4th Edition: Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
Introduction
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Computer Networking:
A Top Down Approach ,
5th edition.
Jim Kurose, Keith Ross
Addison-Wesley, April
2009.
Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR
All material copyright 1996-2009
J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved
Introduction
1-1
Acknowledgements
 This lecture and all subsequent lectures
have material taken from course slides by
Kurose/Ross and course slides by Srini
Seshan’s Computer Networking course at
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~srini/15744/S01/
Introduction
1-2
Internet Architecture
 http://www.nap.edu/html/coming_of_age/
 http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1958.txt
 Why did the Internet win?
 Packet switching over circuit switching
 End-to-end architecture and “Hourglass” design
 Layering of functionality
 Distributed design, decentralized control
 Superior organizational process
Introduction
1-3
Packet vs. circuit switching
 mesh of interconnected
routers
 the fundamental
question: how is data
transferred through net?
 circuit switching:
dedicated circuit per
call: telephone net
 packet-switching: data
sent thru net in
discrete “chunks”
Introduction
1-4
Case study: Circuit Switching
 1890-current: Phone network
Fixed bit rate
 Mostly voice
 Not fault-tolerant
 Components extremely reliable
 Global application-level knowledge throughout
network

Introduction
1-5
Case study: Packet Switching
 1981-current: Internet network
Variable bit rate
 Mostly data
 Fault-tolerant
 Components not extremely reliable (versus
phone components)
 Distributed control and management

Introduction
1-6
Circuit Switching
End-end resources
reserved for “call”
 network resources
(e.g., bandwidth)
divided into “pieces”



link bandwidth, switch
capacity
pieces allocated to calls
resource piece idle if not
used by owning call
• dedicated resources: no
sharing
 circuit-like (guaranteed)
performance
 call setup and admission
control required
Introduction
1-7
Circuit Switching: FDM and TDM
Example:
FDM
4 users
frequency
time
TDM
frequency
time
Introduction
1-8
Numerical example
 How long does it take to send a file of
640,000 bits from host A to host B over a
circuit-switched network?
All links are 1.536 Mbps
 Each link uses TDM with 24 slots/sec
 500 msec to establish end-to-end circuit

Let’s work it out!
Introduction
1-9
Network Core: Packet Switching
each end-end data stream
divided into packets
 user A, B packets share
network resources
 each packet uses full link
bandwidth
 resources used as needed
Bandwidth division into “pieces”
Dedicated allocation
Resource reservation
resource contention:
 aggregate resource
demand can exceed
amount available
 congestion: packets
queue, wait for link use
 store and forward:
packets move one hop
at a time

Node receives complete
packet before forwarding
Introduction
1-10
Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
10 Mb/s
Ethernet
A
B
statistical multiplexing
C
1.5 Mb/s
queue of packets
waiting for output
link
D
E
Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern,
shared on demand  statistical multiplexing.
TDM: each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame.
Introduction
1-11
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Packet switching allows more users to use network!
 N users over 1 Mb/s link
 each user:


100 kb/s when “active”
active 10% of time
 circuit-switching:

10 users
N users
 packet switching:



with 35 users, probability
> 10 active less than .0004
Allows more users to use
network
“Statistical multiplexing
gain”
1 Mbps link
Q: how did we get value 0.0004?
Introduction
1-12
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Is packet switching a “slam dunk winner?”
 Great for bursty data
resource sharing
 simpler, no call setup
 Bad for applications with hard resource requirements


Excessive congestion: packet delay and loss
Need protocols for reliable data transfer, congestion control
 Applications must be written to handle congestion
 Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?
 bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps
 still an unsolved problem (chapter 7)
 Common practice: over-provision

Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit
switching) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)?
Introduction
1-13
How do loss and delay occur?
packets queue in router buffers
 packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacity
 packets queue, wait for turn
 when packet arrives to full queue, packet is dropped (aka lost)

lost packet may be retransmitted by previous node, by source end
system, or not retransmitted at all
packet being transmitted (delay)
A
B
packets queueing (delay)
free (available) buffers: arriving packets
dropped (loss) if no free buffers
Introduction
1-14
Four sources of packet delay
 1. nodal processing:
 check bit errors
 determine output link
 2. queueing
 time waiting at output
link for transmission
 depends on congestion
level of router
transmission
A
propagation
B
nodal
processing
queueing
Introduction
1-15
Delay in packet-switched networks
3. Transmission delay:
 R=link bandwidth (bps)
 L=packet length (bits)
 time to send bits into
link = L/R
transmission
A
4. Propagation delay:
 d = length of physical link
 s = propagation speed in
medium (~2x108 m/sec)
 propagation delay = d/s
Note: s and R are very
different quantities!
propagation
B
nodal
processing
queueing
Introduction
1-16
Nodal delay
d nodal  d proc  d queue  d trans  d prop
 dproc = processing delay
 typically a few microsecs or less
 dqueue = queuing delay
 depends on congestion
 dtrans = transmission delay
 = L/R, significant for low-speed links
 dprop = propagation delay
 a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs
Introduction
1-17
Queueing delay (revisited)
 R=link bandwidth (bps)
 L=packet length (bits)
 a=average packet
arrival rate
traffic intensity = La/R
 La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small
 La/R -> 1: delays become large
 La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be
serviced, average delay infinite!
Introduction
1-18
Transmission delay
L
R
R
 Packet switching


Store-and-forward
Packet completely received
before being transmitted
to next node
 Takes L/R seconds to
transmit (push out) packet
of L bits on to link or R bps
 Entire packet must arrive
at router before it can be
transmitted on next link:
store and forward
 delay = 3L/R (assuming zero
propagation delay)
R
Example:
 L = 7.5 Mbits
 R = 1.5 Mbps
 delay = 15 sec
more on delay shortly …
Introduction
1-19
“Real” Internet delays and routes
 What do “real” Internet delay & loss look like?
 Traceroute program: provides delay
measurement from source to router along end-end
Internet path towards destination. For all i:



sends three packets that will reach router i on path
towards destination
router i will return packets to sender
sender times interval between transmission and reply.
3 probes
3 probes
3 probes
Introduction
1-20
“Real” Internet delays and routes
traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu to www.eurecom.fr
Three delay measurements from
gaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu
1 cs-gw (128.119.240.254) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.145) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.130) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms
4 jn1-at1-0-0-19.wor.vbns.net (204.147.132.129) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms
5 jn1-so7-0-0-0.wae.vbns.net (204.147.136.136) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms
6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.11.9) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms
7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.8.46) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms trans-oceanic
8 62.40.103.253 (62.40.103.253) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms
link
9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net (62.40.96.129) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms
10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.96.50) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms
11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.103.54) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms
12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr (193.51.206.13) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms
13 nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.102) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms
14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.110) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms
15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net (193.48.50.54) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms
16 194.214.211.25 (194.214.211.25) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms
17 * * *
* means no response (probe lost, router not replying)
18 * * *
19 fantasia.eurecom.fr (193.55.113.142) 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms
Introduction
1-21
End-to-end principle and
Hourglass design
Introduction
1-22
End-to-end principle
 J. H. Saltzer, D. P. Reed and D. D. Clark
“End-to-end arguments in system design”,
Transactions on Computer Systems, Vol. 2,
No. 4, 1984
 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journal
s/tocs/1984-2-4/p277-saltzer/
Introduction
1-23
Hourglass design
 D. Clark, “The design philosophy of the
DARPA Internet”, SIGCOMM 1988, August
16 - 18, 1988.
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/comm/52324/
p106-clark/
Introduction
1-24
End-to-end principle
 Where to put the functionality?

