perfect
development of one's potential.
"Psychology is used to explain mind expansion as 'mystical' experiences. Yoga, zen, transcendental
meditation and tantric exercises lead to an experience of self-fulfilment or enlightenment. Peak-experiences (reliving one's
birth, travelling to the gates of death, biofeedback, dance and even drugs – anything which can provoke an altered state of
consciousness) are believed to lead to unity and enlightenment. Since there is only one Mind, some people can be channels
for higher beings. Every part of this single universal being has contact with every other part.
The classic approach in New Age is transpersonal psychology, whose main concepts are the Universal Mind, the
Higher Self, the collective and personal unconscious and the individual ego. The Higher Self is our real identity, a bridge
between God as divine Mind and humanity.
Spiritual development is contact with the Higher Self, which overcomes all forms of dualism between subject and object, life
and death, psyche and soma, the self and the fragmentary aspects of the self. Our limited personality is like a shadow or a
dream created by the real self. The Higher Self contains the memories of earlier (re-)incarnations."
SELF-DEIFICATION
"#3.5 The "god within" and "theosis":
Here is a key point of contrast between New Age and Christianity. So much New Age literature is shot through with the
conviction that there is no divine being "out there", or in any real way distinct from the rest of reality.
From Jung's time onwards there has been a stream of people professing belief in "the god within".
Our problem, in a New Age perspective, is our inability to recognise our own divinity, an inability which can be overcome
with the help of guidance and the use of a whole variety of techniques for unlocking our hidden (divine) potential. The
fundamental idea is that 'God' is deep within ourselves. We are gods, and we discover the unlimited power within us by
peeling off layers of inauthenticity. The more this potential is recognised, the more it is realised, and in this sense the New
Age has its own idea of theosis, becoming divine or, more precisely, recognising and accepting that we are divine. We are
said by some to be living in 'an age in which our understanding of God has to be interiorised: from the Almighty God out
there to God the dynamic, creative power within the very centre of all being: God as Spirit'."
"#6.1 Create your own reality:
The widespread New Age conviction that one creates one's own reality is appealing, but illusory. It is
crystallised in Jung's theory that the human being is a gateway from the outer world into an inner world of
infinite dimensions, where each person is Abraxas, who gives birth to his own world or devours it. The star that shines in
this infinite inner world is man's God and goal. The most poignant and problematic consequence of the acceptance of the
idea that people create their own reality is the question of suffering and death: people with severe handicaps or incurable
diseases feel cheated and demeaned when confronted by the suggestion that they have brought their misfortune upon
themselves, or that their inability to change things points to a weakness in their approach to life. This is far from being a
purely academic issue: it has profound implications in the Church's pastoral approach to the difficult existential questions
everyone faces.
Our limitations are a fact of life, and part of being a creature. Death and bereavement present a challenge and an
opportunity, because the temptation to take refuge in a westernised reworking of the notion of reincarnation is clear proof
of people's fear of death and their desire to live forever. Do we make the most of our opportunities to recall what is
promised by God in the resurrection of Jesus Christ? How real is the faith in the resurrection of the body, which Christians
proclaim every Sunday in the creed? The New Age idea that we are in some sense also gods is one which is very much in
question here. The whole question depends, of course, on one's definition of reality. A sound approach to epistemology and
psychology needs to be reinforced – in the appropriate way – at every level of Catholic education, formation and preaching.
It is important constantly to focus on effective ways of speaking of transcendence. The fundamental difficulty of all New
Age thought is that this transcendence is strictly a self-transcendence to be achieved within a closed universe.
THE DOCUMENT EXPLAINS
#7.2 Depth Psychology:
The school of psychology founded by C.G. Jung, a former disciple of Freud. Jung recognised that religion and spiritual
matters were important for wholeness and health. The interpretation of dreams and the analysis of archetypes
were key elements in his method. Archetypes are forms which belong to the inherited structure of the human psyche;
they appear in the recurrent motifs or images in dreams, fantasies, myths and fairy tales.
#7.2 Monism:
The metaphysical belief that differences between beings are illusory. There is only one universal being, of which every thing
and every person is a part. Inasmuch as New Age monism includes the idea that reality is fundamentally spiritual, it is a
contemporary form of pantheism (sometimes explicitly a rejection of materialism, particularly Marxism).
Its claim to resolve all dualism leaves no room for a transcendent God, so everything is God. A further problem arises for
Christianity when the question of the origin of evil is raised. C.G. Jung saw evil as the “shadow side” of the God who, in
classical theism, is all goodness.
MANY LEADING NEW AGERS ARE PSYCHOLOGISTS
"NOTES [in the Vatican Document]
In late 1977, [leading New Ager] Marilyn Ferguson sent a questionnaire to 210 persons engaged in social transformation',
whom she also calls 'Aquarian Conspirators' [New Agers].
The following is interesting: 'When respondents were asked to name individuals whose ideas had influenced them, either
through personal contact or through their writings, those most often named, in order of frequency, were Pierre Teilhard
de Chardin [Jesuit palaentologist-priest], C.G. Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, [psychologists], Robert
Assagioli, founder of transpersonal psychology …and J. Krishnamurti [occultist and Theosophist].
Others frequently mentioned: Erich Fromm, [psychologist], Werner Erhard, [est], Oscar Ichazo, [enneagram
founder], [and] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi [Transcendental Meditation]: The Aquarian Conspiracy. Personal and
Social Transformation in Our Time, Los Angeles (Tarcher) 1980, p. 50 (note 1) and p. 434."
[Erhard, Ichazo and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi though not psychologists are associated with spiritual psychotechnologies.]
Moving onwards from the Vatican Document, here is what eminent Church leaders have to say:
CATHOLICS SPEAK ON PSYCHOLOGY AND NEW AGE
1. PASTORAL INSTRUCTION ON NEW AGE by the Archbishop of Miami
Concise and thorough study about the characteristics, practices and philosophies of the New Era.
http://es.catholic.net/catequistasyevangelizadores/90/1915/articulo.php?id=32065 Miami, USA, November 1991 EXTRACT:
The Archbishop of Miami worried about the breakthrough of this new movement and noting the subtle damage that occurs
in the faithful, a concise and thorough study about the characteristics, practices and philosophies of the New Era. The New
Age Movement, as it is known today, had its start in California in the '60s with the spread of Eastern philosophies, especially
Buddhism, which was popular among middle class Americans disillusioned with the Vietnam War. This movement, as we
know it today has its roots in a number of religious practices and disciplines, philosophical and Theosophical…
Chapter 2 Appendix [Going alphabetically, the Archbishop has listed New Age personalities, organizations
and therapies in this long document. The following is under the alphabets “P” and “T”- Michael]
parapsychology, humanistic and transpersonal psychology, […] transactional analysis, transcendental
meditation and transpersonal psychology.
NOTE: The Archbishop of Miami issued this warning twelve years before the release of the Vatican Document
2. SPIRITUAL THEOLOGY
PART I: DOCTRINAL FOUNDATIONS
By Jordan Aumann, O.P.
http://www.domcentral.org/study/aumann/st/st01.htm EXTRACT:
[Psychology is one of the natural sciences.] Garrigou Lagrange observes: "Whoever neglects to have recourse to the light of
theological principles will have to be content with the principles furnished by psychology, as do so many psychologists who
treat of mystical phenomena in the different religions."
Second, although a psychological study may be scientific, the psychologist frequently fails to seek the causes of the
phenomena investigated but is satisfied with a collection of descriptions and statistics…
Finally, spiritual theology makes use of purely experimental sources such as personal experience and the various branches
of psychology. These sources are of particular importance for cultivating the art of spiritual direction and the discernment of
spirits. Rational or normal psychology provides information concerning the nature of the human soul, the distinction and
functions of the various faculties and powers, the laws of the emotional life, and the interrelation between soul and body.
Experimental psychology complements rational psychology by providing the data of experience and an analysis of the
phenomena of normal and abnormal or pathological states. A knowledge of the latter is indispensable for distinguishing
between the natural, the diabolical, and the supernatural and for evaluating the phenomena of the mystical state.
It is necessary, however, to avoid two extremes in the use of psychological material: first, a "psychologism" that would
reduce all religious phenomena to a state of consciousness and thus deny the possible intervention of the supernatural;
second, a "syncretism" that would classify all religious experience as identical, thereby obliterating the distinction between
Christian spirituality and the religious experiences of non-Christians.
Psychology provides much important data for the study of the spiritual life, but it cannot make the ultimate
judgment; that is the function of theology, which proceeds from the truths of faith and acknowledges
authentic religious experience as a supernatural reality…
Spiritual Direction
Spiritual direction is the art of leading souls progressively from the beginning of the spiritual life to the height of Christian
perfection. It is an art in the sense that spiritual direction is a practical science that, under the guidance of supernatural
prudence, applies to a particular case the principles of the theology of Christian perfection. It is orientated to the perfection
of the Christian life, but this direction must be given progressively, that is, according to the strength and need of the soul at
a given time. The direction should begin as soon as the soul has definitely resolved to travel along the road to Christian
perfection and should continue through all the phases of that journey. Although it is true that individuals have attained
sanctity without a spiritual director -- which proves that spiritual direction is not absolutely necessary -- normally those who
have reached perfection have had the counsel and advice of a spiritual director. In the ordinary providence of God, spiritual
direction of some kind is morally necessary for the attainment of Christian perfection. Is it necessary that the spiritual
director be a priest? We can answer without hesitation that normally the director should be a priest. There are many
reasons for this. First of all, the priest usually has both the theoretical and the practical knowledge required for the direction
of souls. Second, the function of spiritual director is closely related to the office of confessor. A third reason is the grace of
the priesthood. Fourth, the practice of the Church forbids any person who is not a priest, even religious superiors, to probe
into matters of conscience. Nevertheless, it is possible that in a particular case spiritual direction could be given by a
prudent and experienced person who is not a priest. There is ample testimony in the history of the Church to justify such
direction because of peculiar circumstances; for example, some of the hermits in the desert and the primitive monks who
were not priests, and the direction given by St. Francis of Assisi, St. Ignatius Loyola before his ordination, St. Catherine of
Siena, and St. Teresa of Avila.
Technical Qualities of the Director
Perhaps no writer has outlined with such clarity and precision the technical qualities of a good spiritual director as have St.
Teresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross. She states that a good spiritual director should be learned, prudent, and
experienced. St. John of the Cross also maintains that a director should be learned, prudent, and experienced, and he
places great emphasis on experience.
Learning. The learning of a spiritual director should be extensive. In addition to having a profound knowledge of dogmatic
theology, without which he would be exposed to error in regard to matters of faith, and of moral theology, without which
he could not even fulfill the office of confessor, the spiritual director should have a thorough knowledge of ascetical and
mystical theology. He should know, for example, the theological doctrine concerning Christian perfection, especially
regarding such questions as the essence of perfection, the obligation to strive for perfection, the obstacles to perfection,
the types of purgation, and the means of positive growth in virtue. He should have a detailed knowledge of the grades of
prayer, the trials God usually sends to souls as they advance from the lower to the higher degrees of prayer, and the
illusions and assaults of the devil that souls may encounter.
He also needs to be well versed in psychology so that he will have an understanding of various temperaments and
characters, the influences to which the human personality is subjected, and the function of the emotions in the life of the
individual. He should also know at least the basic principles of abnormal psychology and psychiatry so that he will be able
to recognize mental unbalance and nervous or emotional disorders. A priest should realize that, if he is not competent to
direct a particular soul, he should advise the individual to go to someone who possesses the necessary knowledge. A priest
incurs a grave responsibility before God if he attempts to direct a soul when he lacks sufficient knowledge. In recent times,
with the wider dissemination of knowledge of mental illness, the priest must especially be warned that, as regards the field
of psychiatry and the therapeutic methods proper to that branch of medicine, he is a mere "layman" and is incompetent to
treat mental sickness. If he suspects that a penitent is suffering from a mental illness, he should direct that individual to a
professional psychiatrist, just as readily as he would expect a psychiatrist to refer spiritual problems to a clergyman.
Prudence. This is one of the most important qualities for a spiritual director. It comprises three basic factors: prudence in
judgment, clarity in counseling, and firmness in exacting obedience…
Of the various factors that militate against prudence, the following are especially common: lack of knowledge of the various
states of the ascetical and mystical life, lack of understanding of human psychology, prejudice in regard to particular states
of life or particular exercises of piety, lack of humility, excessive eagerness to make a judgment…
It is important to investigate carefully whether one is dealing with a soul that is normal, balanced, of sound judgment, and
an enemy of any kind of exaggeration or sentimentality; or whether, on the contrary, one is dealing with a disquieted,
unbalanced, weak spirit, with a history of hysteria, tormented by scruples, or depressed by reason of an inferiority complex.
This rule is of exceptional importance, and very often it is the decisive rule for making a judgment. It will be very difficult to
differentiate between the manifestations of diabolical influence and those that follow from a nervous disorder, but-it is
possible to do so. The director should not yield to the temptation of oversimplifying the matter by attributing everything to
one cause or the other. He should give to the patient the moral counsels and rules that pertain to his office as a director of
souls and then refer the individual to a trustworthy psychiatrist, who can treat the other manifestations that proceed from a
mental disorder…
Psychosomatic Phenomena The foregoing discussion on the divine spirit, the diabolical spirit, and the human spirit
serves as a logical introduction to the study of extraordinary phenomena. Any phenomenon of religious experience must be
attributed to one of those three causes - God, the devil, or some natural power. There is no other possible explanation.
Natural Causes of Extraordinary Phenomena
The naturally caused phenomena comprise all those mysterious and paranormal happenings for which we do not as yet
have a complete scientific explanation, but there is substantial evidence that they lie within the power of nature (e.g.,
telepathy, extrasensory perception, and certain phenomena of spiritualism). This subject belongs to the field of
parapsychology.
However, in mystical theology we also have to deal with phenomena that have all the appearances of authentic mystical
phenomena but are really natural in origin or blended somehow with the supernatural. We do not know with certainty all
that nature is capable of producing, but we can know what nature could never possibly do. In other words, we have as our
basic norm the principle of contradiction, which often leaves us with nothing more certain by way of conclusion than mere
possibility or evident impossibility. In any event, the following rule must be followed most strictly: one may not definitely
attribute to a supernatural cause that which could possibly have a natural (or diabolical) explanation . Thus two extremes
will be avoided, namely, to see the supernatural or miraculous in every unusual phenomenon or to refuse to recognize
anything but the natural in any kind of phenomenon.
The natural causes may be grouped under the following general headings: physiological or constitutional factors,
imagination, depressive states, and illnesses, especially mental and nervous disorders.
We should recall the teaching of psychology concerning the intimate relationship and mutual interaction between the soul
and the body. Ideas, judgments, volitions can cause profound transformations in a person's somatic structure, for good or
evil; the health or sickness of the body can in turn facilitate or obstruct the operations of the spiritual faculties. Moreover,
the somatic structure, since it is organic, is so necessitated in its functions that it can react in only a limited number of
ways. That is the basic reason why it is so difficult to determine whether a particular unusual phenomenon is supernatural
or natural in origin (we might say, natural but paranormal). It is also the reason why the theologian, doctor, psychiatrist, or
spiritual director must in each instance make a careful and exact examination of the constitutional factors of the individual.
3. A NEW AGE OF THE SPIRIT? A CATHOLIC RESPONSE TO THE NEW AGE PHENOMENON. Prepared by the
Irish Theological Commission, 1994. Chapter 3, The Contemporary Scene: Description and Analysis of the New Age
http://www.spiritual-wholeness.org/churchte/newage/introd.htm / http://www.worldcat.org/isbn/1853902373 EXTRACT:
This [New Age] movement coincided with a new interest in psychology, not as a science, but as a tool to help
solve personal problems. Thus, encounter groups and self-help groups became very popular.
The tendency has been to turn away from the teaching of the Church to this new psychology to find answers
to life's problems, and to overcome the sense of powerlessness experienced by many in today's world. To a
considerable extent the Church's moral teaching has been put to one side, while people seek secular
answers to life… Since the New Age teaches that we are God, there is therefore no sin, and no need for a
Saviour. In consequence there is no forgiveness and no mercy. They deny that the seven sacraments have
any value as means of grace, and they offer mind control techniques, psychology and other self-help
answers to problems.
[John Randolph] Price [The Planetary Commission. He is a co-founder with his wife of the Quartus Foundation, a major
NAM enterprise. He uses Christian language throughout the book to put across unChristian principles of living] puts this
clearly: 'You are always expressing the idea of Who and What you are. If you think of yourself as a human being, you are
going to experience that identity. But when you take the idea that you are a spiritual being, that you are God individualised,
and begin to live that idea ... your whole world takes on a different tone and shape. Then he counsels his readers to assert:
'The Identity of God is individualised in me now. I am the Self-Expression of God. I am the Presence of God where I am. I
am the Christ, Son of the Living God' (italics and capitals his)…
A very difficult problem exists when NAM invades the work-place in the name of improved productivity and prosperity.
Companies have now woken up to the fact that meditation techniques can help the work-force to unify, and to produce
more and better quality work. So the question must be asked: Can these techniques be de-sacralised, that is, used without
any religious content or overtones, as the NAM claims they can?
[Christian writer] Elliot Miller has a very good discussion on this in his book A Crash Course in the New Age, pp. 98-102. He
is speaking specifically about the American scene here, but many of the ideas are beginning to be used in Ireland also.
The new language used for business seminars is Transpersonal technologies, Organisational Development
and Organisational Transformation among others. These are human potential seminars that promise greater
motivation, 'vision' (to benefit the company), increased productivity and creativity (to benefit the company), improved
teamwork and interpersonal skills, all of which should reduce absenteeism, and a lot of minor illness that disrupts the
working and productivity of the company.
So, companies invite experts in Transpersonal Technologies (TT) and the Movement for Inner Spiritual Awareness
(MISA) to come along and transform the work-place. Once the individuals have been helped, then the company as a whole
is helped by Organisational Development (OD) seminars which take them a step further in stress management for
managers and employees, as well as interpersonal skills at different levels of the company. This in turn leads to OT training,
in Organisational Transformation, where the company itself must see its place in the transformation of society, and
develop its 'mission' in this field.
Here we have moved from planetising the individuals and groups within organisations to planetising the organisation itself.
The methods used are typical of NAM. They consist of meditation, yoga, psychology, and all their related
techniques. Miller says that the NAM leaders running these seminars met with practically no resistance because nobody
believed that there was any connection with anything but the human mind involved.
NOTE: The Irish Theological Commission issued this warning 9 years before the release of the Vatican Doc.
4. A CALL TO VIGILANCE (PASTORAL INSTRUCTION ON NEW AGE), by Archbishop Norberto Rivera Carrera,
January 7, 1996. EWTN. August/Sep. 1996 issue of "Catholic International." Published monthly by "The Catholic Review"
http://www.ewtn.com/library/bishops/acall.htm EXTRACT:
"Few fields have been as susceptible to manipulation by ‘New Age’ as psychology and biology. Starting from the research of
the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and the theories of the ‘collective unconscious’ and
of archetypes propounded by his disciple Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), there has been a varied succession of currents
of thought in psychology that are connected to a greater or lesser degree with ‘New Age's’ ideas and therapies.
In particular, so-called transpersonal psychology, founded by the Italian psychologist Roberto Assagioli (1888-1974),
attempts to go beyond the individual's psychic experience in search of a superior collective consciousness that would be the
door to discovering a "divine principle" lying at the core of every human being. This gives rise to a multitude of ‘New Age's’
typical techniques: biofeedback, hypnosis, rebirthing, Gestalt therapy, and the provocation of altered states of
consciousness, including the use of hallucinogenic drugs."
NOTE: Archbishop Carrera of Mexico issued this warning 7 years before the release of the Vatican Document
5. JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY AS CATHOLIC THEOLOGY: WHAT IS CARL GUSTAV JUNG DOING IN THE CHURCH?
St. Catherine Review, May-June 1997 issue of http://www.aquinas-multimedia.com/catherine/jungcult.html:
Who was C.G. Jung?
Swiss psychoanalyst, Carl Gustav Jung, reared a Lutheran, abandoned the Christianity of his parents for the
occult. Jung's entire life and work were motivated by his detestation of the Catholic Church, whose religious
doctrines and moral teachings he considered to be the source of all the neuroses which afflicted Western
man. In his 1912 book, New Paths in Psychology, Jung wrote that the only way to overthrow the neuroses
inducing Judeo-Christian religion and its "sex-fixated ethics" was to establish a new religion-the religion of
psychoanalysis.
Jung's drive to formulate a ‘better’ religion was the result of his trying to justify his own sins. What Jung was increasingly
concerned with was justifying sexual libertinism, and his efforts extended not merely to reviving the lost gods of paganism,
but in transforming Christ and Christianity to serve his own purposes. His search was for a ‘scientific’ justification for incest,
patricide, sodomy, sun-worship and phallus worship; and what support he could not find in the works of his contemporary
neopagan archaeologists, he sought to find by plumbing the unconscious through Eastern meditation techniques
and ancient pagan rituals. Jung appreciated faith and ritual, but only of the occult variety: hypnotism,
spiritism, séances, cults of Mithras and Dionysus, ‘liturgies’ that unlocked the powers of darkness.
To Jung, only the revival of the ancient pagan cults of the earth goddesses could repair the damage caused by the
imposition of Christianity (with its Semitic origins) on Western European peoples. Jung was an avowed polytheist, a pagan
in the old sense of the word. Jung took up the cause for matriarchy and its symbol, goddess worship and the cult of mother
earth-which glorified the body and the earth- but Jung re-framed the practice to make it seem less occultic and more
scientific by making an analogy to archeology-a style of translating or repackaging arcane or occultist ideas to make them
congruent with the psychiatric and scientific terminology of his day.
Jung was reared in a time marked by the revival of paganism, an infatuation with Freidrich Nietzsche's ‘cult of personality’
and an obsession with the occult in which eroticism, mysticism and the cult of neophilia (the love of the new) reigned
supreme. He was also strongly influenced by the ideas of positivism, evolutionism and scientism. This was all mixed with
the degeneration of Protestant theology which had become consumed with a desire to debunk the divinity of Christ. Major
influences on Jung were the ‘god-building’ movement of Russian atheist Anatoly Lunacharsky, Wagnerian spiritual elitism,
volkish sun-worshipping movements, along with dozens of other movements that wanted to institute a new German paganism.
Jung's mentor was psychoanalyst Otto Gross (1877-1920). He was particularly drawn to Gross's ideas about the ‘lifeenhancing value of eroticism’ and his concept of ‘free love’. Jung wrote approvingly of Gross's use of sex orgies to promote
pagan spirituality, as he did when he wrote: ‘The existence of a phallic or orgiastic cult does not indicate eo ipso a
particularly lascivious life any more than the ascetic symbolism of Christianity means an especially moral life.’ Jung,
absorbed by eroticism and entranced by the occult, sought to provide a holy merger of the two, which is now popularly
know as ‘Jungianism’. In 1912 he announced that he could no longer be a Christian, and that only the ‘new’ science of
psychoanalysis- as he defined it through ‘Jungianism’ -could offer personal and cultural renewal and rebirth. For Jung,
honoring God meant honoring the libido.
Between 1936 and 1939 Jung sent out his disciples from Zurich to Britain and the United States to spread his doctrines and
establish an anti-Church based on his theories of psychotherapy.
Transforming Catholicism into the Occult: It is truly amazing that Carl Gustav Jung, dedicated to the destruction
of the Catholic Church and the establishment of an anti-Church based on psychoanalysis, has become the
premier spiritual guide in the Church throughout the United States and Europe over the last thirty years.
Jungianism has become an enormous money-making business too, as the advertisements for books and cassettes for
Jungian Catholics in Catholic publications attest. Jungian practices commonly promoted are: ‘discovering the god within’,
‘dream analysis’, ‘psychodrama’, ‘journaling’, ‘journeying’. These practices are all ways, according to Jung's methods, to tap
into one's subconscious to retrieve ‘hidden knowledge’. Instead of calling it ‘the occult’, it is referred to as 'Jungian'. This
sort of spirituality, it must be stated, is nothing more than an affirmation of self through highly questionable methods.
One cannot, however, be both ‘Catholic’ and ‘Jungian’. They are mutually exclusive adjectives. However, for
many who consider themselves ‘religious’ and form the intelligentsia of the Church, Jung has clearly replaced Christ as the
God-man in their belief system. In the past 25 years Jung has risen to be the dominant influence in Catholic
spirituality.
Today, Robert Noll, [see page 23] in his book, The Jung Cult, comments, ‘for literally tens of thousands, if not hundreds
of thousands, of individuals in our culture, Jung and his ideas are the basis of a personal religion that either supplants their
participation in traditional organized Judeo-Christian religion or accompanies it.’
What is Jung doing in the Church? Jungians teach, through Catholic seminars and workshops, tapes and books, that one
can discover God in two ‘ways’: communally in prayer that employs Catholic elements and symbols, and personally by use
of ‘conscious dreaming’ techniques which can be powerful in creating delusions.
The experience Jung extolled was nothing but the experience of self-induced fantasies and visions. Indeed,
he has succeeded at unlocking the power of the occult for modern man.
Many Catholics have been known to abandon their faith after becoming involved in Jungian-type spirituality
programs. They usually remain in the Church, however, determined to change her and bring her to this new
awareness. It is of note that many have observed that once Catholics enter the Jung Cult, they quickly learn
to despise the rosary as an out-of-date, ineffective symbol of the old Church.
Jungianism in the Church poses a threat to the orthodox believer. Those who subscribe to a traditional notion of
Catholic spirituality are regarded by Jungians as naïve believers locked into some past culture's mythical story of God. That
is why inclusive language carries such import with them. Traditional English and traditional liturgy is denounced as
‘sexist’, as ‘patriarchal’, as ‘dysfunctional’. Sister Barbara Fiand's notion of an ‘androgynous’ God (who is both
masculine and feminine) is an example of just how far Jungians will go in their efforts to redefine traditional language.
The notion of an androgynous God leads Jungians to view both men and women as neither male nor female.
Jungians operating as Catholics are fond of reinterpreting Catholic concepts. Jesus Christ, for instance, is
understood as a man who spent His life discovering his own spirituality, discovering His ‘God Within’. He
becomes, therefore, the prototypical example of one who understands his own Godhead.
And it only follows that Jungians see themselves too as potential Gods; their life mission is understood as one of
discovering oneself as they believe Jesus did so well.
Sabotaging the liturgy: Catholic liturgy is redefined as the work of the community. In their minds, it is the gathering
together for the ritual which creates the presence of God. The Mass is understood as the celebration of the community and
ourselves. Hence, most Jungians deny the Real Presence of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament in the Catholic sense of the
term. They believe it is most important to alter traditional Catholic architecture to reflect their own understanding of liturgy.
Jungians regard as critical the need for church architecture to be "open," centered on the people of God. This is
implemented by removing many, if not all statues of saints and Stations of the Cross. The distinction between sanctuary
space and people space is blurred, if not entirely eliminated. They insist there is no place for the Tabernacle in a
Catholic Church since God is already with us.
Since liturgy is regarded as the work of the people rather than something the people of God receive, Jungian priests and
liturgists advocate altering or deleting words from the sacred liturgy as they see fit. They purport that the assembly can
consecrate the Eucharist, that they can dance in celebration. Any ritual save for the traditional Catholic liturgy is acceptable
to them. Their understanding of God and the liturgy permits what they call ‘deep ecumenism’, and they will participate in
almost any kind of worship, and incorporate any ritual into the Catholic liturgy.
Undermining Catholic Morality: Subsets of Jungian spirituality include eco-spirituality, eco-feminism, Earth (or Gaia)
worship. Jungians look to the clouds, to the trees, the cycles of the moon, planets, seasons, and animals to inform their
‘body-prayer’, ‘psycho-drama’, and ‘mime’.
Since Jungians tend to be syncretists (believing all religions are reconcilable with one another), they also look to Native
American, Eastern and Wiccan traditions. Since divine revelation is understood as the living experiences of the universe
through all religions, peoples, animals and plants, Jungians rely on dream interpretation, the enneagram
(personality typing), I Ching, tarot cards, and other methods of divination. Since the Jungian is busy mapping out his
subconscious, he needs such methods to navigate on his journey. The typical Jungian will receive many visions, dreams,
revelations and omens to illuminate his way.
Being that most of their methods and understandings are irreconcilable with authentic Catholic teaching,
initiated Jungians understand that they must do everything in their power to eliminate the traditional
understanding of Roman Catholicism. They view orthodox Catholics who are loyal to Rome as threats to the
advancement of their ideas, especially their ideas on sexual ‘enlightenment’.
To be truly Jungian one must have this enlightened, i.e. libertine, view of sexuality which is necessary, they claim, to be
fully alive. This is why sex education is so important to them. Jungians see their mission as to initiate children, at as young
an age as possible, into their views on enlightened sexuality. This is, of course, easily accomplished by those who control
the education policies at many Catholic schools. Jungians then logically embrace contraception, homosexuality and
sometimes even abortion, simply because these are part of people's ‘lived experiences’ and enable them to explore their
sexuality uninhibited.
Much of what has ailed the Church over the past 30years- sex education, the abused liturgy, faulty theology, degenerative
sexual morality, the mainstreaming of homosexuality, contraception abortion and euthanasia- can be traced back to Jungian
ideologues who train teachers to instruct others in their ‘Jungian Way’. The damaging effects of Jungianism are manifest in
our Catholic schools, universities, and seminaries, in our parishes, and Catholic media. We can only rid the Church of this
heresy through proper catechetical instruction supplemented by an awareness of those who seek to undermine the true
teaching of the Church. Look into what is being taught at your parish school and at your diocesan seminary.
Quotes from C.G. Jung
"I am for those who are out of the Church" - Carl Jung, in a letter to Joland Jacobi, on hearing the news she
had converted to Catholicism.
Jung: "What is so special about Christ, that he should be the motivational force? Why not another modelPaul or Buddha or Confucius or Zoroaster?"
In a letter to Freud: "I think we must give [psychoanalysis] time to infiltrate into people from many centers, to
revivify among intellectuals a feeling for symbol and myth, ever so gently to transform Christ back into the soothsaying god
of the vine, and in this way absorb those ecstatic instinctual forces of Christianity for the one purpose of making the cult
and the sacred myth what they once were-a drunken feast of joy where man regained the ethos and holiness of an
animal." For more information on "The Jung Cult," see Dr. Richard Noll's work [see page 13]
6. NEW AGE AND NEOPAGANISM: TWO DIFFERENT TRADITIONS?
by Reender Kranenborg. A paper presented at the April 19-22, 2001 Conference in London. EXTRACT:
The Spiritual Supermarket: Religious Pluralism in the 21st Century, CESNUR, Center for Religious Studies
and Research at Vilnius University, and New Religions Research and Information Center, Vilnius, Lithuania
In New Age, we find a specific evolutionary model, in which karma also plays an important role… In general, the idea of
reincarnation forms part of the belief system (although some groups place no faith in reincarnation)…
In Wicca, as practiced in the Netherlands, the idea of reincarnation is greatly influenced by the Human Potential
Movement and Jung. In that sense, it does bear similarities to New Age.
7. THE DECLARATION ON THE "NEW AGE', His Eminence Cardinal Georges Cottier OP, International
Theological Video Conference, 27 February 2004, General Topic: The Church, New Age and Sects
http://www.clerus.net/clerus/dati/2004-03/18-13/14CNAING.html EXTRACT:
"New Age's affinity with Eastern religions is therefore understandable. Reincarnation is also mentioned, perceived
however as participation in cosmic evolution, since the idea of sin is absent. Two psychologists have exercised their
fundamental influence; the first is William James who reduces religion to religious experience, the second is Carl
Gustav Jung, who introduced the idea of the collective unconscious – but above all sacralized psychology adding contents
involving esoteric thoughts."
8. RESPONDING TO THE LURE OF NEW AGE, Interview With Father Paolo Scarafoni of the Academy of
Theology Rome, March 2, 2004 (Zenit) http://www.catholicfidelity.com/interview-with-father-paolo-scarafoni-of-theacademy-of-theology-on-the-new-age-movementt/ www.zenit.org/english/visualizza.phtml?sid=49976 EXTRACT:
A yearning for spirituality and a good dose of distress can even lead Catholics to the New Age, says a member of the
Pontifical Academy of Theology. The Church can counter that phenomenon, says Legionary Fr. Paolo Scarafoni, by proclaiming
Jesus Christ "living and risen," "whose person has greater fascination than any other" and who fills life with meaning.
Father Scarafoni, who is also rector of the Regina Apostolorum Pontifical Athenaeum, was one of the speakers at last
Friday's worldwide videoconference on "The Church, New Age and Sects," organized by the Congregation for Clergy.
"New Age does not consider original sin and tends not to consider man's sin and, therefore, not to make man
responsible for his actions," Father Scarafoni explains in this interview with Zenit.
"New Age is nourished by Jung's psychology, whose approach is clearly anti-Christian."
Despite its name, New Age ideas "derive from ancient religions and cultures. What is genuinely new is the conscious search
for an alternative to Western culture and its Judeo-Christian roots," the priest says, referring to the document
http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/interelg/documents/rc_pc_interelg_doc_20030203_newage_en.html"Jesus Christ, Bearer of Living Water: A Christian Reflection on the New Age."
9. NEW AGE TRAPS by Anne Feaster, New Oxford Review, Inc. Source: New Oxford Review, February 2005 EXTRACT:
The document [says] that New Agers believe that "The journey is psychotherapy, and the recognition of universal
consciousness is salvation. There is no sin; there is only imperfect knowledge" (#2.3.4.1). The document states that they
believe that "The purpose and dynamic of all existence is to bring love, wisdom, and enlightenment . . . into full
manifestation" (#7.1) and that "All religions are the expression of this same inner reality" (#7.1). They believe that we are
moving toward a "global religion and a new world order" (#4). This would be the Age of Aquarius.
Where would a Catholic run into New Age ideas? In the business world, he would come across them in seminars
that teach "what the mind can conceive, it can achieve." This would be accomplished by tapping into the "power within."
The document says, "It must unfortunately be admitted that there are too many cases where Catholic centers of
spirituality are actively involved in diffusing New Age religiosity in the church. This would of course have to be
corrected, not only to stop the spread of confusion and error, but also so that they might be effective in promoting true
Christian spirituality" (#6.2). In fact, the document lists some writers who had the most influence on New Agers, among
whom are Carl Jung, Teilhard de Chardin, and Thomas Merton (#9.2).
10. YOGA – HEALTH OR STEALTH from The Cross and the Veil http://www.crossveil.org/page2.html EXTRACT:
Yoga techniques are taught by psychologists and intermingled with avant-guard psychological release work
methods such as rolfing or rebirthing which are intended to break through unresolved issues and remove deep
emotional blocks through either the expression of strong emotions or rough physical massage - a recipe for disaster.
Several months ago, one enthusiast completed certification as a yoga instructor after only a year's study. She traveled for a
weekend workshop on holotropic breathing - a way of accessing childhood trauma through heavy yoga-like breathing
techniques designed to induce altered states of mind. For some time afterward, she was in total bliss and believed it was the
divine will she leave her family. These kinds of therapy weekends have innumerable casualties. Treatment centers
/retreats for those suffering these kinds of psychotic breaks and nervous exhaustion are much needed.
11. NEW AGE TEACHINGS LEAD AWAY FROM CHRIST – PRIEST CAUTIONS AGAINST YOGA, HOMEOPATHY
by Deborah Gyapong http://www.wcr.ab.ca/news/2008/0218/newage021808.shtml Week of February 18, 2008
Canadian Catholic News, Ottawa; Western Catholic Reporter, Canada's Largest Religious Weekly
Father Dan Dubroy expects a negative reaction when speaks about New Age teachings, even when he addresses Catholic
audiences. That’s because New Age teachings and practices have infiltrated many parishes and Catholic retreat centres, he
told an Ottawa Theology on Tap Feb. 5. He did not realize the extent himself until he read a document on the Vatican
website entitled Jesus Christ the Bearer of the Water of Life: a Christian reflection on the New Age.
New Age teachings are “not about Jesus,” he said. They involve techniques that lead to inner knowledge that “God is inside
me.” “If God is inside me, then I must be God,” he said.
Some of the practices he described as New Age are: Enneagrams, Yoga, mantras, Zen Buddhism, reflexology,
homeopathy, astrology, and Jungian psychology.
“It’s hard to find people in the Church who are totally faithful,” he said, blaming what Pope John Paul II called “cafeteria
Catholicism,” where people take what they want, building their own faith, with a little of this and that.
Though New Age teachings and practices can produce “wonderful warm feelings, they involve “no accountability” and “no
having to die to self.” He called them a “narcissistic endeavour.”
Though many cathedrals in Europe have labyrinths, he attributed that to the powerful presence of Gnosticism that has
competed with Christian doctrine. New Age teachings are the new Gnosticism, he said.
If people don’t worship Christ they are “going to find something else to worship,” he said. Instead of going within, we need
to “go beyond ourselves and live fully in Him,” he said. “It has to be Jesus. We can only have a personal relationship with
someone who is a person. “Jesus is a human being and He is also God. He is also a place where we have access to God.”
“We’re raising a generation of New Age kids,” he said.
He advised against any techniques that give one control, even when it comes to centering [prayer].
He said mantras, even if they are Christian words, are about controlling the process and differ from prayers that beg the
Lord to “come into my centre.”
[The Mission of the Western Catholic Reporter is "To serve our readers by helping them deepen their faith
through accurate information and reflective commentary on events and issues of concern to the church."]
12. THE WANDERER INTERVIEWS RICHARD NOLL, AUTHOR OF "THE JUNG CULT" by Paul Likoudis
http://www.ewtn.com/library/NEWAGE/JUNGNOLL.TXT, EWTN
Richard Noll, 34 [see page 23], the author of "The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement" is a clinical
psychologist and a post-doctoral fellow in the history of science at Harvard University. Educated at the Brophy College
Preparatory School in Phoenix, he studied political science at the University of Arizona and then received his Ph.D. in
psychology from the New School for Social Research in New York.
He told "The Wanderer" he considers himself a "lapsed Catholic," who stopped going to church at age 14, when he could
no longer believe what he was professing in church.
His book, "The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement," he explained, "just kind of materialized" while he was
teaching psychology at the University of West Chester in Pennsylvania. "All the material just started falling into place."
"The Wanderer" conducted a telephone interview with Dr. Noll from his home in Boston.
Q. I suspect "The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement" has come as a very unwelcome intrusion to many
Jungians, who have probably never considered his historical and cultural background. The Jung you present is a rather base
product of his milieu, who acquired a smattering of bad science, bad theology, bad philosophy, bad history, added
a large share of occult mysticism, theosophy, and sexual libertinism, and came up with modern
psychotherapy. Is this perception correct?
A. I would eliminate the word "bad" in your list.
Jung's background must be seen in his German cultural context- a context that frankly has been lost to history because of
the gross obscenity of Adolf Hitler. It has taken so many generations for us to assimilate National Socialism that the world
of pre-Hitler central Europe has largely been forgotten. Historians have focused so much on National Socialism and
Hitler that they have neglected the period in the 1920s when he was amassing his movement. There was a lot going on
besides Adolf Hitler.
Q. As a psychologist, do you make a judgment call on the intellectual "culture" of Germany in the early 20th century,
preoccupied, as it was, with notions of racism, anti-Semitism, philosophical idealism, the occult, and anti-Catholicism?
A. It may seem crazy, but this was their world. It made sense to them. When you examine history and try to understand
historical figures, the main task is to try to figure out which category the actors were acting in. It's almost as if you have to
figure out which category the actors were acting in. It's almost as if you have to time travel and leave your values at home,
and transmit yourself back to that world. There were all sorts of unusual and kooky things going on.
Actually, the Nazis got their eugenics ideas from the United States. We were the ones sterilizing people under sterilization
laws which made it mandatory for the insane, criminals, and other groups.
Q. You seem to make a great effort to distance Jung's anti-Semitism from Hitler's anti-Semitism, and to exculpate Jung
from the charge that he was one of the intellectuals who prepared the way for Hitler.
Why do you do this when it seems, at least to this reader, that the two matured under exactly the same intellectual and
mystical influences-the only difference being that the one obtained real political and military power?
A. As I tried to point out in the book, the world was a racist world. It was accepted in bourgeois middle-class society. The
society accepted the belief that there were great biological differences between Jews and non-Jews, that was what
educated people thought.
Frankly, Jung wasn't big enough at all to influence Hitler's rise. Back in the 1920s, everyone was talking about Count
Hermann Keyserling, who did have a very strong anti-Semitic influence and connections to people who became some of the
leading Nazis. Jung was not a big player in Zurich. He was attracting mostly people from England and the United States. I
can't lump him in with Hitler, despite his views on women, Jews, and other issues. Jung was never interested in a political
movement. He wanted a spiritual renewal.
Q. Can you explain to a layman how it could be that so many of Jung's insights were obtained from people suffering from
mental disease, and these insights were then applied universally? Doesn't it seem odd to project the problems of sick
people on all people?
A. Jung, to his credit, really was able to see the positive aspects of suffering. He tried to find the meaning in it, in a way
Freud did not. Jung realized there is no such thing as normal.
Q. Over and over again, you write that Jung's mission in life was to form a new religion of psychotherapy with
the specific intention of overthrowing Christian orthodoxy, which he judged responsible for all the neuroses in the
world, due to its sexual teaching. Can you explain why Jung was so angry with orthodox Christianity?
A. First of all, Jung didn't give up his identity as a Christian until he was 37. He was brought up in a very strict Protestant
household. Jung grew up being absolutely terrified of the Catholic Church.
He lived in very Protestant Switzerland, and was taught that Catholics were idol-worshipers, that the Pope was a mean,
dictatorial character in Rome, that Catholic belief in transubstantiation was akin to cannibalism, and all this was drummed
into Carl Jung's head, so much so he couldn't enter a Catholic church until his 30s.
Despite many trips to Italy, he could never visit Rome.
Q. Part of Jung's mission was to tap into the power of the occult and to re-establish the Cult of Mithras, to
revive goddess worship in order to replace "patriarchy," and to deliberately work to erode the tradition of
monogamous marriage. At the same time, he saw his friends involved in these practices mentally deteriorate, even to
the point of committing suicide. Why didn't he see that these were cults of self-destruction?
A. In his view, there was no guarantee that anyone who tried to individuate (to renew themselves that is, fully realize
themselves) would come out okay. He expected casualties and he took no responsibility for them. He thought this was
nature at work. He really looked at the natural world, where there was no morality, where there was only root, raw life, and
it was not always pretty.
Q. Based on your research, has Jung unlocked the power of the occult for modern man?
A. Let me put it this way. Second only to Julian the Apostate, Jung is probably the most successful pagan prophet in
the last 2,000 years. Jung is a very similar figure; he was a polytheist. He was a pagan in the old sense of the word. He
believed in the multitude of gods and spirits, and he believed that what made modern man diseased was
essentially Judeo-Christianity- that you had to believe in one God and only one God and believe in dogma. In his way
of viewing the world, that was the great trauma of world history - the imposition of monotheism on the people of Europe.
Q. As a professional psychologist, can you explain and describe the purpose and the effect of such Jungian practices as
"discovering the god within," "dream analysis," "psychodrama," "journaling," "journeying," and other therapies?
A. It's a very complex issue. Number one, the first thing you have to realize is that to enter the Jungian world you have to
pay a lot of money to someone who has the right intuition, the right perception of the transcendent world, to help you
achieve the things you want. This puts people in a dependent situation. People who feel attracted to Jungian therapy
feel out of touch with God, and they are assuming, because the analysts themselves market themselves as in touch with
all the deeper, more spiritual things in life, that Jungian analysts have some special connection with a transpersonal worldthe collective unconscious, a greater mystical place.
People pay because they want that experience, too; they think the analysts are further along the path.
This situation is just right for cultism. You have troubled people looking for help, and they are trusting these analysts.
In most people who make this their life - and that's not everybody, - because most just dabble - frankly, it's just confusing
them. It's trying to make the next high. "Well, I'm going to go to a dream group this week, or a Tai Chi workshop, or hear a
guru from India." People get trapped on this phony path to spirituality, which I usually call the "way of the workshop."
The Jungians are almost at the point where they are going to have to declare themselves an organized
religion.
People are seeking hidden knowledge, they want to see it directly. They don't want to hear a religious message from a
Pope or a Bible. They want to feel it. These programs are ways to tap into "hidden knowledge." Instead of calling
it the occult, they like to call it New Age or Jungian. They want to get in touch with the mother goddess.
What we are really dealing with is paganism. There is a serious revival of paganism for the first time in 1,600
years. We are back to the way we were back then.
What is so clear to me is that you cannot be a Catholic and Jungian, and yet there are so many Jungians who
claim to be Catholic.
Q. As I read the book, I was constantly struck by Jung's involvement with the occult and his determination to
subvert and destroy the Catholic Church, and yet today, Catholic spirituality as it is taught in the majority of
U.S. dioceses is almost entirely Jungian. Look at any "spirituality" or retreat program sponsored by a diocese
or a religious house, and there is probably an 85% chance the leader will be a certified Jungian therapist or
a priest or a nun who is teaching Jungian therapies. What is your reaction to this? Does it strike you as strange?
A. Yes, it strikes me as strange, and it exemplifies the level of ignorance of what Carl Jung was up to.
And I repeat: Anyone who is a true Catholic, and I would include charismatics, cannot teach these things.
Jungian teachings are antithetical to Christianity. You can't have it both ways, at least from a Catholic
perspective.
From a pagan perspective you can. Probably what has happened is that, as the United States became paganized, people
didn't want to let go of the old religion.
It looks like Catholicism is lost in this country, because you have people who think they are Catholic, and they
practice Jungian teachings about contacting the great mother goddess, or some other mythical figure.
Essentially, to me, it looks like the battle is over. The people who claim to be both Jungian and Catholic are pagan
in the old sense of the word. That's how it was in Julian's world. You could get up in the morning and offer a sacrifice to
one god, and burn incense to another in the afternoon, and still call yourself a Christian to your friends.
Anyone who claims he accepts both Jung and the Catholic Church is a pagan.
This article was taken from the December 29, 1994 issue of "The Wanderer," 201 Ohio Street, St. Paul, MN 55107.
13. JUNG REPLACES JESUS IN CATHOLIC SPIRITUALITY by Paul Likoudis
http://www.ewtn.com/library/NEWAGE/JUNGCUL2.TXT, EWTN
It's certainly one of the most bizarre developments in 20th-century Catholicism that Carl Gustav Jung,
dedicated to the destruction of the Catholic Church and the establishment of an anti-Church based on
psychoanalysis, should have become the premier spiritual guide in the Church throughout the United States,
Canada, and Europe over the last three decades. But that's the case.
Walk into a typical Catholic bookstore and browse in the "spirituality" section, and you'll see the best-selling
books of such popularizers of the Jung Cult as priests Basil Pennington, Richard Rohr, and Thomas Keating.
Read the listings for "spirituality" programs and retreats in many diocesan newspapers. You will see that
programs on Jungian dream analysis, discovering the child within, contacting your "god/goddess," or similar
such Jungian therapy programs predominate, even though they have nothing to do with Catholic spirituality
and are inherently antithetical to it.
Forty years ago, the great Catholic psychiatrist Karl Stern in "The Third Revolution" (Harcourt Brace & Co..
1954), wrote that most Catholic scholars recognized that Jung and Catholicism are incompatibleirreconcilable-and he warned that the Jungian who begins viewing religion as existing on the same plane as
psychology ends up viewing all religions as equally irrelevant.
"As a German philosopher friend of mine once remarked with a pun," wrote Stern, "Das gleich Gultige wird gleichgutig (that
which is equally relevant becomes irrelevant). The curtain of the temple is conjured away with an elegant flourish. The
border between nature and grace exists no longer, and no longer are you mortally engaged. Matters of the spirit are part of
a noncommittal therapeutic method; Jacob no longer wrestles with the angel in a horrible grip which leaves him forever
limping -instead, he takes his daily hour of gymnastics."
In the years since, however, Catholic scholars, priests, religious, and laity have gone over to Jung with the
fervor of Athenians flocking to the Oracle at Delphi.
One of the most important landmarks in the history of the establishment of the Jung Cult in the Catholic
Church was the publication of "Jung and Religion", as a special feature of “New Catholic World", published
by Paulist Press (the same order that produced RENEW) in March/April 1984. The special feature showed not only how
far the Jung Cult had infiltrated Church structures, but now it was being mass-marketed for ordinary parishioners bored
with the contemporary state of Catholic spirituality.
Among the contributors (Editor's note: the described credentials were for 1984, when the articles appeared):
-Dr. Wallace Clift, an Episcopalian minister and president of the Jung Society of Colorado, and chairman of the Department
of Religious Studies at the University of Denver, predicted that "Jung's notion of religion is . . . destined to become the most
influential development in the psychology of religion in this century." Clift explained that Jung was a trailblazer in
recognizing that the old form of externalized Christian ritual and belief had given way to a new form of
religion: discovery of the Self, or God within, and the technique to discover it.
-Robert T. Sears, S.J., instructor in pastoral studies at Loyola University in Chicago, who recognized that Jungian
spirituality is at odds with traditional Catholic spirituality, as exemplified by St. Ignatius' "Spiritual Exercises", but Jung
nevertheless offers valuable insights on how to "expand to greater inner awareness by accepting our shadow side."
-Fr. Diarmuid McGann, an assistant pastor at a New York church, described as a "consultant on the USCC-commissioned
30-part TV program on marriage and divorce," offered Jung as a key to understanding oneself. Jung enables one to reach
the "inner self ' where there is a world of images, messages, symbols, stories, and myths that tell one who one is.
-John Welch, O. Carm., chairman of pastoral studies at the Washington Theological Union, wrote that Jung was for
people who believed God was dead, and Jung could guide them on "their own inner spiritual journey in a search for
meaning." By searching within, we find the divine. Jung taught that the old religious symbols had become meaningless and
the only way to find meaning was to become involved in the ongoing discovery of new symbols, which are "on the horizon."
-Elizabeth Dryer, Ph.D., assistant professor of theology at Catholic University, wrote on Jung and the feminine in
spirituality. "Jung," she wrote, "has provided a service for us in calling our attention to aspects of human experience that
have been overshadowed and even denigrated in our preoccupation with reason and logic.... His pioneering work has been
seen by many as an invitation to see themselves as persons on the way to psychic wholeness, and to employ the
geography of the psyche to assist them on their journey into self-transcendence and union with God."
-George B. Wilson, S.J., former professor at Woodstock College, now an organizational consultant with Management
Design, Inc., of Cincinnati, who, to recall, was an active agent in attempting to discredit the late Bishop Joseph Sullivan of
Baton Rouge, when his firm was hired (under pressure) to ease the tensions between Sullivan and his dissident priests.
Wilson shows how Jung's theories on the conscious and subconscious can be applied to organizations, which must
constantly be refounded and updated lest their symbols become sterile and lose meaning.
-John Sanford, a certified Jungian analyst in San Diego, compares and contrasts the Church's tradition of the origin of
evil with Jung's theories. Sanford argues that traditional or common understanding of the Catholic position would seem to
be irreconcilable with Jung's often contradictory theories of evil, but that the Church's position could change and come into
line with Jung's, since its position has never been formally defined.
-Morton Kelsey, an Episcopalian minister and certified counselor, observes that Jung offers 20th-century citizens the same
message Jesus delivered 2,000 years ago, only updated to take into account the current psychological condition of modern
people. Kelsey wrote that Jung only entered the arena of spiritual counseling because he could find no priests to whom he
could refer his patients who needed counseling.
-Thomas Clark, S.J., author of "From Image to Likeness: A Jungian Path in the Gospel Journey" (Paulist, 1983), writes
that "we are only at the beginning of the task of utilizing Jungian typology for furthering Gospel purposes" -selfunderstanding, building community, and so forth.
The Cult In Action
Moving beyond the theoretical or publicity level, Catholic spiritual programs in the United States show a definite
Jungian inclination.
For example, for 25 years, the Consultation Center of the Diocese of Albany, N.Y., sponsored, supported, and
subsidized by the Diocese of Albany, has offered Jungian therapy groups, special focus groups, lectures, and
workshops taught by certified Jungian psychotherapists. The center was established in 1969 by Fr. John Malecki,
Ph.D., C.A.C., the former spiritual director for Mater Christi Seminary, who, one Albany priest told "The Wanderer",
"destroyed many, many vocations." Malecki, the priest said, "was a 'space cadet' of the first order, and in the days when
'spiritual direction' was mandatory, he subjected a lot of good blue-collar kids who simply wanted to be priests to all kinds
of psychosexual psychoanalysis, and though those boys didn't have any problems when they went into the seminary, they
sure did by the time they left." Malecki is still a teacher at the center, though now it is under the direction of Fr. Anthony
J. Chiaramonte, Ph.D.
Among the courses offered at the center in November and December, 1994, were:
"Dream Weekend: In this group therapy, we will use participants' personal dreams as a way of working on problems and
issues. As we learn to consciously relate to the images and energies communicated from the Unconscious, we find
ourselves dealing more effectively with personal relations and interactions, and also experience a richer and fuller life.
This dream work will be done from a Jungian perspective." The course is taught by Fr. Malecki, and costs $60.00.
Another $60.00 course taught by Fr. Malecki is "Psychodrama - A Jungian Approach" which "allows us to recreate the
conflicts of our many roles in a safe, supportive environment, redefine these roles, and grow toward health and wholeness."
A 12-session, $240 program taught by Fr. Chiaramonte is "Men's Group," which "is designed to explore a panorama of
male issues in a warm, caring, supportive atmosphere. Special focus will be centered on male development, socialization,
identity, sexuality, and communication skills.... The group process will provide a nonjudgmental atmosphere for personal
empowerment, more authenticity, meaning, growth, and healing."
Certified Jungian analyst Pearl Mindell, for $150, will offer "From Innocence to Experience."
"In this seminar, we will journey together through the phases from innocence to experience. This will include exploring
what our innocence is, differentiating what is vital and creative from what is static and sentimental. We will then move into
naming, mourning, and enacting our losses and endings. We next move into exploring and claiming those creative
and inspiring people, experiences, sacred places, and God/Goddess energies that strengthen and nourish our
completeness and Self. We will use role plays, stories, dance, music, and ritual in this process of claiming and honoring our
experience." (Editor's note: In the listing for this program in the "Diocesan Calendar" for November, 1994, "God/Goddess"
appears in the text, though it was scribbled out by someone before printing - the words remain clearly visible.)
Marni Schwartz, M.S., will offer "Finding Our Stories - Finding Ourselves," for $25.00. "When we journey back in time
to the memorable moments of our lives and tell them as "stories" we gain valuable insight about life. Taking a similar
journey into the folk/fairy tales, the sacred stories, rhymes, and songs which delighted us at some point in time, we find
meaning and metaphor for our lives.... The presenter will tell some stories, talk about the potential of storytelling for
teaching, healing, and building community, and involve participants in story activities. "
A local Catholic-a "Wanderer" reader-attended one program at the Consultation Center to see what actually took place in
the programs. The session was on "Creation Spirituality," and during the session, each participant was told to select a
rock from a table in the room "which spoke to us," and take it back to his seat.
"We were told to talk to our rock, to pet it, to listen to it. I thought I was in a nuthouse. Then one woman got up -a mother
of seven children, now a widow-and said how wonderful the program was, and 'just think that I wasted all those years
saying the rosary and going to devotions.' She then told us how her rock spoke to her. The rock said, 'I am getting bigger
and bigger. I am growing into a boulder.' Then the boulder got so big that it invited her to stand on it and look out over the
whole earth, and see all the cities of the world. And then the rock told her that all these places were hers. 'And do you
know what I thought?', she asked."
The Diocese of Albany is not unique. One of the most important centers for the promotion of the Jungian Cult
in the Church is the Kordes Enrichment Center, in the Diocese of Evansville, Indiana. The center, which just
completed a multi-million-dollar fund drive to expand the facility, run by the Sisters of St. Benedict in Ferdinand, Ind., offers
a slate of programs similar-nearly identical-to the Diocese of Albany's Consultation Center, and is conveniently located to
such major Catholic cities as Louisville, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis.
Among the teachers is Sr. Olga Wittenkind, who completed one year of training at the C.G. Jung Institute in
Switzerland, and continues her Jungian training in Chicago. She teaches dream therapy.
In a program she offered in February, 1994, "Dreams: Psyche's Path to Spiritual and Psychological Wholeness,"
she promised to help her students:
"Establish the connections between your interior and exterior worlds through the analyses of dreams;
"Discover how to heal yourself psychologically through dream analysis;
"Find your deepest truth and experience that your dreams can guide you on the 'royal road to consciousness ';
"Learn to alleviate tension while rediscovering meaning in your life and dreams."
The topics to be covered included:
"A Jungian approach to dreams;
"Archetypal underpinnings of dream analysis;
"Persona and Shadow in dream images;
"Anima/animus figures in dreams;
"Dreams and the individuation process;
"Mythology and Fairy Tales: stories of ourselves;
"Dreams and spiritual growth".
Other programs currently running this fall and winter include: "The Inner Quest for Self-Discovery," "Nurturing
Sexuality and Spirituality," "Enneagram Spirituality," "Discovering the Clown in You," "Introduction to
Massage," and several programs on "centering prayer."
This past September, at the Maryhill Renewal Center, just a few buildings down from the chancery of the Archdiocese of St.
Paul-Minneapolis, one could hear Benedictine priest David Geraets, O.S.B., offer a retreat on the "connection between
Jungian psychology and Christian theology," followed two weeks later by a $95.00 course called "Introduction to
Enneagram." Geraets is the former abbot of the Benedictine Charismatic Monastery in Pecos, N.M., and current superior
at the Monastery of the Risen Christ in San Luis Obispo in California. Other programs offered by Maryhill include "Men's
Spiritual Quest: Finding the Good Man Within and Without," "Creativity and Spirituality" - a "day to spend with
our creative side: to write, draw, and paint with others; pray with art, writing, and movement"-"Writing for
Transformation," and "The Place You Stand is Holy Ground"-working with "journaling, dreams, and creative art expression."
It's Everywhere
The Jung Cult within the American Church is everywhere, from Boston to San Francisco, and entire cadres of
priests, religious, and Church functionaries have been initiated into its secrets. It has become an enormous
business, too, as the advertisements for books and cassettes for Jungian Catholics in "The National Catholic
Reporter" and other Catholic publications testify.
This tragedy has enormous institutional and personal consequences. Not only is the Church - the Body of
Christ - deformed and disoriented by this cult, but once an individual is initiated, it's almost impossible to
break him of his cult addiction, his hunger for self-actualization, individuation, and "revelation." He thinks he
is alive when he is spiritually dead.
Or, as Leanne Payne and Kevin Perotta wrote several years ago for "Pastoral Renewal" magazine, Christian Jungianism
is so confusing because "by giving natural psychological drives and images a divine authority and infallibility, it deflects
the word of God which comes to 'discern the thoughts and intentions of the heart' (Hebrews 4:12). The notion that fallen
man is equipped with a natural drive and center already containing God's purpose and wisdom implies a duty to obey the
self, creating a crisis of loyalties when, as inevitably happens. the self's inclinations run counter to the summons to take up
the cross and follow Christ.... Jungians treat supernatural and spiritual realities as psychological realities.
Creeds and confessions are regarded as projections of the psyche. Christianity is then valued not for the
truths it reveals about man and God, but for its usefulness in mapping and exploring the unconscious.
Consequently, Scripture is interpreted subjectively. Christ loses His uniqueness as incarnate Word and
mediator between God and man… Jungianism, by pushing God beyond the range of human knowledge and
beyond good and evil, establishes a god who is both good and evil, a mere projection of the human mind,
under whose image spiritual forces come to domineer over human lives. The repudiation of Yahweh invites
the return of Baal. The abandonment of the search for holiness and transformation in the Spirit leaves the
way open for spirits of sexual bondage, phallic demons."
In invoking the aid of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church's battle against the new Albigensianism under the title of
"Restorer of the Christian Order," Pope Leo XIII noted the power of the rosary to counter the spread of heresy.
It's of more than passing interest, as several observers have remarked, that once Catholics enter the Jung
Cult, they quickly learn to despise the rosary as an out-of-date, ineffective symbol of the old Church.
This article was taken from the January 5, 1995 issue of "The Wanderer," 201 Ohio Street, St. Paul, MN 55107.
14. JUNGIANS BELIEVE TRADITIONAL CATHOLICS IMPEDE "RENEWAL" by Paul Likoudis
http://www.ewtn.com/library/NEWAGE/JUNGBELI.TXT, EWTN
Like the Albigensian heresy which it so closely resembles, the Jung Cult in the Catholic Church developed
during a time of social crisis. In both 12th-century France and 20th-century America, society was characterized by both
pleasure-seeking and an increase in crime. Catholics, in both centuries, were increasingly unsure of what orthodox belief
demanded of them. From roughly A.D. 1000 to 1200, Albigensian bishops and priests predominated in France and
Switzerland, and the heresy grew within the Church until it had become the norm. The Albigensians, it must be said,
believed that they were practicing a purer faith, and had returned to ancient and apostolic traditions. They rejected
transubstantiation and belief in the Real Presence, but their worship services consisted of mimicking the Last Supper.
Often the Albigensians were vegetarians; they practiced contraception and had ritualized euthanasia; adultery was not only
sanctioned, but approved (as long as it was contraceptive) as a means of developing holiness. For two centuries, the
Albigensian heresy spread, until in some dioceses it had totally supplanted Catholicism. Innumerable Popes, councils, and
saints attempted to check the spread of the heresy, but it was only when St. Dominic inspired a military crusade against the
Albigensians that their progress was checked, and orthodoxy, ultimately, prevailed -at least for several more centuries, until
the eve of the French Revolution when it surged again.
As the Jung Cult in the Church spreads in modern times, traditional Catholics should become aware of how Jungians view
the Church and those Catholics they consider "pre-Vatican II," says Mike Cyrus, a Colorado Catholic, a convert, and a
former Jungian. In a telephone interview with "The Wanderer", Cyrus explained why the Jung Cult in the Church
poses such a threat to the orthodox believer, and also revealed his former links to the movement.
When he was 38, he recalled, and his marriage was falling apart, his wife, a Catholic and a trained Jungian psychologist,
urged him to see another Jungian therapist to help him accept his grief. That began an intense three-year period of study
of Jung, including some therapy under the direction of June Kounin, a nationally known Jungian analyst.
During that period, Cyrus - who was neither a Catholic nor a practicing Christian-enthusiastically began studying Jung,
purchasing his complete works and those of his major disciples, including many Catholic spiritual writers.
"I learned what the Jungian religion really consisted of, what it meant to practice Jungian spirituality and how it is meant to
be lived out in life, and the types of basic movements it is linked to," he said. "When I began, I was told to start a journal
recording my dreams and important memories and this led into discussions of my relationship with the divine Jungians never use the word God - and what that meant to me. In addition to these sessions, I studied Jung intensely,
along with mythology and related fields. This included listening to Basil Pennington's series of tapes on centering prayer,
and reading Richard Rohr, Thomas Keating, and many of their associates. As a non-Catholic and not knowing anything
about spirituality, this was all very exciting," noted Cyrus. "It was such a new field that it was really thrilling."
[Franciscan priest Fr. Richard Rohr, Cistercian priest Fr. Thomas Keating O.C., and Trappist Fr. Basil Pennington, O.C.S.O.
are Jungians; the first is an Enneagram promoter, the other two are promoters of "Centering Prayer"- Michael]
Gradually, Cyrus was introduced into the central part of the new mystery religion, and was taught how to discover God in
two "ways": communally in prayer that employed Catholic elements and symbols, and personally by use of the active
imagination, or conscious dreaming, which, he said, "can be extraordinarily powerful in creating delusions.
"This stuff is serious," he explained. "It is utterly diabolical in creating visions and prophecies, and people who spend
hours and hours a day in centering prayer stick with it because they are, so to speak, going places in their minds, and they
become addicted to the revelations."
Ironically, it was Pennington who began Cyrus' turning away from Jung and centering prayer. Pennington
had written in one of his books that he considered the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi a deeply spiritual man, and
Cyrus was repulsed, because he had remembered the Yogi calling for the elimination of the "mentally unfit."
At this time, Cyrus intensified his readings of the Catholic saints, and eventually began reading his way into the Catholic
Church. He continued reading Jung until the moment of his Confirmation. Once confirmed, he packed the books away.
In the years since, at his parish in southern Colorado, he has seen many Catholics abandon their faith after
becoming involved in Jungian-type spirituality programs. They stayed in the Church, though, determined to
change it and bring it up to their new level of awareness.
"They think they're Catholic. They think they are more fully Catholic. They do not think that they are not Catholic.
What you have to know is that these spirituality programs are an affirmation of self, and not a covenantal
relationship with God or with anyone else-that's why they reject the Church's dogma, that's why they reject
everything that indicates a pre-Vatican II spirituality."
"As one young man, who thinks homosexuality is okay and Matthew Fox* is a good guy, said to me, 'Mike, you and I just
have different spiritualities.' This is typical. People can think they can espouse positions at odds with the Church, and yet
they say the Church has to change, not them," noted Cyrus.
*excommunicated Dominican priest and New Ager
"They really believe we are the real impediment to the renewal of the Church and the world. We are preventing that. They
really believe when they are persecuting orthodox Catholics, they are doing holy work. If you are not androgynous, you
are not whole; if you have not integrated your 'shadow' or evil side, you are not whole: if you accept the dogmas of the
past, they will say to you that you are a naive believer locked into some other culture's mythical story of God," said Cyrus.
"That's why inclusive language is so important to them. The language of the past is sexist, patriarchal, and
dysfunctional. It represents a previous culture's understanding of God and the attempt to put that into language. By
virtue of the fact that the language came out of a particular culture at a particular time-that makes it exclusionary, that is,
not fully reflective of God. That way is not Catholic, not universal, as they see it."
Cyrus then explained for Wanderer readers how Jungians reinterpret or explain key Catholic concepts:
Christ is "the prototypical example of human evolution, a man discovering his own Godhood, 'growing in wisdom' and
unsure of who he was as he was growing up. Where he has gone, we will follow, they teach."
The Trinity: "Jungians view the Father, Son, Holy Spirit as a 'surface manifestation' of a 'deeper reality.' God is neither
male nor female, but simultaneously both and beyond both, as are men and women. Our human nature is essentially
androgynous. They argue the traditional notion of God is flawed-patriarchal in origin and designed to oppress women,
and we need to move beyond historically and culturally conditioned notions of God which are limited because they are
prescientific."
Creation: "The Jungian understanding of creation is principally pantheistic. All creation is part of God, it comes
from 'God stuff.' This helps explain why trees, cycles of the moon and planets, seasons, animals, and even insects are on
the same plane of life as 'humankind.' Body-prayer, psycho-drama, mime, and the Jungian approach to liturgy follow from
this understanding. Eco-feminism, eco-spirituality, and Gaia worship are also significant subsets of Jungian
spirituality."
Liturgy: "Liturgy means 'people's work' and it is made divine by the gathering of God's people to express their celebration
of His kingdom in and through their culture and lives. The practical implications for worship of this kind are that almost
anything goes. Aztec rituals are on the same plane, for example, as the Roman liturgy. Jungians will often substitute
the readings of Teilhard de Chardin* for the Gospels. Words may be added, deleted, or altered as they see fit. We can
dance, sit, stand, consecrate the Eucharist, and anyone can be the presider of the liturgy. Jungians understand rituals as
having great symbolic value. In more esoteric circles, there are rituals for seasons, earth, air, fire, water, cycles of the
moon, menstrual cycles, fingernail cuttings, etc. For the Jungians, their understanding of God and liturgy permits
what they call 'deep ecumenism,' and they will participate in almost any kind of worship, and incorporate
any ritual into Catholic ritual."
*the world’s leading New Ager, see Vatican Document on the New Age
Sacraments: "Jungians essentially have two sacraments - baptism and Eucharist. Baptism, to them, is a welcoming into
community of a new, innocent life, a life having no sin of any kind on it whatsoever. The sacrament depends for its efficacy
on the faith of the faith community. The Eucharistic assembly, or more properly the gathering of the holy, Eucharistic
people, is likewise a celebration of the community. Some deny the Real Presence in the Roman Catholic sense of the term,
and that is why it is so important for them to alter the traditional architectural form of a Catholic church. There is no
place for the tabernacle because God is 'with us' and dwells in the community.
One Jungian priest, Fr. William McNamara, O.C.D., the founder and director of the Spiritual Life Institute in
Crestone, Colo., wrote in "Christian Mysticism": 'Jesus didn't institute the sacrament of the Eucharist, he entered into the
sacramentality of the universe.'
"Marriage as viewed by the Jungians is not a sacrament because of the bigoted, ungodly, unjust way it refuses to recognize
the legitimacy of other kinds of couples, e.g., homosexuals or cohabiting. Any loving, committed relationship between two
or more people is considered by them moral and life-giving."
Hell: "Most Jungians do not believe in Hell, or if they do, Hell is not permanent. They regard Hell as a medieval superstition
and as opposed to their understanding of individuation. "
Heaven: "A state of mind everyone achieves after death."
Original sin: "This notion, they assert, refers generically to our tendency to be selfish, which leads to sexism, racism,
homophobia, and anti-community tendencies."
Sin: "This is known to Jungians as 'missing the mark.' No one can miss the mark indefinitely, because we will all meet our
'higher self' which is God. Those who have what they call a 'pre-Vatican II' notion of sin are retarding the individuation
process' and are 'spiritually ill' and in need of therapy. Such people believe the way they do because they have not
experienced 'God's higher self' firsthand. The 'pre-Vatican II' mindset is particularly dangerous because those
who have it prevent other people from 'individuating' -that is, renewing themselves."
Sacred Tradition: "For the Jungian, all tradition is sacred, just as all ground is holy ground. 'Tradition' is the
lived and living experience of the people. Thus, Native American and Wiccan traditions are to be equally valued, since they
represent the ways in which humanity is trying to understand God."
Divine Revelation: "This is understood as the living experience of the universe through all religions, peoples, animals,
plants, etc., which constitute God's continuing self-revelation. Discerning God's plan for your own life relies mostly
on dream work, journaling, active imagination, and personality typing, such as the enneagram, I Ching, tarot
cards, and other methods of divination. To the Jungian, everyone is on a journey, and 'maps' such as the
enneagram or I Ching are necessary."
Spirituality: "Spirituality is the driving force of the Jungian Church. For a Jungian, spirituality is your personal experience
of the divine, whatever it is, together with the actions you take as a result of your experience. A typical Jungian will receive
many visions, dreams, prophecies, and omens, and these 'numinous phenomena' are regarded as personally sent by God to
them to illumine the way. For those more 'advanced' on their 'journey,' traditional Catholics are 'locked in the past'
and must not be allowed to interfere with the work of the 'Spirit.' Although it may appear ruthless to outsiders, actions
taken to suppress priests or parishes or individuals loyal to Rome are considered necessary for the long-term 'health' of the
community as it is on its way to 'renewal.' These actions must be seen as good for the 'faith community.'
"In this regard, to be a truly spiritual Jungian, one must have an 'enlightened' view of sexuality, because that is necessary
to be 'fully alive,' or fully sexual. This is why sex education is so important to the Jungian Church. Jungians see
themselves as bringers of an enlightened sexuality, not only properly androgynous, but fully integrated into the spiritual life.
"Therefore, the 'perpetual virginity' of Mary is ludicrous. Likewise, a priest or nun is 'more fully spiritual' if he or she
is 'in touch with his or her sexuality.' This also explains why Jungians embrace contraception, homosexuality, and
abortion, because these are part of people's 'lived experiences'."
Scripture: For a Jungian, the Scriptures as Catholics received them are just one "story" from one culture. Because it must
be understood symbolically, historically, and culturally, it cannot be authoritative. Only those who have a deep
understanding of the unconscious are qualified to explain its meaning. "Scripture is no more 'holy' than are other stories.
Our own story-'his-story; her-story' -also constitutes divine revelation. Dreams are private Scripture, and thus are more
authoritative than the Old or New Testament."
Resurrection: "Jesus rose spiritually from the dead in the hearts and minds of His disciples."
Mass: "The Mass, to Jungians, is the time we celebrate our community and ourselves. We break bread, drink wine, and
ritualize our joy. Because the Mass is a humanly developed ritual celebration of community, no one should be excluded
or denied participation in the Eucharist."
Worship space: "In addition to reflecting the theological principles underlying all of the previous areas, Jungians regard as
critical the need for architecture to be 'open,' as opposed to 'confining,' and centered on the people of God. This is
implemented by removing many, if not all, statues of the saints and Stations of the Cross, and relocating or removing
the tabernacle. The distinction between sanctuary space and people space is entirely eliminated. A building is made holy
by the gathering of a holy people, not by the 'symbolic presence of the bread. Other symbols, such as eagle feathers, are
just as important."
Conscience: "To Jungians, conscience is the source of an individual's understanding of truth, and the primary guide to
holiness. In this model, there can be no guiding "Magisterium" because this is outside the individual."
The Spiritual Elite
"One of the things I have learned," Cyrus concluded, "is that the Jungian is an extremely proud person, confident of his
spiritual superiority and his closeness to God. They claim, invariably, not to be led by mere men (such as those who naively
follow the Magisterium), but by the 'Spirit,' and thus form a 'spiritual elite' - a new Cathari as I see it. Although professing
to be democratic - say, in demanding that Rome or the hierarchy listen to them - Jungians are invariably totalitarian
in practice. While professing to be 'open,' they are the most dogmatic, and while claiming to be spiritually pure and close
to God, their moral and physical lives are a mess. "Only they don't see it, because they are on a 'higher plane'."
This article was taken from the January 5, 1995 issue of "The Wanderer," 201 Ohio Street, St. Paul, MN 55107.
15. CATHOLICS AND THE NEW AGE by Susan Beckworth, December 29, 2006
A Closer Look at the Vatican Document: Jesus Christ, the Bearer of the Water of Life – A Christian Reflection
on the “New Age" http://www.speroforum.com/site/article.asp?id=7236
http://www.thedefender.org/A%20Christian%20Reflection%20on%20the%20New%20Age.html EXTRACT:
Susan Beckworth is a Catholic New Age expert. She writes about the involvement of Catholic hierarchs in the
New Age movement at the Defender website.
Some retreat centers offer Thomas Merton workshops. The Bearer names Thomas Merton and Carl Jung as writers who
had the most influence on New Agers. (Vatican Document #9.2, notes)
16. DESIGNER RELIGION – THE NEW AMERICAN RELIGION OF CHOICE by William A. Borst, Ph. D.
Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, Mindszenty Report, March 2006, Volume XLVIII No. 3
http://www.mindszenty.org/report/2006/MAR06.pdf EXTRACT:
William A. Borst, Ph.D., Feature Editor, is the author of "Liberalism: Fatal Consequences and The Scorpion and the Frog: A
Natural Conspiracy" available from the author at PO Box 16271, St. Louis, MO 63105.
With the decline of moral absolutism and the belief in a transcendent God, Americans had to build a new paradigm of belief
to fill the conscious void in their lives. This indifference to or denial of God has had lasting consequences. Americans have
lost an irreplaceable source for meaning. The frailty of human nature led them to search for meaning in all the wrong
places. Darwin found his meaning in the godless theory that reduced God's creation to a meaningless accident. Freud,
Kinsey and Hefner found meaning in the liberation of human beings from restrictions on sexual behavior.
The underlining tragedy of this situation is that psychology has replaced theology as the instrument of
counsel.
Freud, Watson, and Jung became the source of spiritual comfort, not Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
17. GNOSTICISM AND THE STRUGGLE FOR THE WORLD’S SOUL by Father Alfonso Aguilar
http://www.catholicexchange.com/vm/index.asp?vm_id=2&art_id=18577 EXTRACT:
What do Harry Potter, the Star Wars series, The Matrix, Masonry [Freemasonry], New Age and the Raelian cult,
which claims to have cloned the first baby, have in common?
Their ideological soil. Identical esoteric ideas suffuse the novels, the movies, the lodges, the "alternative spirituality" and
the cloning "atheistic religion," and this ideological soil has a name — Gnosticism…
Modern times witnessed the resurgence of Gnosticism in philosophical thought — the Enlightenment, Hegel's
idealism, some existentialist currents, Nazism, Jungian psychology, the theosophical society and Freemasonry.
More recently, Gnosticism has become popular through successful films and novels, such as Harry Potter, Star Wars and
The Matrix. It has also gained followers among the ranks of ordinary people through pseudo-religious "movements," such
as the New Age and the Raelian cult.
These contemporary Gnostic expressions should certainly inspire us in the good values they promote. At the same time, we
should be cautious — examine their philosophical background and reject what is incompatible with our Christian faith.
At the beginning of the third millennium we seem to face the same old clash between Christianity and Gnosticism. Both
fight to conquer the "soul" of this world — the minds and hearts of peoples and cultures. For this reason, defeating
Gnosticism has become an essential task of the New Evangelization. "Against the spirit of the world," the Holy Father says
in Crossing the Threshold of Hope, "the Church takes up anew each day a struggle that is none other than the struggle for
the world's soul."
18. POKEMON – JUST ANOTHER 'FAD'? READ ON! A CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE… By Brett Peterson, Pastor
www.cephasministry.com/pokemon_5.html [THIS IS NOT A CATHOLIC SOURCE] EXTRACT:
We finally have a researched answer to the influences behind ‘Pokemon’ and the religions and philosophies that are taught
within the game. Pokemon is the result of influences that are completely mystical. These are just to name a few:
Buddhist Mysticism, Hinduism, meditation rituals, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Book of Tao, the Analects of Confucius, the
Gita, the I Ching, The Tibetan Book of the Dead: All These Philosophies influenced Pokemon!
C.G. Jung summarizes all these philosophies in his theory of ‘collective unconsciousness’, and he assures his
followers of the congeniality with occultic energy sciences and the evolutionary sciences with the occultic practices and
tapping into the water energy, fire energy, leaf energy, and wind energy you can achieve spiritual enlightenment and
success – all of which are incorporated in Pokemon.
Jung draws upon Oriental conceptions of consciousness to broaden the concept of "projection": Not only the
"wrathful" demons/monster (pocket monsters) but also the "peaceful" deities/spirits (pika-chu’s) are conceived as animal
projections of the human psyche – the fundamental religious teaching and game play in Pokemon!
19. MODERN ASTROLOGY: A MARRIAGE WITH PSYCHOLOGY
from ASTROLOGY by Michael Prabhu www.ephesians-511.net EXTRACT:
In fact, Carl Jung claimed that astrology contained all the psychological knowledge of olden days [The Secret
of the Golden Flower, R. Wilhelm and C.G. Jung, 1942, page 143]. The major influence on the practice of western
astrology today, aside from New Age spirituality, is humanistic and transpersonal psychology. Humanistic
views centered the chart on the person as the master of his\her fate. The birth horoscope became a set of possibilities and
choices for the self – aware, and was used to delineate the personality, character and potentialities of the individual.
The psychological approach was first popularized by Alan Leo (1860 – 1917), a member of the Theosophical
Society. Transpersonal Psychology, a legacy of Carl Jung and others, shaped the chart into a tool for
understanding the self as part of the whole, and how the self connects to the collective unconscious,
believed to be the common unconscious shared by all humanity. The three outer planets, Uranus, Neptune and
Pluto, became the collective planet since they move so slowly rough the chart. Thus, these three planets came to symbolize
generational influences, as well as unconscious influences on the inner personal planets.
Both humanistic and transpersonal astrology were especially pioneered by one of the most influential
astrologers of the 20th century, Dane Rudhyar (1895 - 1985).
… Psychology smashed the fatalistic attitude of earlier traditional astrology. Interpretations are more
flexible, and chart symbols are viewed as having both negative and positive possibilities, planets being interpreted as
principles, rather than either benefic or malefic. Mars, for instance, represents the principle of energy and activity. This is a
development from the earlier concept of the malefic planet Mars with its war-like character.
With these developments, it is inaccurate to believe that astrologers think we are ruled by the planets. They see the chart
as a blueprint for the self and soul, a pattern that can be rearranged in various ways by the self – aware individual.
Astrology is justified by this school along the lines of Jung’s concept of synchronicity, the idea that two
events occurring simultaneously but seemingly unrelated have a spiritual symbol for that person.
20. WHAT’S IN A WORD? by Catholic evangelist Eddie Russell, FMI
http://www.flameministries.org 23 September 1998, Current Update April 2004. EXTRACT:
Mandala: A visual mantra [see pages 23, 53]
A graphic cosmic symbol shown as a square within a circle bearing representations of deities arranged symmetrically used
as a meditation aid by Buddhists and Hindus. In the terminology of the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung, 1875-1961,
a symbol depicting the endeavor to reunite the self.
The implications of the building of mandalas (magic diagrams)
According to Victor and Victoria Trimondi, experts on Mandala Politics (see http://www.trimondi.de/SDLE/Index.htm
Shadow of the Dalai Lama): It is an act of sorcery -- "a magic title of possession, with which control over a particular
territory can be legitimated.... One builds a magic circle (a mandala) and "anchors" it in the region to be claimed. Then one
summons the gods and supplicates them [through ritual prayers and incantations] to take up residence in the 'mandala
palace.' After a particular territory has been occupied by a mandala, it is automatically transformed into a sacred center of
Buddhist cosmology. Every construction of a mandala also implies the magic subjugation of the inhabitants of the region in
which the 'magic circle' is constructed."
They also state, "In the case of the Kalachakra sand mandala, the places in which it has been built are transformed into the
domains under the control of the Tibetan time gods. Accordingly, from a tantric viewpoint, the Kalachakra mandala
constructed at great expense in New York in 1991 would be a cosmological demonstration of power, which aimed to say
that the city now stood under the governing authority or at least spiritual influence of Kalachakra...."
Jung's psychology was not scientifically neutral. He included all sorts of 'pagan' religions in his writings
relating to what he called, the Collective Unconscious. There are numerous programs on 'spirituality' offered
in Christian circles based on Jung's teachings which use art as a therapy: By designing your personal
Mandala for getting in touch with the 'self'. However, considering what the word 'Mandala' means and what
Jung's psychology is based on, it cannot be divorced from the ethos behind it.
But we'll let Jung speak for himself.
"I am for those who are out of the Church." Jung wrote in a letter to Joland Jacobi when he heard she had become a
Catholic.
Jung: "What is so special about Christ, that he should be the motivational force? Why not another model Paul or Buddha or Confucius or Zoroaster?"
In a letter to Freud: "I think we must give [psychoanalysis] time to infiltrate into people from many centers, to
revivify among intellectuals a feeling for symbol and myth, ever so gently to transform Christ back into the
soothsaying god of the vine, and in this way absorb those ecstatic instinctual forces of Christianity for the
one purpose of making the cult and the sacred myth what they once were—a drunken feast of joy where
man regained the ethos and holiness of an animal."
Right now you might be thinking this is an over reaction on my part. After all, if Sister so and so, or Father so
and so taught it to you, then it must be Ok. Well, consider the "words" you have been taught to use such as
"mantra". If you ever asked what that word means you would have been told that it was only your "prayer
word". Perhaps when you questioned them about the techniques such as visualisation and deep breathing
whilst repeating your prayer word, you were told that, "It doesn't matter, we are only using the techniques,
we have Christianised it". If you ask if it's some sort of Hindu thing, they simply tell you to "Ignore it".
…Psychologist C.G. Jung confessed that Eckhart offered him the "key" to opening the way to grasp what liberation means
in a psychological context. Jung wrote: The art of letting things happen, action through non-action, letting go of oneself, as
taught by Meister Eckhart, became for me the key to opening the door to the way. We must be able to let things happen in
the psyche. For us, this actually is an art of which few people know anything. Consciousness is forever interfering'.
To sum up Fox's attitude in defence of Eckhart and his own doctrines in rebellion to Church teaching, the following is again
quoted from Fox*:
*excommunicated Dominican priest and leading New Ager, see page 18
'Creation-centered spirituality, the spiritual tradition that is the most Jewish, the most biblical, the most prophetic, and the
most like the kind Jesus of Nazareth preached and lived, has been almost lost in the West since Eckhart's condemnation. In
place of this spirituality of blessing and of passing on a blessing to others by way of justice and compassion, we have often
been fed introverted, anti-artistic, ant-intellectual, apolitical, sentimental, dualistic, ascetic, and in many ways masochistic
spirituality parading as Christian spirituality'.
21. DREAMS, PSYCHOLOGY AND JUNG
The Church and the New Age Movement by Dr. John B. Shea, M.D., FRCP. Catholic Insight, November, 2005
http://www.catholicinsight.com/online/theology/article_653.shtml EXTRACT:
Creation Centred Spirituality using Matthew Fox’s book Original Blessing:
Matthew Fox, a Dominican priest, was silenced by the Vatican in 1989, and dismissed from the Dominican order in 1993.
Thereupon he left the Catholic Church and became an Episcopal (Anglican) minister.
The Vatican objected to Fox’s refusal to deny belief in pantheism (God is all and all is God), his endorsement of homosexual
unions in the Church, identifying humans as “mothers of God,” and calling God “our Mother.” The presence of the witch
Starhawk, on the staff of his institute, the Institute for Culture and Creation Spirituality, caused another scandal. He
disregards the harm done to creation by the sin of disobedience and borrows from [Jesuit priest Teilhard] de Chardin
and Jung. De Chardin* fails to deal with the problem of sin. Fox opposes the idea of personal sin. Both fail to distinguish
Creator from creature and good from evil, or to realize that the spiritual world is a battleground between God and the fallen
angels. Fox is a pantheist. For him, God is interdependent with the cosmos for both His experience and His very being, an
idea which is similar to that held by the proponents of evolutionary theology. Fox substitutes a “Cosmic Christ” Christianity
for a “personal Saviour” Christianity…
*World’s New Ager number 1, see Vatican Document on the New Age
Dreams:
For the past thirty years the works of psychologist Carl Jung have been used as a spiritual guide in the
Catholic Church throughout the United States and Europe. Sister Pat Brockman O.S.U., who trained at the
Jung Institute in Zurich, explains that dreams act as our “personal scriptures.” She suggests “Dream Play” as
a substitute for Catholic devotional practices such as the morning offering, acts of faith, hope, and charity,
examination of conscience, and prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. The “Dream Play” that she
recommends consists in naming, describing, interpreting, and dialoguing with the dream. She also holds that
“Some think that the Church is the center of the world but we are really the center, the abode of God.”*
*Michael S. Rose, Jungian Nun Promotes the “God Within.” Sister Pat Brockman and Dream Analysis , St. Catherine Review,
July-August, 1998, Aquinas Publishing.
22. JUNGIAN NUN PROMOTES THE "GOD-WITHIN": SR. PAT BROCKMAN AND DREAM ANALYSIS
by Michael S. Rose, July-Aug 1998, St. Catherine Review http://www.aquinas-multimedia.com/catherine/jungcult.html
During May this year St. Francis Xavier Church in downtown Cincinnati hosted a series of four luncheon seminars with Sr.
Pat Brockman, O.S.U. Brockman, who identified herself as a Jungian "community psychologist", spoke on the topic
of her expertise: dream analysis. ‘Our dreams,’ said Brockman, ‘are our personal Scriptures.’ Instead of honoring Mary
during this month of May, Brockman honored Carl Gustav Jung. Educated at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich,
Switzerland, Sr. Brockman spoke candidly of her admiration for Jung, eminent spiritualist, sun worshipper and
founder of the 20th century psychoanalysis movement. Jung's work formed the basis of her own theology, she said,
and ‘although Jung was not Catholic, he was faithful to his own tradition.’ Canonizing the Swiss psychoanalyst, Sr.
Brockman quoted pantheist Joseph Campbell as saying, ‘that's the way saints are made. Saints are those who are faithful to
their own tradition.’
But in fact Jung was not faithful to his tradition. Reared a Lutheran, he abandoned the Christianity of his parents to
dabble in the Occult. His entire life and work were motivated by his detestation of the Catholic Church,
whose religious doctrines and moral teachings he considered to be the source of all the neuroses which
afflicted modern Western man. Despite Jung's anti-Christian disposition, Sr. Brockman considered Jung a ‘reformed
Christian.’ Supplanting traditional prayer and devotion Sr. Brockman then outlined her technique of ‘dream play,’ which
she considers a modern form of prayer. A careful examination of her dream technique reveals that traditional Catholic
prayer and devotional life- the morning offering, acts of faith, hope and charity, aspirations (e.g. ‘My Jesus, mercy!’), prayer
before the Blessed Sacrament, the evening examination of conscience, etc. -is supplanted by the daily ritual of dream play.
… Examining but one of these ‘non-rational forms’ of expression, the mandala (which was introduced to Westerners
by Jung), we find another serious indictment of Sr. Brockman's commitment to New Age occult practices.
Mandala-making [see pages 21, 53] is one of many meditative techniques used by the Eastern religions to map the
psyche, the ‘indwelling spirit.’ The word mandala is Sanskrit for ‘circle,’ and the mandala is representative of the cosmic
whole. In the form of religious icons they are used for a multitude of purposes. Mandalas are designed in a pattern that
creates the illusion of being drawn into a center of concentration. Hindus and Buddhists have traditionally used it as a
hypnotic tool, a way of achieving an altered state of consciousness in order to tap into hidden knowledge. Jung saw the
significance of the mandala as a symbol of the ‘god-within.’ It is the embodiment par excellence of the Cult
of Self. The experience of the ‘god-within’ was always a key promise of Jung. It was the central part of
Jung's repudiation of Christianity. Having the ‘god-within’ could lead to the experience of becoming one with God, or
merging somehow with a God-force.
Jung, premiere spiritual guide:
For the past thirty years Jung has become a premiere spiritual guide in the Church throughout the United
States and Europe. Three courses at the Athenaeum of Ohio- home to Cincinnati's archdiocesan seminaryfor example, are devoted to Jungism, one exclusively to Jung's topic of " Dreams and Spiritual Growth."