In the network? At the edges?
 End-to-end functions best handled by end-to-end
protocols



Network provides basic service: data transport
Intelligence and applications located in or close to
devices at the edge
Violate principle as a performance enhancement
 Leads to innovation at the edges


Phone network: dumb edge devices, intelligent network
Internet: dumb network, intelligent edge devices
Introduction
1-25
Hourglass design
 End-to-end principle leads to “Hourglass”
design of protocols
 Only one protocol at the Internet level

Minimal required elements at narrowest point
 IP – Internet Protocol
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc791.txt
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc1812.txt
 Unreliable datagram service
 Addressing and connectionless connectivity
 Fragmentation and assembly
Introduction
1-26
Hourglass design
 Simplicity allowed fast deployment of multi-
vendor, multi-provider public network


Ease of implementation
Limited hardware requirements (important in 1970s)
• Is it relevant now with today’s semiconductor speeds?

Eventual economies of scale
 Designed independently of hardware



Hardware addresses decoupled from IP addresses
IP header contains no data/physical link specific
information
Allows IP to run over any fabric
Introduction
1-27
Hourglass design
 Waist expands at transport layer
 Two dominant services layered above IP
 TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
 Connection-oriented service
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc793.txt
 UDP – User Datagram Protocol
 Connectionless service
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc768.txt
Introduction
1-28
Hourglass design
 TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

Reliable, in-order byte-stream data transfer
• Acknowledgements and retransmissions

Flow control
• Sender won’t overwhelm receiver

Congestion control
• Senders won’t overwhelm network
Introduction
1-29
Hourglass design
 UDP – User Datagram Protocol
Unreliable data transfer
 No flow control
 No congestion control

Introduction
1-30
Hourglass design
 What uses TCP?

HTTP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, NNTP, BGP, IMAP, POP
 What uses (mainly) UDP?

SNMP, NTP, NFS, RTP (streaming media, IP telephony,
teleconferencing), multicast applications
Many protocols can use both
 Check out /etc/services on *nix or
C:\WIN*\system32\services
 IANA


http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Introduction
1-31
Hourglass design
 Security?
 Quality-of-service?
 Reliable, out-of-order delivery service?
 Handling greedy sources?
 Accounting and pricing support?
 IPsec, DiffServ, SCTP, ….
Back
Introduction
1-32
Hourglass design
 Security?
 Quality-of-service?
 Reliable, out-of-order delivery service?
 Handling greedy sources?
 Accounting and pricing support?
 IPsec, DiffServ, SCTP, ….
Back
Introduction
1-33
End-to-end principle and the
Hourglass design
 The good

Basic network functionality allowed for
extremely quick adoption and deployment using
simple devices
 The bad
 New network features and functionality are
impossible to deploy, requiring widespread
adoption within the network
 IP Multicast, QoS
Back
Introduction
1-34
Layering
 Modular approach to network
functionality
Simplifies complex systems
 Each layer relies on services from layer
below and exports services to layer above
 Hides implementation, eases maintenance
and updating of system

• Layer implementations can change without
disturbing other layers (black box)
Introduction
1-35
Layering
 Examples:
 Topology and physical configuration
hidden by network-layer routing
• Applications require no knowledge of this
• New applications deployed without coordination
with network operators or operating system
vendors
Application
Host-to-host connectivity
Link hardware
Introduction
1-36
Layering in Protocols
 Set of rules governing communication
between network elements (applications,
hosts, routers)
 Protocols specify:
Interface to higher layers (API)
 Interface to peer

• Format and order of messages
• Actions taken on receipt of a message

Interface defines interaction
Introduction
1-37
Layering in Networks: OSI
Model
 Physical

how to transmit bits
 Data link

how to transmit frames
 Network

how to route packets host-to-host
 Transport

how to send packets end2end
 Session

how to tie flows together
 Presentation

Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
Host
byte ordering, formatting
 Application: everything else
Introduction
1-38
source
message
segment Ht
datagram Hn Ht
frame
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
M
M
Encapsulation
application
transport
network
link
physical
Hl Hn Ht
M
link
physical
Hl Hn Ht
M
switch
destination
M
Ht
M
Hn Ht
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
application
transport
network
link
physical
Hn Ht
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
network
link
physical
Hn Ht
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
router
Introduction
1-39
Distributed design and control
 Requirements from DARPA