Further, in the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, Sr. Brockman offers her own dream analysis workshops several times throughout
the year. This summer she will be offering three $75 Jungian workshops on dream analysis at the Franciscan Wholistic [sic]
Health Center, and another three at the Jesuit's Milford Retreat Center. From July 19-July 24, 1998, Sr. Brockman will be
directing a $300 week-long retreat, ‘Dreams and Transformation of Soul,’ at the Diocese of Cleveland's St. Joseph Christian
Life Center. ‘My retreats mainly attract women religious,’ she said, ‘but lay people are certainly welcome too.’ The retreat,
she said, ‘is for anyone serious about developing their [sic] sense of God speaking through dreams. Both lay people and
religious have found it to be an effective way to deepen their inner awareness of the Indwelling God.’ Jungism has become
an enormous money-making business, as the advertisements for books and cassettes for ‘Jungian Catholics’ in the
National Catholic Reporter attest. Credence Cassettes, a division of the National Catholic Reporter, sells a five-hour
cassette tape series by Sr. Brockman, called ‘Our Dreams Transform Our Life,’ promoted as a ‘Jungian personalist approach’
to dream analysis. Other Jungian practices promoted in Brockman's retreats and workshops are: ‘discovering
the god-within,’ ‘psychodrama,’ ‘journaling,’ and ‘mandala making.’ These practices are ways, according to
Jung's methods, to tap into one's subconscious to retrieve ‘hidden knowledge.’ Instead of calling it the
Occult, it is referred to as ‘Jungian.’
Redefining rituals: Psychologist Richard Noll*, PhD. in his book, The Jung Cult, comments, ‘for literally tens of thousands, if
not hundreds of thousands, of individuals in our culture, Jung and his ideas are the basis of a personal religion that
either supplants their participation in traditional organized Judeo-Christian religion or accompanies it.’
‘A lot of rituals in the Church need to be broken up in order to express them more adequately," Sr. Brockman explained.
‘Many people have left the Church because the Church was out of touch with their deep inner experience. We've got a lot
of dead bones in the Church, and Vatican II's renewal has been working to bring us back in touch with our inner selves,’
she said. ‘We modern Catholics need a continued renewal in liturgy. We need to create meaningful rituals for ourselves,’
she said. ‘We need to create a new culture. We need to mute intolerance of other religions and concentrate on the
commonality. Some still think that the Church is the center of the world, but we are really the center, the abode of God.’ In
the manner of a true disciple of Jung, Sr. Brockman explained that we need to appropriate or replace traditional Catholic
symbols with ones that are more meaningful to us. ‘We can and should express our spiritual experience by creating simple
gestures and words which become rituals honoring the God who dwells within. Your personal dream acts as a personal
scripture, a way in which God calls you, challenges you, and affirms you.’ Dr. Grant Herring, a classics instructor at
the University of Cincinnati, who attended two of Sr. Brockman's seminars, commented that ‘these Jungian
parasites have infiltrated the Church and they expect Catholics to believe they are teaching what the Church
teaches. And many Catholics do that, and end up falling away from their true Catholic roots, being recruited
into the Cult of the Self, devoid of all intellectual or spiritual content. A real dead-end.’
*see pages 10, 13
23. DREAMS by Fr. Augustine Mary http://www.catholic-pages.com/dir/spirituality.asp, EWTN
Fr Augustine Mary is a priest of the Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word, an order founded by Mother Angelica in
Birmingham, Alabama.
Psychologists
[Sigmund] Freud, [Carl] Jung and [Alfred] Adler all have psychological perspectives on dream interpretation.
Freud wrote an entire work entitled, Interpretation of Dreams (1900); for the most part, this work severely limits dream
interpretation to the identification of unfulfilled libidinal wishes. It also uses the principles of free association and typical
symbolism. Jung was the first to analyze the dreams of a person in a sequential series, treating them as a meaningful
whole and interpreting them on the basis of an internal consistency. Jung interpreted dreams as the manifestation of the
whole personality (distinct from Freud), and he varied his interpretations according to personality type.
Jung saw dreams influenced not only by past experiences (as with Freud), but also by present problems and future plans.
Adler also saw this past, present, and future influence on dreams; his main emphasis was on how a person's lifestyle was
reflected in his dreams. Present psychological theory considers the Freudian approach to limited in focus to be of any use.
C.S. Hall finds the analysis of the manifest content of dreams much more rewarding than delving into their latent content…
In general the techniques of dream analysis are not in themselves immoral. The moral dimension comes to the fore when
considering divination, moral culpability, and the use of dreams in one's spiritual life… Present day dream analysis is beset
by many limitations, one of which is a lack of knowledge as to how the unconscious and conscious life of an individual are
related. Because of this, great caution should regulate attempts to use dreams as a technique of spiritual guidance.
24. MARITAL THERAPY FROM A CATHOLIC PERSPECTIVE - INTERVIEW WITH FAMILY PSYCHOLOGIST
by DR. WILLIAM NORDLING http://www.zenit.org/article-15398?l=english
Arlington, Virginia, February 27, 2006 (Zenit.org) Catholic psychology considers the fullness of the married vocation in
treating individual patients, says a specialist on marital psychotherapy.
Dr. William Nordling is a psychologist at Alpha Omega Clinic and Counseling Services http://www.aoccs.org/. He teaches
courses on marital and child psychotherapy at the nearby Institute for the Psychological Sciences.
In this interview with ZENIT, he discusses the implications of adopting a Catholic worldview for conducting marital therapy
and improving one's own marital relationship.
Q: What does it mean to have a Catholic worldview in approaching psychology?
Nordling: In general the field of clinical psychology has taken the individual as the level of analysis and has focused on the
psychopathology of the individual as its subject matter.
A Catholic psychology acknowledges the importance of the interiority of the individual and the reality of psychopathology,
but also gives significant attention to the relational nature of the person and how the client can grow in virtue and flourish.
So the Catholic psychologist does not just see an individual, but sees an individual in the context of vocation
as a spouse and as a parent. In addition, the focus of a Catholic psychology is not just to alleviate symptoms or
psychopathology but assist the client in flourishing as an individual, as a spouse, and as a parent. To a broader extent, it
focuses on the relationship to society, and ultimately the relationship to God.
Q: In working with couples in marital therapy, what is the difference between the perspective of secular psychology and
that of Catholic therapy?
Nordling: The field of marital therapy has a big dilemma. There is a myriad of models of marital therapy, but in general
the field has never attempted to offer a definition of what marriage is.
For example, there is not even a consensus in secular psychology that marriage is restricted to one man and
one woman. It could include people of the same gender or multiple partners.
Without a clear definition of marriage, there is no clearly developed understanding of the unique and special nature of
conjugal love, the nature of family life, and importance of parenting in marital relationships.
A Catholic marital therapist might contend that without a clear definition of marriage, one is hampered in identifying the
most important and central therapeutic goals one is trying to attain when working with couples.
For example, both a secular marital therapist and a Catholic martial therapist may do some very laudable work to improve
the communication between spouses, but the Catholic psychologist sees this new capacity to dialogue intimately, in a
different light. It is not simply an end but also a means for the spouses to bring about the quality of marriage envisioned by
the Church.
Q: What implications does a Catholic anthropology have on the definition of marriage and the goals of marital therapy?
Nordling: First of all, one implication is that when we work with a married person, whether they come as a couple or as an
individual, we already see them as having a vocation as a married person. We understand that although they may come in
with individual issues, we must not only address how these issues affect their interior life and individual flourishing, but also
help them examine how these issues are affecting the marital relationship or their vocation as a parent. Many times if we
just focus on them as an individual we lose some of the most important aspects of their life, given that they are both a
spouse and a parent. In some ways we do not view individuals as only individuals once we know that they are married.
Q: Given this perspective, what are some of the most beneficial methodologies for working through marital problems or the
key factors in working toward a healthy relationship?
Nordling: Knowledge of Catholic anthropology allows us to say, "Does this method address the foundational qualities of
this person, their marriage and family life?" It allows us to choose methodologies which address the most central aspects of
human functioning, marital functioning or functioning within the family.
There are methodologies that do not do this. It is not that they are bad, in the sense that they may do some good, but they
are inadequate if they only address the symptom of the problem or only one aspect of the problem.
Again, a couple may come in saying, "We argue about money all the time," and the therapist may help them address the
money issue. But the therapist may not help them to learn as a couple to work out that problem, on their own, in a
respectful way with each other.
The problem gets solved; the therapist through mediation is able to help them talk a little better about finances and come
up with a solution. However, the couple does not leave with the ability to say, "We'll never run into that problem again; as
a matter of fact, many other problems we have we won't run into because we know how to approach each other in a
respectful and a caring way, and to maintain cooperativeness."
The foundational therapies teach people how to interact and address the fundamental qualities of the relationship.
Knowledge of the Church's teaching on the nature of the human person, marriage, and family life helps us to identify and
develop such foundational methods.
Q: How does parenting influence the health of the marital relationship?
Nordling: Because parenting is a primary end of marriage, the success of parents in this area and the degree to which
they are working together in that role will have a considerable amount of influence on the quality of their marital
relationship. Even when a couple comes in and they have lots of complaints about each other, one of the best questions a
marital therapist can ask is "How are you doing in terms of working together as parents?"
Sometimes parenting is the only thing that they are doing well together. They actually respect each other in that way. In
such cases their success in parenting together becomes a great resource, because just as spouses want each other to be
happy, and want the best things for each other, they want that for their children as well.
When spouses are working together as parents, with one mind and one vision, they will be more successful in both
parenting and nurturing their marital relationship; whereas if they have different visions of parenting or they are at odds
with each other, it is likely to negatively affect their parenting and the quality of their spousal relationship.
Q: What are some ways that couples can grow in hopefulness regarding their marriage in spite of the natural difficulties
that may be present?
Nordling: Spouses can always count on the fact that to the degree that they as individuals are healthier physically,
psychologically and spiritually, they will be more able to bring about growth and goodness in their marriage.
Even in cases where relational difficulties are numerous or one's spouse is perceived as unmotivated to work on improving
the relationship, self-health and self-growth will often be a great resource for one's marriage.
There are certainly cases where we leave the realm of our fallen nature and enter into the field of addictions or in rare
cases real evil, such as the cases of sociopathy.
For the average couple, however, practical acts of kindness and charity can accomplish great healing in relationships. These
acts include being more loving, saying things in ways that are more charitable toward each other or being open to listen to
the other. Building this kind of self-control and positive spirit toward cooperativeness with one's partner -- even in situations
where one's partner is not meeting one halfway -- can be a great good for one's marriage. Persuading one's spouse to
change is generally more difficult. Spouses will be more open to change themselves to the extent that they are met with a
loving attitude and a cooperative spirit rather than a belittling, judgmental, or even threatening kind of spirit.
This does not mean that you avoid making your partner aware of your concerns and desires for change. That would be
denying your partner one of the things the Church says is part of marriage: that we are called to help each other reach
holiness. But such requests should be characterized as loving and patient rather than conveying animosity and contempt.
Q: What advice would you give to couples in terms of growing in their marriage?
Nordling: I do want to emphasize that growth in marital relationships comes through a loving attitude toward each other.
It comes with wanting the good of the other person. One of the things that I sometimes see with couples is that they forget
that they are called to be loving at all times.
Occasionally, I will see one partner who understands what the Church means by a good Catholic marriage, a sacramental
marriage, but the way they go about trying to make it happen is through very opposite means.
Their attitude conveys a different message: "I won't be kind to you until you begin to epitomize what a wife should be,
what a husband should be," or "I'm not going to love you until you become more loving."
That generally does not work, because it is a matter of us being loving, us modeling that love that is going to build the
bridge to the other person, not forcing love out of them.
I speak on a level of not heroic, but very attainable virtue. In other words, people can grow in patience and kindness; they
can learn to say things in a way that discloses their interior life and concerns without putting the other person down.
It is not something that happens overnight, but it is something that with attention, couples can accomplish. ZE06022720
25. SUFFERING AND DEPRESSION AS MEANS FOR GROWTH, INTERVIEW WITH PSYCHOLOGIST DR. ANN HOWE
http://www.ewtn.com/library/ISSUES/zsuffdepr.htm
Atlanta, Georgia, April 6, 2006 (Zenit.org) Many risk factors for depression can also be valuable assets for personal and
communal spiritual growth, says a Catholic psychologist. Dr. Ann Howe, a psychologist for 25 years, is the director of the
Archdiocese of Atlanta counseling center Village of St. Joseph Counseling Services www.cssatlanta.com. She shared her
experiences with ZENIT on the significance of suffering and depression in a person's psychological and spiritual flourishing.
Q: What is the general attitude of psychology toward the problem of suffering?
Howe: First of all, psychology would traditionally have avoided a word such as "suffering." Psychology has
striven to present itself as a science and has distanced itself from the humanities.
Therefore, the language used by psychologists shies away from words such as suffering which are evocative and instead
uses language which is precise and measurable. Suffering can't be measured except through the lens of the person's
experience, and suffering can't be understood except through the eyes of faith. All that being said, let's assume that
psychologists could agree about what constitutes suffering. Let's say they agree that suffering, for example, is measurable
through self-report as "life distress" or some such euphemism. Then, psychology's position would more than likely be that
suffering is bad in an absolute sense and should be eliminated whenever possible.
Some psychologists might take a more nuanced approach; for example, when they could easily find positive consequences.
Take homework: We know most children don't like homework, and "suffer" with it, but we all understand that some pain in
this area can lead to positive results, namely, increased knowledge. Psychologists would then wonder about how to
motivate someone to sustain performance during a time of "suffering." Here, suffering is seen as a means to an end.
But once again, suffering in and of itself would never be regarded as having any positive benefits.
Q: How does a Catholic perspective on psychology change the understanding of human suffering?
Howe: The Catholic position is quite different. When the supernatural reality of who man is in relation to God is
understood, suffering has to be seen in a supernatural dimension. As Catholics we understand that suffering can have many
"positive" functions. It is not only an opportunity to correct parts of our character which need to be strengthened or put on
a proper path, but it can also be used to expiate sins, both personal and communal. When we recognize the person as a
son or daughter of God, and acknowledge that God sent his only Son into human history for the redemption of souls, we
come to appreciate that suffering allows us to be linked to Christ in the continuing work of bringing souls to the Father
through the action of the Holy Spirit.
As a psychologist working with clients, I seek to help alleviate unnecessary suffering, or that which the individual has
inflicted upon himself or herself through bad choices. Many times difficult life circumstances can cause a person to choose
despair, to turn away from God. Whatever the source of the suffering, however, God is the answer. The psychologist mainly
acts to support the client in their journey and also remove the impediments to the person's growth toward happiness. As a
Catholic, I believe that happiness can only be found ultimately by resting in God's love and obeying his commandments.
Q: What is the relationship between suffering and depression?
Howe: Depression is the result of life's seemingly impossible problems. Every person faces challenges both external and
internal. When there is a problem that can't be fixed, the person, depending on their temperament and the importance of
the situation, will try to keep solving the problem till things improve.
Depression is the result of a problem that can't be fixed. These problems can be something external and beyond our
control, like a physical illness or natural disaster, or something buried deep inside our emotions like an old hurt or loss.
Depression, in other words, is never meaningless. It has a context in which it develops and has real consequences for the
quality of the person's life, especially their relationships. When a person finds his or her way through depression, it can also
result in personal transformation and a deeper appreciation for life.
Q: What are the benefits of suffering from a psychological perspective?
Howe: Like all suffering, we can magnify our own distress by resisting and pulling away from God.
It is often hard for the person to see that God's love is being shared with them through the action of others, like family,
friends, and therapist. Good comes out of the person's suffering, by encouraging a cleansing of old bad habits and the
renewal of deeper bonds with others. Depression and other forms of psychological pain make receiving and giving love
difficult, but God's love is always present and surrounding that individual.
Good also can come from suffering because the person is forced to confront their helplessness in bringing about their own
happiness. They often discover for the first time that they truly are dependent in all things on God's merciful care.
Q: For people who suffer from long-term depression, over the course of their whole lives, how can they integrate it with
their spiritual life?
Howe: Depression signifies a person who is restless for peace, joy and the experience of love. Depression can be viewed
as a "trial" which challenges the individual to know themselves, and to lovingly accept themselves and others.
Depression might never be conquered for some people, but it can be laid at the foot of the cross, confident that God will
put some good use to it. Many depressed people are very sensitive and astute in their observations of others; they can
have much to offer others in the way of empathy and compassion. Many depressed people are intellectual and analytical,
and can use their passion for answers to many good purposes. In other words, many of the personality characteristics
which can lead someone to be vulnerable to depression can be valuable assets to the community and to the spiritual life.
Q: Is it more beneficial then to work to alleviate the suffering of others, or to help them accept their suffering?
Howe: Suffering is a fact of life, and life often holds more than most people care to experience.
The answer to the question is that of course we should work to alleviate suffering as a means to make God's loving
presence known to others. Yet, the question of acceptance must go hand in hand.
It is only by accepting the mystery of suffering as a consequence of the human condition that we can trust God, trust one
another, and trust in the capacity that good truly will come out of difficult and painful experiences. ZE06040622
26. A PARTNERSHIP: CHRISTIAN PSYCHOLOGY. BODY AND SOUL FROM A CATHOLIC PERSPECTIVE
http://www.zenit.org/article-26167?l=english by Father John Flynn, LC.
Rome, June 14, 2009 (Zenit.org) Psychology and faith might seem unlikely partners at first glance, but they are compatible,
according to a recent edition of a professional journal of psychology.
In fact, psychology needs a conception of the human person that can accurately describe what our body and soul are and
how they relate. It also would do well to acknowledge that humans have both natural and transcendent desires.
This was the opening affirmation of the just-published "Catholic issue" of the journal "Edification: A Journal of the Society of
Christian Psychology" (Vol. 3.1). The issue was entrusted to the Institute for the Psychological Sciences (IPS), a
Catholic graduate school of psychology in Arlington, Virginia. Former IPS faculty member Christian Brugger, now
an associate professor at the St. John Vianney Theological Seminary, served as the guest editor and wrote the opening
essay around which many of the following contributions based themselves.
In his article Brugger pointed out that, given clinical psychology's aim of assisting human flourishing in terms of a person's
mental health, it is helpful to understand the nature of the human person by basing it on a sound anthropology.
As humans, he explained, we can rise above the perceptions and emotions of the body because we are more than bodily
beings and our faculty of reason is not a material organ.
This means that a Christian psychology guarantees human freedom for rational self-direction and free choice insofar as an
immaterial faculty not determined by causative physical laws, Brugger concluded. The danger with the widespread
denial by the secular social sciences of this immaterial nature of our reason is that it not only opens the door
to assertions of radical determinism, but also denies the spiritual dimension of the human person, he argued.
Contrasting approaches
Paul C. Vitz, of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences highlighted some of the differences in a Christian
approach to psychology as compared to a secular vision in his essay titled: "Reconceiving Personality Theory From a
Catholic Christian Perspective." Vitz noted that a Christian interpretation of personality begins by assuming that God exists
and that he is a person with whom one is in a relationship. If a psychologist accepts the existence of God and the validity of
a religious dimension to life, this has the psychological advantage of enabling them to treat a religious client both more
honestly and with a greater respect.
Much of modern secular personality theory, however, is reductionist and assumes that religious experience and
moral ideals are caused by underlying lower phenomena, Vitz explained. Thus, in the Freudian approach, love is reduced to
sexual desire; sexual desire to physiology; and spiritual life or artistic ideals are reduced to sublimated sexual impulses.
By contrast, a Christian approach is constructionist, according to Vitz. This means that it emphasizes the higher
aspects of personality as containing, and often causing or transforming, the lower aspects.
It is, therefore a synthetic method, bringing things together in an integrated pattern, while reductionist thought is analytic.
Vitz admitted that clearly good analysis is an important requirement. However, much modern psychology has limited itself
just to this reductive analysis, without any integrated concept of the human person.
Vitz also highlighted the contrast when it comes to personality theory. Much of the secular approach sees
the personality as an isolated autonomous self. Christianity, however, does not assume the goal of life is
independence, and instead gives a central role to relationships. "Christianity postulates interdependence, and
mutual but freely chosen caring for the other as the primary type of adult relationship," Vitz commented.
Reclaiming a virtue-based vision of the human person was the subject of the essay, "A Catholic Christian Positive
Psychology: A Virtue Approach," by IPS members Craig Steven Titus and Frank Moncher*. In fact, classical
philosophers such as Aristotle based their psycho-social vision from the point of view of virtue theory, they affirmed.
Such an approach studies the potential correlation between psychological well-being and ethical goodness that are
displayed in the major virtues. This contrasts with some secular approaches to psychology that consider mental
health as simply being the absence of disorder. Titus and Moncher commented that a base level of each major virtue
is needed in order to be considered psychologically healthy or to have a good character. Therefore, "Christian
psychotherapy might seek not only the reduction of symptoms but also growth in acquired virtues."
*see page 35
In a separate essay Frank Moncher looked at the implications of the specifically Catholic Christian anthropological premises
for psychology in a contribution titled, "Implications of Catholic Anthropology for Psychological Assessment."
It is important, he argued, that a psychologist has the full theological and philosophical anthropology in mind when
assessing a client, and also to be interiorly curious about understanding the client's worldview and value system.
Only too often, however, knowledge relating to transcendent realities, moral norms, aesthetic beauty, and the development
of virtue is typically excluded by traditional clinical methods.
Moncher also commented that an openness to Christian anthropology is particularly important when it comes to tasks such
as assessing candidates for entry to the priesthood or religious life, or in the work of Catholic tribunals that must examine
the validity of marriages and the capacity of persons to give full and free consent to their marriage vows.
IPS members Bill Nordling and Phil Scrofani turned the tables and looked at what a Catholic approach means for the
practitioner in their essay, "Implications of a Catholic Anthropology for Developing a Catholic Approach to Psychotherapy."
They explained why the concept of a vocation is useful when applied to a professional career of being a therapist.
"For a Christian, becoming a therapist can be a response to a unique call by God to provide mental health services to
suffering clients," they wrote.
In this light a therapist's task not only involves a therapeutic relationship with the client, but is a relationship that goes
beyond business. "Viewing his chosen profession as a personal vocation motivates him not only conscientiously to observe
his professional ethics, but also to practice in accord with Catholic ethical principles," Nordling and Scrofani added.
This vocation-based conception of being a therapist will also serve to motivate when work with a client is difficult, or when
sacrifices of time or money are required.
The concept of a vocation will not only orient a therapist's understanding of the client and the treatment, but it will also
guide a therapist to understand that the client is embedded within a family, a culture, and often a faith tradition. "Such an
approach to psychotherapy demonstrates a profound respect for diversity by starting with the fundamental principle that
the client is a unique, unrepeatable person made in the image of God," Nordling and Scrofani commented. "In addition, it is
a moral imperative ultimately to allow the client to freely make self-defining choices in accord with conscience."
In concluding their contribution, the authors specified that such an anthropologically informed approach to psychotherapy is
not to be conceived as being in opposition to the science of psychology.
Therefore, the therapeutic methods will be chosen with consideration of their proven effectiveness.
They also conceded that the primary focus of a therapist must remain on the psychological functioning of the client, thus
leaving aside more specific spiritual issues to clergy and spiritual directors.
Overall, the journal provides thought-provoking ideas on how an anthropology based on Christianity can provide valuable
insights into the human condition.
On the Net: "Edification" Catholic issue: http://christianpsych.org/wp_scp/wp-content/uploads/edification-31.pdf
27. A VATICAN DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF CATHOLIC PSYCHOLOGY IN SEMINARIES
27A. PRIESTHOOD LINKED TO HEALTHY PSYCHOLOGY, VATICAN OFFERS GUIDELINES FOR DISCERNMENT
Vatican City, Oct. 30, 2008 (Zenit.org) Deciding to study for the priesthood requires a process of discernment, both for the
would-be priest and for the Church, and psychologists can sometimes offer valuable assistance, says the Vatican.
This affirmation is one of the main ideas in a document presented today by the Congregation for Catholic Education
called "Guidelines for the Use of Psychology in the Admission and Formation of Candidates for the Priesthood."
Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski and Archbishop Jean-Louis Bruguès, O.P., prefect and secretary of that
dicastery, presented the report with consultor and psychologist, Father Carlo Bresciani. The text highlights the importance
of bishops and formators being able to orient would-be priests in a solid psychological and affective maturity, as well as in a
rich spiritual life that will enable them to face the demands of priestly life, particularly regarding celibacy.
The document affirms that a man who feels called to the priesthood, besides having moral and theological virtues, should
also have a "solid human and psychic balance, particularly in the affective realm, such that it permits the subject to be
adequately predisposed to a truly free gift of himself in relationships with the faithful, according to the celibate life."
It also notes the qualities that every future priest should have: "a positive and stable sense of his own masculine identity
and the capacity to form mature relationships with other people or groups of people; a solid sense of belonging, base of the
future communion with the presbyterate and of a responsible collaboration with the bishop's ministry."
According to the document, a correct perception of the significance of the candidate's vocation must be cultivated in a
"climate of faith, prayer, meditation on the Word of God, theological study and community life." But it also notes that those
who want to enter the seminary reflect to a greater or lesser degree the faults of modern society, as seen in such aspects
as materialism, family instability, moral relativism, an erroneous vision of sexuality, and the negative influence of the media.
Formators' role
The document insists that one who is in charge of seminarians' formation should be "a solid expert in the human person,
his rhythms of growth, his potentials and weaknesses and his way of living a relationship with God."
It affirms that it is necessary to know the history of the candidate, but that this should not be the only decisive criteria in
accepting him for preparation for the priesthood. Instead, the formator should look at the person "as a whole, in his
progress and development," so as to avoid errors in discernment. Formators should also know well a seminarian's
"personality, potential, dispositions and the variety of probable types of wounds, evaluating their nature and intensity," the
document continues. And it cautions against candidates' tendency to "minimize or negate their own weakness, fearing the
possibility of not being understood, and for this reason, not being accepted."
Psychological support
The document proposes that in cases of particular need, recourse to a psychologist can "help the candidate to overcome
those wounds" in view of aiming toward a "style of life like that of Jesus, Good Shepherd, head and spouse of the Church."
In this context, the Vatican council recommends psychological evaluation with the free consent of the
candidate, cautioning the formators against using specialized techniques outside of their expertise.
Psychologists who give such support should have "solid human and spiritual maturity," it says, as well as a
"Christian concept of the human person, sexuality, the priestly vocation and celibacy."
And the document makes clear that psychological services cannot replace spiritual direction. It affirmed that
the spiritual life "in itself favors growth in human virtues, if a block of a psychological nature doesn't exist."
27B. NEW VATICAN DOCUMENT WEIGHS USE, LIMITS OF PSYCHOLOGY IN SEMINARIES
Vatican, October 30, 2008 (CWNews.com) The Vatican has issued instructions on the use of psychology to help
assess candidates for the priesthood, emphasizing that psychological analysis is no substitute for sound
spiritual formation.
The Vatican policy document, which had been expected for several months, explained that psychological testing and
treatment can be helpful both in evaluating candidates for the priesthood and in helping some seminarians to overcome
problems that might cause them difficulties.
The 15-page document outlining the use of psychology in seminaries was introduced at an October 30 press conference
chaired by Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski, the prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education, which prepared the
guidelines.
Cardinal Grocholewski observed that the Code of Canon Law requires bishops to assure themselves that every candidate for
ordination to the priesthood has the proper character and formation to serve in ministry. The Polish cardinal pointed out
that the new Vatican document cites this canonical provision three times, driving home the message that the bishop "must
have moral certainty that the candidate's suitability, 'has been positively established' and that, in the case of a
substantiated doubt, cannot proceed to ordination." Psychological testing can help the bishop to gain that certainty, by
exposing any character flaws or emotional weaknesses the candidate might have.
Such screening is particularly important, the document argues, at a time when the pressures of a materialistic secular
society can exert enormous influence on young men before they embark on priestly training, "creating, in some cases,
wounds that are still unhealed or particular difficulties that could condition their ability to progress" in priestly formation.
Screening is important not only for admission to the seminaries, but also during the course of formation, since some
problems may manifest themselves later in the process, the Vatican notes.
The Vatican document carefully sets limits on the use of psychology in the seminaries, however. The
Congregation for Catholic Education emphasizes that spiritual formation should always take primacy of place in the efforts
of seminary administrators. The document stipulates that "spiritual direction can in no way be substituted by
forms of analysis or psychological assistance, and that the spiritual life, of itself, favors growth in the human
virtues if no blocks of a psychological nature exist."
Cardinal Grocholewski went on to say that seminarians should undergo psychological treatment only if a particular need
becomes evident-- as he put it, "si casus ferat, meaning in exceptional cases that present particular difficulties." Even in
those cases, the psychological treatment must be subordinate to the spiritual formation, and the Vatican
specifically cautions that "psychologists cannot be part of the formation team."
The document also affirms that no one-- not even religious superiors-- should have access to the details of a seminarian's
psychological profile without his explicit consent, freely given. By the same token psychologists who treat seminarians are
barred from discussing their cases with any third party except when explicit consent is given.
27C. ON THE USE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SEMINARY: "BRINGING TO THE PRIESTHOOD ONLY THOSE WHO
HAVE BEEN CALLED"
Vatican City, November 6, 2008 (Zenit.org) Here is the document titled "Guidelines for the Use of Psychology in the
Admission and Formation of Candidates for the Priesthood," released Oct. 30 by the Vatican Congregation for
Catholic Education.
I. The Church and the Discernment of a Vocation
1. “Each Christian vocation comes from God and is God's gift. However, it is never bestowed outside of or independently of
the Church. Instead it always comes about in the Church and through the Church [...], a luminous and living reflection of
the mystery of the Blessed Trinity.”[1]
The Church, “begetter and formator of vocations”,[2] has the duty of discerning a vocation and the suitability of candidates
for the priestly ministry. In fact, “the interior call of the Spirit needs to be recognized as the authentic call of the bishop.”[3]
In furthering this discernment, and throughout the entire process of formation for ministry, the Church is moved by two
concerns: to safeguard the good of her own mission and, at the same time, the good of the candidates. In fact, like every
Christian vocation, the vocation to the priesthood, along with a Christological dimension, has an essentially ecclesial
dimension: “Not only does it derive `from' the Church and her mediation, not only does it come to be known and find
fulfilment `in' the Church, but it also necessarily appears – in fundamental service to God – as a service `to' the Church.
Christian vocation, whatever shape it takes, is a gift whose purpose is to build up the Church and to increase the kingdom
of God in the world.”[4]
Therefore, the good of the Church and that of the candidate are not in opposition, but rather converge. Those responsible
for formation work at harmonizing these two goods, by always considering both simultaneously in their interdependent
dynamic. This is an essential aspect of the great responsibility they bear in their service to the Church and to individuals.[5]
2. The priestly ministry, understood and lived as a conformation to Christ, Bridegroom and Good Shepherd, requires certain
abilities as well as moral and theological virtues, which are supported by a human and psychic – and particularly affective –
equilibrium, so as to allow the subject to be adequately predisposed for giving of himself in the celibate life, in a way that is
truly free in his relations with the faithful.[6]
The Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores dabo vobis treats of the various dimensions of priestly formation: human,
spiritual, intellectual and pastoral. Before the text deals with the spiritual dimension – “an extremely important element of a
priest's education”[7] – it underlines that the human dimension is the foundation of all formation. The document lists a
series of human virtues and relational abilities that are required of the priest, so that his personality* may be “a bridge and
not an obstacle for others in their meeting with Jesus Christ the Redeemer of humanity.”[8] These virtues and qualities
range from the personality's general equilibrium to the ability to bear the weight of pastoral responsibilities, from a deep
knowledge of the human spirit to a sense of justice and loyalty.[9]
*The specific understanding of “personality” in this document refers to affective maturity and absence of mental disorder.
Some of these qualities merit particular attention: the positive and stable sense of one's masculine identity, and the
capacity to form relations in a mature way with individuals and groups of people; a solid sense of belonging, which is the
basis of future communion with the presbyterium and of a responsible collaboration in the ministry of the bishop;[10] the
freedom to be enthused by great ideals and a coherence in realizing them in everyday action; the courage to take decisions
and to stay faithful to them; a knowledge of oneself, of one's talents and limitations, so as to integrate them within a selfesteem before God; the capacity to correct oneself; the appreciation for beauty in the sense of “splendour of the truth” as
well as the art of recognizing it; the trust that is born from an esteem of the other person and that leads to acceptance; the
capacity of the candidate to integrate his sexuality in accordance with the Christian vision, including in consideration of the
obligation of celibacy.[11]
Such interior dispositions must be moulded during the future priest's path of formation because, as a man of God and of
the Church, he is called to build up the ecclesial community. Being in love with Him who is Eternal, the priest develops an
authentic and integral appreciation of humanity. He also increasingly lives the richness of his own affectivity in the gift of
himself to God, One and Three, and to his brethren, particularly those who are suffering.
Clearly, these are objectives that can only be reached by the candidate co-operating daily with the work of grace within
him. They are objectives that are acquired with a gradual and lengthy path of formation, which is not always linear.[12]
A priestly vocation involves an extraordinary and demanding synergy of human and spiritual dynamics. The candidate,
knowing this, can only draw advantage from an attentive and responsible vocational discernment, aimed at differentiating
formation paths according to each individual's needs, as well as gradually overcoming his deficiencies on the spiritual and
human levels. The Church has the duty of furnishing candidates with an effective integration of the human dimension, in
light of the spiritual dimension into which it flows and in which it finds its completion.[13]
II. Preparation of Formators
3. Every formator should have a good knowledge of the human person: his rhythms of growth; his potentials and
weaknesses; and his way of living his relationship with God. Thus, it is desirable that bishops – by making use of various
experiences, programs and institutions of good reputation – provide a suitable preparation in vocational pedagogy for
formators, according to the indications already published by the Congregation for Catholic Education.[14]
Formators need to be adequately prepared to carry out a discernment that, fully respecting the Church's doctrine on the
priestly vocation, allows for a reasonably sure decision as to whether the candidate should be admitted to the seminary or
house of formation of the religious clergy, or whether he should be dismissed from the seminary or house of formation for
reasons of unsuitability. The discernment also must allow for the candidate to be accompanied on his path to acquiring
those moral and theological virtues, which are necessary for living, in coherence and interior freedom, the total gift of his
life, so as to be a “servant of the Church as communion”.[15]
4. The document of this Congregation for Catholic Education, A Guide to Formation in Priestly Celibacy, recognizes that
“errors in discerning vocations are not rare, and in all too many cases psychological defects, sometimes of a pathological
kind, reveal themselves only after ordination to the priesthood. Detecting defects earlier would help avoid many tragic
experiences.”[16]
Hence, the need for every formator to possess, in due measure, the sensitivity and psychological preparation [17] that will
allow him, insofar as possible, to perceive the candidate's true motivations, to discern the barriers that stop him integrating
human and Christian maturity, and to pick up on any psychopathic disturbances present in the candidate. The formator
must accurately and very prudently evaluate the candidate's history. Nevertheless, this history alone cannot constitute the
decisive criterion which would be sufficient for judging whether to admit the candidate or dismiss him from formation. The
formator must know how to evaluate the person in his totality, not forgetting the gradual nature of development. He must
see the candidate's strong and weak points, as well as the level of awareness that the candidate has of his own problems.
Lastly, the formator must discern the candidate's capacity for controlling his own behaviour in responsibility and freedom.
Thus, every formator must be prepared, including by means of specific courses, to understand profoundly the human
person as well as the demands of his formation to the ordained ministry. To that end, much advantage can be derived from
meeting experts in the psychological sciences, to compare notes and obtain clarification on some specific issues.
III. Contribution of Psychology to Vocational
Discernment and Formation
5. Inasmuch as it is the fruit of a particular gift of God, the vocation to the priesthood and its discernment lie outside the
strict competence of psychology. Nevertheless, in some cases, recourse to experts in the psychological sciences can be
useful. It can allow a more sure evaluation of the candidate's psychic state; it can help evaluate his human dispositions for
responding to the divine call; and it can provide some extra assistance for the candidate's human growth. These experts
can offer formators an opinion regarding the diagnosis of – and, perhaps, therapy for – psychic disturbances. Moreover, by
suggesting ways for favouring a vocational response that is more free, they can help support the development of the
human (especially relational) qualities, which are required for the exercise of the ministry.[18]
Even formation for the priesthood must face up to the manifold symptoms of the imbalance rooted in the heart of man,[19]
which is symptomized, in a particular way, in the contradictions between the ideal of self-giving to which the candidate
consciously aspires, and the life he actually leads. Formation must also deal with the difficulties inherent in the gradual
development of the moral virtues. The help of the spiritual director and confessor is fundamental and absolutely necessary
for overcoming these difficulties with the grace of God. In some cases, however, the development of these moral qualities
can be blocked by certain psychological wounds of the past that have not yet been resolved.
In fact, those who today ask admittance to the seminary reflect, in a more or less accentuated way, the unease of an
emerging mentality characterized by consumerism, instability in family and social relationships, moral relativism, erroneous
visions of sexuality, the precariousness of choices, and a systematic negation of values especially by the media.
Among the candidates can be found some who come from particular experiences – human, family, professional, intellectual
or affective – which, in various ways, have left psychological wounds that are not yet healed and that cause disturbances.
These wounds, unknown to the candidate in their real effects, are often erroneously attributed by him to causes outside
himself, thus depriving him of the possibility of facing them adequately.[20]
It is clear that the above-mentioned issues can limit the candidate's capacity for making progress on the path of formation
towards the priesthood.
“Si casus ferat” [21] – that is, in exceptional cases that present particular difficulties – recourse to experts in the
psychological sciences, both before admission to the seminary and during the path of formation, can help the candidate
overcome those psychological wounds, and interiorize, in an ever more stable and profound way, the type of life shown by
Jesus the Good Shepherd, Head and Bridegroom of the Church.[22]
To arrive at a correct evaluation of the candidate's personality, the expert can have recourse to both interviews and tests.
These must always be carried out with the previous, explicit, informed and free consent of the candidate.[23]
In consideration of their particularly sensitive nature, the use of specialist psychological or psychotherapeutic techniques
must be avoided by the formators.
6. It is useful for the rector and other formators to be able to count on the co-operation of experts in the
psychological sciences. Such experts, who cannot be part of the formation team, will have to have specific
competence in the field of vocations, and unite the wisdom of the Spirit to their professional expertise.
In choosing which experts to approach for the psychological consultation, it is necessary to guarantee, as much as possible,
an intervention that is coherent with the candidate's moral and spiritual formation. This is to avoid any harmful confusion or
opposition. Therefore, it must be borne in mind that these experts, as well as being distinguished for their
sound human and spiritual maturity, must be inspired by an anthropology that openly shares the Christian
vision about the human person, sexuality, as well as vocation to the priesthood and to celibacy. In this way,
their interventions may take into account the mystery of man in his personal dialogue with God, according to the vision of
the Church. Wherever such experts are not available, let steps be taken to specifically preparing them.[24]
The assistance offered by the psychological sciences must be integrated within the context of the
candidate's entire formation. It must not obstruct, but rather ensure, in a particular way, that the
irreplaceable value of spiritual accompaniment is guaranteed; for spiritual accompaniment has the duty of
keeping the candidate facing the truth of the ordained ministry, according to the vision of the Church.
The atmosphere of faith, prayer, meditation on the Word of God, the study of theology and community life – an
atmosphere that is essential so that a generous response to the vocation received from God can mature – will allow the
candidate to have a correct understanding of what the recourse to psychology means within his vocational journey, and will
allow him to integrate it within that same journey.
7. In faithfulness and coherence to the principles and directives of this document, different countries will have to regulate
the recourse to experts in the psychological sciences in their respective Rationes institutionis sacerdotalis. The competent
Ordinaries or major superiors will have to do the same in the individual seminaries.
a) Initial Discernment
8. Right from the moment when the candidate presents himself for admission to the seminary, the formator needs to be
able accurately to comprehend his personality; potentialities; dispositions; and the types of any psychological wounds,
evaluating their nature and intensity.
Nor must it be forgotten that there is a possible tendency of some candidates to minimize or deny their own weaknesses.
Such candidates do not speak to the formators about some of their serious difficulties, as they fear they will not be
understood or accepted. Thus, they nurture barely realistic expectations with respect to their own future. On the other
hand, there are candidates who tend to emphasize their own difficulties, considering them insurmountable obstacles on
their vocational journey.
The timely discernment of possible problems that block the vocational journey can only be of great benefit for the person,
for the vocational institutions and for the Church. Such problems include excessive affective dependency; disproportionate
aggression; insufficient capacity for being faithful to obligations taken on; insufficient capacity for establishing serene
relations of openness, trust and fraternal collaboration, as well as collaboration with authority; a sexuality identity that is
confused or not yet well defined.
In the phase of initial discernment, the help of experts in the psychological sciences can be necessary principally on the
specifically diagnostic level, whenever there is a suspicion that psychic disturbances may be present. If it should be
ascertained that the candidate needs therapy, this therapy should be carried out before he is admitted to the seminary or
house of formation.
The assistance of experts can be useful for formators, including when they are marking out a path of formation tailored to
the candidate's specific needs.
When evaluating whether it is possible for the candidate to live the charism of celibacy in faithfulness and joy, as a total gift
of his life in the image of Christ the Head and Shepherd of the Church, let it be remembered that it is not enough to be
sure that he is capable of abstaining from genital activity. It is also necessary to evaluate his sexual orientation, according
to the indications published by this Congregation.[25] Chastity for the Kingdom, in fact, is much more than the simple lack
of sexual relationships.
In light of the objectives indicated above, a psychological consultation can, in some cases, be useful.
b) Subsequent Formation
9. During the period of formation, recourse to experts in the psychological sciences can respond to the needs born of any
crises; but it can also be useful in supporting the candidate on his journey towards a more sure possession of the moral
virtues. It can furnish the candidate with a deeper knowledge of his personality, and can contribute to overcoming, or
rendering less rigid, his psychic resistances to what his formation is proposing.
The candidates can give themselves to God with due awareness and freedom, in responsibility towards themselves and the
Church, when they have better mastered not only their weaknesses, but also their human and spiritual forces.[26]
A certain Christian and vocational maturity can be reached, including with the help of psychology, illumined and completed
by the contribution of the anthropology of the Christian vocation and, therefore, of grace. Nevertheless, one cannot
overlook the fact that such maturity will never be completely free of difficulties and tensions, which require interior
discipline, a spirit of sacrifice, acceptance of struggle and of the Cross,[27] and the entrusting of oneself to the
irreplaceable assistance of grace.[28]
10. It is possible that the candidate – notwithstanding his own commitment and the support of the psychologist, or
psychotherapy – could continue to show himself unable to face realistically his areas of grave immaturity – even given the
gradual nature of all human growth. Such areas of immaturity would include strong affective dependencies; notable lack of
freedom in relations; excessive rigidity of character; lack of loyalty; uncertain sexual identity; deep-seated homosexual
tendencies; etc. If this should be the case, the path of formation will have to be interrupted.
The same is also true if it becomes evident that the candidate has difficulty living chastity in celibacy: that is, if celibacy, for
him, is lived as a burden so heavy that it compromises his affective and relational equilibrium.
IV. Request for Specialist Evaluations and Respect for the Candidate's Privacy
11. It belongs to the Church to choose persons whom she believes suitable for the pastoral ministry, and it is her right and
duty to verify the presence of the qualities required in those whom she admits to the sacred ministry.[29]
Canon 1051, 1º of the Code of Canon Law foresees that, for the scrutiny of the qualities required in view of ordination, one
should provide, inter al., for an evaluation of the state of the candidate's physical and psychic health.[30]
Canon 1052 establishes that the bishop, in order to be able to proceed to ordaining the candidate, must have moral
certainty that “positive arguments have proved” his suitability (§ 1) and that, in the case of motivated doubt, he must not
proceed with the ordination (§ 3).
Hence, the Church has the right to verify the suitability of future priests, including by means of recourse to medical and
psychological science. In fact, it belongs to the bishop or competent superior not only to examine the suitability of the
candidate, but also to establish that he is suitable. A candidate for the priesthood cannot impose his own personal
conditions, but must accept with humility and gratitude the norms and the conditions that the Church herself places, on the
part of her responsibility.[31] Therefore, in cases of doubt concerning the candidate's suitability, admission to the seminary
or house of formation will sometimes only be possible after a psychological evaluation of the candidate's personality.
12. The formational institution has the right and the duty to acquire the knowledge necessary for a prudentially certain
judgement regarding the candidate's suitability. But this must not harm the candidate's right to a good reputation, which
any person enjoys, nor the right to defend his own privacy, as prescribed in canon 220 of the Code of Canon Law. This
means that the candidate's psychological consultation can only proceed with his previous, explicit, informed and free
consent.
Let the formators guarantee an atmosphere of trust, so that the candidate can open up and participate with conviction in
the work of discernment and accompaniment, offering “his own convinced and heartfelt co-operation”.[32] The candidate is
asked to be sincerely and trustingly open with his formators. Only by sincerely allowing them to know him can he be helped
on that spiritual journey that he himself is seeking by entering the seminary.
Important, and often determinant in overcoming possible misunderstandings, will be both the educational atmosphere
between students and formators – marked by openness and transparency – and the motivations and ways with which the
formators will present their suggestion to the candidate that he should have a psychological consultation.
Let them avoid the impression that such a suggestion is the prelude to the candidate's inevitable dismissal from the
seminary or house of formation.
The candidate will be able freely to approach an expert who is either chosen from among those indicated by the formators,
or chosen by the candidate himself and accepted by the formators. According to the possibilities, the candidates should be
guaranteed a free choice from among various experts who possess the requisites indicated.[33]
If the candidate, faced with a motivated request by the formators, should refuse to undergo a psychological consultation,
the formators will not force his will in any way. Instead, they will prudently proceed in the work of discernment with the
knowledge they already have, bearing in mind the aforementioned canon 1052 § 1.
V. The Relationship between those Responsible for Formation and the Expert
a) Those Responsible in the External Forum
13. In a spirit of reciprocal trust and in co-operation with his own formation, the candidate can be invited freely to give his
written consent so that the expert in the psychological sciences, who is bound by confidentiality, can communicate the
results of the consultation to the formators indicated by the candidate himself. The formators will make use of any
information thus acquired to sketch out a general picture of the candidate's personality, and to infer the appropriate
indications for the candidate's further path of formation or for his admission to ordination.
In order to protect, in both the present and the future, the candidate's privacy and good reputation, let particular care be
taken so that the professional opinions expressed by the expert be exclusively accessible to those responsible for formation,
with the precise and binding proscription against using it in any way other than for the discernment of a vocation and for
the candidate's formation.
b) Specific Character of Spiritual Direction
14. The spiritual director's task is not easy, neither in discerning the vocation nor in the area of conscience.
It is a firm principle that spiritual direction cannot, in any way, be interchanged with or substituted by forms
of analysis or of psychological assistance. Moreover, the spiritual life, by itself, favours a growth in the human virtues,
if there are no barriers of a psychological nature.[34] Bearing these two principles in mind, the spiritual director can find
that, in order to clear up any doubts that are otherwise irresolvable and to proceed with greater certainty in the
discernment and in spiritual accompaniment, he needs to suggest to the candidate that he undergo a psychological
consultation – without, however, ever demanding it.[35]
Should the spiritual director request that the candidate undergo a psychological consultation, it is desirable that the
candidate, as well as informing the spiritual director himself about the results of the consultation, will likewise inform the
external-forum formator, especially if the spiritual director himself will have invited him to do this.
If the spiritual director should believe it useful that he himself directly acquire information from the consultant, let him
proceed according to what has been indicated in n. 13 for the external-forum formators.
The spiritual director will infer from the results of the psychological consultation the appropriate indications for the
discernment that is of his competence, as well as the advice he must give the candidate, including as to whether to proceed
on the path of formation.
c) Help of the Expert to the Candidate and Formators
15. The expert – insofar as it is asked of him – will help the candidate reach a greater knowledge of himself, of his
potentialities and vulnerabilities. He will also help him to compare the declared ideals of the vocation with his own
personality, thus encouraging the candidate to develop a personal, free and conscious attachment to his own formation. It
will be the task of the expert to furnish the candidate with the appropriate indications concerning the difficulties that he is
experiencing, and their possible consequences for his life and future priestly ministry.
The expert, having carried out his evaluation, and also taking into account the indications offered him by the formators, will
present them – but only with the candidate's previous written consent – with his contribution to understanding the subject's
personality and the problems he is facing or must face.
In accordance with his evaluation and competence, he will also indicate the foreseeable possibilities as regards the growth
of the candidate's personality. Moreover, he will suggest, if necessary, forms or pathways of psychological support.
VI. Persons Dismissed From, or Who Have Freely Left, Seminaries or Houses of Formation
16. It is contrary to the norms of the Church to admit to the seminary or to the house of formation persons who have
already left or, a fortiori, have been dismissed from other seminaries or houses of formation, without first collecting the due
information from their respective bishops or major superiors, especially concerning the causes of the dismissal or
departure.[36] The previous formators have the explicit duty of furnishing exact information to the new formators.
Let particular attention be paid to the fact that often candidates leave the educational institution spontaneously so as to
avoid an enforced dismissal.
In the case of a transfer to another seminary or house of formation, the candidate must inform the new formators about
any psychological consultation previously carried out. Only with the candidate's free, written consent can the new formators
have access to the communication of the expert who carried out the consultation.
In the case of a candidate who, after a previous dismissal, has undergone psychological treatment, if it is held that he can
be accepted into the seminary, let first his psychic condition be accurately verified, insofar as possible. This includes
collecting the necessary information from the expert who treated him, after having obtained the candidate's free, written
consent.
In the case where a candidate, after having had recourse to an expert in psychology, asks to transfer to another seminary
or house of formation and does not want to agree to the results being available to the new formators, let it be remembered
that the suitability of the candidate must be proved with positive arguments, according to the norm of the aforementioned
canon 1052, and, therefore, that all reasonable doubt must be excluded.
Conclusion
17. Let all those who, according to their different responsibilities, are involved in formation offer their convinced cooperation, in respecting the specific competencies of each, so that the discernment and vocational accompaniment of the
candidates may be sufficient, thus “bringing to the priesthood only those who have been called, and to bring them
adequately trained, namely, with a conscious and free response of adherence and involvement of their whole person with
Jesus Christ, who calls them to intimacy of life with him and to share in his mission of salvation.”[37]
The Supreme Pontiff Benedict XVI, during the Audience granted to the undersigned Cardinal Prefect on 13 June 2008,
approved the present document and authorized its publication.
Rome, 29 June 2008, Solemnity of the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul.
Zenon Card. Grocholewski, Prefect,
+ Jean-Louis Bruguès, o.p. Archbishop-Bishop emeritus of Anger, Secretary, VATICAN PRESS
[1] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores dabo vobis (25 March 1992), n. 35b-c: AAS 84 (1992), 714.
[2] Ibid., n. 35d: AAS 84 (1992), 715.
[3] Ibid., n. 65d: AAS 84 (1992), 771.
[4] Ibid., n. 35e: AAS 84 (1992), 715.
[5] Cf. ibid., nn. 66-67: AAS 84 (1992), 772-775.
[6] A very full description of these conditions is given in Pastores dabo vobis, nn. 43-44: AAS 84 (1992), 731-736; cf. C.I.C.,
canons 1029 and 1041, 1º.
[7] Inasmuch as “for every priest his spiritual formation is the core which unifies and gives life to his being a priest and his
acting as a priest”: Pastores dabo vobis, n. 45c: AAS 84 (1992), 737.
[8] Pastores dabo vobis, n. 43: AAS 84 (1992), 731-733.
[9] Cf. ibid.; cf. also Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree of Priestly Formation Optatam totius (28 October 1965), n.
11: AAS 58 (1966), 720-721; Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests Presbyterorum ordinis (7 December 1965), n. 3:
AAS 58 (1966), 993-995; Congregation for Catholic Education, Ratio fundamentalis institutionis sacerdotalis (19 March
1985), n. 51.
[10] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 17: AAS 84 (1992), 682-684.
[11] Paul VI, in his Encyclical Letter Sacerdotalis cælibatus, deals explicitly of this necessary capacity of the candidate for
the priesthood, in nn. 63-63: AAS 59 (1967), 682-683. In n. 64, he concludes: “The life of the celibate priest, which
engages the whole man so totally and so delicately, excludes in fact those of insufficient physical, psychic and moral
qualifications. Nor should anyone pretend that grace supplies for the defects of nature in such a man.” Cf. also Pastores
dabo vobis, n. 44: AAS 84 (1992), 733-736.
[12] In the developing formation process, affective maturity takes on a particular importance; this is an area of
development that requires, today more than ever, particular attention. “In reality, we grow in affective maturity when our
hearts adhere to God. Christ needs priests who are mature, virile, capable of cultivating an authentic spiritual paternity. For
this to happen, priests need to be honest with themselves, open with their spiritual director and trusting in divine mercy”
(Benedict XVI, Speech to priests and religious in the Cathedral of Warsaw [25 May 2006], in L'Osservatore Romano [26-27
May 2006], p. 7). Cf. Pontifical Work for Ecclesiastical Vocations, New Vocations for a New Europe, Final Document of the
Congress on Vocations to the Priesthood and to the Consecrated Life in Europe, Rome, 5-10 May 1997, published by the
Congregations for Catholic Education, for the Oriental Churches, for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic
Life (6 January 1998), n. 37.
[13] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 45a: AAS 84 (1992), 736.
[14] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Directives concerning the Preparation of Seminary Formators (4 November
1993), nn. 36 and 57-59; cf. especially Optatam totius, n. 5: AAS 58 (1966), 716-717.
[15] Pastores dabo vobis, n. 16e: AAS 84 (1992), 682.
[16] Sacred Congregation for Catholic Education, A Guide to Formation in Priestly Celibacy (11 April 1974), n. 38.
[17] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 66c: AAS 84 (1992), 773; Directives concerning the Preparation of Seminary Formators, nn.
57-59.
[18] Cf. Optatam totius, n. 11: AAS 58 (1966), 720-721.
[19] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes (7
December 1965), n. 10: AAS 58 (1966), 1032-1033.
[20] To understand these assertions better, it is opportune to refer to the following assertions of Pope John Paul II:
“Humans, therefore, carry within themselves the seed of eternal life and the vocation to make transcendent values their
own. They, however, remain internally vulnerable and dramatically exposed to the risk of failing in their own vocation. This
is due to the resistance and difficulties which they encounter in their earthly existence. These may be found on the
conscious level, where moral responsibility is involved, or on the subconscious level, and this may be either in ordinary
psychic life or in that which is marked by slight or moderate psychic illnesses that do not impinge substantially on one's
freedom to strive after transcendent ideals which have been responsibly chosen” (Address to the Roman Rota [25 January
1988]: AAS 80 [1988], 1181).
[21] Cf. Ratio fundamentalis institutionis sacerdotalis, n. 39; Congregation for bishops, Directory for the Pastoral Ministry of
bishops Apostolorum Successores (22 February 2004), n. 88.
[22] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 29d: AAS 84 (1992), 704.
[23] Cf. Sacred Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes, Instruction on the Renewal of Formation for Religious Life
(6 January 1969), n. 11 § III: AAS 61 (1969), 113.
[24] Cf. John Paul II: “It will therefore be right to pay attention to the formation of expert psychologists,
who, with good scientific qualifications, will also have a sound understanding of the Christian vision of life
and of the vocation to the priesthood, so as to provide effective support for the necessary integration of the
human and supernatural dimensions” (Speech to the participants at the Plenary Session of the Congregation for
Catholic Education [4 February 2002]: AAS 94 [2002], 465).
[25] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Instruction concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with
regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in View of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders (4 November
2005): AAS 97 (2005), 1007-1013.
[26] Cf. A Guide to Formation in Priestly Celibacy, n. 38.
[27] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 48d: AAS 84 (1992), 744.
[28] Cf. 2 Cor 12, 7-10.
[29] Cf. C.I.C., canons 1025, 1051 and 1052; Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments,
Circular Letter to the Most Reverend Diocesan bishops and other Ordinaries with Canonical Faculties to Admit to Sacred
Orders concerning: Scrutinies regarding the Suitability of Candidates for Orders” (10 November 1997): Notitiæ 33 (1997),
pp. 507-518.
[30] Cf. C.I.C., canons 1029, 1031 § 1 and 1041, 1º; Ratio fundamentalis institutionis sacerdotalis, n. 39.
[31] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 35g: AAS 84 (1992), 715.
[32] Ibid., n. 69b: AAS 84 (1992), 778.
[33] Cf. n. 6 of this document.
[34] Cf. note n. 20.
[35] Cf. Pastores dabo vobis, n. 40c: AAS 84 (1992), 725.
[36] Cf. C.I.C., can. 241 § 3; Congregation for Catholic Education, Instruction to the Episcopal Conferences on the
Admission to Seminary of Candidates Coming from Other Seminaries or Religious Families (8 March 1996).
[37] Pastores dabo vobis, n. 42c: AAS 84 (1992), 730.
27D. PSYCHOLOGY AND SEMINARIANS, INTERVIEW WITH PSYCHOLOGIST FRANK MONCHER by Karna Swanson
Arlington, Virginia, Nov. 11, 2008 (Zenit.org).- Although the use of psychology in seminaries is not new, a recent document
on the topic could help to clarify both its role and usefulness in houses of formation, says psychologist Frank Moncher*.
Moncher, who received his doctorate from the University of South Carolina, is an associate professor and director of the
doctoral program at the Arlington-based Institute for the Psychological Sciences. He also oversees assessment of
candidates for religious life for the Alpha Omega Clinic in the D.C. area.
*see page 27
In this interview with ZENIT, Moncher discusses the document released Oct. 30 by the Congregation for Catholic Education:
"Guidelines for the Use of Psychology in the Admission and Formation of Candidates for the Priesthood."
Q: Is the use of psychology in the preparation of candidates for the priesthood new? What has been the role of psychology
in seminaries up to now?
Moncher: Psychologists have been asked to consult regarding the readiness of candidates for the priesthood for several
decades, though different dioceses and religious orders have varied in their frequency and approach to using this
assistance. Some have instituted policies whereby all candidates are routinely evaluated prior to admission to
seminary/formation, while others only request evaluations of those about whom they have significant concerns, and still
others refer after the candidate has been living with the community for some time.
This spectrum defines the two primary roles that I most commonly find myself in as a psychologist. The first role is
providing a psychological evaluation as one of the many inputs that a vocation's committee might consider in reviewing
whether to admit an applicant. The second role is to provide, based on the evaluation, recommendations for how to best
guide or form the person, as well as other interventions and at times follow-up therapy with the person in question, either
while in seminary/formation, or as a preparation for admission. My approach and hope in working with seminary candidates
is to emphasize how this psychological evaluation process can be beneficial to them personally in their growth and
development, and not simply as a process for disqualifying people from pursuing their vocation.
Q: The text stipulates limits on the use of interviews and tests by experts to only very necessary cases. How common are
these situations? Could you explain the special role and place of the expert in psychology in these situations?
Moncher: In my experience, a relatively small percentage of applicants would seem to meet the criteria of a "very
necessary case," which I understand to denote persons who may be psychologically unable or immature to a degree that
impedes pursuit of a vocation to the priesthood. In these situations, the psychologist is tasked with documenting and at
times diagnosing the particular anomaly that precludes the candidate from pursuing formation at the present time.
I believe the psychologist, grounded in a Christian anthropology and understanding of the human person,
should also provide specific feedback as to the possible treatment course that might prepare the person to heal, and
possibly flourish as a priest in the future. In addition, I found this stated limit an interesting aspect of the document. As I
mentioned earlier, it is common practice in some dioceses and orders to have all candidates evaluated, which would seem
outside of this norm. However, this tendency may reflect the desire of some dioceses and orders to have the input through
the lens of professional psychology, in order to better understand their candidates and provide optimal formation, rather
than the role of determining fitness for pursuit of the vocation itself, that is, the aforementioned "necessary cases."
Q: The text also talks about spiritual direction, and clarifies that treatment by an expert would in no way
replace spiritual direction. Is that a danger? What steps can be taken to make sure that the spiritual aspect
of formation doesn't take a back seat to the more human aspects?
Moncher: The model of integrative psychology in which I have been formed is very clear about the distinct
and separate roles of spiritual direction and psychotherapy. In brief, the role of psychotherapy is to free a
person from any privations or pathology that might encumber the exercise of their will. In other words, the
psychologist's work is about clearing the path so that a person can pursue their desires in life most ardently.
This is then where spiritual direction proceeds, to guide the discernment of the person so that they pursue
true goods and holiness. Nevertheless, as the document states in paragraph 4, formators are responsible for natural
level aspects as well as spiritual aspects of a candidate's development, so coordination between psychologists and
formators can be helpful.
Further, in the real world, spiritual direction and psychotherapy naturally occur simultaneously or even in the opposite
sequence. In situations where a psychologist and spiritual director are working as a team, in my experience, it is not
difficult to keep the roles clear with regular communication.
I should mention, however, that there is some danger for psychologists who are formed in a different
psychological and/or faith tradition. I am aware of some who explicitly state that their model is to blend therapy and
direction in the same process, not distinguishing the two, which I feel risks less than optimal progress in both areas.
Q: In the section on formation, the document talks about a wider use of psychology in the seminaries apart from disorders
or defects. It says psychology can be used to help the candidate move toward the moral virtues and give him a deeper
knowledge of his personality. In what ways could this be carried out?
Moncher: This comment may reflect some recent developments in the field of psychology where there is an increasing
focus on what secular psychologists call "Positive Psychology." The basic premise is that while historically psychology has
been focused on pathology and the treatment of disorder, the methods and theories can also help one grow toward a more
flourishing life. Unfortunately, some of the theorists doing this work are not grounded in the history or
philosophical aspects of virtue theory, and their conclusions are at times not consistent with a Catholic view
of the human person.
However, some work is being done to bring Christian Virtue theory into therapeutic work to foster optimal
growth and development. When a person better understands their natural personality inclinations, they can more
prudently approach their relationships, challenges, and struggles so that they are not fighting the natural gifts God has
given them, but instead are able to approach things most effectively given their temperament and personality.
Further, the psychological evaluation conducted prior to admission may be utilized to help those who are emotionally
mature and capable of living religious life. For example, the document notes (paragraph 5) that, in particular, psychologists
can support the development and excellence of relational qualities, which are so vital to flourishing in a vocation to the
priesthood, and later suggests that psychology can assist in helping overcome any natural resistances that might occur
during formation (paragraph 9).
Similarly, I have been asked to provide recommendations to spiritual directors and seminary formators about candidate's
interpersonal and emotional strengths and weaknesses, so that through the course of formation they can be assisted in
growing as human persons as well as in their spiritual life.
Q: It says that there are several psychological "defects" or "impediments" that would disqualify individuals from the
priesthood. Can most of these be overcome? What are some defects that are treatable? What are some that would be
insurmountable?
Moncher: Although it is not spelled out, the disqualifying defects I imagine would fall into what I would group into three
major categories of psychological disorder, as it is currently defined in the profession: (1) "Cognitive Disorders," for
example, mental retardation or severe learning disabilities that would prevent a person from learning the necessary
philosophy and theology; (2) "Major Mental Illnesses," such as schizophrenia, and some forms of severe mood disorders
(e.g., treatment-resistant major depression or bipolar illness); and (3) "Personality Disorders," which are enduring patterns
of inner experiences and behaviors that deviate from expectations of the culture. These manifest in extreme difficulties in
one's identity and psycho-sexual development (e.g., pedophilia), thinking (e.g., rigidity), emotions (or affectivity),
relationships (distance or dependency), or behavior (often impulse control problems).
For persons with problems characterized by any of these three categories, intervention is often geared more toward
managing the symptoms and improving coping, rather than the expectation of a complete overcoming of the problem.
Therefore in these situations pursuit of a vocation to the priesthood is generally imprudent.
However, any number of other psychological problems, while possibly temporarily inhibiting of successful functioning in
formation for the priesthood, with appropriate intervention and the person's ongoing maturation, may not present
permanent disqualifications. These might include minor variants of disorders mentioned in the three categories above (e.g.,
dyslexia, transient situation-specific depression), as well as addictions (drug, alcohol, sex), obsessive-compulsive problems
(e.g., scrupulosity), difficult family backgrounds (abuse, divorce). While each of these problems may require intensive and
at times long-term treatment, depending upon their severity, research has suggested that people can heal considerably
from these types of difficulties and become adequately free to commit to a religious vocation.
Q: What effect do you think this document will have in seminaries?
Moncher: One aspect of the document that may require some further explanation occurs in paragraph 8 where it says "If
it should be ascertained that the candidate needs therapy, this therapy should be carried out before he is admitted to the
seminary or house of formation" (ital. mine); this would be a shift in practice for some who have historically allowed
admission coincident with the therapy being provided.
I suspect that this may be an issue of severity of impairment: Those with potentially "disqualifying" defects or impediments
ought to focus on healing and growth prior to the rigors of formation, while those with important but not disqualifying
weaknesses might better address those concerns in the context of a supportive seminary or formation community.
Finally, although I have not worked in a seminary setting, I would hope that the impact of the document will be to
moderate practices for those who function at the extremes in their understanding of psychology. For those
who eschew psychological science as a potential contributor, I hope that they will be willing to give another look at what it
has to offer them in fulfilling their mission of forming priests; specifically, they should be aware of the efforts that are
ongoing in the United States and elsewhere to develop psychology that is consistent with the teachings of the magisterium
of the Church.
On the other hand, for those seminaries that have placed psychologists in roles inappropriate to their profession (e.g.,
providing spiritual guidance, having undue say in the discernment of a person's vocation), the document might clarify how
to most properly interface with the psychological profession for the good of the seminary and seminarians.
Vatican document: www.zenit.org/article-24170?l=english; Institute for the Psychological Sciences: www.ipsciences.edu.
28. PSYCHOLOGY, SIN AND GUILT. REPENTANCE, CONFESSION AND HEALING
28A. RECONCILIATION http://www.catholictherapists.com/Sacraments-and-Spirituality/Reconciliation.html
by Mary Camejo Licensed Mental Health Counselor, Miami www.counselingcatholics.com
[http://www.counselingcatholics.com/references_1.html / http://www.counselingcatholics.com/references_3.html]
Recently I had a client in my office who after revealing a mortal sin to me felt she did not need to receive the Sacrament of
Reconciliation. She felt relieved and had unburdened herself by sharing her actions with me. I explained that she needed to
receive the Lords forgiveness and graces. She seemed baffled and did not understand why she would have to repeat all of
it to someone she did not know. How sad for the one who was waiting to receive her confession is the one who knows her
better than herself. Jesus Himself.
Catholic therapists are indeed valuable on the road to health, and depending on the emotional struggle they are
sometimes indispensable. Sharing your experience with a trained professional is helpful. But the Sacrament of
Reconciliation offers a particular encounter with God and with ourselves that cannot be duplicated elsewhere.
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 987, "In the forgiveness of sins, both priests and sacraments are
instruments which our Lord Jesus Christ, the only author and liberal giver of salvation, wills to use in order to efface our
sins and give us the grace of justification. Catholic therapist should encourage the practice of Reconciliation because
without it we are denying our clients the gift of healing.
"The spiritual effects of the Sacrament of Penance are:
- reconciliation with God by which the penitent recovers grace;
- reconciliation with the Church;
- remission of the eternal punishment incurred by mortal sins;
- remission, at least in part, of temporal punishments resulting from sin;
- peace and serenity of conscience, and spiritual consolation;
- an increase of spiritual strength for the Christian battle." (Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1496).
If you are struggling with emotions, feelings or personal obstacles it would be wise to choose a priest with whom you feel
comfortable. When you have found a priest you feel you can trust, ask him if you could schedule Reconciliation at least
once a month. Gradually, share with him information about your difficulties. Tell the priest what makes you feel guilty,
ashamed, depressed, confused, angry, anxious, etc. It is important to return to the same priest because he will understand
your particular circumstances. The regular celebration of Reconciliation while also working with a Catholic therapist can
bring the gentle healing gift of grace that is essential for acquiring emotional health.
Many of the confessionals are empty while the therapist sofa is occupied. We must not replace venting for
confessing. Catholic therapists must be aware of their limits. We are not priests and if we do not direct our clients to the
Sacrament of Penance we may hinder them from receiving forgiveness and freedom.
28B. CONFESSION, CONFESSION EVERYWHERE
Sydney, Australia, July 16, 2008 (Zenit.org) EXTRACT: The archbishop of Sydney says that World Youth Day is helping to
restore a key element for the life of the Church -- the sacrament of reconciliation. To this end, Cardinal George Pell has
made sure the sacrament is readily available in the host city this week. Priests, who received with their accreditation a
schedule for hearing confessions, are located throughout the city in real and makeshift confessionals…
The cardinal said that when young people have the chance to receive the sacrament of reconciliation, they normally go.
"We've seen ourselves at the cathedral school and in our World Youth Day groups that nearly all of them do, and the nonCatholics want to come too," he added. "Though they can't receive absolution, they can come for a chat and to bare their
soul." Cardinal Pell said he is "convinced that a significant element behind the anger and hostility in many young people
results from displaced guilt, and all this talk about the primacy of conscience doesn't help either."
"People feel guilt," he continued, "although they may not call it guilt, which they try to bury deep inside them, only for it to
emerge in all sorts of unexpected directions."
"In an age where there is the burgeoning business of psychology, counseling, etc.," the cardinal said, "it's
sad that there's been a fall away from the practice of confessing to a priest, and World Youth Day is helping
renew this -- one of the most important gifts the Church offers."
28C. SPIRITUAL WARFARE: THE OCCULT HAS DEMONIC INFLUENCE, A PASTORAL LETTER by Bishop Donald W.
Montrose, Bishop of Stockton, CA. EWTN Library dated 4/1/1996 http://www.ewtn.com/library/BISHOPS/OCCULT.HTM
EXTRACT: Freeing My Own Self From The Power Of Evil Through his passion, death, and resurrection, Jesus has
broken the power of the Evil One. When the influence of evil is perceived in one's own life, it most frequently comes about
from personal sin. Family members suffer because of the sin of an individual member of the family. It is through the sacred
power that the Lord has placed in his Church that the evil of sin is conquered.
Through medicine, psychology and other human means, suffering can often be alleviated. But Jesus in his
Church, has given us basic helps that are often neglected.
In our day the Sacrament of Reconciliation has fallen into disuse. There exists a power in this sacrament to
break the power of the Evil One and sin that is not possible otherwise. Our faith in the Eucharist is weakened. In
this sacrament is the power and presence of Jesus Himself. Persons who have actually needed exorcism from the power of
the Evil One have been cured by sitting in church in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, an hour each day, for one or
two months. These were very difficult cases. Our Blessed Mother has been designated by God as the one who crushes the
head of the serpent (Gen. 3:1s). The Rosary is a very powerful means of protection and salvation. Many sons and
daughters have been saved from the power of sin and the loss of faith through the perseverance of their parents in saying
the Holy Rosary…
Again, however, there is the difficulty of defining sin in our present age. We have to define sin according to
the Gospel and the official teaching of our Church as it has been handed down by the Church's Magisterium
and not define it by the viewpoint of the modern age which has been contaminated. Many people live in sin
and have false peace, because their conscience has been formed, not by the Gospel, but by the spirit of this
age. They may be leading very respectable lives, be law-abiding citizens, and in the estimation of people,
leading good lives. But if they are not living according to the Ten Commandments, the Gospel, and the moral
teaching of the Church, even in just one area that concerns serious sin, they are probably living in the
Kingdom of Darkness.
The Sacrament of Reconciliation and the Eucharist, (as well as all of the sacraments) are very special weapons that Jesus
gave to his Church to overcome the Kingdom of Sin and Darkness. We need to use these sacraments as Christ meant them to
be used and have no fear of the enemy. If one has a heavy problem in this regard, I suggest daily Mass and Communion.
28D. THE LOST SENSE OF SIN IN PSYCHOLOGY (Part 1) Andrew Sodergren on Sin vs. Symptom
Arlington, Virginia, December 22, 2005 (Zenit.org) http://www.ewtn.com/library/HUMANITY/zsinpsych.HTM
Psychology needs to examine the role of sin in mental health, in the light of Christian anthropology, says a
Catholic therapist. Andrew Sodergren is a therapist at the Alpha Omega Clinic and Consultation Services (AOCCS)
http://www.aoccs.org/, and a doctoral candidate at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences (IPS)
http://www.ipsciences.edu/www. The recently accredited institute is dedicated to the development of a psychology that is
consistent with Church teachings while in constructive dialogue with the world. In this two-part interview, Sodergren shares
his views on psychology's tendency to "medicalize" human behavior and the implication for society.
Q: What do you mean when you say that modern man and society have lost a sense of sin? How have
secularism and secular psychology in particular contributed to this?
Sodergren: We have been hearing a great deal recently from the Holy Father, various Church leaders and commentators
about the growth of relativism. It is worthwhile to recall the words of Benedict XVI shortly before the conclave that
elected him Pope. In that address he accused modern culture of "building a dictatorship of relativism that does not
recognize anything as definitive and whose ultimate goal consists solely of one's own ego and desires."
This growth in a relativistic mentality would not be possible without a prior weakening of the sense of sin. The "sense of
sin" refers to having an accurate conception of sin and an awareness of sin in one's life. It is part of what is normally
understood as "conscience."
John Paul II in "Reconciliatio et Paenitentia" wrote of a "sensitivity and an acute perception of the seeds of death contained
in sin, as well as a sensitivity and an acuteness of perception for identifying them in the thousand guises under which sin
shows itself. This is what is commonly called the sense of sin. This sense is rooted in man's moral conscience and is as it
were its thermometer." Thus, without a healthy sense of sin, man's conscience becomes clouded, and he easily goes astray.
When this happens on a large scale, it can be disastrous for society. Indeed, many writers have commented that "sin" has
all but dropped out of modern discourse. John Paul II analyzed this situation and concluded that modern society has indeed
lost its sense of sin for which he largely blames secularism. I believe that secular psychology has also had a
particularly important role in diminishing the sense of sin. Indeed, John Paul II himself identified secular
psychology among other human sciences as contributing to this loss…
Q: What is it in the content of certain secular psychology theories that denies the sense of sin?
Sodergren: Secular psychology has produced many theories of personality. These theories have contributed
to the loss of the sense of sin in two ways: by their secular view of the person and by their misconceptions
regarding human freedom.
Dr. Paul Vitz has noted many times that all of the major theories of personality in psychology are secular in
nature. In other words, they attempt to give an explanation of human existence, development, fulfillment,
and obstacles to that fulfillment without any reference to divine or sacred realities. These theories focus on
the immanent happiness of the individual without any reference to the transcendent or to objective truth.
They portray a humanism totally without God. Thus, these secular theories of the person reduce one's sense of God.
As John Paul II and others have pointed out, the sense of God is closely related to the sense of sin. When the former
withers, so does the latter. The other way in which these theories of personality undermine the sense of sin relates to how
they conceive of human freedom. Many psychological theories conceive of the human person in a deterministic
fashion. That is, they regard the human person and his actions as pre-determined results of his childhood experiences, his
genes, his neural circuitry, the pressures of environmental reinforcements and punishments, and so on.
Within a deterministic framework, human freedom soon disappears, and if man lacks freedom, moral notions such
as sin likewise become meaningless. Other psychological theories absolutize human freedom conceived as autonomous
choice. These theories deny the reality of original sin stating that the human self already possesses everything it
needs to be self-actualized. It only needs to be freed from any constraints placed on it by external forces.
The problem with these theories is that they embrace an ethical subjectivism that denies the existence of moral absolutes
other than, perhaps, the "commandment" to self-actualize. Duties and obligations toward others are secondary at best.
With this mindset, any sense of sin quickly vanishes.
Q: How does secular psychology define mental illness, and how can this be related to the reality of sin? Is it
significant that psychology's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has been rapidly
expanding as the sense of sin has been diminishing?
Sodergren: This is a very subtle and complicated but important issue. The application of a purely secular disease model to
the realm of mental disorder and its treatment has served to undermine the sense of sin. How could this be the case?
John Paul II again points us in the right direction: "Another reason for the disappearance of the sense of sin in
contemporary society is to be found in the errors made in evaluating certain findings of the human sciences.
Thus on the basis of certain affirmations of psychology, concern to avoid creating feelings of guilt or to place limits on
freedom leads to a refusal ever to admit any shortcoming." Many scholars from psychiatrist Thomas Szasz to sociologists P.
Conrad and W.S. Schneider to psychologist O.H. Mowrer and more have observed that as the field of clinical psychology
with its classifications of mental disorders has grown, so has the tendency to "medicalize" human behavior. My faults and
foibles, my internal or interpersonal struggles, my bad habits and the like are no longer my responsibility but rather
symptoms of an illness that needs medical treatment. As the notion of "mental disorder" has gained prominence, it has
been stretched to include more and more areas of human thought, feeling and acting…
It may surprise some that modern psychology and psychiatry do not have a settled vision of what mental health
is. With this lack of a clear norm, how can a valid system of mental illness be constructed?
This is a problem of which John Paul II was well aware: "The difficulty which the experts themselves in the field
of psychology and psychiatry experience in defining satisfactorily for everybody the concept of normality is
well known. In any case, whatever may be the definition given by the psychiatric and psychological sciences,
it must always be examined in the light of the concepts of Christian anthropology."
Not only has the sense of sin subtly been undermined by this emphasis of clinical psychology, but at times it
has also been forthrightly attacked. As the reasoning goes, if this medicalized view of human behavior is correct, then
any residual guilt feelings regarding my own condition or that of someone close to me must themselves be symptoms of
psychological disturbance. Despite the attempts of a few marginal thinkers to restore a sense of moral responsibility and
thus a sense of sin to the psychotherapeutic milieu, the psychiatric establishment has largely been unaffected. Thus, the
sense of sin continues to wither under the powerful influences of psychology.
(Part 2) December 23, 2005. Andrew Sodergren on Guilt and Mental Disorder
A sound psychology must rekindle man's innate spirituality by taking sin seriously, contends a Catholic
therapist. In the second part of this interview with ZENIT, Sodergren shares his views of an integrated psychology that is
true to human nature and acknowledges human freedom.
Q: How can a sense of sin and vice contribute to the field of psychology?
Sodergren: In 1995, Pope John Paul II said in an address to the Roman Rota, "Only a Christian anthropology,
enriched by the contribution of indisputable scientific data, including that of modern psychology and
psychiatry, can offer a complete and thus realistic vision of humans."
Any psychology that is going to be true to human nature must take into account the revealed knowledge
present in the Catholic faith as well as two millennia of theological and philosophical reflection of the human
person. Such an account takes seriously human freedom and necessarily contains the concepts of sin and vice.
Unfortunately, the present age seems to be one in which the sense of sin has been lost due to the effects of
secularism and secular psychology. And this loss of the sense of sin has detrimental effects not only on
individuals but on the social development of the world.
Q: What then is the answer to this state of affairs, specifically for those seeking to propose a psychology
grounded in Catholic anthropology?
Sodergren: First, as John Paul II continually warned, we must not fall into the trap of giving an account of the human
person limited to this temporal sphere.
Rather, he said, a psychology integrated with Catholic anthropology "considers the human person, under
every aspect -- terrestrial and eternal, natural and transcendent. In accordance with this integrated vision,
humans, in their historical existence, appear internally wounded by sin, and at the same time redeemed by
the sacrifice of Christ." Thus, in our academic and clinical psychologies, we must strive to rekindle man's
innate "religious awareness," that is, the inner longing of the human heart for God, which St. Augustine so
eloquently articulated and has been echoed in the Church for centuries.
Secondly, we need to recover an authentic understanding of human freedom: one that underscores the fundamental
connection between freedom and truth, the ability for man to shape himself through his free choices, and neither takes an
overly pessimistic view nor an exaggeratedly optimistic view of the power of freedom in the face of human weakness.
Such a notion of freedom, springing from our Catholic anthropology, must penetrate both theoretical and clinical aspects of
a renewed psychology. Thirdly, as Robert George said in his 2002 commencement address to the Institute for the
Psychological Sciences, "A sound psychology takes sin seriously." We need to adopt a rich understanding of the
dynamics of sin. That is not to say that Catholic psychologists should begin blaming their patients for their own troubles as
some authors would suggest. On the contrary, our anthropology impels us to the highest level of compassion and
gentleness. Nor should we go to the extremes taken by people like Szasz who deconstruct mental illness altogether.
When someone comes for psychotherapy, there really is "something" wrong for which they need some form of treatment.
The question is, "How is that 'something' to be understood?" This is where the work of integration must be done.
We must strive to parse the relationship between sin and mental illness.
Presently, I see three ways of construing this relationship, although there are probably more. One view is that sin and
mental illness are two mutually exclusive ways of conceptualizing the same phenomenon. In that perspective, to the extent
that one wishes to begin from a Catholic anthropology, one must reject modern understandings of psychopathology.
Though there is some truth to this, I think it would be foolish to discard this whole area of the discipline. A second view of
the relationship is to see them as entirely separate domains: sin and vice pertaining to the moral domain and mental
disorder pertaining to the medical domain with no intrinsic connection between them. This view must absolutely be
rejected. No patient arrives at the psychotherapist's office unaffected by original, actual and social sin. Nor
have they been unaffected by the call of grace, and these have the utmost bearing on the human person's psychic and
interpersonal life. The third perspective is to recognize that sin and mental illness are not exactly the same thing, but they
are closely related. Current standards for identifying and classifying mental disorders use a descriptive approach based on
observable signs, symptoms, course and onset. This approach makes few if any claims regarding etiology. What a rich
concept of sin provides is a sure grounding for speculation regarding the etiology of mental disorder. Simply put, there is
no clinical disorder whose genesis cannot be accounted for through the dynamic interplay of original, actual
and social sin. These do not however, provide much detail about the concrete manifestations of such a disorder. Here
modern psychopathology offers us a genuine service through systematic observation and data collection. However, such
procedures on their own cannot give a complete account of the phenomenon of psychic and/or interpersonal suffering.
In a sense, the two perspectives need each other. An authentic psychology that successfully integrates these concepts will
be poised to give the clearest, most comprehensive explanations of human phenomena and offer forms of treatment that
will truly help the human person overcome the effects of sin, become more human, and progress toward his ultimate end.
Q: In light of this discussion, is guilt a good thing -- or it is something to be resolved by the psychologist?
Sodergren: First, there is such a thing as neurotic guilt, i.e., guilt that is unfounded and misguided.
In such a situation, the task of the therapist would be to examine why the patient is inappropriately taking this guilt upon
himself. Often, underlying such guilt is an experience of rejection and utter shamefulness. A related problem is when the
patient is Catholic and has been sacramentally absolved of a given sin but continues to feel profound guilt over it. In such a
case there could be two things happening. First, the person, through their prior relationship experiences -- going all the
way back to infancy -- may have developed an interpersonal style in which he or she cannot accept the mercy, beneficence
or care of another. This internalized view of self and other can prevent the objective fact of forgiveness from taking hold.
Second, a person who has committed a particular grave sin for which he or she is embarrassed and ashamed may have
difficulty separating this experience from the sense of self. In other words, the experience of having done X, even though X
has now been forgiven, overpowers the person's sense of self, leaving feelings of guilt and shame. The goal here is to help
the patient engage in positive behaviors that will strengthen the self-image that is currently being overshadowed by X.
These patients may need to identify further ways to do "penance" for their sins that allow them to "pay the debt" of their
misdeeds. Rather than fixating on the morbid nature of their misdeeds, patients in this way can use the experience of their
past sinfulness as a motivation to do good. On the other hand, guilt is not always a bad thing and indeed, is an important
part of the moral life. Because of the sanctity of the human conscience and the tendency of psychology to diminish the
sense of sin, psychologists must be extremely careful when dealing with patient guilt. In most cases, it is not the place of
the therapist to absolve patients of guilt. This should be worked out between the patient, God, a confessor and perhaps a
spiritual director. Rather, the therapist can help the patient to identify the underlying causes of his difficulties, which led to
the guilt, and work together to resolve them. When a therapist attempts to absolve a patient's guilt feelings, he steps into
the arena of conscience, a sanctuary that one ought not trespass upon lightly. When thinking about their patients' guilt
feelings, it is important for therapists to keep in mind how subtly human beings can affect each other, often without a
conscious awareness that it is happening, as well as how one's actions shape one's character, tuning the cognitive, affective
and volitional powers of the person in a particular way. With these dynamics in mind, how can the therapist be absolutely
certain that a given patient has no reason whatsoever to feel guilt for something?
Q: How does a sound psychology, which takes sin seriously, relate to understanding the concepts of
forgiveness and a God of mercy?
Sodergren: In his encyclical "Dives in Misericordia" about the Father who is rich in mercy, John Paul II noted that the
"present-day mentality, more perhaps than that of people in the past, seems opposed to a God of mercy, and in fact tends
to exclude from life and to remove from the human heart the very idea of mercy. The word and concept of 'mercy' seem to
cause uneasiness in man." Without a sense of sin, the need for mercy and the possibility of giving and receiving mercy are
impossible. This places a horrible limitation on humanity for as John Paul taught, mercy is the form that love takes in the
face of sin, i.e., in a fallen world. Without a sense of sin, then, it is impossible to fully love.
A sound psychology does not restrict itself in this way. Recognizing that self-giving love involving the whole person
is the goal of human existence, a goal of such a psychology will be the ability to give and receive forgiveness.
Psychotherapeutic interventions based on such a psychology will seek to help patients forgive others who have wounded
them and to grow in the ability to seek and accept forgiveness for one's own misdeeds. In regard to the latter, this means
also taking responsibility for one's condition and using the gift of freedom in positive ways in accord with the Truth. In the
early stages, the patient's freedom will likely be fairly impaired, requiring much assistance from the therapist and others to
counteract the habitual patterns of thinking, feeling and acting that have developed over time. In the end, the patient will
hopefully embrace these goals for themselves and continue to pursue them with the full force of their humanity. A patient,
who has been helped to give and receive forgiveness with other human beings, will be more able to accept the
overwhelmingly profound fact of God's love.
As St. John explains, the measure of our love of God is our love for one another. The psychologist who can help his
patients to love others more authentically, which necessarily requires the recognition of sin and the need for
forgiveness, will do his patients a great service indeed.
29. DECADENT VIRTUES NEW AGE FROTH AND FEEL-GOOD ETHICS COME TO THE FORE
London, October. 22, 2005 (Zenit.org) EXTRACT: Western Europe and the United States are decadent societies because
they have abandoned a morality based on the traditional virtues. So says a book just published by the London-based Social
Affairs Unit, "Decadence: The Passing of Personal Virtue and Its Replacement by Political and Psychological Slogans."
Edited by Digby Anderson, the volume brings together authors from a variety of backgrounds and views. A first section
contains essays on the "old" virtues, such as prudence, love and courage. The second deals with the "new" virtues,
centered on the environment, caring, therapy and being critical.
The book does not pretend to give a complete analysis of any of the virtues, and the authors of the chapters differ in their
approach to the subject matter. Readers could also disagree about some of the interpretations of the virtues. Overall,
however, the book provides a stimulating reflection on the dangers of discarding the tried-and-true virtues for passing fads.
In the introduction, Anderson explains that the old virtues were genuine ones, in that they demanded of people specific
types of behavior. The new ones, in contrast, often fall into the category of slogans or rhetorical appeals. Or, if in some
cases they do contain elements of true virtue, they tend to elevate a trivial aspect into the main virtue…
Peter Mullen, rector of the Anglican church of St. Michael's in London, takes a critical look at the new virtues of "caring."
The new caring society, he notes, is based on euphemisms and sentiments, instead of a community of faith.
Death and personal tragedies, for example, are not dealt with by reference to faith, but consigned to the attention of grief
counselors and therapists. Instead of being consoled by the promises of eternal life contained in the Gospel,
people are now comforted by promises of healing and energizing. The grief-counseling business does, in
fact, conjure up vague religious feelings but empties them of all doctrine and Christian teaching, leaving just
a sham of religion.
Based on his 35 years of experience in parish work, Mullen warns that grief counseling is pretentious and designed just as
much for the attention-seeking of the counselor as it is for the benefit of the bereaved. In the end we have "New Age
froth instead of the promises of the gospel," he writes.
Another aspect of the caring society is that we are expected to feel moved by the death of every celebrity or public figure.
The result, however, is that our emotional response is cheapened through exaggeration.
Mullen also criticizes the self-centeredness of the new spirituality. The old religious idea of acting virtuously
for its own sake, or for God's sake, has been replaced by the psychotherapeutic notion of virtue for our own
well-being.
Self-respect has been replaced by self-esteem. Self-respect used to come from the peace of trying to live a virtuous life and
having a clear conscience. Now it means just feeling good about ourselves and lacks any moral content.
Traditional religions told their followers that we are fallen and in need of spiritual help, and explained the
realities of sin and forgiveness. The new gospel of self-realization, in contrast, denies any personal
deficiencies and sells a series of techniques that will enable us to realize our potential. In the process the
concepts of right and wrong fall by the wayside.
Modern therapeutic culture also encourages the open and uninhibited display of emotions, Frank Furedi,
professor of sociology at the University of Kent observes. Acknowledging our feelings is presented as an act of virtue. And
the subsequent encouragement to seek therapy or help has acquired a connotation akin to the act of admitting guilt. There
is, therefore, a tendency to inflate the problems of emotional vulnerability and to minimize the capacity of the person to
cope with distress without the help of outside therapy. This culture of therapy also brings with it the idea that
people are not the authors of their lives, but the victims of consequence. Virtue is thus replaced by therapy,
leaving us all the poorer as a consequence.
30. NEW AGE CATHOLICISM
by Mary Ann Collins, a former Catholic nun http://www.catholicconcerns.com/New-Age.html EXTRACT:
The “New Age” is actually a resurgence of old paganism which has been “westernized” and dressed up in modern
vocabulary. It denies foundational Christian doctrines and basic Christian morality. But in spite of this, there are Catholic
priests and nuns who are openly promoting New Age beliefs and practices.
I will give documented information about this from Catholic authors. One of them is a Catholic reporter who spent over
twelve years getting first-hand, eye witness information. There are also online articles which you can read for yourself. (I
give the addresses in the Notes.)
As we will see, there are priests and nuns who promote pagan rituals, occult activities, Hindu religious practices, worship of
“the goddess,” witchcraft, and “channeling” (having “spirits” speak through you). They deny foundational Christian
doctrines, such as the fact that Jesus Christ died to save us from our sins. And they renounce traditional Christian morality.
If you have difficulty with the following information, I understand. So do I. But the facts won’t go
away just because we don’t like them.
Randy England is Catholic. He wrote “The Unicorn in the Sanctuary: The Impact of the New Age on the
Catholic Church”. According to England, New Age concepts are taught at retreats, prayer workshops, and
educational conferences. [http://www.marianland.com/errors024.html]
…I went on a Catholic retreat which was run by priests. Much to my surprise, the psychology of Carl Jung
was taught throughout the retreat. In addition, the bookstore sold books which discussed spirituality in terms which
didn’t sound Christian. One of the books talked about finding “the goddess within”. According to Randy England, Jung was
an occultist who had spirit guides.