Must survive a nuclear attack
 Reliability
 Intelligent aggregation of unreliable
components
 Alternate paths, adaptivity
 Distributed management & control of networks
 Exceptions: TLDs and TLD servers, IP
address allocation (ICANN)
Back
Introduction
1-40
Superior organizational process
 IAB/IETF process allowed for quick
specification, implementation, and
deployment of new standards
Free and easy download of standards
 Rough consensus and running code
 2 interoperable implementations
 Bake-offs
 http://www.ietf.org/

 ISO/OSI

Comparison to IETF left as an exercise
Back
Introduction
1-41
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Booting
 Dynamically configure network settings
• DHCP, BOOTP request
– UDP (unreliable datagrams)
– IP and data-link broadcast
• DHCP, BOOTP response from listening server
– IP address of host, DNS server, and default router
– Netmask (i.e. 255.255.255.0) to determine network ID
Datalink broadcast
header
Datalink header
00:50:7e:0d:30:20
IP broadcast
255.255.255.255
UDP
header
IP of Host
UDP Header
DHCP request
Host’s datalink (MAC) address
00:50:7e:0d:30:20
DHCP reply
Host’s networkIntroduction
settings
1-42
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Web request http://www.yahoo.com/index.html
 Step #1: Locate DNS server
if (netmask & IPHost == netmask & IPDNS)
DNS server on local network
ARP for hardware address of IPDNS
else
DNS server on remote network
ARP for hardware address of IPDefaultRouter
• ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
– IP address to hardware address mapping
– Request broadcast for all hosts on network to see
– Reply broadcast for all hosts to cache
Introduction
1-43
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Step #2: ARP request and reply
Datalink header
broadcast
Datalink header
MAC of requestor
or broadcast addr
ARP request: Who has MAC address of IP addr “X”?
(X=next-hop router, dns server)
MAC address of requestor
ARP reply: MAC address of “X” is a:b:c:d:e:f
Introduction
1-44
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Step #2: DNS request and reply
 UDP, IP, data-link header
Datalink header
(DNS server or
next-hop router)
IP of DNS
Server
UDP Header
DNS request
www.yahoo.com
“A” record request
Datalink header
(host)
IP of host
UDP Header
DNS reply
www.yahoo.com
is 216.115.105.2
Introduction
1-45
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Step #3: TCP connection establishment +
HTTP request and reply
• HTTP (application data) “GET index.html” “HTTP/1.0”
• TCP (session establishment, reliable byte stream)
• IP, data-link header
Datalink header
(next-hop router)
IP of
216.115.105.2
TCP Header
HTTP request
GET /index.html HTTP/1.0
Datalink header
(host)
IP of host
TCP Header
HTTP reply
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Date: Mon, 24 Sep 2001
Content-Type: text/html
<HTML>
etc…
Introduction
1-46
A day in the life of an Internet host…
 Role of TCP and UDP?
 Demultiplex at end hosts.
 Which process gets this request?
FTP
HTTP
NV
TCP
IPX
NET1
TFTP
UDP
Network
IP
NET2
…
NETn
Type
Field
IP
TCP/UDP
Protocol
Field
Port
Number
Introduction
1-47
A day in the life of an Internet host….
 What about….
 Reliability
• Corruption
• Lost packets
Flow and congestion control
 Fragmentation
 Out-of-order delivery