… The Institute for Culture and Creation Spirituality was founded by [excommunicated Dominican priest Matthew] Fox. It
is located at Holy Names College (a Catholic college run by nuns, the Sisters of the Holy Names Jesus and Mary). Staff
members of the Institute included a practicing witch named Starhawk, a voodoo priestess, a shaman (an animist who
worships nature spirits), and a Jungian psychologist. Starhawk is the high priestess of a witches’ coven.
The Institute has developed a Catholic liturgy which is based on Wiccan sources. Matthew Fox denies the existence of sin,
except for one thing. He says that it is sinful to fail to embrace the New Age. Fox preaches “sensual” spirituality,
hedonism, and “ecstasy”. He says that “intelligent use of drugs” is an aid to prayer. He openly and directly promotes
witchcraft.
31. EXERCISES IN TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY: ON RETREAT WITH SISTER JOYCE RUPP
June 2008, by Ginger Hutton http://www.newoxfordreview.org/article.jsp?did=0608-hutton
Ginger Hutton, a convert to Catholicism, is a freelance writer whose column "Obsessions" appears in The East Tennessee
Catholic, the official newspaper of the Diocese of Knoxville.
Before lunch at my retreat with Sister Joyce Rupp, I automatically lifted my hand to my forehead to make the sign of the
cross. That's when I realized that in this retreat for Catholics in a Catholic parish, led by a Catholic sister, the
sign of the cross had never been made. Not once. Over the course of seven hours, it never was. Although I had
come to the retreat with serious concerns about Sr. Rupp's spiritual philosophy, I was still shocked by such a blatant
omission. As it turns out, I really shouldn't have been surprised.
Servite Sister Joyce Rupp is a popular author and retreat director who receives over 400 requests for retreats annually. The
20 retreats she grants each year are almost always given for capacity crowds of several hundred. She holds a masters
degree in religious education from St. Thomas University in Houston, and has worked in catechetics and education for most
of her life.
On the basis of these credentials, she is a regular speaker at some of the largest and most influential catechetical
conferences in the country, including the National Catholic Education Association and Roger Cardinal Mahony's massive
Archdiocesan Catechetical Congress in Los Angeles.
However, Sr. Rupp has some far more disturbing credentials. Her second master’s degree is in transpersonal
psychology from the notorious Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto, California. To understand
the problems with the December 2007 retreat I attended, it is necessary to know a bit about transpersonal psychology.
This is the branch of psychology that the Pontifical Councils for Culture and for Interreligious Dialogue
identified as "the classic approach in New Age" (Jesus Christ: The Bearer of the Water of Life, #2.3.4.1). It is a just
assessment. The course offerings in the Institute's catalog are a snapshot of New Age syncretism, with classes
in shamanism, the goddess, Jungian psychology, ESP, and Eastern spirituality. Underlying this is a
profoundly Gnostic and relativist concept of the world in which God is sought almost exclusively within the
individual and his experience of personal transformation and growth in "wisdom" through contact with "the
Higher Self." This higher self -- which is called by many different names, including simply "soul" -- is good in its essence,
has no need of salvation, and is inseparable in any real way from the divine. It is by discovering the higher self that one
discovers inner wisdom. This alleged wisdom amounts to the revelation that there is no real difference between you and
God; you have all that you need to know within you, and need merely to remember or rediscover it.
The Institute prides itself on religious indifferentism, and believes all mystical traditions manifest a common
wisdom. Therefore, some seemingly Christian classes are offered, like this course:
GLBP 9302: Ignatian Spirituality This course explores the spirituality and spiritual practice of St. Ignatius of Loyola, a
16th century soldier turned Christian mystic, and founder of the Society of Jesus ("the Jesuits"). The course also considers
transpersonal psychological constructs that underlie the spirituality of St. Ignatius, such as the role of memory, imagination,
intellect, and desire in prayer and meditation; the role of affect in the process of spiritual discernment and decision-making;
and Ignatius's notion of the intimate interpersonal quality of communion with the divine.
One cannot imagine, however, that St. Ignatius's critically important "Rules for Thinking with the Church" are covered,
particularly when another description of this course reveals that "there will be room in the experiential learning tasks to
adjust them to your own understanding of the Divine, or Higher Power, or God." It is hard to imagine anything further
from the intent of St. Ignatius's book Spiritual Exercises -- to bring one's will into conformity with Christ's, for the glory of
God and the salvation of one's soul -- than to understand them in a way that makes even a personal God an optional
component.
Having been stripped of those elements that would make them definitively Christian and reinterpreted in
transpersonal terms, these courses have little more than a superficial appearance of Christianity.
There's at least the suggestion of malice in casting the saint who wrote "what seems to me white, I will believe black if the
hierarchical Church so defines it," as an exemplar of a method the Church considers part of the New Age
movement. This, however, is the modus operandi of the New Age, and transpersonal psychology is arguably
the system that is best described by this passage from Jesus Christ: The Bearer of the Water of Life: "New
Age traditions consciously and deliberately blur real differences: between creator and creation, between
humanity and nature, between religion and psychology, between subjective and objective reality" (#6.1).
The opening prayer from Sr. Rupp's retreat is an excellent example of this blurring. Before we began the prayer, we were
instructed to "make a slight bow" to the people at our table, "honoring the presence of God in these ladies" (the retreatants
were all women). Then Sr. Rupp led the participants in chanting, "Oh, I open to you. I open to you."
Who exactly we were supposed to be opening ourselves to was left undefined. Perhaps it was to be assumed that we
meant Christ, but having read Sister's highly questionable article on her relationship with Sophia ("Desperately Seeking
Sophia," www.joycerupp.com), I did not think one could necessarily make that assumption.
After chanting for a while, the retreatants were told to imagine a door and to imagine that "Emmanuel, God with Us" was
knocking at the door. We were supposed to visualize opening the door as we chanted, "Oh, I open to you. I open to you,"
inviting God to come into our life.
Next we were to visualize our "deepest, truest self," and invite that self into our life. Obviously, in reality, an individual has
only one self, but even if Sr. Rupp meant to distinguish between the image we show to the world and the person we know
ourselves to be, there remain problems with this. She is assuming the "self" we "really are" is a better one than the one we
present to the world, which, in fact, is rarely the case. After imagining this multiplicity of selves, we continued to visualize
various people -- a loved one, an enemy, the poor -- and in each case to open the door while chanting, "Oh, I open to you.
I open to you."
The intended message was that we should welcome others as we welcome Christ. Nevertheless, the form was very
problematic. Clearly, since she called this chant the "opening prayer," Sr. Rupp sees this as prayer. But in using
precisely the same imagery, the same words, the same chant, whether we are visualizing God, ourselves, or other people,
what were we really doing? It is quite impossible to argue that we were not treating the Creator and the creatures as
equals, blurring the very real distinction between the two. To do this in the context of prayer not only fails to recognize the
transcendence of God, and fails to give Him the worship He is due as Creator, but it is dangerously close to idolatry.
It seemed to me that such prayer could only flow from a Christology that emphasizes the humanity of Christ nearly to
the exclusion of His divinity. Sr. Rupp quickly confirmed that perception. Almost immediately after the opening prayer,
she quoted Karl Rahner, speaking of Christ "entering so much into our normality that we can hardly now pick you [Christ]
out from other human beings."
After stating correctly that Jesus is fully human in all things but sin, she failed to affirm that He was also fully divine.
Instead, she said, "We see godness in Jesus. We can also see godness in us." Though the quest to see "godness" in
ourselves occupied the rest of the afternoon, the godness of Jesus was not deemed worthy of further discussion.
Sr. Rupp told us that "what Jesus is saying to us by His birth is that the way to [Him] is through your humanity." In other
words, we come to know God through the study of our own lives and experiences -- that was the focus of all the retreat
activities. This is quite different from the Church's understanding that we come to know God, to have a relationship with
Him, through receiving (from the Church in genuine catechesis) the proclamation of the Gospel (cf. Catechism, #425-427).
In accepting it, and seeking to understand the significance of Christ's life and actions, in studying and imitating the
objective truths revealed by Christ in His incarnate life and in His Church, in loving and adoring Him, we are then able to
understand the dignity, meaning, and significance of our own lives and experiences. To attempt to find Christ primarily
through our own experiences exposes us to the risk of a radical subjectivity in which our limited ideas and understandings
are given more weight than the objective truth expressed in the teaching of the Church.
As an example, one need look no further than Sr. Rupp's treatment of Mary. In a truly ludicrous refusal to use Catholic
terminology, we were told that Mary's womb was "a container for Christ," which has to be the least attractive way of
speaking of Mary as tabernacle that I have ever heard. Making Mary sound like a Chinese takeout box is annoying, but Sr.
Rupp's misunderstanding of Mary's relationship to Jesus is far more alarming. In speaking of Mary's response to the
Annunciation, Sr. Rupp betrays a very limited understanding of what "full of grace" means.
Sister says that Mary is "every parent whose child's values are very different from her own…every person questioning how
to receive someone in their life who is difficult or different from themselves." This is completely at odds with what the
Catechism says of Mary and the Annunciation: "Espousing the divine will for salvation wholeheartedly, without a single sin
to restrain her, she gave herself entirely to the person and to the work of her Son; she did so in order to serve the mystery
of redemption with Him and dependent on him, by God's grace" (#494). The absence of original sin in Mary means that she
certainly shared her Child's "values"!
In mentioning original sin and how Sr. Joyce misunderstands it, we come to the heart of the matter, the
unifying error that explains every errant idea and mistaken way of praying that marked this retreat. Simply
put, transpersonal psychology, which is inimical to Christianity, is poisoning the whole of her work. This
influence appeared in a clear and disturbing manner when she discussed her concept of the soul.
She said correctly, "I think our soul is the essence of who we are," but then went wrong when she stated, "It's our core
goodness… No matter what happens in our life, we have this essence of goodness, which is our soul. Our spirit really is our
personality, that brings our soul to life, that brings it into being and is present in our world." What was being presented
here is the transpersonal rather than Christian concept of the human person. Rather than viewing the person as
the unity of body and soul, where the state of the soul and the actions of the body are intimately linked, we are offered an
idea of the soul as an inherent inner good, more or less expressed through the actions of the body. In other words, the
state of the soul is not affected by our actions. Sr. Rupp made this clear when she spoke of salvation: "We don't talk
about our soul nearly enough in the Church. We talk about saving our soul. Our soul doesn't need saving, it's
all the crazy things we do as human beings that need saving, but our soul doesn't need saving. Our soul is
united to God at every moment. That's our core essence. And we just need to believe that. We are born with
an amazing soul." This is an outright denial of the Church's doctrine that we are born with original sin and
require the saving act of Christ on the cross transmitted to us in the Sacrament of Baptism to make us
adopted children of God. Christ Himself stated that no one would enter the Kingdom of Heaven unless he was born of
water and the spirit (John 3:5), and the Catechism calls original sin "the 'reverse side' of the Good News that Jesus is the
Savior of all men, that all need salvation, and that salvation is offered to all through Christ. The Church, which has the mind
of Christ, knows very well that we cannot tamper with the revelation of original sin without undermining the mystery of
Christ" (#389).
Sr. Rupp's retreat is a living example of that truth. In denying that our souls need to be saved, Sister strips the Incarnation
of its meaning. We were left with a Christ no more significant than ourselves, no more in possession of "godness" than we
are. Which leads one to ask: Why should we worship Him differently than we worship ourselves, if we are essentially just as
worthy of worship, just as perfect, as He is? How could we possibly understand the unique place of Mary if we are all free
of original sin? And why would we make the sign of the cross (at the retreat we didn't)? The cross is significant because by
it, through Christ's willing sacrifice, the way of salvation is opened for us. It is there that we are freed from our sins. To
quote Jesus Christ: The Bearer of the Water of Life: "In Christianity salvation is not an experience of self, a meditative and
intuitive dwelling within oneself, but much more the forgiveness of sin, being lifted out of profound ambivalences in oneself
and the calming of nature by the gift of communion with a loving God. The way of salvation is not found simply in a selfinduced transformation of consciousness, but in a liberation from sin and its consequences which then leads us to struggle
against sin in ourselves and in the society around us" (#4).
If we have no need of salvation, we have no need of Christ and His cross. The omission of the sign of the
cross from Sr. Rupp's retreat is consistent with her philosophy, which has at key points entirely departed
from Christian doctrine. This does not prevent Sr. Rupp, however, from trying to maintain the appearance of
Christianity. Having denied the need for salvation, she then attempts to give her views respectability by
referencing St. Teresa of Ávila, a Doctor of the Church. Sr. Rupp presents St. Teresa's image of the soul as a
beautiful castle to illustrate her point that the soul does not need to be saved. As with the sign of the cross, what is omitted
is of critical importance.
St. Teresa of Avila was speaking of the soul in grace. Contrast Sr. Rupp's ideas with St. Teresa's vision -- here taken from
an account by one of her confessors, quoted in the introduction to E. Allison Peers' critical edition of St. Teresa's Interior
Castle: "This holy Mother," he writes, "had been desirous of obtaining some insight into the beauty of a soul in grace. Just
at that time she was commanded to write a treatise on prayer, about which she knew a great deal from experience. On the
eve of the festival of the Most Holy Trinity she was thinking what subject she should choose for this treatise, when God,
Who disposes all things in due form and order, granted this desire of hers, and gave her a subject. He showed her a most
beautiful crystal globe, made in the shape of a castle, and containing seven mansions, in the seventh and innermost of
which was the King of Glory, in the greatest splendour, illumining and beautifying them all. The nearer one got to the
centre, the stronger was the light; outside the palace limits everything was foul, dark and infested with toads, vipers and
other venomous creatures. While she was wondering at this beauty, which by God's grace can dwell in the human soul, the
light suddenly vanished. Although the King of Glory did not leave the mansions, the crystal globe was plunged into
darkness, became as black as coal and emitted an insufferable odour, and the venomous creatures outside the palace
boundaries were permitted to enter the castle. This was a vision which the holy Mother wished that everyone might see, for
it seemed to her that no mortal seeing the beauty and splendour of grace, which sin destroys and changes into such
hideousness and misery, could possibly have the temerity to offend God."
St. Teresa's Catholic vision of the soul and its need for its Savior is quite opposed to Sr. Rupp's idea of the inherently good
soul that has no need of salvation.
How is it that Sr. Rupp is still giving retreats to Catholics or speaking in any Catholic organization?
The answer lies in her masterfully insidious presentation. Although this may not be deliberate, Sr.
Rupp's work is a masterpiece of implication and omission. Most of what she says is vague enough
that it can be interpreted in a Catholic way, particularly if one is not familiar with the system of
thought -- transpersonal psychology -- that undergirds her presentation.
The gravest errors -- her definition of the soul and comments on salvation, for example -- though
obviously flawed, are touched on lightly, leaving the majority of the implications unstated. These
errors are surrounded by apparent supporting evidence, such as the implication that Sr. Rupp and
St. Teresa agree in their assessment of the soul. To someone unfamiliar with St. Teresa, this is
convincing support for the Catholicity of Sr. Rupp's ideas.
Further, she quotes heterodox ex-priest Matthew Fox, but she neglects to mention his doctrinal
deviations, his having been silenced by the Vatican, or his having left the Church. If one didn't
know Matthew Fox and heard his quote on narcissistic prayer that she used, one could well think
that he was worth exploring. The problem is that her audience is, for the most part, the very
people who are ill-equipped to evaluate Matthew Fox and whose faith could be significantly
endangered by reading him. Well-catechized people -- because they tend to seek out theologically
sound presentations -- are not generally attracted to Sr. Rupp.
For the most part, Sr. Rupp draws women who like her writings and who attend her retreats for
the emotional experience she provides. Sr. Rupp does not disappoint in that regard. She is a very
engaging speaker who excels at telling stirring spiritual anecdotes, stories that grab the emotions.
Alongside these are self-deprecating stories that make it hard not to like Sr. Rupp. Her other
stories touch on our deepest emotions -- stories about young children, stories about death and
grieving, stories about courage in the face of extraordinary hardship. Much is said about the
significance of dreams, but with no mention of the necessity for careful discernment when dealing
with such experiences. This combination of a charming personality and deeply stirring stories has
great power to attract those whose primary interest is in the emotional rather than the
intellectual.
These very moving emotional moments are surrounded by prayer and conversation designed to make participants feel
affirmed. We were told repeatedly about our inner goodness and wisdom. Any inanity expressed by any of the retreatants
was received by Sr. Rupp as if it were inspired truth. This sort of attention makes people feel good, that was quite obvious.
And some of Sister's advice -- on relationships, on accepting others, on hospitality, on seeing Christ in the stranger -- was
excellent. Thus, the retreatants tend to dismiss the spiritual danger inherent in her presentation. They think that if the bad
ideas were touched on lightly, if they weren't the focus, if it all made one feel good about oneself and others, if it even
taught a few good techniques for relationships, it does no serious harm. This is incorrect. The problem with Sr. Rupp's
retreats is not that some good ideas are mixed in with some bad ideas, but that some good ideas and positive emotions are
being associated with some spiritually fatal ideas. No one would argue that a bit of cyanide should be tolerated in an
otherwise excellent meal, because even a little cyanide is deadly. As St. Thomas Aquinas reminds us ( Summa Theologica,
II-II Q.5, A.3), when one denies even a single article of the Creed, one has lost the faith. That Christ died for our
salvation is an article of the faith, stated in the Creed. To come to believe with Sr. Rupp that our souls have no need of
salvation is to lose what is essential to Christianity, to lose the faith -- and that is the spiritual equivalent of swallowing
poison. It is a poison that Sr. Joyce Rupp should not be permitted to spread.
Continued from page 74
NON-CATHOLIC CHRISTIANS ON PSYCHOLOGY
1A. INFLUENCE OF CARL JUNG ON THE CHURCH, PART II by James Sundquist
http://www.cephas-library.com/formation_willowcreek_pt_3.html [NOTE: This is an anti-Catholic site- Michael]
CHURCH GROWTH MOVEMENT - PART III
As a concerned Christian, I would like to fervently respond to the following paper which was delivered at the CAPS
Convention in Virginia Beach, Virginia entitled:
THE USE OF THE MYERS/BRIGGS INSTRUMENT IN SANCTIFICATION OF LIFE AND MARRIAGE RELATIONSHIPS
by John H. Stoll*, Ph.D., Executive Director, ASK, Inc.
Dr. Stoll proposes that your marriage can be sanctified by the Meyers-Briggs test even though the Bible states precisely
that we are sanctified by the Word of God. Ironically, he uses the very Scripture to support using Myers-Briggs which
should be used to refute its use. If the Word sanctifies and perfects us, "He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing
of water by the Word" (Ephesians 5: 21-26) then what can Carl Jung/Myers-Briggs add? He also states that Christians
should be treated equally, but most Christians were never administered the Myers-Briggs test either today or before it
existed, so how is that equal treatment ("There should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the
same care, one for another" (I Corinthians 12: 25). Now, the only difference I can see between MBTI and Carl Jung
himself, is that MBTI** uses numerology to codify and number the results of the personality profiling. To
sanctify means in part to make holy. How do you make something holy with something which is unholy?
For your convenience and reference, Dr. John Stoll's paper which he presented at your convention may be located at:
http://www.leaderu.com/offices/stoll/myersbri.html
**Myers-Briggs Temperament Indicator
*Dr. Stoll defends his position, see page 56
As you all know, Myers-Briggs is based on the theories of Carl Jung. So, I invite you to test the spirits to see if they
be of God and re-examine whether or not his ideas are truly Biblical and whether or not a Christian Counselor or Pastor can
truly implement these tests. I will prove to you below from Jung's own words that his personality profiling was derived from
a demonic spirit-guide named Philemon. The Bible calls this Divination and is forbidden by the Lord.
In addition to my article below, I encourage you the read the following two scholarly articles on the Paganization of
Christianity: http://www.crmspokane.org/myths2.htm & http://www.crmspokane.org/Philemon.htm
I invite you to consider the following documents which prove the Clear and Present Danger of Carl Jung and
Psychology which has already become the Trojan Horse and Strange Fire within the Body of Christ and has
become a central theme to the Church Growth Movement through Bill Hybels at Willowcreek and Rick Warren via his
Purpose Driven Church.
I appeal to you all to consider two Scriptures with respect to the use of Meyers-Briggs and Personality
Profiling in counseling:
"Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators stand up, and save thee from these things that shall
come "Behold, they shall be as stubble;..." Isaiah 47:13. "Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of
thorns, or figs of thistles?" Matthew 7:16 "For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring
forth good fruit. For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush
gather they grapes." Luke 6:43-44 "Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so [can] no
fountain both yield salt water and fresh." James 3:12 "Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot
be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils." I Corinthians 10:21
"Blessed [is] the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the
seat of the scornful." Psalm 1:1 (Carl Jung was clearly ungodly and unbiblical in his ideas)
Finally, I humbly submit to you the following verse in the hope that I might actually recruit you to become part of a
vanguard to your colleagues, members, and those you counsel to fear the Lord in considering this Scripture:
"Whoever causes one of these little ones to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his
neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea." Matthew 18:6
Thank you for your time and consideration. Kindest regards in Christ, James Sundquist, President, Rock Salt Publishing
1B. INFLUENCE OF CARL JUNG ON THE CHURCH, PART III by James Sundquist
with subsequent excerpts from Pastor Gary Gilley's work and an article by Rev. Ed Hird
I sent the following letter to a relative who is working on his Masters Degree in Psychology to alert him to the dangers of
Psychological Profiling in the Church.
The Meyers-Brigg's derivative the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter is being used extensively by Rick Warren in his SHAPE
Program. Bill Hybels the Director of the Willowcreek Association promotes the Meyers-Briggs test itself in more than 7,500
churches and 90 countries who endorses the Meyers-Briggs test for his members and attenders.
Now one of the most important Scriptures that bear on this subject is:
"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits,
and doctrines of devils." I Timothy 4: 1
This verse is significant in two respects:
1. It demonstrates that devils (evil spirits) are not only real but that they are not archaic in that they not only once existed,
but now are NOT extinct. They do indeed exist today.
…any false teaching would also qualify, including the Meyers-Briggs Personality Profiling which was conceived from Carl
Jung practicing Divination through a spirit-guide named Philemon.
The existence of evil spirits is further confirmed by the Apostle Paul's words:
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of
this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places]." Ephesians 6: 12, and
"Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the
spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:" Ephesians 2: 2
2. If Christians will depart from the faith in the Great Falling Away for giving heed to these spirits and teachings, don't you
think it is important for us to know what a false teaching would look like, for Paul to warn us?
Now I will admit, it is not always easy to tell if a teaching is false without the Spiritual Gift of Discernment and/or without
knowing the Bible well. But some things are very easy to detect. We simply look in the Scriptures to see if God forbids it or
condemns a practice or teaching.
This brings me to Carl Jung. His theory of Personality is at the core of the Meyers-Briggs Test as well as the
Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter. This can be verified by simply going to either of their websites. Keirsey
Temperament Sorter is also used and promoted by Gary Smalley. You can go to his website to confirm this. I have
contacted the Jung Institute in Switzerland where Carl Jung founded his work and the Jung Institute in Dallas, Texas. I also
have been in email correspondence with David Keirsey, Jr. His father designed the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter. He
confirms that his father was somewhere between an agnostic and atheist and believed in Darwin's Evolution as well as
Jung, of course. I asked the Jung Institute point blank for the statements made by Carl Jung himself that confirms
he believed in Darwin's evolution and that Carl Jung believed that our temperaments originated in prehuman animal ancestry. Where did he get these ideas? Well from his own admission, from a spirit-guide
named Philemon.
Jung states: "Philemon and other figures of my fantasies brought home to me the crucial insight that there are things in
the psyche which I do not produce, but which produce themselves and have their own life. Philemon represented a force
which was not myself. In my fantasies I held conversations with him, and he said things which I had not consciously
thought. For I observed clearly that it was he who spoke, not I. . . . Psychologically, Philemon represented superior insight.
He was a mysterious figure to me. At times he seemed to me quite real, as if he were a living personality. I went walking
up and down the garden with him, and to me he was what the Indians call a guru." Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections,
op. cit., page 183.
He also drew it from Greek paganism and mythology. Does this sound good to you? Well the Bible calls this Divination.
Here are some other answers I got back regarding Jung (with my questions)
-Dear Mental Health Professor of Continuing Education,
Do you happen to have or know where I could secure a quote or citation that Carl Jung believed our collective
subconscious came from pre-human or animal ancestry (evolution)? Thanks James
-James, Here is a quotation from A Primer of Jungian Psychology by Calvin S. Hall and Vernon J. Nordby, Meridian, 1999,
page 39. This is from a section about The Collective Unconscious.
"The mind of man is prefigured by evolution. Thus, the individual is linked with his past, not only with the
past of his infancy but more importantly with the past of the species and before that with the long stretch of
organic evolution. This placing of the psyche within the evolutionary process was Jung's preeminent
achievement."
-To: [email protected] Sent: Monday, January 20, 2003 1:23 PM Subject: Question about Carl Jung Quotes
Dear JAP Editor(s),
Do you happen to have or know where I could secure a quote or citation that Carl Jung believed our collective subconscious
came from pre-human or animal ancestry (evolution)? Thanks, James
-Dear James at Rock Salt Publishing,
In answer to your search for a quote, may I refer you to Vol. 20, the Index of Jung's Collected Works. Best Regards,
Ellie Stillman, Library & Bookstore, C.G. Jung Institute, Hornweg 28, 8700 Küsnacht, Switzerland
Check out a small book by Calvin S. Hall and Vernon J. Nordby called "A Primer of Jungian Psychology." On page 38-41
you'll find a discussion of the Collective Unconscious that explains Jung's position on the connection to "primordial images"
as he referred to the reservoir of latent images in the collective unconscious.
I'll give you a small quote from the Hall/Nordby book:
"Man inherits these images from his ancestral past, a past that includes all of his human ancestors as well as his prehuman
or animal ancestors. These racial images are not inherited in the sense that a person consciously remembers or has images
that his ancestors had. Rather they are predispositions or potentialities for experiencing and responding to the world in the
same ways that his ancestors did." page 39
"The evolution of a collective unconscious can be accounted for in the same way that the evolution of the body is
explained. Because the brain is the principal organ of the mind, the collective unconscious depends directly upon the
evolution of the brain." page 40
Try Volume 7 of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, the chapter on the 'Archetypes of the collective unconscious'.
Yours sincerely, Pramila Bennett, Administrative Editor, Journal of Analytical Psychology, tel. 020 7794 3640
*******
The following is a report by Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chair of ARM Canada, with all of the citations and proof that Carl
Jung held these views (it is superb): http://www3.bc.sympatico.ca/st_simons/arm03.htm
So is this something a Christian should believe in or dabble in, let alone import it as a program for the entire church?
So this is proof that a person or Christian who takes these Personality Profiling tests is simultaneously doing all of the
following at the same time:
DIVINATION
NUMEROLOGY
ASTROLOGY (Yes, Jung used this too... read his lectures)
EVOLUTION
NECROMANCY (Jung thought he could talk to the dead, and the dead could talk back) ( Carl Jung, Memories, Dreams,
Reflections, p. 18, 70-199).
"Blessed [is] the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the
seat of the scornful." Psalm 1: 1
"Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of
devils." I Corinthians 10: 21
Carl Jung was ungodly and he did not fear the Lord, which is the beginning of Wisdom....so he did not even have a
beginning. And as Isaiah says "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, [it is] because
[there is] no light in them." Isaiah 8:20
So, doesn't NO LIGHT mean NO LIGHT?
So, as kindly as I can tell you this exactly what Paul the Apostle meant by Doctrine of Demons and Seducing Spirits. It is
hard to imagine him warning us about something non-existent isn't it?
For more information on this subject I recommend the book ADDICTED TO RECOVERY by Dr. Gary Almy, M.D., who is an
Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Loyola University School of Medicine in Chicago and Associate Chief of Staff at Edward
Hines, Jr., Veteran's Hospital in Hines, IL.
I also appeal to you based on the Apostle Paul's Letter to Timothy:
"O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane [and] vain babblings, and oppositions of science
falsely so called: Which some professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace [be] with thee. Amen." I Timothy 6:20-21
My final appeal to you is in the words of Jesus Christ himself:
"Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know
them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither [can] a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire."
Matthew 7:15-19
The goal of our instruction is love, so my fervent hope is that in the end that this would all be edifying to you both, as we
would all be lovers of the truth!
Thank you for taking the time to read this!
But above all, I commend you to do what Paul said of the Bereans...study the Scriptures to see if these things be true, and
study the quotes of these teachers and see for yourselves if their teachings line up with Scripture...
2. CARL JUNG, NEO-GNOSTICISM, AND THE MYERS-BRIGGS TEMPERAMENT INDICATOR [MBTI]
A report by Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chairman of Anglican Renewal Ministries of Canada, Rector, St. Simon’s Anglican
Church, Vancouver (revised March 18, 1998)
http://www3.bc.sympatico.ca/st_simons/arm03.htm
In 1991, I had the wonderful privilege of attending the Episcopal Renewal Ministries (ERM) Leadership Training Institute
(LTI) in Evergreen, Colorado. Since then, I and others encouraged Anglican Renewal Ministries Canada to endorse the LTI
approach, reporting in the ARM Canada magazine with articles about our helpful LTI experiences. ARM Canada, through our
LTI Director, Rev. Murray Henderson, has since run a number of very helpful Clergy and Lay LTIs across Canada, which
have been well received and appreciated. Through listening to the tapes by Leanne Payne and Dr. Jeffrey Satinover from
the 1995 Kelowna Prayer Conference, I came across some new data that challenged me to do some rethinking about the
Jungian nature of the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Temperament Indicator) used in the current ARM Canada LTIs.
Dr. Jeffrey Satinover's critique of Jungianism came with unique credibility, given his background as an eminent Jungian
scholar, analyst, and past President of the C.G. Jung Foundation. I began to do some reading on Carl Jung, and mailed
each ARM Board member a copy of the two audio tapes by Payne and Satinover. The ARM Board at our April 1996 meeting
took an initial look at the Jungian nature of the MBTI, and whether we should continue to use the MBTI in our LTIs. Our
ARM Board agreed to do some investigating on this topic and report back with some information to discuss at the
November 1996 ARM Board meeting.
Currently approximately two and a half million people are 'initiated' each year into the MBTI process. (1)
According to Peter B. Myers, it is now the most extensively used personality instrument in history. (2) There is
even a MBTI version for children, called the MMTIC (Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children) (3), and a simplified
adult MBTI-like tool for the general public, known as the Keirsey-Bates Indicator. A most helpful resource in analyzing the
MBTI is the English Grove Booklet by Rev. Robert Innes, of St. John's College, Durham, entitled Personality Indicators & the
Spiritual Life. Innes focused on "the two indicators most widely used by Christian groups - Myers-Briggs and the
Enneagram."(4) One of the key questions for the ARM Board to settle is whether the MBTI is an integral part of Jungian
neo-gnosticism, or alternately, that it may be a detachable benevolent portion of Jung's philosophy in an otherwise suspect
context. To use a visual picture, is the MBTI the 'marijuana', the low-level entry drug that potentially opens the
door to the more hard-core Jungian involvement, or is it just a harmless sugar tablet? To get at this question, I
have broken my analysis down into smaller, more concrete questions.
1. Is the MBTI actually connected with Carl Jung?
The Rev. Canon Charles Fulton, President of ERM, commented in a June 17th, 1996 letter that "We have
certainly had some concerns over the MBTI over the years and its Jungian nature".
Rev. Fred Goodwin, Rector of National Ministries for ERM, commented in a September 18th, 1996 letter that "...we (ERM)
no longer use the MBTI in our teachings...we've not included it in the last couple of years - believing that there are many
other models and issues that need to be discussed with clergy and lay leaders."
In Isabel Briggs-Myers' book Introduction To Type (1983), she comments that the MBTI is "based on Jung's
theory of psychological types."(5) In the book People Types and Tiger Stripes written by Jungian practitioner
Dr. Gordon Lawrence, he states that "The (MBTI) Indicator was developed specifically to carry Carl Jung's
theory of type (Jung, 1921, 1971) into practical application."(6) In the Grove Book on personality indicators,
Robert Innes comments that "Carl Jung's psychology lies behind...the MBTI". (7)
The Buros Mental Measurement Year Book (1989, 10th Edition) notes that the MBTI "...is a constructoriented test that is inextricably linked with Jung's (1923) theory of psychological types."(8) As to the evidence
of validity, Buros characterizes the stability of type classification over time as "somewhat disappointing."(9)
The Jungian/MBTI stance, as expressed by Dr. Gordon Lawrence, former President of the Association for Psychological
Types, is that MBTI "types are a fact", not a theory. (10) After reviewing the statistical evidence relating to the MBTI,
however, Dr. Paul Kline, Professor of Psychometrics at Exeter University, commented that "There has been no clear support
for the 8-fold categorization, despite the popularity of the MBTI."(11) Mario Bergner, a colleague of Leanne Payne in
Pastoral Care Ministries, observed in a July 2nd, 1996 letter that "of all the different types of psychological testing, forced
choice tests (such as the MBTI) are considered the least valid." More specifically, Bergner noted that "the validity of
the MBTI is at zero because the test is based on a Jungian understanding of the soul which cannot be
measured for good or bad." The official MBTI view, as expressed by Dr. Gordon Lawrence, is that MBTI personality
designations are "as unchangeable as the stripes on a tiger". (12) Bergner, in contrast, does not believe that all of humanity
can be unchangeably boxed into 16 temperament types, and is concerned about cases where people are being rejected for
job applications, because they don't fit certain MBTI categories.
2. What is Carl Jung's Relation to Neo-Gnosticism?
Carl Jung is described by Merill Berger, a Jungian psychologist, as "the psychologist of the 21st century". (13)
Dr. Satinover says "Because of his great influence in propagating gnostic philosophy and morals in churches and
synagogues, Jung deserves a closer look. The moral relativism that released upon us the sexual revolution is rooted in an
outlook of which (Jung) is the most brilliant contemporary expositor."(14)
One could say without overstatement that Carl Jung is the Father of Neo-Gnosticism and the New Age
Movement. That is why Satinover comments that "One of the most powerful modern forms of Gnosticism is
without question Jungian psychology, both within or without the Church". (15)
Carl Jung "explicitly identified depth psychology, especially his own, as heir to the apostolic tradition, especially in what he
considered its superior handling of the problem of evil."(16) Jung claimed that "In the ancient world, the Gnostics, whose
arguments were very much influenced by psychic experience, tackled the problem of evil on a broader basis than the
Church Fathers."(17) Dr. Satinover notes that "Whatever the system, and however the different stages are purportedly
marked, the ultimate aim, the innermost circle of all Gnostic systems, is a mystical vision of the union of good and evil."(18)
Jung, says Satinover, "devoted most of his adult life to a study of alchemy; he also explicated both antique hermeticism and
the 'christian' gnostics; his earliest writings were about spiritualism..."(19) In his autobiography Memories, Dreams,
Reflections, Jung claimed: "The possibility of a comparison with alchemy, and the uninterrupted intellectual chain back to
Gnosticism, gave substance to my psychology."(20) Most people are not aware that Jung collected one of the largest
amassing of spiritualistic writings found on the European continent. (21) Dr. James Hillman, the former director for the
Jungian Institute in Zurich, commented, "(Jung) wrote the first introduction to Zen Buddhism, he...brought in
(Greek Mythology), the gods and the goddesses, the myths, ...he was interested in astrology..."(22)
In 1929, Jung wrote a commentary on the Secret of the Golden Flower, which he said was "not only a Taoist text
concerned with Chinese Yoga, but is also an alchemical treatise."(23) He comments that "...it was the text of the Golden
Flower that first put me on the right track. For in medieval alchemy we have the long-sought connecting link between
Gnosis (i.e. of the Gnostics) and the processes of the collective unconscious that can be observed in modern man..."(24)
Dr. Richard Noll comments that "the divinatory methods of the I Ching, used often by Jung in the 1920s and 1930s, were a
part of the initial training program of the C.G. Jung Institute of Zurich in 1948, and its use is widely advocated today in
Jungian Analytic-Training Institutes throughout the world."(25)
During the hippie movement of the 1960's, the Rock Opera Hair boldly proclaimed the alleged dawning of
the Age of Aquarius. Once again Carl Jung foreshadowed this emphasis in a 1940 letter to his former
assistant, Godwin Baynes: "1940 is the year when we approach the meridian of the first star in Aquarius. It
is the premonitory earthquake of the New Age."(26) In Jung's book Aion, he holds that "...the appearance of Christ
coincided with the beginning of a new aeon, the age of the Fishes. A synchronicity exists between the life of Christ and the
objective astronomical event, the entrance of the spring equinox into the sign of Pisces."(27) In a letter written by Jung
to Sigmund Freud, he said: "My evenings are taken up very largely with astrology. I made horoscopic
calculations in order to find a clue to the core of psychological truth...I dare say that we shall one day
discover in astrology a good deal of knowledge which has been intuitively projected into the heavens." (28)
Jung's family had occult linkage on both sides, from his paternal Grandfather's Freemasonry involvement as Grandmaster of
the Swiss Lodge (29), and his maternal family's long-term involvement with séances and ghosts. John Kerr, author of A
Most Dangerous Method, comments that Jung was heavily involved for many years with his mother and two
female cousins in hypnotically induced séances. Jung eventually wrote up the séances as his medical dissertation.
(30) Jung acquired a spirit guide and guru named 'Philemon' [who was described by Jung as 'an old man with
the horns of a bull...and the wings of a fisher']. Before being Philemon, this creature appeared to Jung as
'Elijah', and then finally mutated to 'Ka', an Egyptian earth-soul that 'came from below'. (31) It may be worth
reflecting upon why Jung designated his Bollingen Tower as the Shrine of Philemon. (32)
Carl Jung himself was the son of a Swiss Pastor caught in an intellectual faith crisis. When younger, he had a life-changing
dream of a subterranean phallic god which reappeared "whenever anyone spoke too emphatically about Lord Jesus."(33)
Jung commented that "...the 'man-eater' in general was symbolized by the phallus, so that the dark Lord Jesus, the Jesuit
and the phallus were identical."(34) This "initiation into the realm of darkness"(35) radically shaped Jung's approach to
Jesus: "Lord Jesus never became quite real for me, never quite acceptable, never quite lovable, for again and again I would
think of his underground counterpart... Lord Jesus seemed to me in some ways a god of death... Secretly, his love and
kindness, which I always heard praised, appeared doubtful to me..."(36)
The next major spiritual breakthrough in his life was what Jung described as a "blasphemous vision"(37) of God dropping
his dung on the local Cathedral. This vision, said Jung, gave him an intense "experience of divine grace". (38)
3. How serious is the Jungian Reconciliation of Good and Evil?
Leanne Payne says of Dr. Jeffrey Satinover that "like (C.S.) Lewis, he knows that we can never reconcile (synthesize) good
and evil, and this synthesis is the greatest threat facing not only Christendom but all mankind today."(39) Dr. Satinover
sees the temptation facing our generation that"...on a theological plane, we succumb to the dangerous fantasy that Good
and Evil will be reunited in a higher oneness."(40)
One of Jung's key emphases was that the "dark side" of human nature needed to be "integrated" into a
single, overarching "wholeness" in order to form a less strict and difficult definition of goodness.(41) "For
Jung", says Satinover, "good and evil evolved into two equal, balanced, cosmic principles that belong together in one
overarching synthesis. This relativization of good and evil by their reconciliation is the heart of the ancient doctrines of
gnosticism, which also located spirituality, hence morality, within man himself. Hence 'the union of opposites'."(42)
Jung believed that "the Christ-symbol lacks wholeness in the modern psychological sense, since it does not
include the dark side of things..."(43) For Jung, it was regrettable that Christ in his goodness lacked a
shadow side, and God the Father, who is the Light, lacked darkness.(44) He spoke of "...an archetype such as...the
still pending answer to the Gnostic question as to the origin of evil, or, to put it another way, the incompleteness of the
Christian God-image"(45) Jung sought a solution to this dilemma in the Holy Spirit who united the split in the moral
opposites symbolized by Christ and Satan.(46) "Looked at from a quaternary standpoint", writes Jung, "the Holy Ghost is a
reconciliation of opposites and hence the answer to the suffering in the Godhead which Christ personifies."(47) Thus for
Jung, says John Dourley, the Spirit unites the exclusively spiritual reality of Christ with that which is identified with the devil,
including 'the dark world of nature-bound man', the chthonic side of nature excluded by Christianity from the Christ
image.(48) In a similar vein, Jung saw the alchemical figure of Mercurius as a compensation for the one-sideness of the
symbol of Christ.(49) That is why Jung believed that "It is possible for a man to attain totality, to become whole,
only with the co-operation of the spirit of darkness..."(50)
4. How Much Influence does Jungian Neo-Gnosticism have on the Church?
There are key individuals promoting the Jungian gospel to the Church, such as Morton Kelsey, John Sanford
(not John & Paula Sandford), Thomas Moore, Joseph Campbell, and Bishop John Spong.
Thomas Moore, a former Roman Catholic monk, is widely popular with a new generation of soul-seekers, through his
best-seller: Care of the Soul. John Sanford, the son of the late Agnes Sanford, is an Episcopal Priest and Jungian analyst,
with several books promoting the Jungian way. Morton Kelsey is another Episcopal Priest who has subtly woven the
Jungian gospel through virtually every one of his books, especially those aimed for the Charismatic renewal constituency.
Satinover describes Kelsey as having "made a career of such compromise", noting that Kelsey has now proceeded in his
latest book Sacrament of Sexuality to approve of the normalization of homosexuality. (51)
Joseph Campbell cited by Satinover as a disciple of Jung, is famous for his public TV series on "The Power of Myth". (52)
Bishop John Spong, who has written two books (Resurrection: Myth or Reality and The Easter Moment) denying the
physical resurrection of Jesus Christ, gives Joseph Campbell credit for shaping his views on Jesus' resurrection. "I was
touched by Campbell's ability to seek the truth of myths while refusing to literalize the rational explanation of those myths...
Campbell allowed me to appreciate such timeless themes as virgin births, incarnations, physical resurrections, and cosmic
ascensions... Slowly, ever so slowly, but equally ever so surely, a separation began to occur for me between the experience
captured for us Christians in the word Easter and the interpretation of that experience found in both the Christian Scriptures
and the developing Christian traditions..."(53) Few people have realized that Bishop Spong's spiritual grandfather is none
other than Carl Jung.
"Jung's direct and indirect impact on mainstream Christianity - and thus on Western culture," says Satinover,
"has been incalculable. It is no exaggeration to say that the theological positions of most mainstream
denominations in their approach to pastoral care, as well as in their doctrines and liturgy - have become
more or less identical with Jung's psychological/ symbolic theology."(54) It is not just the more 'liberal' groups,
however, that are embracing the Jungian/MBTI approach. In a good number of Evangelical theological colleges, the MBTI is
being imposed upon the student body as a basic course requirement, despite the official Jungian stance that "The client has
the choice of taking the MBTI or not. Even subtle pressure should be avoided (55)."
While in theological school, I became aware of the strong influence of Dr. Paul Tillich on many modern clergy. In recently
reading C.G. Jung and Paul Tillich [written by John Dourley, a Jungian analyst and Roman Catholic priest from Ottawa], I
came to realize that Tillich and Jung are 'theological twins'. In a tribute given at a Memorial for Jung's death, Tillich
gave to Jung's thought the status of an ontology because its depth and universality constituted a 'doctrine of being'. (56)
It turns out that Tillich is heavily in debt to Jung for his view of God as the supposed "Ground of Being". As well, both Tillich
and Jung, says Dourley, "understand the self to be that centering force within the psyche which brings together the
opposites or polarities, whose dynamic interplay makes up life itself."(57) As a Jungian popularizer, Tillich saw life as "made
up of the flow of energy between opposing poles or opposites."(58)
So many current theological emphases in today's church can be traced directly back to Carl Jung. For example, with the
loss of confidence in the Missionary imperative, many mainline church administrators today sound remarkably like Jung
when he said: "What we from our point of view call colonization, missions to the heathen, spread of civilization, etc, has
another face - the face of a bird of prey seeking with cruel intentness for distant quarry - a face worthy of a race of pirates
and highwaymen."(59)
In speaking of Buddhism and Christianity, Jung taught the now familiar inter-faith dialogue line, that "Both
paths are right."(60) Jung spoke of Jesus, Mani, Buddha, and Lao-Tse as 'pillars of the spirit', saying "I could
give none preference over the other."(61) The English Theologian Don Cupitt says that Jung pioneered the
multi-faith approach now widespread in the Church. (62)
For those of us who wonder why some Anglicans are mistakenly calling themselves "co-creators with God", the theological
roots can again be traced back to Jung: "...man is indispensable for the completion of creation; that, in fact, he himself is
the 2nd creator of the world, who alone has given to the world its objective existence..."(63) In light of our current
Canadian controversies around "Mother Goddess" hymnbooks, it is interesting to read in the MBTI source book,
Psychological Types (Carl Jung, 1921) about the "Gnostic prototype, viz, Sophia, an immensely significant symbol for the
Gnosis."(64) Carl Jung is indeed the Grandfather of much of our current theology.
5. What is the connection between 'Archetypes', the Unconscious and the MBTI?
Keirsey and Bates are strong MBTI supporters who have identified the link between the MBTI psychological types and
Jungian archetypes. In their book Please Understand Me, they state Jung's belief that "…all have the same multitude of
instincts (i.e. archetypes) to drive them from within." Jung therefore "invented the 'function types' or 'psychological types'"
to combine the uniformity of the archetypes with the diversity of human functioning. (65) In their best-selling MBTI
book: Gifts Differing, Isabel Myers Briggs and Peter B. Myers speak openly about Jungian Archetypes as
"those symbols, myths, and concepts that appear to be inborn and shared by members of a civilization". (66)
Dr. Richard Noll holds in his book The Jung Cult that such Jungian ideas as the "collective unconscious" and
the theory of the archetypes come as much from late 19th century occultism, neopaganism, and social
Darwinian teaching, as they do from natural science. (67) Jung's post-Freudian work (after 1912), especially
his theories of the collective unconscious and the archetypes, could not have been constructed, says Noll,
without the works of G.R.S. Mead on Gnosticism, Hermeticism, and the Mithraic Liturgy. Starting in 1911,
Jung quoted Mead, a practicing Theosophist, regularly in his works through his entire life. (68) Richard Webster
holds that "the Unconscious is not simply an occult entity for whose real existence there is no palpable evidence. It is an
illusion produced by language - a kind of intellectual hallucination."(69)
Jung was a master at creating obscure, scientific-sounding concepts, usually adapted from occultic literature. Jung held that
"the collective unconsciousness is the sediment of all the experience of the universe of all time, and is also the image of the
universe that has been in process of formation from untold ages. In the course of time, certain features became prominent
in this image, the so-called dominants (later called archetypes by Jung)."(70) [Much of Jung's teaching on archetypes is so
obscure that I have placed the relevant data in the footnotes of this report, for the more motivated reader.]
In his phylogenetic racial theory, Jung assumes that acquired cultural attitudes, and hence Jungian archetypes, can actually
be transmitted by genetic inheritance. Richard Webster, however, explodes Jung's phylogenetic theory as biologically
untenable.(71) Peter B. Medawar, a distinguished biologist, wrote in the New York Review of Books (January 23, 1975):
"The opinion is gaining ground that doctrinaire psychoanalytic theory is the most stupendous intellectual
confidence trick of the 20th century: and a terminal product as well - something akin to a dinosaur or zeppelin in the
history of ideas, a vast structure of radically unsound design and with no posterity."
"This work Psychological Types (1921), said Jung, "sprung originally from my need to define the way in which my outlook
differs from Freud's and Adler's. In attempting to answer this question, I came across the problem of types, for it is one's
psychological type which from the outset determines and limits a person's judgment."(72) In words strangely reminiscent of
L. Ron Hubbard's Scientology, Jung teaches in Psychological Types (PT) that "The unconscious, regarded as the historical
background of the psyche, contains in a concentrated form the entire succession of engrams (imprints), which from time to
time have determined the psychic structure as it now exists."(73)
Jung held in PT that "The magician...has access to the unconscious that is still pagan, where the opposites still lie together
in their primeval naiveté, beyond the reach of 'sinfulness', but liable, when accepted into conscious life, to beget evil as well
as good with the same primeval and therefore daemonic force."(74) Jung entitled an entire section in PT: "Concerning the
Brahmanic Conception of the Reconciling Symbol". Jung notes: "Brahman therefore must signify the irrational union of the
opposites - hence their final overcoming...These quotations show that Brahman is the reconciliation and dissolution of the
opposites - hence standing beyond them as an irrational factor."(75)
My recurring question is: "Do we in ARM Canada wish to be directly or indirectly sanctioning this kind of teaching?"
Symbolically, the MBTI can be thought of as a "freeze-dried" version of Jung's Psychological Types (1921).
Since PT teaches extensively about Jung's archetypes and collective unconscious, it seems clear to me that to endorse the
'freeze-dried' MBTI is ultimately to endorse Jung's archetypal, occultic philosophy.
6. What is the Relationship between Neo-gnosticism and the MBTI?
Dr. Richard Noll of Harvard University comments that "We know that (Wilhelm) Ostwald was a significant influence on Jung
in the formation of his theory of psychological types."(76) Jung mentioned Ostwald's division of men of genius into classics
and romantics in his first public presentation on psychological types at the Psychoanalytic Congress in Munich in September
1913. The classics and the romantics corresponded, according to Jung, to the introverted type and the extraverted type.
Long quotations from Ostwald appear in other of Jung's work between 1913 and 1921 - precisely the period of Ostwald's
most outspoken advocacy of eugenics, nature worship, and German imperialism through the Monistenbund, a Monistic
Alliance led by Ostwald. An entire chapter of Jung's Psychological Types is devoted favorably to these same ideas of
Ostwald."(77)
Is any link, however, between Ostwald's Germanic anti-Semitism and Jung merely an exercise in 'guilt-by-association'? The
newly emerging hard data would suggest otherwise. The influence of Germanic anti-Semitism on Jungianism can now be
seen in a secret quota clause designed to limit Jewish membership to 10% in the Analytical Psychology Club of Zurich.
Jung's secret Jewish quota was in effect from 1916 to 1950, and only came to public light in 1989. (78)
"The book on types (PT)", says Jung, "yielded the view that every judgment made by an individual is conditioned by his
personality type and that every point of view is necessarily relative. This raised the question of the unity which much
compensate this diversity, and it led me directly to the Chinese concept of Tao."(79) Put simply, the MBTI conceptually
leads to Taoism.
Jung held that the central concept of his psychology was "the process of individuation". Interesting the subtitle
of the PT book, which The MBTI claims to represent, is "...or The Psychology of Individuation". Philip Davis, Associate
Professor of Religious Studies at the University of P.E.I. comments, "In this lengthy process of 'individuation', one
learns that one's personality incorporates a series of polar opposites: rationality and irrationality, the 'animal' and
the 'spiritual', 'masculinity' and 'femininity', and so on. The goal of the (Jungian) exercise is the reconciliation of the
opposites, bringing them all into a harmony that results in 'self-actualization'." (80) Once again, it seems that aspect after
aspect of this seemingly innocuous personality test leads back to Jung's fundamental philosophic and religious teachings.
Two of Jung's 'most influential archetypes' are the anima & animus, described by Jung as "psychological
bisexuality". (81) Jung teaches in PT that every man has a female soul (anima) and every woman has a male
soul (animus). (82) Noll comments that "Jung's first encounter with the feminine entity he later called the
anima seems to have begun with his use of mediumistic techniques..."(83) Based on the recently discovered
personal diary of Sabina Spielrein, John Kerr claims that Jung's so-called anima "the woman within" which
he spoke to, was none other than his idealized image of his former mistress, patient, and fellow therapist,
Sabina Spielrein. (84) After breaking with both Spielrein and Freud, Jung felt his own soul vanish as if it had
flown away to the land of the dead. Shortly after, while his children were plagued by nightmares and the
house was seemingly haunted, Jung heard a chorus of spirits cry out demanding: 'We have come back from
Jerusalem where we have not found what we sought.' (85)
In response to these spirits, Jung wrote his Seven Sermons to the Dead. In these seven messages Jung 'reveals',
in agreement with the 2nd century Gnostic writer Basilides, the True and Ultimate God as Abraxas, who combines Jesus
and Satan, good and evil all in one.(86) This is why Jung held that "Light is followed by shadow, the other side of the
Creator."(87) Dr. Noll, a clinical psychologist and post-doctoral fellow at Harvard University, holds that "Jung
was waging war against Christianity and its distant, absolute, unreachable God and was training his disciples
to listen to the voice of the dead and to become gods themselves."(88)
7. What Does the MBTI Prototype Book "Psychological Types" teach about Opposites?
Consistently Jung teaches about reconciliation of opposites, even of good and evil. Jung comments in MDR :
"...a large part of my life work has revolved around the problem of opposites and especially their alchemical
symbolism..."(89) Through experiencing Goethe's Faust, Jung came to believe in the 'universal power' of evil and "its
mysterious role it played in delivering man from darkness and suffering."(90) "Most of all", said Jung, "(Faust) awakened in
me the problem of opposites, of good and evil, of mind and matter, of light and darkness."(91) Being influenced as well
by the Yin-Yang of Taoism, Jung believed that "Everything requires for its existence its opposite, or it fades
into nothingness."(92)
Dr. Gordon Lawrence, a strong Jungian/MBTI supporter, teaches that "In Jung's theory, the two kinds of perception sensing and intuition - are polar opposites of each other. Similarly, thinking judgment and feeling judgment are polar
opposites."(93) It seems to me that the setting up of the psychological polar opposites in PT functions as a useful prelude
for gnostic reconciliation of all opposites. The MBTI helps condition our minds into thinking about the existence of polar
opposites, and their alleged barriers to perfect wholeness. In the PT book, Jung comments that "One may be sure
therefore, that, interwoven in the new symbol with its living beauty, there is also the element of evil, for, if not, it would
lack the glow of life as well as beauty, since life and beauty are naturally indifferent to morality."(94) My question for the
ARM Board is: "Do we accept Jung's 'polar opposites' view that there can be no life and beauty without evil?"
"We must beware", said Jung, "of thinking of good and evil as absolute opposites...The criterion of ethical action can no
longer consist in the simple view that good has the force of a categorical imperative, while so -called evil can resolutely be
shunned. Recognition of the reality of evil necessarily relativizes the good, and the evil likewise, converting both into halves
of a paradoxical whole."(95) Here is where Jung ties in his ethical relativism to the PT/MBTI worldview: "In practical terms,
this means that good and evil are no longer so self-evident. We have to realize that each represents a judgment."(96)
Jung saw the reconciliation of opposites as a sign of great sophistication: "(Chinese philosophy) never failed to
acknowledge the polarity and paradoxity of all life. The opposites always balanced one another - a sign of high culture.
Onesideness, though it lends momentum, is a sign of barbarism."(97) It would not be too far off to describe Jung as a
gnostic Taoist. In PT, Jung comments that "The Indian (Brahman-Atman teaching) conception teaches
liberation from the opposites, by which every sort of affective style and emotional hold to the object is
understood...Yoga is a method by which the libido is systematically 'drawn in' and thereby released from the
bondage of opposites."(98)
While in India in 1938, Jung says that he "was principally concerned with the question of the psychological nature of
evil."(99) He was "impressed again and again by the fact that these people were able to integrate so-called 'evil' without
'losing face'...To the oriental, good and evil are meaningfully contained in nature, and are merely varying degrees of the
same thing. I saw that Indian spirituality contains as much of evil as of good... one does not really believe in evil, and one
does not really believe in good."(100)
In a comment reminiscent of our 1990's relativistic culture, Jung said of Hindu thought: "Good or evil are
then regarded at most as my good or my evil, as whatever seems to me good or evil". (101) To accept the eight
polarities within the MBTI predisposes one to embrace Jung's teaching that the psyche "cannot set up any absolute truths,
for its own polarity determines the relativity of its statements."(102) Jung was also a strong promoter of the occultic
mandala, a circular picture with a sun or star usually at the centre. Sun worship, as personified in the
mandala, is perhaps the key to fully understanding Jung. (103) Jung taught that the mandala* [Sanskrit for
'circle'] was "the simplest model of a concept of wholeness, and one which spontaneously arises in the mind
as a representation of the struggle and reconciliation of opposites."(104)
*see pages 21, 23
In conclusion, to endorse the MBTI is to endorse Jung's book Psychological Types, since the MBTI
proponents consistently say that the MBTI "was developed specifically to carry Carl Jung's theory of types
(1921, 1971) into practical application."(105)
Let us seek the Lord in unity as he reveals his heart for us in this matter.
Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chair, ARM Canada
P.S. ARM Canada decided in November 1997 after much prayer and reflection to no longer use the
MBTI in the Clergy and Lay Leadership Training Institutes.
Footnotes
1. Isabel Briggs Myers with Peter B. Myers, Gifts Differing, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Press, Inc., 1980,p. xvii. Many
charismatics have a soft spot for this book, because it quotes portions of scripture from Romans 12 and 1 Corinthians 12.
The actual link, however, between those bible passages, and the Jung/Myers-Briggs theories is rather questionable.
In an October 29th, 1996 letter from Rev. Fred Goodwin, Rector of National Ministries for ERM, Fred Goodwin commented:
"I would suggest that in light of your concerns, you drop the MBTI and use some of the material out on small group
ministry and discipling instead -- which we find are desperate needs for leadership training in the church."
2. Ibid., p.210; also Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p. xi; A book Prayer & Temperament written by
Msgr. Chester Michael and Marie Norrisey in 1984 has been very effective in winning Roman Catholics and Anglicans to the
MBTI. The book claims that the MBTI designations will make you either oriented to Ignatian prayer (if you are SJ),
Augustinian prayer (if you are NF), Franciscan prayer (if you are SP), or Thomistic prayer (if you are NT). In the MBTI, the
four sets of types are Extrovert (E) & Introvert (I), Sensate (S) & Intuitive (N), Thinking (T) & Feeling (F), and Judging (J)
& Perceiving (P). None of these 8 innocuous-sounding type names mean what they sound like. Instead each of the 8 type
names has unique and mysterious, perhaps even occultic, definitions given by Jung himself in a massive section at the back
of Psychological Types.
3. Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, Gainesville, FL: Center for Applications of Psychological Types, 1979,
p. 222
4. Robert Innes, Personality Indicators and The Spiritual Life, Grove Books Ltd., Cambridge, 1996, p.3; The Enneagram is
significantly occultic in nature and origin, coming from Sufi, numerology, and Arica New-Age sources. George Gurdjieff,
Oscar Ichazo of Esalen Institute, and Claudio Naranjo are the prominent New Agers who have popularized it, and then
introduced it, through Fr. Bob Oschs SJ, into the Christian Church. For more information, I recommend Robert Innes'
booklet and Mitchell Pacwa SJ article's "Tell Me Who I Am, O Enneagram" Christian Research Journal, Fall 1991, pp. 14ff.
5. Isabel Briggs Myers, Introduction to Type, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1983, p.4
6. Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p. 6, also p. x
7. Robert Innes, Personality Indicators and The Spiritual Life, p.8
8. The Buros Mental Measurement YearBook (1989, 10th Edition), p. 93
9. Ibid., p. 93
10. Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p.150
11. Dr. Paul Kline, Personality: The Psychometric View: Routledge, 1993, p.136
12. Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, Back Cover
13. Merill Berger & Stephen Segaller, The Wisdom of the Dreams, C.G. Jung Foundation, New York, NY, Shamballa
Publications, Front Cover
14. Dr. Jeffrey Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, Baker Book House Co., 1996, p. 238
15. Jeffrey Satinover, The Empty Self, p. 27. Jung has "blended psychological reductionism with gnostic spirituality to
produce a modern variant of mystical, pagan polytheism in which the multiple 'images of the instincts' (his 'archetypes') are
worshipped as gods", Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, p. 238
16. Ibid., p. 238
17. Dr. Carl Jung, Aion, Collected Works, Vol. 9, 2 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959), p. 10
20. Carl Jung & Aniela Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, translated from the German by Richard & Clara Winston,
Vintage Books-Random House, 1961/1989, p. 205
18. Jeffrey Satinover, The Empty Self, p. 23
19. Ibid., p. 27, Ft. 28
21. Jeffrey Satinover, The Empty Self, p. 28
22. The Wisdom of the Dreams: Carl Gustav Jung: a Stephen Segaller Video, Vol. 3, "A World of Dreams". Jung also wrote
the first western commentary on the Tibetan Book of the Dead.( Psychology & the East, p. 60)
23. Carl Jung, Psychology & the East, London & New York: Ark Paper Back, 1978/1986, p. 3
24. Ibid., p. 6
25 Dr. Richard Noll, The Jung Cult.: Origins of a Charismatic Movement, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
1994, p. 333
26. Merill Berger & Stephen Segaller, The Wisdom of the Dreams, p. 162; Jung & Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 340
27. Jung & Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 221
28. Richard Webster, Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, & Psychoanalysis, Basic Books: Harper Collins, 1995, p. 385.
Jung comments: "For instance, it appears that the signs of the zodiac are character pictures, in other words, libido symbols
which depict the typical qualities of the libido at a given moment..."
29. Jung & Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p.232
30. John Kerr, A Most Dangerous Method: the Story of Jung, Freud, & Sabina Spielrein, New York, Alfred Knopf Books,
1993, p. 50 & 54
31. Satinover, The Empty Self, p. 37; The spirit guide Philemon/Elijah later mutated into Salome, who addressed Jung in a
self-directed trance vision as Christ. Jung 'saw' himself assume the posture of a victim of crucifixion, with a snake coiled
around him, and his face transformed into that of a lion from the Mithraic mystery religion. (C.G. Jung, Analytical
Psychology :Princeton University Press, 1989:, p. 96, 98)
32. Jung & Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p.223. "Shrine of Philemon: Repentance of Faust" was the inscription
carved in stone by Jung over the entrance of the Bollingen Tower, where he lived and wrote.
33. Ibid., p. 12
34. Ibid., p. 12
35. Ibid., p.15
34. Ibid., p. 13
35. Ibid., p. 15
36. Ibid., p. 13
37. Ibid., p. 58. Jung concluded from this 'Cathedral' experience that "God Himself can...condemn a person to blasphemy"
Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 74
38. Ibid., p. 55
39. Satinover, The Empty Self, p.3
40. Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, p. 238
41. Ibid., p. 240
42. Ibid., p 240. Keirsey & Bates, authors of Please Understand Me, and creators of the more popularized Keirsey-Bates
adaptation of the MBTI, teach openly in their book on the Jungian "shadow...It's as if, in being attracted to our opposite,
we grope around for that rejected, abandoned, or unlived half of ourselves...(p.68)"
43. Jung, Aion, Collected Works, p. 41
44. John P. Dourley, C.G. Jung & Paul Tillich: The Psyche as Sacrament, Inner City Books, 1981, p. 63 "(Jung) also feels
that it is questionable in that (the Christ symbol) contains no trace of the shadow side of life." Fr. Dourley, a Jungian
analyst, also comments on p. 63 about Jung's "criticism of the Christian conception of a God in who there is no darkness."
45. Jung & Jaffe, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p.318
46. Dourley, C.G. Jung & Paul Tillich, p. 70
47. Carl Jung, 'A Psychological Approach to The Trinity', CW11, para. 260
48. Ibid., para. 263
49. Carl Jung, 'The Spirit Mercurius', Alchemical Studies, CW13, para. 295. Jung comments, "As early as 1944, in
Psychology and Alchemy, I had been able to demonstrate the parallelism between the Christ figure and the central concept
of the alchemists, the lapis or stone." MDR, p.210
50. C.G. Jung, 'The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairy Tales, CW9, para. 453
51. Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, p. 241
52. Satinover, The Empty Self, p. 9; Joseph Campbell in fact worked personally with Jung and published through the
Jungian-controlled Bollingen Foundation , ( Philip Davis, "The Swiss Maharishi", Touchstone Issue 92, Spring 1996, p.11)
53. The Right Reverend John Spong, Resurrection: Reality or Myth, Harper, 1994, p. xi. His parallel book is The Easter
Moment.
54. Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, p.240. Satinover dryly comments that "in the United States, the
Episcopal Church has more or less become a branch of Jungian psychology, theologically and liturgically." (Empty Self , p.
27, Footnote. 27)
55. Dr. Gordon Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p. 218
56. A Memorial Meeting: New York, Analytical Psychology Club, 1962, p. 31
57. Dourley, C.G. Jung & Paul Tillich, p. 17
58. Ibid., p. 48 The persistent modern emphasis on the so-called 'inner child' makes a lot more sense when seen as a spinoff from Jung's teaching that the symbol of the child is "that final goal that reconciles the opposites." (Dourley, p. 83)
59. Ibid., p. 248
60. Ibid., p. 279
61. Dourley, C.G. Jung & Paul Tillich, p. 65
62. The Wisdom of the Dream, p. 99
63. Jung, MDR, p. 256
64. Carl Jung, Psychological Types: or the Psychology of Individuation, Princeton University Press, 1921/1971, p. 290. Dr.
Jeffrey Satinover memorably comments as a former Jungian that 'Goddess worship' is not the cure for misogyny, but it is its
precondition, whether overtly or unconsciously. (The Empty Self, p. 9); Marija Bimbutas, the late professor of archeology at
UCLA, included Jung and more than a half dozen of his noted disciples in the bibliographies to her books on the alleged
matriarchies of the Balkans: The Language of the Goddess (1989) and The Civilization of the Goddess(1991),(Philip Davis,
"The Swiss Maharishi", Touchstone Issue 92, Spring 1996, p.13)
65. David Keirsey & Marilyn Bates, Please Understand Me, Del Mar, CA: Promothean Books, p. 3
66. Isabel Myers Briggs & Peter B. Myers, Gifts Differing, p. xiv
67. Richard Noll, The Jung Cult, front cover
68. Ibid., p. 69 Dr. Noll comments: "I therefore argue that the Jung cult and its present day movement is in fact a
'Nietzschean religion'", p. 137; Frederick Nietzsche's stated view on Christianity is: "The Christian Church has left nothing
untouched by its depravity; it has turned every value into worthlessness, and every truth into a lie." (Canadian Atheist,
Issue 8: 1996, p. 1)
69. Richard Webster, Why Freud was Wrong, p.250
70. Jung, Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, 'The Psychology of Unconscious Processes') p. 432 These dominants,
said Jung, "are the ruling powers, the gods; that is, the representations resulting from dominating laws and principles, from
average regularities in the issue of images that the brain has received as a consequence of secular processes."(p. 432)
71. Webster, Why Freud was Wrong p. 387
72. Berger & Segaller, Wisdom of the Dreams; p. 103, MDR, p. 207
73. Jung, Psychological Types, p. 211
74. Ibid., p. 233 It would be interesting to research how much Jungian reading George Lucas did in preparing to produce
his Blockbuster Star Wars. [i.e. The Force be with you]. The deity-like Force in Stars Wars was either good or evil,
depending how you tapped into it.
75. Ibid., p. 245-46
76. Noll, The Jung Cult, p. 51
77. Ibid., p. 69
78. Ibid., p. 259
79. Jung, MDR p. 207; Carl Jung, Psychology & the East, p. 15 "The wise Chinese would say in the words of the I Ching:
'When Yang has reached its greatest strength, the dark power of yin is born within its depths, for night begins at midday
when yang breaks up and begins to change into yin."
80. Ibid., p. 209; Philip Davis, "The Swiss Maharishi", Touchstone Issue 92, Spring 1996, p.12
81. Ibid., p. 391; Henri F. Ellenberger makes a strong case that Jung borrowed his matriarchy and anima/animus theories
from Bachofen, an academic likened by some to the scientific credibility of Erik Von Daniken of The Chariots of the Gods
and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of TM and its Yogic Flying. (Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious, Penguin Press,
1970, pp. 218-223); Philip Davis, "The Swiss Maharishi", Touchstone Issue 92, Spring 1996, p.13); Richard Noll, The Jung
Cult, p. 188-90
82. Jung, Psychological Types, p. 595
83. Noll, The Jung Cult, p. 202-203; Philip Davis comments: "Jung's therapeutic technique of 'active imagination' is now
revealed as a sanitized version of the sort of trance employed by spiritualistic mediums and Theosophical travelers, with
whom Jung was personally familiar." (Philip Davis, "The Swiss Maharishi", Touchstone Issue 92, Spring 1996, p.14)
84. John Kerr, A Most Dangerous Method, p. 12; 49;191; 498 "...there (the Russian-born Spielrein) remained (in almost
complete obscurity) until the publication of the Freud/Jung correspondence in 1974.";p. 502;503: After the collapse of the
Spielrein affair, John Kerr notes that "Jung's condition had so deteriorated that his wife allowed Toni Wolff openly to
become his mistress, and a sometime member of the household, simply because she was the only person who could calm
him down."; p. 507- Jung's stone bear carving in his Bollingen Tower specifically symbolized the anima . Curiously the
inscription said: "Russia gets the ball rolling"; In a letter to Freud, Jung commented: "the prerequisite for a good
marriage...is the license to be unfaithful." The Freud/Jung Letters, trans. by R. Manheim & R. Hull (Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 289
85. Ibid., p. 503; MDR, p.190
86. MDR, p. 378
87. MDR, p. 328
88. Noll, The Jung Cult, p. 224
89. MDR, p. 233
90. Ibid., p. 60
91. Ibid., p. 235
92. Jung, Psychology & the East, p. 184
93. Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p. 113
94. Jung, Psychological Types, p. 235
95. MDR, p. 329
96. Ibid., p. 329
97. Jung, Psychology & The East, p. 11
98. Jung, Psychological Types, p. 149-50
99. MDR, p. 275
100. Ibid., p. 275
101. Ibid., p. 275
102. Ibid., p.350
103. Noll, The Jung Cult, p. 137
104. MDR, p. 335
105. Lawrence, People Types & Tiger Stripes, p. 6
DR. STOLL* DEFENDS HIMSELF AGAINST JAMES SUNDQUIST’S CRITICAL ARTICLE ON MBTI/JUNG
Dear James:
I am sorry to not have replied to your letter sooner, but I have been off line for 2 weeks, traveling from Arizona to
Minneapolis. I downloaded your 16 page treatise on Carl Jung, and the correspondence you had with Byron Barlowe of
Campus Crusades, Christian Leadership Ministry. I have not had time to thoroughly digest your paper, but will do so shortly.
However, I wanted to respond to you briefly, just to let you know I haven't forgotten you.
First of all let me state unequivocally that I am a Bible believing evangelical Theologian, who has taught in conservative
Christian Colleges/Seminaries over a 50 year span. I stand without apology for the absolute truth of inspired Scripture. That
is not to say that I am unwilling to investigate other writings, but I always filter every thing I read through the prism of
God's divine Word, the Bible.
While I was teaching at a Christian college in Indiana, I had the privilege of spending 5 years receiving my
Ph.D. at Notre Dame University. I had 16 Jungian professors as my teachers, with Morton Kelsey being my
major mentor. After 5 years of more Jung than I wanted, I came to the same conclusion that you have come to about
him. So, I believe we are on the same page, Biblically as well as theologically.
This much for now. I shall read your paper and respond more fully later. - John H. Stoll
*see page 45
Dear James Sundquist:
Over the weekend I read the 16 pages you sent me relative to your concern about my endorsement of the MBTI test, and
the philosophical and religious foundation for it, as promoted by Jungian psychology.
First, may I give you a bit of personal background as to my worldview in relation to Jungian psychology and the MBTI. I
was raised in a Fundamentalist family (my Father who was a minister, and was a very Godly and excellent Bible expositor,
whom I greatly loved). I went to Wheaton College, then received two graduate degrees (M. Div; Th. M.) from Grace
Seminary. Then, I spent the next 35 years teaching Bible & Theology in Christian colleges/seminaries. While I was the Chair
of the Bible Dep't at Grace Coll. I had the privilege of spending 5 years at Notre Dame University receiving my Ph.D. in
Counseling. For what it was worth, I had 16 Jungian profs at NDU. I had more Jung than I wanted. I constantly was
comparing that philosophy and worldview of Jung with the Bible, in the classroom. In my opinion, Jung came up short, so
that I discounted Jung and all his worldview, philosophy, Theology, etc. in light of the Biblical worldview and principles.
Therefore, as I read the paper you sent me, I couldn't agree with what I read more. All that was stated in the paper, as to
the evaluation of Jung, squares with what I learned about him at NDU. So, we do not have an issue on that. I have read
Jeffrey Satinover's writings, along with Richard Noll's books, etc. so am well versed with that which you quoted in the
paper. Furthermore, I have in hand Ed Hird's report to ARM Canada, and agree with his evaluation. Morton Kelsey, who
was my major professor at NDU and I had many a conflicting dialogue over the years
Given all that background, I would like to comment on three items in the paper: 1) on p. 12 (as it was printed out on my
computer) the 4th paragraph, it stated, "To accept the 8 polarities within the MBTI predisposes one to embrace Jung's
teaching that the psyche 'cannot set up any absolute truths, for its own polarity determines the relativity of its elements". I
have used the MBTI for over 25 years in my Marriage and Family counseling, and I have never once bought into that
concept of the quote. There is absolute truth in the Bible and its principles, and when anything anywhere runs counter to
the Bible, I would dismiss it. However, I have found the MBTI to be a fine instrument to assist me in understanding a
couple's mindset as to where their character development is, so that I am better able to guide them toward correcting their
character according to the Word of God.
The second quote is on p. 10 the 3rd full paragraph, which begins with, "My recurring question is: etc". In the paragraph he
uses the words, "freeze dried" version of Jung's Psychological types, etc. I do not read into the MBTI the Jungian worldview
or psychological philosophy. I take the MBTI at face value, accepting the fact that as humans we do build on our character
development along certain lines, which are delineated in the instrument. Again, I use the template of the Bible as an
overlay of the MBTI.
Finally, on p. 13, footnote #2, it is stated that "none of these 8 innocuous-sounding type names mean what they sound
like. Instead of each of the 8 type names has unique and mysterious, perhaps even occultic definitions given by Jung
himself in a massive section at the back of Psychological Types".
Granted, one could read that into this statement, but I do not. The 8 types are indicative of human behavior, regardless of
one's worldview or philosophy of life. That I discount in my reckoning and use of the MBTI.
Brother James, as a fellow Christian, who unashamedly accepts the plenary inspiration of the Bible (2 Peter 1:21), I trust I
have made myself clear. Though I hold to the depravity of man (Jeremiah 17:9), that is not to say that every thought and
idea of people is innately wrong. We, as Christians, can learn from ungodly people, and with the help of the Holy Spirit
within (1 Corinthians 2:14), are able to discern truth from error. Let's not "throw the baby out with the bathwater". God
loves even Jung, who had a Presbyterian Pastor for a Father, and I am sure some on that Calvinistic teaching stuck to him,
even though later he tried, through psychological "alchemy" to join his Calvinistic training to Eastern mysticism, and
bungled the whole psychological world, I cannot but realize Jung did have some, if little perception of human nature that I,
as a Christian, can use to be of benefit to dysfunctional couples.
Thank you for listening to what I have said, and I trust that you may respond, if you so wish. I commend you for standing
for the faith.
Yours in Christian love, John H. Stoll, Ph.D., Exec. Dir. ASK, Inc
3. CHRISTIAN OR PSYCHO-OCCULT? [Psychological Testing and Personality/Temperament Typing]
http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Psychology/temper.htm Bible Discernment Ministries, August 1992
A major deception in the church today is the so-called spiritual application of pseudo-psychological
temperament theory for individual personality assessment, which in actuality is derived from pagan and
occultic philosophies.
(The "temperament" can be defined as the unique mental and emotional disposition identifiable as the personality.)
The study of the temperaments, which are man-centered, self-oriented, and psycho-paganistic, are being
offered to the unwitting as a sophisticated, almost magical way to understand our deepest natures and our
personality type.
In actuality, Christians could be unknowingly lured into the occult by practicing the temperaments and other
New Age personality typologies.
The underlying basis for the four temperament types (Sanguine, Choleric, Phlegmatic, and Melancholy) is in ancient
astrology, which is defined by the Bible as divination:
The "forth-telling" of time and destiny; seeking to foresee the future or discover hidden knowledge about the past, present,
or future through occultic methods, such as astrology, channeling, crystal balls, tarot cards, etc.
The casual observance of temperament/personality types brings to memory a time 20 years ago when the
most popular question to ask was, "What's your sign?" Now the question is, "What's your temperament
type?"
Back then, astrology claimed that one acts in a certain way because he was born under a particular sign of the
constellation. Now it is believed that a Melancholy will act in a certain way because he has been classified as a melancholy
temperament type.
The four temperaments connection to astrology is not accidental, but rather by original design. Both astrology and the
temperaments are branches of the same tree -- ancient Babylon! (The practice of astrology is not simply limited to knowing
various charts and relating the configurations of the sky with the person's birth. Astrologers have admitted they receive
psychic knowledge about people beyond their abilities to use and understand the horoscope. They are evidently given
special information concerning individuals through demons. Similarly, anyone who reads auras and types people accordingly
receives information from demon spirits.)
The twelve zodiac personality types are arranged in four sets with three signs in each set. These are called trigons or
triplicities. Each triplicity corresponds with one of the four elements of Empedocles. Furthermore, each triplicity corresponds
with one of Hippocrates' four humors. And each triplicity corresponds with one of the four temperaments. From Empedocles
to Galen, each person who developed those categories also believed in the influences of the planets and the stars on the
elements, humors, and temperaments. Synthesizing ideas from classical Greek medicine and astronomy, a theory of
temperaments prevailing well into medieval times held that, for example, a sanguine disposition reflected a particular
combination of humors in the body and that, in turn, this combination had been fixed by a certain configuration of the stars
at the time of an individual's birth. The four temperaments were finally devalued and considered relics of limited, ancient
attempts to understand and deal with individual differences. Although they remained a point of historical novelty, they are
often totally ignored in current psychology textbooks. In fact, few scholars give serious attention to the four temperament
classifications except as historical reference.
Nevertheless, the four temperaments are more popular than ever today, especially among astrologers and professing
evangelical Christians. The twelve signs of the zodiac are arranged according to the elements (fire, earth, air, and water),
the humors (yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm), and the temperaments (choleric, melancholy, sanguine, and
phlegmatic), three times round in sequence. It was only as various psychologists examined the four temperaments or drew
from them to form their own personality theories and categories that the four temperaments have been treated as though
they are independent from astrology. Nevertheless, while they may appear to stand on their own, the four
temperaments are intrinsically part of astrology. They constitute an inadvertent way for people to practice
an astrological kind of psychic and esoteric determinism without casting a horoscope and without even
realizing that they are practicing the essence of astrology.
Neither astrology nor the four temperaments theory is scientific. Both are deceptive and invalid. Both reinterpret Biblical
doctrine. And both are bound to their occult roots. Astrology is anathema to the Christian. And since the four temperaments
are an intrinsic component of astrology, the four temperaments should be avoided as well.
Under the "Christianization" of the temperaments, one's temperament type is determined by listing both positive and
negative word descriptions describing personality traits, thereby describing one's strengths and weaknesses. The category
with the most personality traits indicates the appropriate temperament type, which then, according to the theory, somehow
magically opens the door to a better and deeper understanding of oneself and others, revealing the true nature of the
personality with all its strengths and weaknesses, and facilitates the transformation of one's weaknesses into strengths (see
Tim LaHaye's Transformed Temperaments http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/exposes/lahaye). At this point, the
temperament theory is interspersed with Scripture, specifically the Holy Spirit's power and the Fruit of the Spirit (Galatians
5:22, 23). But attempting to wed temperament theory with the doctrines of salvation and sanctification leads to theological
mish-mash that is in essence a religion of works.
The temperament theorists fail to understand that we are unable to exhibit the Fruit of the Spirit by improving our
personalities (through the "flesh"), but that the Fruit of the Spirit shines forth only as one possesses the fullness of the Holy
Spirit of God (through the Spirit). In fact, examining closely a list of temperament strengths and weaknesses, one will
notice that not one of the nine-fold Fruit of the Spirit is even listed! Again, this is because the strengths and weaknesses
are by-products of the "flesh," not the Spirit. Temperament theory put into practice is nothing more than a fleshly approach
to sanctification. (What actually ends up happening is that one's sinful behavior is relabeled as "weaknesses," thereby
replacing personal responsibility with helplessness.)
Confusion arises from attempting to wed a pagan system of "strengths" and "weaknesses" -- the four temperaments'
astrological polarities -- with Biblical doctrines of man. People who try to wed the four temperaments (or any other such
personality types) with Scripture emphasize strengths and weaknesses of each type rather than obedience and
disobedience to God. To attempt to deal with these differences through a four temperaments typology undermines the Holy
Spirit's work in a person's life. Psychological systems for explaining and understanding man's essence tend to
replace relationship with the Lord Jesus with formulas and techniques. Because of the system's pagan
nature and the errors involved, a Christian may come into the bondage of trying to fix himself up through
modifying his weaknesses and exercising his strengths, rather than allowing the Holy Spirit to work in His
way. Scripture does not set forth a system of personality differences, but rather one of putting off the old self and putting
on the new; of loving God and following His way rather that the way of the self -- of loving one another sacrificially as we
already love ourselves. No matter what the individual differences are between people, love is the issue and obedience to
the Lord is the response.
Understanding ourselves in terms of typologies is unnecessary for walking after the Spirit and bearing the Fruit of the Spirit.
Concentration on such categories only feeds the flesh and ultimately leads to works of the flesh. Focusing on temperament
and personality categories, profiles, and tests avoids the real problem of sin and attempts to fix us up with the ways of the
world. Any system that focuses on strengths and weaknesses of various temperament types is limited to reaching the
greatest potential of what the Bible calls the "old man." In Philippians 1:6, Paul is not talking about people reaching their
greatest potential through understanding themselves through temperament categories. He is talking about the Holy Spirit's
work in each person through the process of sanctification whereby believers are transformed into the image of Christ. The
four temperaments and similar typologies give false power based upon a lie. The Word of God is true. It is quick and
powerful. To replace it or assist it with erroneous personality typologies is an insult to the Lord, especially considering the
occult relationship.
Nevertheless, the temperament philosophy continues to strive to promote harmonious relationships across the gamut of
Christian living through compatibility and the understanding of differences, and the temperament followers continue to
claim greater harmony and interaction in personal relationships than those who use the Bible alone. In actuality, the four
temperaments and other personality type systems are rival religious systems to Christianity -- part of the philosophical/
psychological pool of man-made systems and personal opinions which attempt to explain the nature of man and present
methods for change.
The leading so-called evangelicals today who consistently peddle the idea of the temperaments as Christian, are Tim
LaHaye [Spirit-Controlled Temperament (1967); Transformed Temperaments (1971); and Why You Act the Way You Do
(1984)], and Florence Littauer.
[Some others in the professing Church promoting temperament typologies, personality inventories, and/or tests of spiritual
gifts are Charles Stanley, Larry Burkett, John MacArthur, Gary Ezzo, H. Norman Wright, Ken Voges, Ron Braund, and Hal
Lindsey.]
(a) In LaHaye's book Why You Act the Way You Do (as well as in his other books), one can readily see the underlying
astrological roots of temperament theory -- he labels Christians as Sanguine, Choleric, Phlegmatic, and Melancholy, and
applies this to explain why people are "locked-in" to behaving the way they do; according to LaHaye, the strengths and
weaknesses of one's temperament type determines how he acts.
(b) Littauer, in her books (After Every Wedding Comes a Marriage, Your Personality Tree, Personality Plus, and Personalities
in Power), also espouses the virtues of temperament theory. In fact, Littauer followed in LaHaye's steps after reading his
book Spirit-Controlled Temperament. Since that time she has conducted seminars and written a number of books focused
on personality types.
She encourages self-analysis through understanding and applying the four temperaments because she believes that such
knowledge can help people truly become what God intended them to be -- that they can reach their full potential.
According to Littauer, God is the One who is using the four temperaments. She says that she is "amazed at how God uses
this tool to open people's eyes to themselves and their relationships with others ... We will never reach the potential that is
within us until we pull off the [temperament] mask and become the real person God intended us to be;" i.e., she believes
that God meant each person to be one of the four temperament types! Littauer's system [she has developed the
(unsubstantiated and statistically invalid) Personality Profile Test (PPT)] promises that besides being free to be oneself, an
individual will know how to get his own unique-to-his-temperament needs met; she says that if their needs are not met,
they are vulnerable to temptation.
Christians using LaHaye's and Littauer's books claim that the similarity between astrology and the temperaments results
because astrology borrowed the "truth" of God's Word concerning the understanding of personalities through the
temperaments and misapplied it as "false belief" through astrology! Yet the Bible knows nothing of personality-typing to
understand behavior. Whatever the label Christians will give to the latest fad in New Age personality systems,
its origins can be traced to ancient pagan philosophy or occult religions, not the Bible. Even when combined
with Biblical teachings, the four temperaments do not become transformed. They are forever being tempered within the
confines of determinism. True freedom does not come from figuring out one's temperament according to the relics of the
four temperaments and astrology. Jesus already gave us the way to freedom, and that is through believing the Word of
God and living by that Truth (John 8:31-32).
True freedom does not come from learning the four temperaments and then redefining the Fruit of the Spirit into so-called
temperament traits of the new nature. The four temperaments are rooted in paganism and astrology. Christians do not
need pagan beliefs and practices, such as the four temperaments, to grow spiritually. If they did, the Bible would have
included such teachings. The four temperaments were certainly available at the time, along with all other pagan practices
that were an abomination to God. Instead of incorporating the Greek teachings of the humors and temperaments for selfimprovement, Paul insisted that there is only one true Gospel and that "the hope of glory" is "Christ in you."
The four temperaments theory of personality is among the worst kinds of psychology. Furthermore, it is a means of
opening Christians to other psychological theories dressed in Bible verses. Those who integrate the four temperaments
theory of personality are doing the same thing as those who integrate any other personality theory with Christianity, be it
Freud's, Jung's, Adler's, Maslow's, Rogers', Hippocrates', Galen's, or Kant's. Those who enthusiastically promote
temperament theories, personality profiles, and other typologies are introducing foreign paradigms which originated in
paganism. Once such foreign paradigms are introduced, they are used to understand and explain the human condition
undergirded by a new interpretation of Scripture.
Note on Psychological Testing: Psychological testing is the categorical term normally applied to the kind of
temperament/personality typing discussed in this report. With the rise of science and the use of mathematics in the
nineteenth century, hope was raised that mathematical models could be harnessed to understand and explain man and to
make predictions about him. The hope still is that, through the use of mathematics, psychological tests can be developed
that will use a small sample of man's behavior (as exhibited on the test) to reveal a great deal more about him. The
psychological test is an attempt to diagnose some broad and significant aspect of an individual's behavior in order to reveal
something about him or to predict how he will perform in the future.
Psychological testing can be categorized under the following three general headings: (1) tests of general intellectual level,
(2) tests of separate abilities, and (3) personality tests. A Christian's primary concern should be with the last
category, which includes personality inventories and temperament tests [such as the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI), the DiSC Personal Profile System (PPS), the Biblical Personal Profiles (BPP), the TaylorJohnson Temperament Analysis (TJTA), the LaHaye Temperament Analysis (LTA), the Personality Profile Test
(PPT), the Spiritual Gifts Inventories (SGI), etc.], all of which have pagan astrology as their basis, and/or were
developed by, or were based upon, the underlying theories of men who were godless atheists. As demonstrated in this
report, not only are these tests and what they purport to explain unbiblical, but they have also been proven to have
extremely poor statistical reliability and validity.
[All underlined emphases above is theirs- Michael]
Must reading for anyone desiring a fuller understanding of this subject would be Four Temperaments, Astrology &
Personality Testing http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/fourbk.html by Martin and Deidre Bobgan, EastGate Publishers,
Santa Barbara, CA, 1992, 213 pages; and Tempora Mysticism by Shirley Ann Miller, Starburst Publishers, Lancaster, PA,
1991, 169 pages. Unless otherwise stated, all quotes and excerpts used in this report come from these two sources.
4. PSYCHOHERESY: C. G. JUNG’S LEGACY TO THE CHURCH
http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/jungleg.html
PsychoHeresy Awareness Ministries, 4137 Primavera Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93110
The overwhelming majority of Christians have probably never heard of C. G. Jung, but his influence in the
church is vast and affects sermons, books, and activities, such as the prolific use of the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) by seminaries and missionary organizations. A current, popular example of Jung's legacy can be
seen in Robert Hicks' book The Masculine Journey, which was given to each of the 50,000 men who attended the 1993
Promise Keepers conference. Christians need to learn enough about Jung and his teachings to be warned and wary.
Jung's legacy to "Christian psychology" is both direct and indirect. Some professing Christians, who have
been influenced by Jung's teachings, integrate aspects of Jungian theory into their own practice of
psychotherapy. They may incorporate his notions regarding personality types, the personal unconscious,
dream analysis, and various archetypes in their own attempt to understand and counsel their clients. Other
Christians have been influenced more indirectly as they have engaged in inner healing, followed 12-step
programs*, or taken the MBTI, which is based on Jung's personality types and incorporates his theories of
introversion and extroversion.
Jung and Freud
Carl Jung's legacy has not enhanced Christianity. From its inception psychotherapy has undermined the doctrines
of Christianity. Sigmund Freud's attitudes towards Christianity were obviously hostile, since he believed that religious
doctrines are all illusions and labeled all religion as "the universal obsessional neurosis of humanity." 1 His one-time follower
and colleague Carl Jung, on the other hand, may not be quite as obvious in his disdain for Christianity. However, his
theories have disdainfully diminished Christian doctrines by putting them at the same level as those of all religions.
While Jung did not call religion a "universal obsessional neurosis," he did view all religions, including Christianity, to be
collective mythologies - not real in essence, but having a real effect on the human personality. Dr. Thomas Szasz describes
the difference between the psychoanalytic theories of the two men this way: "Thus in Jung's view religions are
indispensable spiritual supports, whereas in Freud's they are illusory crutches." 2 While Freud argued that religions are
delusionary and therefore evil, Jung contended that all religions are imaginary but good.
Both positions are anti-Christian; one denies Christianity and the other mythologizes it.
After reading Freud's Interpretation of Dreams, Jung contacted Freud and a friendship with mutual admiration ensued and
lasted about eight years. Even though Jung had served four years as the first president of the International Psychoanalytic
Association, the break between Jung and Freud was complete. Jung departed from Freud on a number of points,
particularly Freud's sex theory. In addition, Jung had been developing his own theory and methodology,
known as analytical psychology.