 The beauty of TCP, IP, and layering
 All taken care of transparently
Introduction
1-48
What if the Data gets
Corrupted?
Problem: Data Corruption
GET index.html
Internet
GET windex.html
Solution: Add a checksum
0,9 9
6,7, 2
8 1
X
4,5 7
1,2,
6
3
Introduction
1-49
What if the Data gets Lost?
Problem: Lost Data
GET index.html
Internet
Solution: Timeout and Retransmit
GET index.html
Internet
GET index.html
GET index.html
Introduction
1-50
What if receiver has no resources
(flow control)?
Problem: Overflowing receiver buffers
PUT remix.mp3
Internet
Solution: Receiver advertised window
PUT remix.mp3
Internet
16KB free
Introduction
1-51
What if Network is Overloaded?
 Short bursts: buffer
 What if buffer overflows?
 Packets dropped and retransmitted
 Sender adjusts rate until load = resources
 Called “Congestion control”
Introduction
1-52
What if the Data Doesn’t Fit?
Problem: Packet size
• On Ethernet, max IP packet is 1.5kbytes
• Typical web page is 10kbytes
Solution: Fragment data across packets
ml
x.ht
inde
GET
GET index.html
Introduction
1-53
What if the Data is Out of
Order?
Problem: Out of Order
ml
inde
x.th
GET
GET x.thindeml
Solution: Add Sequence Numbers
ml 4
inde 2
x.th 3
GET 1
GET index.html
Introduction
1-54
The rest of the course
 From birds-eye view, we will now focus
on specific components
 Review these lectures for perspective
when looking at the components
 Mostly classical material with some
references to newer technologies
Introduction
1-55
Extra slides
Introduction
1-56
Chapter 1: Introduction
Our goal:
 get “feel” and
terminology
 more depth, detail
later in course
 approach:
 use Internet as
example
Overview:
 what’s the Internet?
 what’s a protocol?
 network edge; hosts, access





net, physical media
network core: packet/circuit
switching, Internet structure
performance: loss, delay,
throughput
security
protocol layers, service models
history
Introduction
1-57
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-58
What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view
PC
 millions of connected
computing devices:
hosts = end systems
wireless
laptop
 running network
cellular
handheld
apps
 communication links
 fiber, copper,
access
points
radio, satellite
wired
links
 transmission
rate = bandwidth
 routers: forward
router
packets (chunks of
data)
Mobile network
server
Global ISP
Home network
Regional ISP
Institutional network
Introduction
1-59
“Cool” internet appliances
Web-enabled toaster +
weather forecaster
IP picture frame
http://www.ceiva.com/
World’s smallest web server
http://www-ccs.cs.umass.edu/~shri/iPic.html
Internet phones
Introduction
1-60
What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view
 protocols control sending,
Mobile network
receiving of msgs

e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype,
Ethernet
 Internet: “network of
networks”


loosely hierarchical
public Internet versus
private intranet
Global ISP
Home network
Regional ISP
Institutional network
 Internet standards
 RFC: Request for comments
 IETF: Internet Engineering
Task Force
Introduction
1-61
What’s the Internet: a service view
 communication
infrastructure enables
distributed applications:
 Web, VoIP, email, games,
e-commerce, file sharing
 communication services
provided to apps:
 reliable data delivery
from source to
destination
 “best effort” (unreliable)
data delivery
Introduction
1-62
What’s a protocol?
human protocols:
 “what’s the time?”
 “I have a question”
 introductions
… specific msgs sent
… specific actions taken
when msgs received,
or other events
network protocols:
 machines rather than
humans
 all communication
activity in Internet
governed by protocols
protocols define format,
order of msgs sent and
received among network
entities, and actions
taken on msg
transmission, receipt
Introduction
1-63
What’s a protocol?
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:
Hi
TCP connection
request
Hi
TCP connection
response
Got the
time?
Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross
2:00
<file>
time
Q: Other human protocols?
Introduction
1-64
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-65
A closer look at network structure:
 network edge:
applications and
hosts
 access networks,
physical media:
wired, wireless
communication links
 network core:
 interconnected
routers
 network of
networks
Introduction
1-66
The network edge:
 end systems (hosts):



run application programs
e.g. Web, email
at “edge of network”
peer-peer
 client/server model


client host requests, receives
service from always-on server
client/server
e.g. Web browser/server;
email client/server
 peer-peer model:


minimal (or no) use of
dedicated servers
e.g. Skype, BitTorrent
Introduction
1-67
Access networks and physical media
Q: How to connect end
systems to edge router?
 residential access nets
 institutional access
networks (school,
company)
 mobile access networks
Keep in mind:
 bandwidth (bits per
second) of access
network?
 shared or dedicated?
Introduction
1-68
Dial-up Modem
central
office
home
PC



home
dial-up
modem
telephone
network
Internet
ISP
modem
(e.g., AOL)
Uses existing telephony infrastructure
 Home is connected to central office
up to 56Kbps direct access to router (often less)
Can’t surf and phone at same time: not “always on”
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Existing phone line:
0-4KHz phone; 4-50KHz
upstream data; 50KHz-1MHz
downstream data
home
phone
Internet
DSLAM
telephone
network
splitter
DSL
modem
home
PC
central
office
Also uses existing telephone infrastruture
 up to 1 Mbps upstream (today typically < 256 kbps)
 up to 8 Mbps downstream (today typically < 1 Mbps)
 dedicated physical line to telephone central office