The Collective Unconscious
Jung taught that the psyche consists of various systems including the personal unconscious with its complexes and a
collective unconscious with its archetypes. Jung's theory of a personal unconscious is quite similar to Freud’s creation of a
region containing a person's repressed, forgotten or ignored experiences. However, Jung considered the personal
unconscious to be a "more or less superficial layer of the unconscious." Within the personal unconscious are what he called
"feeling-toned complexes." He said that "they constitute the personal and private side of psychic life." 3 These are feelings
and perceptions organized around significant persons or events in the person's life.
Jung believed that there was a deeper and more significant layer of the unconscious, which he called the collective
unconscious, with what he identified as archetypes, which he believed were innate, unconscious, and generally universal.
Jung's collective unconscious has been described as a "storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from man's ancestral
past, a past that includes not only the racial history of man as a separate species but his pre-human or animal ancestry as
well."4 Therefore, Jung's theory incorporates Darwin's theory of evolution as well as ancient mythology. Jung taught that
this collective unconscious is shared by all people and is therefore universal. However, since it is unconscious, not all people
are able to tap into it. Jung saw the collective unconscious as the foundational structure of personality on which the
personal unconscious and the ego are built. Because he believed that the foundations of personality are ancestral
and universal, he studied religions, mythology, rituals, symbols, dreams and visions. He says:
All esoteric teachings seek to apprehend the unseen happenings in the psyche, and all claim supreme authority for
themselves. What is true of primitive lore is true in even higher degree of the ruling world religions. They contain a
revealed knowledge that was originally hidden, and they set forth the secrets of the soul in glorious images .5
Jung's View of Christianity
However, because Jung left room for religion, many Christians felt more comfortable with his ideas. Thus it is important to
look at Jung's attitudes towards Christianity. His father was a Protestant minister, and Jung experienced aspects of the
Christian faith while growing up. He wrote the following about his early experience with the Holy Communion, which seems
to be related to his later ideas about religions being only myths:
Slowly I came to understand that this communion had been a fatal experience for me. It had proved hollow; more than
that, it had proved to be a total loss. I knew that I would never again be able to participate in this ceremony. "Why, that is
not religion at all," I thought. "It is the absence of God; the church is a place I should not go to. It is not life which is there,
but death."6
From that one significant incident, Jung could have proceeded to deny all religions, but he didn't. Instead, he evidently saw
that religion was very meaningful to many people and that religions could be useful as myths. His choice to consider all
religions as myths was further influenced by his view of psychoanalysis. According to Viktor Von Weizsaecker, "C. G. Jung
was the first to understand that psychoanalysis belonged in the sphere of religion." 7 That Jung's theories constitute a
religion can be seen in his view of God as the collective unconscious and thereby present in each person's unconscious. For
him religions revealed aspects of the unconscious and could thus tap into a person's psyche. He also used dreams as
avenues into the psyche for self-understanding and self-exploration. Religion was only a tool to tap into the self and if a
person wanted to use Christian symbols that was fine with him.
Jung's Spirit Guide
Because Jung turned psychoanalysis into a type of religion, he is also considered to be a transpersonal
psychologist as well as a psychoanalytical theorist. He delved deeply into the occult, practiced necromancy,
and had daily contact with disembodied spirits, which he called archetypes. Much of what he wrote was
inspired by such entities. Jung had his own familiar spirit whom he called Philemon. At first he thought
Philemon was part of his own psyche, but later on he found that Philemon was more than an expression of
his own inner self. Jung says:
Philemon and other figures of my fantasies brought home to me the crucial insight that there are things in the psyche
which I do not produce, but which produce themselves and have their own life. Philemon represented a force which was
not myself. In my fantasies I held conversations with him, and he said things which I had not consciously thought. For I
observed clearly that it was he who spoke, not I. . . . Psychologically, Philemon represented superior insight. He was a
mysterious figure to me. At times he seemed to me quite real, as if he were a living personality. I went walking up and
down the garden with him, and to me he was what the Indians call a guru.8
One can see why Jung is so very popular among New Agers.
Jung's AA Influence
Jung also played a role in the development of Alcoholics Anonymous. Cofounder Bill Wilson wrote the following in a letter to
Jung in 1961:
This letter of great appreciation has been very long overdue. . . . Though you have surely heard of us [AA], I doubt if you
are aware that a certain conversation you once had with one of your patients, a Mr. Roland H., back in the early 1930's did
play a critical role in the founding of our fellowship.9
Wilson continued the letter by reminding Jung of what he had "frankly told [Roland H.] of his hopelessness," that he was
beyond medical or psychiatric help. Wilson wrote: "This candid and humble statement of yours was beyond doubt the first
foundation stone upon which our society has since been built." When Roland H. had asked Jung if there was any hope for
him Jung "told him that there might be, provided he could become the subject of a spiritual or religious experience - in
short, a genuine conversion." Wilson continued in his letter: "You recommended that he place himself in a religious
atmosphere and hope for the best."10 As far as Jung was concerned, there was no need for doctrine or creed, only an
experience.
It is important to note that Jung could not have meant conversion to Christianity, because as far as Jung was concerned all
religion is simply myth - a symbolic way of interpreting the life of the psyche. To Jung, conversion simply meant a totally
dramatic experience that would profoundly alter a person's outlook on life. Jung himself had blatantly rejected Christianity
and turned to idolatry. He replaced God with a myriad of mythological archetypes.
Jung's response to Wilson's letter included the following statement about Roland H.:
His craving for alcohol was the equivalent, on a low level, of the spiritual thirst of our being for wholeness; expressed in
medieval language: the union with God.11
In his letter Jung mentioned that in Latin the same word is used for alcohol as for "the highest religious experience." Even
in English, alcohol is referred to as spirits. But, knowing Jung's theology and privy counsel with a familiar spirit, one must
conclude that the spirit he is referring to is not the Holy Spirit, and the god he is talking about is not the God of the Bible,
but rather a counterfeit spirit posing as an angel of light and leading many to destruction.
Jung's Blasphemy
Jung's neo-paganism and his desire to replace Christianity with his own concept of psychoanalysis can be seen in a letter he
wrote to Freud:
I imagine a far finer and more comprehensive task for [psychoanalysis] than alliance with an ethical fraternity. I think we
must give it time to infiltrate into people from many centers, to revivify among intellectuals a feeling for symbol and myth,
ever so gently to transform Christ back into the soothsaying god of the vine, which he was, and in this way absorb those
ecstatic instinctual forces of Christianity for the one purpose of making the cult and the sacred myth what they once were a drunken feast of joy where man regained the ethos and holiness of an animal. 12
Thus Jung's goal for psychoanalysis was to be an all-encompassing religion superior to Christianity, reducing its truth to
myth and transmogrifying Christ into a "soothsaying god of the vine." God's answer to such blasphemy can be seen in
Psalm 2: Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the
rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and
cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.
Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.
Christians dabble in Jung's religion when they incorporate his notions about man and deity through imbibing in his theories,
therapies, and notions that have filtered down through other psychotherapies, through 12-step programs*, through inner
healing, through dream analysis, and through personality types and tests.
*Advertising connected with New Age covers a wide range of practices as acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic,
kinesiology, homeopathy, iridology, massage and various kinds of “bodywork” (such as orgonomy, Feldenkrais, reflexology,
Rolfing, polarity massage, therapeutic touch etc.), meditation and visualisation, nutritional therapies, psychic healing,
various kinds of herbal medicine, healing by crystals, metals, music or colours, reincarnation therapies and, finally, twelvestep programmes and self-help groups. The source of healing is said to be within ourselves, something we reach when
we are in touch with our inner energy or cosmic energy." The Vatican Document on the New Age #2.2.3- Michael
End Notes
1. Sigmund Freud. The Future of an Illusion, trans. and edited by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Company,
Inc., 1961, p. 43.
2. Thomas Szasz. The Myth of Psychotherapy. Garden City: Doubleday/Anchor Press, 1978, p. 173.
3. C. G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, 2nd ed., trans. by R.F.C. Hull. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1969, p. 4.
4. Calvin S. Hall and Gardner Lindzey. Theories of Personality. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1957, p. 80.
5. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, op. cit., p. 7.
6. C. G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections, ed. by Aniela Jaffe, trans. by Richard and Clara Winston. New York:
Pantheon, 1963, p. 55.
7. Victor Von Weizsaecker, "Reminiscences of Freud and Jung." Freud and the Twentieth Century, B. Nelson, ed. New York:
Meridian, 1957, p. 72.
8. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, op. cit., p. 183.
9. "Spiritus contra Spiritum: The Bill Wilson/C.G. Jung Letters: The roots of the Society of Alcoholics Anonymous." Parabola,
Vol. XII, No. 2, May 1987, p. 68.
10. Ibid., p. 69.
11. Ibid., p. 71.
12. C. G. Jung quoted by Richard Noll. The Jung Cult. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994, p. 188.
5. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STREAM OF PSYCHOLOGY. FREUD’S LEGACY TO "CHRISTIAN PSYCHOLOGISTS"
by Michael James Hacker
PsychoHeresy Awareness Ministries, 4137 Primavera Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93110 www.psychoheresy-aware.org
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/JESUS_AND_ME/message/3715 / http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/freudl36.html
In contrast to the pure, cleansing, healing, and life-giving waters of the Word of God, the world offers the
polluted streams of psychotherapy. One of those streams, in which many Christians continue to dip, is
psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis was invented by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Though he has been dead for many years, the deadly poison
of his bizarre theories has infected nearly every system of psychological counseling. Moreover, Freudian concepts and terms
have so permeated our society that they are generally treated as facts about human nature.
For instance, numerous people refer to the id, ego, and superego as if these entities truly exist, as if they are well-defined
compartments of the personality. They do not realize that Freudian concepts and terms were concocted in Freud’s own
mind. But, that’s the way most psychological systems are formed. They are an attempt to define and explain the inner
workings of all persons, but the psychological theorist ends up defining and explaining himself according to his own
subjectivity.
That such a system for understanding mankind is flawed should be evident from the ever-increasing number
of psychological theories that often contradict each other. Moreover, for the Christian, any such system should be
seen as flawed because of the deceitfulness of the heart ("The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked:
who can know it?" Jeremiah 17:9). Because of the noetic effects of the fall, man’s view of himself will be flawed. Thus each
person who creates a psychological theory to explain the human condition will have at best a flawed view of himself. But,
when people attempt to explain human nature in a universal manner, they fail even more miserably unless they are guided
by the Holy Spirit and find their understanding in Scripture.
Freud did not do that. In fact, Freud was adamantly opposed to Christianity. Freud taught that religious doctrines are all
illusions and that religion is "the universal obsessional neurosis of humanity."
He viewed religion as the source of mental problems and thus formed all of his notions from a godless position.
Nevertheless, Freud’s views influenced our culture to the degree that many Christians began to doubt the effectiveness of
the Bible and the church in dealing with life’s problems. All the while, Freud argued that belief in God was delusionary and
therefore evil.
Psychotherapy, from its very beginning, created doubt about Christianity. Freud effectively eroded confidence in
Christianity and established negative ideas concerning Christianity that prevail today. He negatively influenced the faith and
affected the attitudes of many people concerning the role of the church in healing troubled souls.
Numerous psychoanalytic myths devised by Freud are imbedded in our culture. Many people believe them as if they are
facts.
The following statements are Freudian myths:
1. The id, ego, and superego are actual parts of the human psyche.
2. A person’s unconscious drives behavior more than his conscious mind chooses behavior.
3. Dreams are keys to understanding the unconscious and thus the person.
More myths:
4. Present behavior is determined by unresolved conflicts from childhood.
5. Many people are in denial because they have repressed unpleasant memories into the unconscious.
6. Parents are to blame for most people’s problems.
7. People need insight into their past to make significant changes in thoughts, attitudes and actions.
8. Children must successfully pass through their "psychosexual stages" of development or they will suffer from neurosis
later on.
9. If I am to experience significant change, I must remember and re-experience painful incidents in my past.
10. The first five years of life determine what a person will be like when he grows up.
11. Everything that has ever happened to me is located in my unconscious mind.
12. People use unconscious defense mechanisms to cope with life.
Many of these Freudian myths permeate the thinking of numerous Christians and "Christian psychologists."
6. PSYCHOLOGY- SCIENCE OR RELIGION?
Bible Discernment Ministries November 1995 http://www.rapidnet.com/%7Ejbeard/bdm/Psychology/psych.htm
This material has been excerpted and/or adapted from a June 1989 Special Report by the same name from Media Spotlight,
which is a condensation of the 1987 book, PsychoHeresy: The Psychological Seduction of Christianity
[http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/psychobk.html] by Martin & Deidre Bobgan, EastGate Publishers and PsychoHeresy
Awareness Ministries [http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/], Santa Barbara, CA.
What William Law wrote two centuries ago is even more evident today: "Man needs to be saved from his own wisdom as
much as from his own righteousness, for they produce one and the same corruption."
It is paradoxical that at a time when secular psychological researchers are demonstrating less confidence in
psychological counseling, more and more professing Christians are pursuing it.
"Christian" counseling centers are springing up all over the nation offering what many believe is the perfect
combination: Christianity plus psychology. Furthermore, Christians who are not even in the counseling ministry look
to psychologists for advice on how to live, how to relate to others, and how to meet the challenges of life.
In their attempts to be relevant, many preachers, teachers, counselors, and writers promote a psychological
perspective of life rather than a Biblical one. The symbol of psychology overshadows the cross of Christ, and
psychological jargon contaminates the Word of God.
Psychology is a subtle and widespread leaven in the Church. It has permeated the entire loaf and is stealthily
starving the sheep. It promises far more than it can deliver and what it does deliver is not the food that
nourishes. Yet multitudes of professing Christians view psychology with respect and awe.
Now, when we speak of psychology as leaven we are not referring to the entire field of psychological study, such as valid
research. Our concern is primarily with those areas that deal with the nature of man, how he should live, and how he can
change. These involve some values, attitudes, and behavior that are diametrically opposed to God's Word.
We will see, therefore, that psychoanalysis and psychotherapy have no compatibility with the Christian faith.
FOUR MYTHS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY
Among professing Christians, there are four major myths about psychology which have become entrenched in the Church:
The first major myth is common to Christians and non-Christians alike: that psychotherapy (psychological
counseling along with its theories and techniques) is a science -- a means of understanding and helping humanity
based on empirical evidence gleaned from measurable and consistent data.
The second major myth is that the best kind of counseling utilizes both psychology and the Bible.
Psychologists who also claim to be Christians generally claim that they are more qualified to help people understand
themselves and change their behavior than are other Christians (including pastors and elders) who are not trained in
psychology.
The third major myth is that people who are experiencing mental-emotional behavioral problems are
mentally ill. They are supposedly psychologically sick and, therefore, need psychological therapy. The common argument
is that the doctor treats the body, the minister treats the spirit, and the psychologist treats the mind and emotions.
Ministers, unless they are trained in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, are then supposedly unqualified to help people who
are suffering from serious problems of living.
The fourth major myth is that psychotherapy has a high record of success -- that professional psychological
counseling produces greater results than other forms of help, such as self-help or that provided by family,
friends, or pastors. Thus, psychological counseling is seen as more effective than Biblical counseling in helping some
Christians. This is one of the main reasons why so many professing Christians are training to become psychotherapists.
IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE?
Men and women of God seek wisdom and knowledge from both the revelation of Scripture and the physical world.
Paul contends that everyone is accountable before God because of the evidence that creation gives of His existence
(Romans 1:20).
Scientific study is a valid way of coming to an understanding of God's work, and can be very useful in many walks of life.
True science develops theories based on what is observed. It examines each theory with rigorous tests to see if it describes
reality. The scientific method works well in observing and recording physical data and in reaching conclusions which either
confirm or nullify a theory.
During the mid-19th century, scholars (philosophers, really) desired to study human nature in the hope of applying the
scientific method to observe, record, and treat human behavior. They believed that if people could be studied in a scientific
manner, there would be greater accuracy in understanding present behavior, in predicting future behavior, and in altering
behavior through scientific intervention.
Psychology, and its active arm of psychotherapy, have indeed adopted the scientific posture. However, from
a strictly scientific point of view, they have not been able to meet the requirements of true science.
In attempting to evaluate the status of psychology, the American Psychological Association appointed Sigmund Koch to plan
and direct a study which was subsidized by the National Science Foundation. This study involved eighty eminent scholars in
assessing the facts, theories, and methods of psychology. In 1983, the results were published in a seven-volume series
entitled Psychology: A Study of Science. Koch describes the delusion in thinking of psychology as a science:
"The hope of a psychological science became indistinguishable from the fact of psychological science. The entire
subsequent history of psychology can be seen as a ritualistic endeavor to emulate the forms of science in order to sustain
the delusion that it already is a science."
Koch also says, "Throughout psychology's history as 'science,' the hard knowledge it has deposited has been
uniformly negative."
The fact is that psychological statements which describe human behavior or which report results from
research can be scientific. However, when we move from describing human behavior to explaining it, and
particularly changing it, we move from science to opinion.
To move from description to prescription is to move from objectivity to opinion. And opinion about human
behavior, when presented as truth or scientific fact, is mere pseudoscience. It rests upon false premises
(opinions, guesses, subjective explanations) and leads to false conclusions.
The dictionary defines pseudoscience as "a system of theories, assumptions, and methods erroneously regarded as
scientific." Pseudoscience, or pseudoscientism, includes the use of the scientific label to protect and promote opinions which
are neither provable nor refutable.
One aspect of psychology riddled with pseudoscience is that of psychotherapy. Had psychotherapy succeeded as a science,
we would have some consensus in the field regarding mental-emotional-behavioral problems and how to treat them.
Instead, the field is filled with contradictory theories and techniques, all of which communicate confusion
rather than anything approximating scientific order.
Psychotherapy proliferates with many conflicting explanations of man and his behavior.
Psychologist Roger Mills, in his 1980 article, "Psychology Goes Insane, Botches Role as Science," says:
"The field of psychology today is literally a mess. There are as many techniques, methods and theories
around as there are researchers and therapists. I have personally seen therapists convince their clients that all of
their problems come from their mothers, the stars, their bio-chemical make-up, their diet, their life-style and even the
"karma" from their past lives."
With over 250 separate systems of psychotherapy, each claiming superiority over the rest, it is hard to view
such diverse opinions as scientific or even factual.
The actual foundations of psychotherapy are not science, but rather various philosophical world views,
especially those of determinism, secular humanism, behaviorism, existentialism, and even evolutionism.
World-renowned research psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey is very blunt when he says: "The techniques used by
Western psychiatrists are, with few exceptions, on exactly the same scientific plane as the techniques used
by witch doctors."*
*see same opinion given by Richard Feynman, below
PSYCHOLOGY AS RELIGION
Explanations of why people behave the way they do and how they change have concerned philosophers, theologians,
cultists, and occultists throughout the centuries. These explanations form the basis of modern psychology.
Yet psychology deals with the very same areas of concern already dealt with in Scripture.
Since God's Word tells us how to live, all ideas about the why's of behavior and the how's of change must be viewed as
religious in nature. Whereas the Bible claims divine revelation, psychotherapy claims scientific substantiation. Nevertheless,
when it comes to behavior and attitudes, and morals and values, we are dealing with religion -- either the Christian faith or
any one of a number of other religions, including secular humanism.
Nobelist Richard Feynman, in considering the claimed scientific status of psychotherapy, says that
"psychoanalysis is not a science" and that it is "perhaps even more like witch-doctoring."
Carl Jung himself wrote: "Religions are systems of healing for psychic illness. ... That is why patients force the
psychotherapist into the role of a priest, and expect and demand of him that he shall free them from their distress. That is
why we psychotherapists must occupy ourselves with problems which, strictly speaking, belong to the theologian."
Note that Jung used the word "religions" rather than Christianity. Jung had repudiated Christianity and explored other forms
of religious experience, including the occult. Without throwing out the religious nature of man, Jung dispensed with the God
of the Bible and assumed the role of priest himself.
Jung viewed all religions, including Christianity, as collective mythologies. He did not believe they were real in essence, but
that they could affect the human personality, and might serve as solutions to human problems.
In contrast to Jung, Sigmund Freud reduced all religious beliefs to the status of illusion and called religion "the
obsessional neurosis of humanity." He viewed religion as delusionary and, therefore, evil and the source of mental
problems. Both Jung's and Freud's positions are true in respect to the world's religions, but they are also anti-Christian. One
denies Christianity and the other mythologizes it.
Repudiating the God of the Bible, both Freud and Jung led their followers in the quest for alternative
understandings of mankind and alternative solutions to problems of living. They turned inward to their own
limited imaginations and viewed their subjects from their own anti-Christian subjectivity.
The faith once delivered to the saints was displaced by a substitute faith disguising itself as medicine or science, but based
upon foundations which are in direct contradiction to the Bible.
Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, in his 1978 book The Myth of Psychotherapy, says, "The basic ingredients of psychotherapy
does not always involve repression." He points out that while psychotherapy does not always involve repression, it does
always involve religion and rhetoric (conversation). Szasz says very strongly that "the human relations we now call
'psychotherapy,' are, in fact, matters of religion -- and that we mislabel them as 'therapeutic' at great risk to our spiritual
well-being." Elsewhere, in referring to psychotherapy as a religion, Szasz says:
"It is not merely a religion that pretends to be a science, it is actually a fake religion that seeks to destroy true religion."
Szasz also says that "psychotherapy is a modern, scientific-sounding name for what used to be called the 'cure of souls.'"
One of his primary purposes for writing The Myth of Psychotherapy was:
"... to show how, with the decline of religion and the growth of science in the eighteenth century, the cure of (sinful) souls,
which had been an integral part of the Christian religions, was recast as the cure of (sick) minds, and became an integral
part of medicine."
The cure of souls, which once was a vital ministry of the Church, has now in this century been displaced by a
cure of minds called "psychotherapy." True "Biblical" counseling has waned until presently it is almost
nonexistent.
TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY
Although all forms of psychotherapy are religious, the fourth branch of psychology -- the transpersonal -- is
more blatantly religious than the others. Transpersonal psychologies involve faith in the supernatural -something beyond the physical universe. However, the spirituality they offer includes mystical experiences
of both the occult and Eastern religions.
Through transpersonal psychotherapies, various forms of Eastern religion are creeping into Western life.
Psychologist Daniel Goleman quotes Chogyam Trungpa as saying, "Buddhism will come to the West as
psychology." Goleman points out how Oriental religions "seem to be making gradual headway as
psychologies, not as religions." Also, Jacob Needleman says:
"A large and growing number of psychotherapists are now convinced that the Eastern religions offer an
understanding of the mind far more complete than anything yet envisaged by Western science. At the same
time, the leaders of the new religions themselves -- the numerous gurus and spiritual teachers now in the
West -- are reformulating and adapting the traditional systems according to the language and atmosphere of
modern psychology."
PSYCHOLOGY PLUS THE BIBLE
The Church has not escaped the all-pervasive influence of psychotherapy. It has unwittingly and eagerly
embraced the pseudoscientisms of psychotherapy and has intimately incorporated this spectre into the very
sinew of its life. Not only does the Church include the concepts and teachings of psychotherapists in sermons and
seminaries, it steps aside and entrusts the mentally and emotionally halt and lame to the "high altar" of psychotherapy.
Many Church leaders contend that the Church doesn't have the ability to meet the needs of people suffering from
depression, anxiety, fear, and other problems of living. They, therefore, trust the paid practitioners of the pseudoscientisms
of psychotherapy more than they trust the Word of God and the work of the Holy Spirit.
Because of the confusion between science and pseudoscience, Church leaders have elevated the
psychotherapist to a position of authority in the modern Church. Thus, any attack on the amalgamation of
psychotherapy and Christianity is considered to be an attack on the Church itself.
Although the Church has almost universally accepted and endorsed the psychological way, there are Christians who have
not. Dr. Jay E. Adams says:
"In my opinion, advocating, allowing and practicing psychiatric and psychoanalytical dogmas within the
church is every bit as pagan and heretical (and therefore perilous) as propagating the teachings of some of
the most bizarre cults. The only vital difference is that the cults are less dangerous because their errors are
more identifiable."
Psychotherapy is a most subtle and devious spectre haunting the Church, because it is perceived and
received as a scientific salve for the sick soul, rather than for what it truly is: a pseudoscientific substitute
system of religious belief.
The early Church faced and ministered to mental-emotional-behavioral problems which were as complex as the ones that
exist today. If anything, the conditions of the early Church were more difficult than those we currently face. The early
Christians suffered persecution, poverty, and various afflictions which are foreign to most of the twentieth-century
Christendom (especially in the West). The catacombs of Rome are a testimony to the extent of the problems faced by the
early Church. If we suffer at all, it is from affluence and ease, which have propelled us toward a greater fixation on self that
would likely have occurred in less affluent times. However, the cure for sins of self-preoccupation existed in the early
Church and is just as available today. In fact, Biblical cures used by the early Church are just as potent if used today.
The Word of God and the work of the Holy Spirit are applicable to all problems of living and do not need to be superceded
by talk therapies and talk therapists.
Has the modern Church given up its call and obligation to minister to suffering individuals? If so, it is
because Christians believe the myth that psychological counseling is science when, in fact, it is another
religion and another gospel.
The conflict between the psychological way of counseling and the Biblical way is not between true science
and religion. The conflict is strictly religious -- it's a conflict between many religions grouped under the name
of psychotherapy (psychological counseling) and the one true religion of the Bible.
The worst of the primrose promises of Christian psychology is that the Bible plus psychotherapy can provide
better help than just the Bible alone. While this idea has been promulgated and promoted by many
"Christian" psychotherapists, there is no research evidence to support it. No one has ever shown that the
Bible needs psychological augmentation to be more effective in dealing with life's problems.
No one has proven that a Christianized cure of minds (psychotherapy) is any more beneficial than the
original unadulterated simple cure of souls (Biblical counseling)*.
*Our series of 12 articles, see page 1,
shows that Catholic pastoral counseling is superior to Biblical counseling alone- Michael
IS THERE A CHRISTIAN PSYCHOLOGY?
The Christian Association for Psychological Studies (CAPS) is a group of psychologists and psychological counselors
who are professing Christians. At one of their meetings the following was stated:
"We are often asked if we are "Christian Psychologists" and find it difficult to answer since we don't know what the question
implies. We are Christians who are psychologists but at the present time there is no acceptable Christian psychology
that is markedly different from non-Christian psychology. It is difficult to imply that we function in a manner that is
fundamentally distinct from our non-Christian colleagues ... as yet there is not an acceptable theory, mode of research or
treatment methodology that is distinctly Christian" (6/76 CAPS Western Association meeting).
In spite of the hodge-podge of unscientific opinions and contradictions, "Christian psychologists" proclaim, "All truth is God's
truth." They use this statement to support their use of psychology, but they are not clear about what "God's truth is." Is
God's truth Freudian pronouncements of obsessive neurosis? Or is it Jung's structure of archetypes? Or is God's
truth the behaviorism of B. F. Skinner? Or is God's truth "I'm OK; You're OK"*?
*Transactional Analysis
Psychology, like all religions, includes elements of truth. Even Satan's temptation of Eve included both truth
and lie. The enticement of the "All truth is God's truth" fallacy is that there is some similarity between
Biblical teachings and psychological ideas. However, similarities do not make psychology compatible with
Christianity any more than the similarities between Christianity and other religious systems of belief. Even
the writings of the Hindu, Buddhist, and Moslem religions contain statements about attitudes and behavior
which may be similar to some Bible verses.
The similarities between psychology and Christianity merely indicate that the systems of psychological
counseling are indeed religious. Christians should no more turn to psychologists than to leaders of nonChristian religions to find wisdom and help with problems of living.
Since there exists no standardized "Christian" psychology, each so-called Christian psychologist decides for
himself which of the many psychological opinions and methods constitute his ideas of "God's truth." In so
doing, the subjective observations and biased opinions of mere mortals are placed on the same level as the
inspired Word of God.
The Bible contains the only pure truth of God. All else is distorted by the limitations of human perception. Whatever else
one can discover about God's creation is only partial knowledge and partial understanding. It cannot in any way be equal to
God's truth.
To even hint that the often conflicting theories of such unredeemed men as Freud, Jung, Rogers, etc. are God's truth is to
undermine the very Word of God. The revealed Word of God does not need the support or help of psychological
pronouncements. The Word alone stands as the truth of God. That psychologists who call themselves Christian would even
use such a phrase to justify their use of psychology, indicates the direction of their faith.
The statement "All truth is God's truth" is discussed in the popular "Christian" publication, Baker Encyclopedia of
Psychology. The book claims that its contributors are "among the finest evangelical scholars in the field." In his review of
this book, Dr. Ed Payne, Associate Professor of Medicine at Medical College of Georgia, says, "Almost certainly the message
of the book and its authors is that the Bible and psychological literature stand on the same authoritative level."
Payne also states:
"Many pastors and laymen may be deceived by the Christian label of this book. Such psychology presented by
Christians is a plague on the modern church, distorting the Christian's relationship with God, retarding his
sanctification, and severely weakening the church. No other area of knowledge seems to have a stranglehold on the
church. This book strengthens that hold both individually and corporately."
Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology merely reflects what the Church has come to accept: Unscientific, unsubstantiated,
unproven psychological opinions of men have now been leavened into the Church through the semantic sorcery of "All truth
is God's truth." The equating of psychology and theology reveals that the leaven has now come to full loaf.
THE GOSPEL OF SELF
One of the most popular themes in psychology is that of self-fulfillment. Although this is an extremely popular theme, it is a
theme of recent origin, having arisen only within the past forty years [late-1940s] outside of the Church and in the past
twenty years with the Church itself.
As society moved from self-denial to self-fulfillment, a new vocabulary emerged which revealed a new inner
attitude and a different view of life. The new vocabulary became the very fabric of a new psychology known as
humanistic psychology. Its major focus is self-actualization and its clarion call is self-fulfillment.
And self-fulfillment, with all its accompanying self-hyphenated and self-fixated variations such as self-love, selfacceptance, self-esteem, and self-worth, has become the new promised land. Then as the Church became
psychologized, the emphasis shifted from God to self.
"Christian" books began to reflect what was accepted in society. Some examples are Love Yourself; The Art of Learning to
Celebrate Yourself; Loving Yourselves; Celebrate Yourself; You're Someone Special; Self-Esteem: You're Better than You
Think; and probably best known, Robert Schuller's Self Esteem: The New Reformation. Books and examples of a
psychological self-stroking mentality are numerous.
According to the psychologizers of Christianity, the greatest detriment to a fulfilling life is low self-esteem. In their quest to
bring their followers to the realization of their full potential (self-actualization), they substitute one form of selfcenteredness (high self-esteem) for another form of self-centeredness (low self-esteem). In either case, self is the focal
point of the cure as well as the problem.
Low self-esteem is popular because it's much more palatable to accept the idea of having "low self-esteem" than
to confess evil, ungodly, self-centered thoughts and then repent through believing what God has said in His Word.
While low self-esteem calls for psychological treatment to raise self-esteem, sinful thinking calls for confession, repentance,
restoration, and walking by faith in a love relationship with God provided by the cross of Christ. We would suggest that one
look to Scripture to discover one's greatest need and to find an antidote to life's problems, rather than attempt to
scripturalize some psychological fad. Mankind's greatest need is for Jesus Christ, not self-esteem.
Unless Scripture is molded to conform to the teachings that promote self, the Bible clearly teaches one to be Christcentered and other-oriented. Loving God above all else and with one's entire being, and loving neighbor as much as one
ALREADY loves oneself, are the primary injunctions of the Bible. The admonition to love oneself or to esteem oneself is
missing. Rather than self-love being taught as a virtue in Scripture, it is placed among the diabolical works of
the flesh. For example, Paul addresses the issue of self-love from just the opposite perspective of present-day promoters
both inside and outside the Church (2 Timothy 3:1-5).
The teachings of self-love, self-esteem, and self-worth have been gleaned from the world rather than from Scripture. They
are products of humanistic psychologists rather than the truth of God's Word.
Numerous are the examples of "Christian" psychologists who are ordained ministers. They begin with a desire to
Christianize psychology and end up psychologizing Christianity. Dr. Richard Dobbins, founder and director of
Emerge Ministries, is one example of the many ministers who have turned to psychology.
In his teaching film The Believer and His Self Concept, Dobbins leads the viewers through a series of steps to end up
chanting, "I am a lovable person. I am a valuable person. I am a forgivable person." In Dobbins' exercise is found the
confusion between the Biblical fact that God loves, values, and forgives His children and the humanistic
psychological lie that we are intrinsically lovable, valuable, and forgivable. If we have one iota of loveliness,
or one iota of value, or one iota of forgivability, then it makes no sense that Christ should have to die for us.
God has chosen to set his love upon us because of His essence, not because of ours, even after we are believers. His love,
His choice to place value upon us, and His choice to forgive us are by His grace alone. It is fully undeserved. It is not
because of who we are by some intrinsic value of our own or by our own righteousness.
The paradoxical, profound, and powerful truth of Scripture is that though we are not intrinsically lovable,
valuable, or forgivable, God loves, values, and forgives us. That is the pure theology of Scripture and the
overpowering message of Christ's death and resurrection. The Biblical truth is better presented as: "I am not
a lovable person. I am not a valuable person. I am not a forgivable person. But Christ died for me!"
The alternative to self-love is not self-hate, but rather love in relationship with God and others. The alternative to selfesteem is not self-denigration, but rather an understanding of the greatness of God dwelling in a weak vessel of flesh. The
alternative to self-fulfillment is not a life of emptiness and meaninglessness. It is God's invitation to be so completely
involved with His will and His purposes that fulfillment comes through relationship with Him rather than with self.
The realization that the God and Creator of the universe has chosen to set His love upon us, should engender love and
esteem for Him rather than for self. The amazing truth that He has called us into relationship with Him to do His will far
surpass the puny dreams of self-fulfillment. The psychologizers in the Church are not providing spiritual
sustenance to those they try to make comfortable in their self-centeredness. They are robbing them of the
riches of Christ offered to all who will humble themselves before Him.
Humility is not in the language of psychology to any great degree. Dobbins even goes so far as to encourage individuals to
express anger at God. [See James Dobson report http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/exposes/dobson/general.htm for
this same teaching.] He says, "If you're angry with God, tell Him you're angry with Him. Go ahead and tell Him. He's big
enough to take it." Where in Scripture do we have an example that it's okay to be angry with God? Jonah was angry to his
own detriment, but no example can be found where anger at God is condoned, let alone encouraged (cf. Ecclesiastes 5:2).
Whenever psychology is intermingled with Scripture, it dilutes the Word and deludes the Church. Anger is more complex
than the dangerous simplicity that Dobbins portrays. His Biblical basis for expressing anger is weak at best and misleading
at least. Dobbins' writings and films are based upon his own personal, unproven psychological opinions. Unfortunately, his
opinions and conclusions do not square with reality. Apparently, Dobbins would like us to believe what he says because he
says so. However, to subscribe to the defunct hydraulic-ventilationist theory and to prescribe tackling dummies, pounding
mattresses, punching a bag, etc. (as he does in his writings), and to recommend getting angry with God without valid
research or Biblical proof is scientifically inexcusable and Biblically unreliable.
THE ROAD MORE TRAVELED
Psychiatrist M. Scott Peck http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/exposes/peck/ has become an extremely popular
speaker and writer among professing Christians. His books People of the Lie and The Road Less Traveled have appeared on
a leading evangelical magazine's Book of the Year list. The list is a result of votes cast by a group of evangelical writers,
leaders, and theologians selected by the magazine. A New York Times book reviewer reveals, "The book's main audience is
in the vast Bible Belt." The reviewer describes The Road Less Traveled as "an ambitious attempt to wed
Christian theology to the 20th-century discoveries of Freud and Jung."
In an interview which appeared in Christianity Today, Peck was asked "what he meant when he called Christ 'Savior.'" The
reviewer writes,
"Peck likes Jesus the Savior as fairy godmother (a term I'm sure he does not use flippantly) and an exemplar, or one who
shows us how to live and die. But he does not like the idea of Jesus the Atoner" (3/1/85, Christianity Today, p. 22).
Peck's understanding of the nature of God and the nature of man comes from a blend of Jungian psychology and Eastern
mysticism rather than from the Bible. He says of God and man:
"God wants us to become Himself (or Herself or Itself). We are growing toward godhood. God is the goal of evolution. It is
God who is the source of the evolutionary force and God who is the destination. This is what we mean when we say that
He is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end" (cf. Isaiah 44:6).
Peck continues:
"It is one thing to believe in a nice old God who will take good care of us from a lofty position of power which we ourselves
could never begin to attain. It is quite another to believe in a God who has it in mind for us precisely that we should attain
His position, His power, His wisdom, His identity."
The only words that approach this description are those of Lucifer in Isaiah 14:13-14. And indeed, Peck claims godhood for
those who will take the responsibility for attaining it:
"Nonetheless, as soon as we believe it is possible for man to become God, we can really never rest for long, never say, 'OK,
my job is finished, my work is done.' We must constantly push ourselves to greater and greater wisdom, greater and
greater effectiveness. By this belief we will have trapped ourselves, at least until death, on an effortful treadmill of selfimprovement and spiritual growth. God's responsibility must be our own."
Peck goes further into the morass of Eastern mysticism and Jungian occultism when he says, "To put it
plainly, our unconscious is God. God within us. We were part of God all the time. God has been with us all
along, is now, and always will be."
In contrast to Peck, the Bible reveals that the only way a person comes into relationship with God is through faith in Jesus
Christ as the only Way to the Father. Until a person is born of the Spirit, he resides in the kingdom of darkness and is under
the dominion of Satan (Ephesians 2:1-5).
No matter how personable and well-meaning "Christian" therapists (or therapists who claim to be Christian)
may be, they are heavily influenced by the ungodly psychological perspective. Psychology thus becomes the
means for both interpreting Scripture and applying it to daily living. When one reads the Bible from the
psychological perspective of Freud, Jung, Adler, Maslow, Rogers, et al., he tends to conform his
understanding of the Bible to their theories. Rather than looking at life through the lens of the Bible, he
looks at the Bible through the lens of psychology.
Amalgamators add the wisdom of men to fill in what they think is missing from the Bible. They take the ageold sin problem rooted in self-centeredness, give it a new name, such as "mid-life crisis," or some other idea,
and offer solutions from the leavened loaf. They integrate psychological ideas with a Bible verse or story
here and there to come up with what they believe to be effective solutions to problems they mistakenly
think are beyond the reach of Scripture.
PASTORS UNDERMINED
Psychological counselors undermine pastors and have developed a formula for referral:
(1) Anyone who is not psychologically trained is not qualified to counsel those people with the really serious problems of
living; and
(2) Refer them to professional trained therapists. This is one predictable and pathetic pattern of the psychological
seduction of Christianity.
Pastors have been intimidated by the warnings from psychologists. They have become fearful of doing the
very thing God has called them to do: to minister to the spiritual needs of the people through godly counsel
both in and out of the pulpit. Some of that intimidation has come from pastors trained in psychology.
A spokesman for the American Association of Pastoral Counselors, a psychotherapeutically trained group of pastors, says,
"Our concern is that there are a lot of ministers who aren't trained to handle their parishioners' psychotherapy." And of
course, if the pastors are not trained, they are not considered qualified. Therefore, the predictable benediction to the litany
is: "refer to a professional."
Within the confines of the psychotherapists' office, the pastoral message confronting sin in the individual's life is
subverted. There has been a subtle change in the meanings of words and phrases. The word sin has been
substituted with less convicting words such as shortcoming, mistake, reaction to past hurt. Words such as
healed and whole replace sanctified and holy. In fact, the word holy has been redefined to mean some kind
of psychological wholeness.
For the psychologizers, what is literal in Scripture often becomes metaphorical, and what is metaphorical becomes literal.
But these redefinitions are not received only by those who pay the price to receive them from psychotherapists; they have
become standardized within the professing Christian community at large through the influence of psychotherapy in books,
magazines, and in the so-called Christian media.
Is it any wonder that the few godly pastors that are left today are at their wit's end in attempting to counsel from Scripture
those under their care?
Ultimately, those who trust in psychotherapy rather than in Scripture will suffer because they are not
brought face-to-face with their sin nature. What psychological system justifies a person before God and
gives him peace with God? What psychological system gives the kind of faith in which a person can live by all of God's
promises? What psychological system fulfills its promises the way God fulfills His? What psychological system gives the
hope of which Paul speaks? What psychological system enables a person to exult in the midst of tribulation? What
psychological system increases the kind of perseverance that builds proven character, gives hope, and produces divine love
-- love that extends even to one's enemies?
Throughout the centuries, there have been individuals who have suffered from extremely difficult problems of living who
have sought God, and they have found Him to be true and faithful. They looked into the Word of God for wisdom and
guidance for living with and overcoming the problems of life. The lives of those saints far outshine the lives of such pitiful
souls as those who have followed the siren song of psychotherapy.
THE MYTH OF MENTAL ILLNESS
The terms mental disease, mental illness, and mental disorder are popular catch-alls for all kinds of problems of living, most
of which have little or nothing to do with disease. As soon as a person's behavior is labeled "illness," treatment and therapy
become the solutions. If, on the other hand, we consider a person to be responsible for his behavior, we should deal with
him in the areas of education, faith, and choice. If we label him "mentally ill," we rob him of the human dignity of personal
responsibility and the divine relationship by which problems may be met.
Because the term mental illness throws attitudes and behavior into the medical realm, it is important to examine its
accuracy. In discussing the concept of mental illness or mental disease, research psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey says:
"The term itself is nonsensical, a semantic mistake. The two words cannot go together ... you can no more
have a mental 'disease' than you can have a purple idea or a wise space."
The word mental means "mind" and the mind is not the same as the brain. Also, the mind is really more than just a
function or activity of the brain. Brain researcher and author Barbara Brown insists that the mind goes beyond the brain.
She says: "The scientific consensus that mind is only mechanical brain is dead wrong ... the research data of the sciences
themselves point much more strongly toward the existence of a mind-more-than-brain than they do toward the mere
mechanical brain action."
God created the human mind to know Him and to choose to love, trust, and obey Him. In the very creative act, God
planned for mankind to rule His earthly creation and to serve as His representatives on earth. Because the mind goes
beyond the physical realm, it goes beyond the reaches of science and cannot be medically sick.
Since the mind is not a physical organ, it cannot have a disease. While one can have a diseased brain, once
cannot have a diseased mind, although he may have a sinful or unredeemed mind.
Torrey aptly says: "The mind cannot really become diseased any more than the intellect can become abscessed.
Furthermore, the idea that mental 'diseases' are actually brain diseases creates a strange category of 'diseases' which are,
by definition, without known cause. Body and behavior become intertwined in this confusion until they are no longer
distinguishable. It is necessary to return to first principles: a disease is something you have, behavior is something you do."
One can understand what a diseased body is, but what is a diseased mind? It is obvious that one cannot have a diseased
emotion or a diseased behavior. Then why a diseased mind? Nevertheless, therapists continually refer to mental-emotionalbehavioral problems as diseases.
Thomas Szasz criticizes what he calls the "psychiatric impostor" who "supports a common, culturally shared desire to
equate and confuse brain and mind, nerves and nervousness." Not only are brain and mind not synonymous, neither are
nerves and nervousness. One might nervously await the arrival of a friend who is late for an appointment, but the nerves
are busy performing other tasks. Szasz further says:
"It is customary to define psychiatry as a medical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of mental
illness. This is a worthless and misleading definition. Mental illness is a myth ... the notion of a person 'having a mental
illness' is scientifically crippling. It provides professional assent to the popular rationalization -- namely, that problems in
living experienced and expressed in terms of so-called psychiatric symptoms are basically similar to bodily diseases."
Although a medical problem or brain disease may bring on mental-emotional-behavioral symptoms, the person does not
and cannot rationally be classified as "mentally ill." He is medically ill, not mentally ill. The words psychological and
biological are not synonymous. In the same way, mental and medical are not synonymous. One refers to the mind, the
other to the body.
Psychological counseling does not deal with the physical brain. It deals with aspects of thinking, feeling, and
behaving. Therefore, the psychotherapist is not in the business of healing diseases, but of teaching new
ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. He is a teacher, not a doctor.
Many have dishonestly used the term mental illness to describe a whole host of problems of thinking and behaving which
should be labeled as "problems of living."
Though the term mental illness is a misnomer and a mismatch of words, it has become firmly ingrained in the public
vocabulary and is glibly pronounced on all sorts of occasions by both lay and professional persons. Jonas Robitscher says:
"Our culture is permeated with psychiatric thought. Psychiatry, which had its beginnings in the care of the sick, has
expanded its net to include everyone, and it exercises its authority over this total population by methods that range from
enforced therapy and coerced control to the advancement of ideas and the promulgation of values."
The very term mental illness has become a blight on society. If we really believe that a person with a mental-emotionalbehavioral problem is sick, then we have admitted that he is no longer responsible for his behavior. And if he is not
responsible for his behavior, who is?
The psychoanalytic and behavioristic approaches preach that man's behavior is fixed by forces outside of his control. In the
psychoanalytic approach, man is controlled by inner psychic forces. If man's behavior is determined by internal or external
uncontrollable forces, it follows that he is not responsible for his behavior. Thus, criminals are allowed to plea bargain on
the basis of "temporary insanity," "diminished capacity," and "incompetent to stand trial." The full impact of the evil
unleashed upon society by the psychoanalytical professionals is yet to be realized.
Meanwhile, the mystique surrounding the term mental illness has frightened away people who could be of great help to
those suffering from problems of living. Many people who want to help individuals with problems of living feel "unqualified"
to help a person labeled "mentally ill." The confusion inherent within this strange juxtaposition of terms has led to errors
which have often been more harmful than helpful to those thus labeled.
Case histories abound of governmental intrusion into personal lives, forced incarceration in mental institutions, deprivation
of personal rights, and loss of livelihoods because of the stigma attached to the term "mental illness." Nevertheless, the
profession continues to promote the false concept of mental illness, to align it with medicine, and consign it to science -and the public follows. Even infants are now being diagnosed as mentally ill! Losing our Sanity from Cradle to Couch, by
Tana Dineen, Ph. D., http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/losingsanity114.html. Worse yet, the professing Church follows.
IS PSYCHOTHERAPY SUCCESSFUL?
Because of the great faith in what is believed to be science and the ever expanding numbers of people labeled "mentally
ill," psychotherapy continues to flourish with promises for change, cure, and happiness. Assurances are undergirded by
testimonies and confidence in psychological models and methods. Yet research tells us something different about the
effectiveness and the limitations of psychotherapy.
The best-known earthly research on the success and failure rates of psychotherapy was reported in 1952 by
Hans J. Eysenck, an eminent English scholar. Eysenck compared groups of patients treated by psychotherapy with
persons given little or no treatment at all. He found that a greater percentage of patients who did not undergo
psychotherapy demonstrated greater improvement over those who did undergo therapy. After examining over 8,000 cases,
Eysenck concluded that: "... roughly two-thirds of a group of neurotic patients will recover or improve to a marked extent
within about two years of the onset of their illness, whether they are treated by means of psychotherapy or not."
The American Psychiatric Association indicates that a definite answer to the question, "Is psychotherapy effective?" may be
unattainable. Their 1982 research book, Psychotherapy Research: Methodological and Efficacy Issues , concludes:
"Unequivocal conclusions about casual connections between treatment and outcome may never be possible in
psychotherapy research." In its review of this book, the Brain/Mind Bulletin says, "Research often fails to demonstrate an
unequivocal advantage from psychotherapy." The following is an interesting example from the book:
"An experiment at the All-India Institute of Mental Health in Bangalore found that Western-trained
psychiatrists and native healers had a comparable recovery rate. The most notable difference was that the
so-called 'witch doctors' released their patients sooner."
If the American Psychopathological Association and the American Psychiatric Association (as well as other
independent study groups) give mixed reports about the efficacy of psychotherapy, why do so many
"Christian" leaders promote the untenable promises of psychology? And if there is so little sound research,
and virtually no empirical evidence to support psychotherapy, why are professing Christians eager to
substitute theories and therapists for Scripture and the work of the Holy Spirit? These are legitimate
questions, especially in view of the obvious religious nature of psychotherapy.
CONCLUSION
The Church exists in a hostile world. If its members do not reject the philosophies of the world they will reflect them in their
lives. If we are friends with the world (its religions, philosophies, psychological systems and practices) then we must
seriously ask ourselves why we do not heed Jesus' words: If the world hates you, keep in mind that it hated me first. If you
belonged to the world, it would love you as its own. As it is, you do not belong to the world, but I have chosen you out of
the world. That is why the world hates you (John 15:18-19).
Obviously, if we do not heed His words, it's because we don't believe His words. The Church has been called to reflect
Jesus, not the world. Even though we are in the world we are not of the world. Thus, every ministry of the Body of Christ
must be Biblical and must not attempt to incorporate worldly philosophies, theories, or techniques. Jesus is "the way, the
truth, and the life," not Freud, Jung, Adler, Rogers, Maslow, Ellis, or any other man. A church that does not seek the Lord
as its source but relies on the philosophical and psychological ideas and techniques of men will become as secular as the
world. Such a church may indeed have a form of godliness but it has denied the power of God. It has established man as
its god. As the Body of Christ we need to pray for cleansing. We need to pray for pruning. We need to seek His face with
diligence. We need to put off the old (all that is of the world, the flesh, and the devil), and put on the new (all that is in
Jesus Christ). Let us therefore drink from the springs of living water that flow from Jesus rather than the broken cisterns of
psychological systems.
7. HYPNOSIS- CHRISTIAN OR OCCULT?
http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Psychology/hypno.htm August 2001
[Unless otherwise indicated, the bulk of this report was originally adapted from Hypnosis and the Christian, Martin & Deidre
Bobgan [http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org], Bethany House Publishers, 1984, 61 pages. The book was revised and
reissued in 2001 as Hypnosis: Medical, Scientific, or Occultic? [http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/hypnobk.html] and
some of this report was also drawn from this source.]
EXTRACT: Hypnosis is nothing new. It has been used for thousands of years by witchdoctors, spirit mediums, shamans,
Hindus, Buddhists, and yogis. But the increasing popularity of hypnosis for healing in the secular world has influenced many
in the professing church to accept hypnosis as a means of treatment. Both non-Christian and professing Christian medical
doctors, dentists, psychiatrists, and psychologists [http://www.rapidnet.com/%7Ejbeard/bdm/Psychology/psych.htm] are
recommending and using hypnosis. Although a hypnotist may encourage only a light or medium trance, he cannot prevent
a hypnotized subject from spontaneously plunging into the danger zone, which may include a sense of separation from the
body, seeming clairvoyance, hallucination, mystical states similar to those described by Eastern mystics, and even what
hypnotism researcher Ernest Hilgard describes as "demonic possession." We would argue that hypnosis is occultic at any
trance level, but at its deeper levels, hypnosis is unmistakably occult.
.. Since some doctors and many psychologists use hypnosis, most believe that hypnosis is medical and, therefore, scientific.
The label "medical" before the word hypnosis makes hypnosis seem benevolent and safe. Even some well-known professing
Christians (e.g., the late Walter Martin of CRI, and Josh McDowell and John Stewart in their book Understanding the Occult)
allege that hypnosis can be helpful if practiced by medical doctors whose intent is good rather than evil. However, Donald
Hebb says in "Psychology Today/The State of the Science" that "hypnosis has persistently lacked satisfactory explanation."
At the present time, there is no agreed-upon scientific explanation of exactly what hypnosis is. Psychiatry professor Thomas
Szasz describes hypnosis as the therapy of "a fake science." We cannot call hypnosis a science, but we can say that it has
been an integral part of the occult for thousands of years. (Although hypnosis has been investigated by scientific means,
and there are some measurable criteria concerning the trance itself, hypnosis is not a science.)
No one knows exactly how hypnosis "works," other than the obvious "placebo effect" -- the successful use of "false
feedback" in the same manner that feedback is used in the occult techniques common to acupuncture, biofeedback,
and psychotherapy [http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/freudl36.html]. But compounding the word hypnosis with the
word therapy does not lift the practice from the occult to the scientific. The white coat may be a more respectable garb
than feathers and face paint, but the basics are the same. Hypnosis is hypnosis, whether it is called medical hypnosis,
hypnotherapy, autosuggestion, or anything else. Hypnosis in the hands of a medical doctor is as scientific as a dowsing rod
in the hands of a civil engineer.
8. THE FILM ‘GODS OF THE NEW AGE’ Gods in New Age - http://www.marianland.com/newage01.html
GODS OF THE NEW AGE- DVD (103 min) $ 24.95 Click Here to Order: http://www.marianland.com/order.html
Best scientific video on the New Age Movement ever made. The definitive work on the New Age Movement. Explores its
birth, its invasion, and its effect on western society. It explores the pagan roots of eastern mysticism, meditation, yoga, and
more. An eye-opening expose of the New Age movement. Shows how it was conceived in the early 1960's at a planning
session by Hindu gurus in India as a means of converting Americans to Eastern mysticism. The seemingly innocuous
devices used range from Yoga meditation to a belief in reincarnation. We are given an extraordinary inside glimpse into
an eerie world of cult mentality and mindless obedience, and we see how an outright attack against traditional American
beliefs has been successfully launched, not only from Hindu missionaries, but from unsuspecting Americans who have
accepted the surface manifestations of this religion as trendy and fun. Many of these concepts, amazingly. have found their
way into American churches which, themselves, are the very target of the attack. The film covers the chilling parallels
between the belief structure in today's New Age subculture and that in Hitler's Third Reich two generations ago. This is a
program you will not soon forget. 1 hour 43 minutes. Believe this is the most important Christian film of the decade.
With explosive facts, it explains why 60 million Americans have been led to Eastern mysticism's "embrace that smothers:'
exchanging the certain hope of salvation for the hopeless cycle of reincarnation. Gods of the New Age reveals:
Why-thousands of churchgoers have begun to believe the lies first told by - the serpent in the Garden of Eden.
Why yoga, meditation, psychological therapy and self-help are turning millions to a pagan worldview.
How the west is being intentionally evangelized by eastern mystics and New Age visionaries.
This film explores the eerie world of ego-maniacal gurus and their western counterparts, New Agers. In a series of
exclusive, candid interviews, we share the thoughts of "master" and witness the blind devotion and mindless obedience of
"disciple."
Gods of the New Age takes us from a clandestine, early sixties planning meeting held by Indian gurus to today's dignified
U.S corridors, American schoolrooms and Christian churches.
The film uncovers the chilling parallels between today's Western culture and the similar climate that bred Hitler's Third
Reich a generation ago!
"This is the most powerful Christian documentary I have ever seen!" Rabi Maharaj, author of The Death of a Guru
9. THE DESACRALIZATION OF HINDUISM FOR WESTERN CONSUMPTION
by Rama Coomaraswamy, M.D., F.A.C.S. 2001, http://www.coomaraswamy-writings.com/articles.htm EXTRACT:
Originally given as a talk before the Department of Religion at South Carolina State University, and published in Sophia in
honor of Fritjhof Schuon. Part IV.
These three case studies provide us with an excellent introduction to what has come to be called “The New Age
Religion.” Even though only three were considered, one could easily add dozens more- a certain pattern begins to
emerge. These various false brands of Hinduism are catering to and satisfying the wide open Western ideational market.
If one examines the intellectual decline of the West one must recognize certain trends. Time does not allow for a detailed
exposition. Suffice it to say that Wolfgang Smith's Cosmos and Consciousness, Weaver's Ideas Have Consequences, and
Rene Guenon's Reign of Quantity, provide a more than adequate explanation of this process. One can however summarize
the process as the increasing acceptance of nominalist patterns of thought with the resulting materialistic and mechanistic
point of view which is reflected in evolutionary theory, socialism, and atheism.
Enter Freud upon the scene. A follower of Darwin, he believed in an evolving world of chance events and that humans
were essentially animals driven by instincts constantly in collision with societal standards. Belief in God was a neurosis, an
illusion needed by the weak. He even went so far as to say that “the moment one inquires into the sense of value of life,
one is sick.” Despite the superficiality of this summation of Freud, it serves the purpose. Many individuals who were
unsatisfied with this view of reality insisted that there was more to life than unconscious drives. Dissention rapidly occurred.
Jung, who questioned the reduction of all human behaviors to sexual impulses, preferred to relate behavior to the concept
of an evolving collective unconscious, an idea that he admitted that he learned about from his spirit guide named Philemon.
Religious ideas were acceptable in his view, but had their roots in this collective unconscious. Archetypes resided, not in
God above, but in this cesspool of evolutionary memories. Wilhelm Reich similarly left the Freudian orbit to develop the
idea that blockages to personality development were recorded in muscular patterns of the body. Lifting the Freudian taboo
against touching patients, he developed a form of bodywork to release the “orgone energy” that permeated the universe.
Essentially a pantheist, he designed organ accumulators to collect and concentrate this mysterious cosmic energy. Another
important deviator from the Freudian corpus was Victor Frankl who after his concentration camp experience promoted the
concept of “the will to meaning.” He could not accept the idea that a religious martyr died for nothing more than
sublimated sexual urges. Yet another figure was [B.F.] Skinner who saw people as highly programmed animals, and who
rejected the idea that man was responsible or capable of independent action.
In the practical order, none of these men could be taken seriously by those who knew there was more to life than
subconscious drives or programmed genetic responses. It was thus that in this fundamentally materialistic setting the ideas
of Abraham Maslow came to the fore. Maslow, despite his personal atheism, elevated humanity above the level of
animals and said that people were capable of self-transcendence and personal achievement. He introduced the concept that
every person contained a “self-actualization” force within himself which struggled to assert itself. It was best to bring this
out and permit it to guide our lives.
A person who did this experienced “being values” such as wholeness, perfection, completion, beauty, goodness, truth, and
self-sufficiency, and sometimes they even experienced these being values at the level of what he called “peak experiences.”
He also said that “transcendence means becoming divine or godlike, to go beyond the merely human”. This becoming
divine however had nothing to do with the supernatural or the extrahuman. It was an “anthropological transcendence” and
he called it being “metahuman” or “B-human” the whole process being part of man qua man. He was convinced mankind
was coming to a brave new future as a result of increased awareness.
Maslow- who as I have already pointed out, was tied into the Esalen Institute- opened the door to a host of other
psychologists such as [Erich] Fromm, Rollo May, and Carl Rogers who developed his ideas into what can be called the
“humanistic psychology of the self” which is basic to the New Age movement. Rogers for instance asserted that
"God is a symbol of man's own powers which he tries to realize in his life and not a symbol of force and domination having
power over man." He even went so far as to say that the Fall of Adam was the first act of freedom- “the act of disobeying
God's commandment is our liberation from coercion and the beginning of reason!” For him virtue was self-realization and
not obedience. Now “this realization involved the 'One,' for religious experience is the experience of oneness with the All,
based of one's relatedness to the world as it is grasped with thought and with love.” All this led to the “human potential
movement” which Alvin Toffler has described as “as odds and ends of psychoanalysis, Eastern religion, sexual
experimentation, game playing and old-time revivalism.” Currently the phrases “transpersonal psychology” or “fourth
force psychology” are coming into prominence. It is described as an emerging force interested in “ultimate human
capacities” not incorporated into behaviorism (first force), psychoanalysis (second force), or humanistic psychology (third
force). One New Age text defines “transpersonal” as “referring to those dimensions of being or consciousness
wherein individuals share a common identity; those dimensions wherein we are one.” Self-actualization is now
seen as an end in itself, irrespective of its effects on others. As we discover the One within, we act so as to release its
potential in whatever way is most effective. The self knows best. Because personal experience equals reality one changes
reality by focusing on the self. Full awareness of my experience requires complete acceptance of that experience as it is.
Any demands- by myself or others- to be different than I am, reduces my contact with what I actually experience. This is of
course pure subjectivism or philosophical solipsism. In common parlance it is narcissism. (All this is of course, only the
application of existentialist and personalist philosophies to sociology and psychology.)
Another component of this counter-religion is openly satanic. During Aleister Crowley's early experiments with the psychic
world he visited Cairo, Egypt. There having placed his wife into a trance, she informed him that the spirits “are waiting for
you.” Crowley followed this up by repeating magical invocations over several days, which led to his contact with “Aiwass”
who commanded him to write down The Book of Law, a kind of pseudo-esoteric scripture.
In this text Aiwass spoke of a “new religion” that would be distinguished by complete self-fulfillment and the
unleashing of private volition and desire. The great “commandment” of Crowley's New Age, as dictated by Aiwass, has
become the leitmotif of the satanic cults: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.”
… A common and most dangerous trait of all New Agers is their willingness to play around with changes in states of
consciousness. If all is one and all is God and we are God, then why is it that we are not aware of this fact? The answer is
ignorance combined with evolutionary backwardness. Instead of seeing ignorance as a reflection of man's sinful and fallen
state, the New Ager declares that this ignorance is a result of the kind of consciousness which Western culture has imposed
on him. To a certain degree he is correct, for his thinking processes have been strongly formed by the materialistic and
psychologically based environment in which he has grown up. But he quickly goes off the track by holding that this false
consciousness or awareness can and must be changed by altering our state of consciousness and by opening our doors to
new perceptions. This can be achieved by drugs, by music, by breathing techniques, by yoga, by sports, by dance,
by repeating meaningless mantras and by other forms of self-hypnosis.
New Agers who indulge in such techniques without such protections and without a life of prayer can only open themselves
to what is infernal.
Changed states of consciousness are said to put oneself into contact with a higher state of consciousness- Aurobindo's
Supermind. With regard to this one must be wary of such terms as Krishna consciousness, Christ consciousness, or what is
called “cosmic consciousness.” The linking of divine names to these states tends to lend them a false legitimacy. But of
course, in reality it all depends upon just what one means by such phrases. As Rene Guenon has pointed out, this
cosmic consciousness or “Great All” in which some aspire to lose themselves, cannot be anything else than
the diffuse psychism of the most inferior regions of the subtle world, not unrelated to the labyrinth of the
dark underworld of the “collective unconscious” that Jung postulates*.
*A concept suggested to him by his spirit guide named Philemon. The term unconscious is inappropriate and it
would be more precise to speak of the subconscious, for the realm is in fact nothing other than the ensemble of the inferior
extensions of the consciousness. Guenon discusses this in his “Tradition and the Unconscious” in Fundamental Symbols of
Sacred Science, translated by Alvin Moore, Jr., Quinta Essentia (England) 1995.
10. MODERN ASTROLOGY: A MARRIAGE WITH PSYCHOLOGY
Astrology and psychology both include the description of personality. In fact, Carl Jung claimed that astrology contained all
the psychological knowledge of olden days [ The Secret of the Golden Flower R. Wilhelm and C.G. Jung 1942 page 143].
The major influence on the practice of western astrology today, aside from New Age spirituality, is humanistic and
transpersonal psychology. Humanistic views centered the chart on the person as the master of his\her fate.
The birth horoscope became a set of possibilities and choices for the self – aware, and was used to delineate the
personality, character and potentialities of the individual. The psychological approach was first popularized by Alan Leo
(1860 – 1917), a member of the Theosophical Society.
Transpersonal Psychology, a legacy of Jung and others, shaped the chart into a tool for understanding the self as part of
the whole, and how the self connects to the collective unconscious, believed to be the common unconscious shared by all
humanity. The three outer planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, became the ‘collective planet’ since they move so slowly
through the chart. Thus, these three planets came to symbolize generational influences, as well as unconscious influences
on the inner personal planets. Both humanistic and transpersonal astrology were especially pioneered by an influential
astrologer of the 20th century, Dane Rudhyar (1895 – 1985).
In his book, The Practice of Astrology, 1975, page 21, he states that “the astrologer has authority as one who deals
understandingly and effectively with… the occult.” The signs of the zodiac are interpreted as twelve psychological types.
Planets and signs merely indicate effects, they do not cause them. There is little interest in systems of auspicious times.
Psychology smashed the fatalistic attitude of earlier traditional astrology. Interpretations are more flexible, and chart
symbols are viewed as having both negative and positive possibilities, planets being interpreted as principles, rather than
either benefic or malefic. Mars, for instance, represents the principle of energy and activity. This is a development from the
earlier concept of the malefic planet Mars with its war-like character.
With these developments, it is inaccurate to believe that astrologers think we are ruled by the planets. They see the chart as a
blueprint for the self and soul, a pattern that can be rearranged in various ways by the self – aware individual.
Astrology is justified by this school along the lines of Jung’s concept of synchronicity, the idea that two events occurring
simultaneously but seemingly unrelated have a spiritual symbol for that person, i.e. a meaningful coincidence of events
which are not connected by ‘causation’. Jung introduced this to explain certain strange occurrences including
parapsychological phenomena such as clairvoyance and predictive dreams and visions.
It is difficult to believe that a predictive dream is actually caused by the future event it reveals, so causation is given up as
an explanation of these experiences.
This view is highly popular with contemporary astrologers- it enables them to dispense with the idea that astrology is a
matter of physical influence of the heavenly bodies, which is a causal process, and in the NAM.
The goal is to evolve through self – awareness. Astrology is a tool to “know thyself” as well as a tool of divination. Modern
astrology rejects readings of a fixed future, and prefers to call interpretations of the future “forecasting” or “coming trends”,
building on the belief that one has choices. Many astrologers are also practicing psychologists.
Some modern psychologists make use of astrology, according to Anthony Stone [ A Christian looks at Astrology p 42].
CATHOLICS SPEAK… continued from page 45
32. The Psychological Profession and Homosexuality: Lunatics Running the Asylum?
Special Report Commentary by Matthew Cullinan Hoffman
WASHINGTON, August 14, 2009 (LifeSiteNews.com) - A man goes to a psychologist with a problem. "Doctor," he says,
"I'm suffering terribly. I feel like a woman trapped inside the body of a man. I want to become a woman."
The psychologist responds: "No problem. We can discuss this idea for a couple of years, and if you're still sure you want to
be a woman, we can have a surgeon remove your penis, give you hormones for breast enlargement and make other
changes to your body. Problem solved."
Gratified, the first patient leaves, followed by a second. "Doctor," he says, "I feel terrible. I'm a man but I feel attracted to
other men. I want to change my sexual preference. I want to become heterosexual." The psychologist responds: "Oh no,
absolutely not! That would be unethical. Sexual orientation is an immutable characteristic!"
The irony of this little tale is that, while reading like a joke, it is in reality an accurate description of the mental health
professions today. While dismissing and condemning reparative therapy for homosexual orientation, the majority of
psychiatrists and psychologists in Anglophone North America have embraced the concept of "sex change," a procedure that
does nothing more than mutilate the patient to appease his confused mind.
The American Psychological Association Perpetuates the Madness
In its most recent statement on the topic, the American Psychological Association (APA) has softened its tone somewhat
against psychologists who do reorientation therapy for homosexuals. However it maintains that, "Contrary to claims of
sexual orientation change advocates and practitioners, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological
interventions to change sexual orientation".
The refusal of the organization to accept the increasingly strong evidence against its position is another reminder of how
entrenched the sophistry of sexual hedonism has become among the leaders of the organization.
In recent years, a number of studies have been published in peer-reviewed psychology journals, indicating that significant
numbers of patients who voluntarily participate in therapy to change their sexual orientation are successful and happy with
the results. Combined with numerous individual testimonies by former homosexuals, evidence in favor of the practice is
overwhelming.
However, in its new report, "Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation," the APA's leadership declares that
all of those studies can be dismissed because, in its words, "None of the recent research (1999-2007) meets methodological
standards that permit conclusions regarding efficacy or safety."
The report therefore conveniently disposes of the most recent studies on the topic -- the ones that undermine the APA's
position. The only studies that remain are ones done before the resurgence of the reparative therapy movement, in the
1970s, when the APA declared that homosexual orientation and sodomy really weren't unhealthy after all. New research is
rejected in favor of research that is now over 30 years old, applied to therapeutic practices that may no longer be in use.
However, the authors of Essential Psychotherapy and its Treatment , a standard text in medical schools, disagree with the
APA's leadership, and say that the newer studies vindicate sexual reorientation therapy.
The newest edition (2009) notes on page 488 that, "While many mental health care providers and professional associations
have expressed considerable skepticism that sexual orientation could be changed with psychotherapy and also assumed
that therapeutic attempts at reorientation would produce harm, recent empirical evidence demonstrates that homosexual
orientation can indeed be therapeutically changed in motivated clients, and that reorientation therapies do not produce
emotional harm when attempted (e.g., Byrd & Nicolosi, 2002; Byrd et al., 2008; Shaeffer et al., 1999; Spitzer, 2003)."
The APA's latest report, done by a task force composed of psychologists with long records of homosexualist activism, also
claims as "scientific facts" that "same-sex sexual attractions, behavior, and orientations per se are normal and positive
variants of human sexuality-in other words, they are not indicators of mental or developmental disorders" and "no empirical
studies or peer-reviewed research supports theories attributing same-sex sexual orientation to family dysfunction or
trauma."
These unbelievable statements fly in the face of more than a century of scientific, peer-reviewed studies and clinical
observation that indicate that much homosexual behavior originates in deficient family relationships and is associated with a
wide range of diseases and pathological behaviors.
Studies have shown that homosexuals disproportionately come from families in which sons or daughters lack a healthy
relationship with one or both of their parents, or in situations in which the homosexual was the victim of child sex abuse by
a same-sex adult.
Homosexual behavior is also statistically associated with a host of diseases, disorders, and pathological behaviors,
including venereal and other diseases, promiscuity and unstable relationships , anxiety disorders , depression and suicide ,
alcoholism and drug abuse , domestic violence , pederasty, and early death .
Even the homosexual Gay and Lesbian Medical Association admits that homosexuals suffer disproportionate rates of disease
and self-destructive behavior.
Although the homosexualist leadership at the APA tries to rationalize these relationships by claiming that they are caused by
social stigma or other factors, their claims ring hollow. Many stigmatized groups exist in society that display none of the
pathological tendencies of homosexuals, and these tendencies appear even in countries that are very tolerant of
homosexual behavior, such as the Netherlands.
Homosexualism on the Defensive
The very existence of the report, however, is evidence that the homosexualist establishment currently in power at the APA
is on the defensive, and seeking to preserve its ideology of sexual permissiveness as a paradigm in the psychology
profession.
After surrendering itself to a hedonistic ethos in the 1970s and 80s, the American psychological practice has been
transformed into a vehicle for patients to rationalize and reconcile themselves with self-destructive, irrational, and
narcissistic behavior, paying an "expert" to soothe their consciences by assuring them that "science" is on their side.
However, an increasing number of mental health professionals whose institutions were stolen from them by political
activists in the 1970s are now rising up to take back their profession in the name of true science, and patient health.
Former APA President Dr. Robert Perloff has publicly endorsed the National Organization for the Research and Treatment of
Homosexuality (NARTH), the largest American organization devoted the treatment of unwanted homosexual attractions,
and has denounced the APA's campaign against such treatment.
"The ideology of those who oppose efforts to try to facilitate transfers from SSA, that is, Same Sex Attraction, to
heterosexual attraction, must not, must not stand in the way of those homosexual persons who desire to live their lives
heterosexually, a choice which is unarguably theirs to make," he said in a videotaped statement played at NARTH's 2008
annual meeting.
Dr. Robert Spitzer, who has been called the "architect" of the American Psychiatric Association's normalization of
homosexuality in the 1970s, provoked outrage from the homosexualist establishment when he admitted in 2001 that his
own investigations had convinced him that sexual reorientation therapy can work.
His study, published in the peer-reviewed Archives of Mental Health in 2003, found that a majority of his sample of 247
people had developed heterosexual urges or had ceased to be predominantly homosexual after only one year of therapy.
None of the subjects said that they had been harmed in the process.
After presenting his paper before the American Psychiatric Association in 2001, Spitzer said: "I'm convinced from people I
have interviewed...many of them...have made substantial changes toward becoming heterosexual. I came to this study
skeptical. I now claim that these changes can be sustained."
Other prominent figures in psychiatry and psychology have also raised their voices in protest, including Dr. Jeffrey
Satinover, a psychiatrist and physicist who has testified before Congress in favor of reparative therapy, and has denounced
the hijacking of the mental health professions by homosexualist ideologues in his book, the "Trojan Couch".
"Some of my psychiatric and psychological colleagues have woven for themselves their own set of illusory robes of
authority, and for the past 35 years have been proclaiming doctrines in the public square that depend upon the authority
that derives from the public's belief that these robes exist," Satinover said in a recent interview .
"The diagnostic change that in 1973 removed homosexuality as a formal disorder from the American Psychiatric
Association's Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), a change that many now accept as simply
indisputable in spite of the fact that it was based wholly on fiction," he added.
"The question isn't just homosexuality, said Satinover, "but rather, freedom from all sexual constraint. This has been an
issue for civilization for thousands of years... We now have so little of a moral compass that we're really completely at sea.
We're awash in the tide of unconstrained instinctive behaviors which are all being labeled 'okay' because nobody really has
a sense, any more, as to what's right and what's wrong."
Whither Psychology?
The debate over reparative therapy for homosexuality runs deeper than the issue itself. It is arguably a debate over the
future of the psychological professions as a whole.
Although there are signs that an increasing number of mental health experts are taking an honest look at the facts
regarding homosexual behavior and sexual orientation therapy, there are other signs that portend an even darker future for
the profession.
In 1998, the APA released a study by three psychological researchers from Temple University, the University of
Pennsylvania, and the University of Michigan, claiming that the "negative potential" of adult sex with children was
"overstated" and that "the vast majority of both men and women reported no negative sexual effects from their child sexual
abuse experiences." It even claimed that large numbers of the victims reported that their experiences were "positive," and
suggested that the phrase "child sex abuse" be replaced with "adult-child sex."
The APA not only passed the paper through its peer review process where it was approved by multiple psychologists
associated with the organization, but actually published it in one of its journals, Psychological Bulletin. Moreover, when
objections were raised by radio talk show host Dr. Laura Schlessinger and various pro-family groups, the organization
defended the article for an entire year. It was also defended by the American Association for the Advancement of Science,
which chillingly stated that it "saw no clear evidence of improper application of methodology or other questionable practices
on the part of the article's authors."
Although the sheer insanity and destructiveness of the content should have prevented the APA from publishing the article in
the first place, the sexual libertines in charge of the organization only issued a muted retraction after the U.S. Congress
joined the fray, passing an unprecedented resolution condemning the study.
The publication of the paper was only one example of such lunacy by mental health professionals in peer-reviewed
journals. One of the three authors of the study, Robert Bauserman, has a history of publishing pedophilia-advocacy
"studies," including one for the now-defunct journal Paidika, The Journal of Paedophilia, whose editors admitted to being
pedophiles.
Since the 1998 article, Bauserman and fellow author Bruce Rind have gone on to write more articles defending child sex
abuse, which have appeared in such mainstream journals as the Archives of Sexual Behavior (2001) and Clinical Psychology
(2003). Apparently, the psychology profession is comfortable with Bauserman and Rind's work, and intends to continue
publishing it.
Another apologist for child sex abuse who has received acceptance, affirmation, and recognition from the mental health
professions is Dr. Theo Sandfort, who is currently an Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (in Psychiatry) at
Colombia University. Sandfort published a study in 1981 that claimed that boys as young as 10 years old had "positive"
experiences in their "sexual relationships" with adults.
While he was co-director of the research program of the Department of Gay and Lesbian Studies at the University of
Utrecht, Netherlands, Sandfort interviewed 25 boys from between the ages of 10 and 16 who were in such "sexual
relationships" -- that is, they were being sexually abused by adults. In fact, the abusers themselves took Sandfort to their
victims so he could interview them. When the victims gave Sandfort their "positive" responses, he duly recorded them.
"For virtually all the boys ... the sexual contact itself was experienced positively," Sandfort wrote, without a hint of irony.
The fact that Sandfort was promoting the sexual abuse of minors with the help of their victimizers didn't seem to faze him.
Nor did it faze his then-employers at the University of Utrecht. Nor did it faze the prestigious University of Colombia, which
later gave him a professorship, even after he went on to write articles such as "Pedophile relationships in the Netherlands:
Alternative Lifestyles for Children?" and books such as "Childhood Sexuality: Normal Sexual Behavior and Development"
(2000).
It hasn't fazed the APA either, which has named Sandfort a "fellow" of the organization since 2002.
The defense and even the promotion of mental health experts who defend child sex abuse is a terrifying, but expectable
movement down the slippery slope of sexual hedonism embraced by the powers that be at the APA. It not only threatens
homosexuals, who are deceived by the seductive argument that their orientation is nothing to worry about, but psychology
and psychiatry themselves.
The outcome of the current battle over the science of homosexuality may well determine the future of the mental health
professions as a whole. Will they turn back from the brink, or plunge into the abyss? And what will become of the societies
that heed their counsel?
LifeSiteNews.com August 17, 2009
The APA [American Psychological Association] did not like Matthew Hoffman's report, "The Psychological Profession and
Homosexuality: Lunatics Running the Asylum?" and contacted us demanding that we remove their logo from within the
report. This very rarely happens as most organizations understand that their logo was created to promote their image to
the public. It also gives instant recognition to news reports about their activities. However, a few organizations get snippety
about negative publicity which they cannot refute.- Steve Jalsevac, Editor
33. The Integration of Psychology and Philosophy. Interview With Professor Michael Pakaluk
By Genevieve Pollock http://www.zenit.org/article-27075?l=english
ARLINGTON, Virginia, OCT. 6, 2009 (Zenit.org) In an institute founded only a decade ago, scholars are gathering in a quest
to remedy an age-old problem: the disintegration of psychology and philosophy, science and Catholic thought.
Michael Pakaluk is one of these scholars, a philosophy professor who teaches at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences.
He is the author of many scholarly articles and several books, including the Clarendon Aristotle volume on books VIII and
IX of the Nicomachean Ethics (1998), and "Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics: An Introduction" (Cambridge, 2005). His most
recent book, "The Appalling Strangeness of the Mercy of God," is forthcoming with Ignatius Press.
In this interview with ZENIT, Pakaluk speaks about an integration project currently under way at the institute, which is
bringing together psychology, philosophy and theology in both a theoretical and practical way.
ZENIT: What is the project of "integration" that is being pursued at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences?
Pakaluk: "Integration" at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences means simply the study of psychology with confidence
in the harmony of faith and reason.
Clearly, that sort of "integration" can be sought within any discipline, although it is most important -- and potentially the
most fruitful -- in areas such as philosophy and psychology, which deal with fundamental realities for human life.
John Paul II once remarked in an address to psychiatrists that "by its very nature, your work often brings you to the very
threshold of the human mystery."
If one adds to this, as an additional premise, the famous statement of "Gaudium et Spes" that "it is only in the mystery
of the incarnate Word that the mystery of man is brought to light," it follows by a kind of syllogism that
psychology is unavoidably integrative in this sense.
ZENIT: If that's what "integration" means, why is the Institute for the Psychological Sciences unique? Isn't integration
what every Catholic psychology program should be attempting?
Pakaluk: When people used to praise Mother Teresa for being a "living saint," she would downplay this and insist that she
was only doing what any Christian should be doing.
Likewise, although people praise the Institute for the Psychological Sciences for its uniqueness, it's correct to say -- I
believe -- that we are only attempting to do what every psychology department in a Catholic university should be
doing.
And yet these psychology departments are not doing that. If you don't believe me, go to the Web sites of the
well-known, historic Catholic universities, and see how the psychology departments there describe
themselves. I was shocked when I tried this the other day for a very famous university.
First, the Web site gave a very inadequate definition of psychology, as "the science of human behavior."
Then, in the three-page description of the program, one could find not a single word about Christ, man as
made in the image of God, the Church, or the Christian understanding of the human person. Not a single
word. I then checked every biography of the 20 or more professors in the department, where they described
their interests and their research -- and, again, not a single word about the Catholic faith.
It wasn't that the professors weren't relating psychology to other areas. One professor's research related
psychology to multiculturalism; another connected psychology with work on hormones; another looked at
relationships between psychology and feminism; and so on. So they endorsed the principle that psychology
is profitably integrated with other areas. But apparently the view of the human person which has been
developed in Catholic thought is not one of those areas.
Here's a good way of grasping what the Institute for the Psychological Sciences is like. I've known or been a part of
seminars held during the summer, where Catholic graduate students and professors in some academic discipline come
together for a week or two to discuss connections between the Catholic faith and their discipline.
Invariably, the participants say with great excitement that these were among the most invigorating and interesting weeks in
their lives -- where all kinds of new ideas were suggested in a spirit of true creative collaboration.
At the Institute for the Psychological Sciences, we aim to make that sort of conversation the rule and not a rare exception.
ZENIT: It sounds like the integration pursued at the Institute carries along with it a distinctive view of the human person.
Can you say more about this?
Pakaluk: Yes, at this institute we reject any sort of reductionism, which holds that a human being is "nothing
but" an animal or a biological machine; and we affirm in contrast that we have free will and a distinctive
power of rationality. We reject that human beings are autonomously individualistic and hold instead with
Aristotle and the ancients that we are by nature relational and social. Finally, and perhaps most importantly,
we reject Cartesianism, which holds that a single human being is in fact a composite of two distinct
substances, a body and a mind, and hold that it is important always to see the human person as embodied.
We believe that it is important for a clinician not merely to have expertise in particular sciences of man -- such as neurology
and ethology -- but also to acquire an understanding of human nature itself, of the sort that perhaps only skilled novelists
attain today, if they are really good novelists.
Walker Percy writes something about this: "The proper study of man is man, said [Alexander] Pope. But that's a large
order, especially nowadays, when there is no such thing as a study of man but two hundred specialties which study this or
that aspect of man."
One aspect of integration, then, is to arrive at a grasp of the whole reality of the human person by arriving at a grasp of
human nature.
ZENIT: Is this integration only theoretical, or is it practical as well?
Pakaluk: Yes, of course, just as Christianity is dogmatic but also implies a way of life, and a way of relating to others.
It should be said that the clinical focus of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences assists this project of integration: The
goal of clinical practice is the mental health of the whole person who is the client; thus, the whole person and not some
fragment needs to be taken into account.
Integration even calls for a new way of pursuing science and putting it to practical work. When I teach "The Abolition of
Man" to students here at the institute, I point out the passage in Lewis's third lecture where he calls for a "new Natural
Philosophy," which is such that "when it explained it would not explain away," and "whose followers would not be free with
the words only and merely -- and I tell them that at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences we are attempting to study
one natural reality, at least, in this way.
ZENIT: The Institute for the Psychological Sciences is celebrating its 10th anniversary this year. That's an important
milestone, and yet the Institute has a relatively short history, considering the fact that psychology has existed for hundreds
of years. Why have Catholics, it seems, been so slow to take up this task of integration?
Pakaluk: It's true that some Protestant programs in psychology, such as at Fuller Theological Seminary, have been
speaking of "integration" now for several decades. Yet it's not that Catholics in contrast have been laggards.
Recall that generally for the learned world, until relatively recently, psychology was regarded as a branch of
philosophy. Psychology acquired an autonomy only through the development of empirical methods which seemed to be
distinctive to it; and also, curiously, on account of the influence of Freudianism, which held that the unconscious, because
of its non-rationality, was precisely not tractable by philosophy.
Catholic thinkers could hardly embrace the view of human beings endorsed by behaviorism, which was the direction that
empirical psychology was taking, or Freudianism, and so the traditional view that psychology is a branch of philosophy
survived longer in Catholic circles.
This view was demolished, however, when in the '60s Thomism was for better or worse rejected by Catholic
universities as the main organizing framework for knowledge. Since then there has been a "disintegration"
of psychology and philosophy -- and theology --, which the Institute for the Psychological Sciences has lately tried to
remedy.
ZENIT: Your own expertise is in classical philosophy, especially Aristotle's ethics. How does your expertise fit in with what
the institute is trying to do?
Pakaluk: The connection between Aristotle's ethics and clinical psychology might seem remote. Yet actually Aristotle's
ethical theory proves to be highly relevant to clinical psychology. An entire new movement in clinical psychology, called
"positive psychology," is based essentially on a view of the virtues similar to that found in Aristotle: It maintains that
psychologists, to their detriment, have paid too much attention to mental illness, and not enough attention to the modes of
human flourishing -- the virtues -- which can provide a kind of safeguard against mental illness.
Also, Aristotle's theory of friendship corresponds to a deficiency in Thomistic "rational psychology" as traditionally
expounded. Thomism is excellent at identifying the "constitution" of human nature -- its powers, habits, and operations -but, frankly, it is deficient in discussing those things that are most important for mental illness, that is, development and
relationships. One might also add that one aspect of the integration sought at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences is
between ancient and modern; certainly the institute wishes to take account of the classical view of psychology as "the study
of the soul."
ZENIT: Are Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas something like the official philosophers of the institute?
Pakaluk: No, we have no official philosophers, and we are definitely eclectic. Aristotle and Aquinas are important, but
Augustine and Edith Stein no less so, and then too we encourage students to take what they can from less systematic,
more intuitive thinkers such as Victor Frankl, Walker Percy, and even G.K. Chesterton.
When all is said and done, perhaps the most important philosopher for us is Karol Wojtyla, insofar as his "Love and
Responsibility" provides what I think is the best single example of the sort of integrative approach we are aiming at.
On the Net: Institute for the Psychological Sciences: http://ipsciences.edu/
34. The Fall of the Archbishop by Arturo Vasquez October 8, 2009
http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7007&Itemid=100 EXTRACT:
Archbishop Rembert Weakland of Milwaukee, a noted dissenter and liberal who had been blackmailed
into giving almost half a million dollars to a man with whom he had a homosexual relationship in
the late 1970s
… also lamented such practices as the use of the grill to conceal the nuns from the outside world, and he viewed
the parlors for visiting the cloistered women as places that were "dark, dreary, and uninviting." His solution to all
this was to "educate" the nuns, including an education in psychology. Those familiar with the work of Dr.
William Coulson with the Immaculate Heart Nuns in southern California in the 1960s know how
devastating such experiments proved to those religious communities. For these liberals, however, in order to
save these communities, they had to destroy them.
CARL JUNG, THE WORLD’S LEADING NEW AGE PSYCHOLOGIST, AND YOGA
IA. YOGA [A TRIBUTE TO HINDUISM]
http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Yoga_and_Hindu_Philosophy.htm 2001, updated August 15, 2006
EXTRACT: Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) the eminent Swiss psychologist in 1935, described yoga as 'one of the
greatest things the human mind has ever created.'
Harold Coward says that the main basis of Jung's understanding of karma came from his study of Patanjali's
Yoga Sutras [http://www.lifepositive.com/Body/yoga/sutra.asp]. Jung formulated his archetypes in terms of the
karma theory. Says Jung: "We may accept the idea of karma only if we understand it as 'psychic heredity' in
the very widest sense of the word." In his later thought Jung saw karma as the motivation for knowledge
that leads from past life into this life and onto future lives. NOTE: This is a Hindu source- Michael
IB. YOGA IN THE MODERN WORLD
http://www.cincinnatitemple.com/articles/ScienceYogaandHinduPhilosophy.pdf
EXTRACT: The ground for yoga’s introduction to the West was laid in 1893, with the arrival from India of Swami
Vivekananda, who gained notoriety when he represented Hinduism at the world Parliament of Religions in Chicago.
Soon after, the West's awareness of Indian philosophy grew, through the work of such groups as the Theosophical Society,
founded in the US by Madame Blavatsky. The Society translated most of the ancient Indian philosophical texts available at
the time, including an interpretation of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by the English novelist and playwright Christopher
Isherwood, a member of the Society. Other members of the Society included some of the most prominent intellectuals of
the day such as Aldous Huxley, Frank Lloyd Wright and W. B. Yeats. For the next few decades, the West's interest in Indian
philosophy continued to grow. An important voice for the universality of these teachings was the great philosopher and
teacher J. Krishnamurti. With awareness of the philosophy grew an interest in the practice with which it was so closely
linked – yoga. In 1935, the eminent Swiss psychologist Carl G. Jung http://www.atributetohinduism.com/quotes61_80htm#Q79
even described yoga as 'one of the greatest things the human mind has ever created.'
NOTE: This is a Hindu source- Michael
Hundreds mourn passing of Kerala's 'exorcist' priest October 26, 2009
http://www.religiousindia.org/2009/10/28/hundreds-mourn-keralas-exorcist-priest/
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, India (UCAN) -- Hundreds of people attended the funeral of an "exorcist priest," whose
controversial treatments for mental illness combined religion and psychology.
Father Geo Kappalumakal, who directed the Georgian Counseling Centre in Palai, Kerala, died on Oct. 22 at the age of 78
after a prolonged illness. Bishop Joseph Kallarangatt of Palai conducted his funeral on Oct. 24.
Father Paul Thelakat, editor of Church weekly "Satyadeepam" (light of truth), told UCA News the deceased priest had helped
thousands said to be tormented by the devil.
"He has freed many persons ... but strangely, he was an exorcist who never believed in the existence of Satan, but
only in God and his Son Jesus Christ," said the priest.
Father Thelakat said the late priest had told him that some people imagined they were being possessed by the devil when
fears and other diseases afflict them. "He said it was useless to tell them they were not possessed so he treated them to give
them courage to face their fears," Thelakat said.
Jose Thekkerikunnel, who has worked with Father Kappalumakal for 24 years, said the Church at first misunderstood the
priest's work. Palai diocese had investigated his work and had asked him to stop. He then took leave of absence to set up the
counseling center in 1982.
Many psychiatrists and neurologists have challenged the priests' methods.
However, Thekkerikunnel said: "I've seen him cure thousands of people. Later the Church recognized his work."
According to the layman, Father Kappalumakal said he practiced psycho-religious therapy which diffuses tension. He
used hypnotism to understand the root cause of mental disorders, Thekkerikunnel said, adding that the late priest
prescribed only herbs and minerals as medicines.
Carmelite Father Mathew Mariyankel, who has assisted the priest for the past nine months, said he believed Father
Kappalumakal had a "divine power to perform things ordinary priests could not."
He noted that some people traveled miles to attend the funeral.
In February, Father Kappalumakal handed over his center to Father Mariyankel's Congregation of Mary Immaculate [CMI],
a Kerala-based religious congregation for men.
INDEX
INTRODUCTION 1-3
THE VATICAN DOCUMENT ON THE NEW AGE, ON PSYCHOLOGY AND SOME OF ITS ASPECTS 2-6
CATHOLICS SPEAK ON PSYCHOLOGY AND NEW AGE 7-45, 74- 78
NON-CATHOLIC CHRISTIANS ON PSYCHOLOGY 45-73
CARL JUNG, THE WORLD’S LEADING NEW AGE PSYCHOLOGIST, AND YOGA 78
INDEX 79

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