Residential access: cable modems
 Does not use telephone infrastructure
 Instead uses cable TV infrastructure
 HFC: hybrid fiber coax
asymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream, 2
Mbps upstream
 network of cable and fiber attaches homes to
ISP router
 homes share access to router
 unlike DSL, which has dedicated access

Introduction
1-71
Residential access: cable modems
Diagram: http://www.cabledatacomnews.com/cmic/diagram.html
Introduction
1-72
Cable Network Architecture: Overview
Typically 500 to 5,000 homes
cable headend
cable distribution
network (simplified)
home
Introduction
1-73
Cable Network Architecture: Overview
server(s)
cable headend
cable distribution
network
home
Introduction
1-74
Cable Network Architecture: Overview
cable headend
cable distribution
network (simplified)
home
Introduction
1-75
Cable Network Architecture: Overview
FDM (more shortly):
V
I
D
E
O
V
I
D
E
O
V
I
D
E
O
V
I
D
E
O
V
I
D
E
O
V
I
D
E
O
D
A
T
A
D
A
T
A
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Channels
cable headend
cable distribution
network
home
Introduction
1-76
Fiber to the Home
ONT
optical
fibers
Internet
OLT
central office
ONT
optical
fiber
optical
splitter
ONT
 Optical links from central office to the home
 Two competing optical technologies:
 Passive Optical network (PON)
 Active Optical Network (PAN)
 Much higher Internet rates; fiber also carries
television and phone services
Ethernet Internet access
100 Mbps
Institutional
router
Ethernet
switch
To Institution’s
ISP
100 Mbps
1 Gbps
100 Mbps
server
 Typically used in companies, universities, etc
 10 Mbs, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps Ethernet
 Today, end systems typically connect into Ethernet
switch
Wireless access networks
 shared wireless access
network connects end system
to router

via base station aka “access
point”
 wireless LANs:
 802.11b/g (WiFi): 11 or 54 Mbps
 wider-area wireless access
 provided by telco operator
 ~1Mbps over cellular system
(EVDO, HSDPA)
 next up (?): WiMAX (10’s Mbps)
over wide area
router
base
station
mobile
hosts
Introduction
1-79
Home networks
Typical home network components:
 DSL or cable modem
 router/firewall/NAT
 Ethernet
 wireless access
point
to/from
cable
headend
cable
modem
router/
firewall
Ethernet
wireless
laptops
wireless
access
point
Introduction
1-80
Physical Media
 Bit: propagates between
transmitter/rcvr pairs
 physical link: what lies
between transmitter &
receiver
 guided media:

signals propagate in solid
media: copper, fiber, coax
Twisted Pair (TP)
 two insulated copper
wires


Category 3: traditional
phone wires, 10 Mbps
Ethernet
Category 5:
100Mbps Ethernet
 unguided media:
 signals propagate freely,
e.g., radio
Introduction
1-81
Physical Media: coax, fiber
Coaxial cable:
Fiber optic cable:
conductors
 bidirectional
 baseband:
pulses, each pulse a bit
 high-speed operation:
 two concentric copper


single channel on cable
legacy Ethernet
 broadband:
 multiple channels on
cable
 HFC
 glass fiber carrying light

high-speed point-to-point
transmission (e.g., 10’s100’s Gps)
 low error rate: repeaters
spaced far apart ; immune
to electromagnetic noise
Introduction
1-82
Physical media: radio
 signal carried in
electromagnetic
spectrum
 no physical “wire”
 bidirectional
 propagation
environment effects:



reflection
obstruction by objects
interference
Radio link types:
 terrestrial microwave
 e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels
 LAN (e.g., Wifi)
 11Mbps, 54 Mbps
 wide-area (e.g., cellular)
 3G cellular: ~ 1 Mbps
 satellite
 Kbps to 45Mbps channel (or
multiple smaller channels)
 270 msec end-end delay
 geosynchronous versus low
altitude
Introduction
1-83
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-84
The Network Core
 mesh of interconnected
routers
 the fundamental
question: how is data
transferred through net?
 circuit switching:
dedicated circuit per
call: telephone net
 packet-switching: data
sent thru net in
discrete “chunks”
Introduction
1-85
Network Core: Circuit Switching
End-end resources
reserved for “call”
 link bandwidth, switch
capacity
 dedicated resources:
no sharing
 circuit-like
(guaranteed)
performance
 call setup required
Introduction
1-86
Network Core: Circuit Switching
network resources
(e.g., bandwidth)
divided into “pieces”
 pieces allocated to calls
 dividing link bandwidth
into “pieces”
 frequency division
 time division
 resource piece idle if
not used by owning call
(no sharing)
Introduction
1-87
Circuit Switching: FDM and TDM
Example:
FDM
4 users
frequency
time
TDM
frequency
time
Introduction
1-88
Numerical example
 How long does it take to send a file of
640,000 bits from host A to host B over a
circuit-switched network?
All links are 1.536 Mbps
 Each link uses TDM with 24 slots/sec
 500 msec to establish end-to-end circuit

Let’s work it out!
Introduction
1-89
Network Core: Packet Switching
each end-end data stream
divided into packets
 user A, B packets share
network resources
 each packet uses full link
bandwidth
 resources used as needed
Bandwidth division into “pieces”
Dedicated allocation
Resource reservation
resource contention:
 aggregate resource
demand can exceed
amount available
 congestion: packets
queue, wait for link use
 store and forward:
packets move one hop
at a time

Node receives complete
packet before forwarding
Introduction
1-90
Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
100 Mb/s
Ethernet
A
B
statistical multiplexing
C
1.5 Mb/s
queue of packets
waiting for output
link
D
E
Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern,
bandwidth shared on demand  statistical multiplexing.
TDM: each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame.
Introduction
1-91
Packet-switching: store-and-forward
L
R
 takes L/R seconds to
R
transmit (push out)
packet of L bits on to
link at R bps
 store and forward:
entire packet must
arrive at router before
it can be transmitted
on next link
 delay = 3L/R (assuming
zero propagation delay)
R
Example:
 L = 7.5 Mbits
 R = 1.5 Mbps
 transmission delay = 15
sec
more on delay shortly …
Introduction
1-92
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Packet switching allows more users to use network!
 1 Mb/s link
 each user:
 100 kb/s when “active”
 active 10% of time
 circuit-switching:
 10 users
 packet switching:
 with 35 users,
probability > 10 active
at same time is less
than .0004
N users
1 Mbps link
Q: how did we get value 0.0004?
Introduction
1-93
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Is packet switching a “slam dunk winner?”
 great for bursty data
resource sharing
 simpler, no call setup
 excessive congestion: packet delay and loss
 protocols needed for reliable data transfer,
congestion control
 Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?
 bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps
 still an unsolved problem (chapter 7)

Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit
switching) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)?
Introduction
1-94
Internet structure: network of networks
 roughly hierarchical
 at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., Verizon, Sprint, AT&T,
Cable and Wireless), national/international coverage
 treat each other as equals
Tier-1
providers
interconnect
(peer)
privately
Tier 1 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Introduction
1-95
Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint
POP: point-of-presence
to/from backbone
peering
…
…
.
…
…
…
to/from customers
Introduction
1-96
Internet structure: network of networks
 “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs
 Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs
Tier-2 ISP pays
tier-1 ISP for
connectivity to
rest of Internet
 tier-2 ISP is
customer of
tier-1 provider
Tier-2 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISPs
also peer
privately with
each other.
Tier-2 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
Introduction
1-97
Internet structure: network of networks
 “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs
 last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems)
local
ISP
Local and tier3 ISPs are
customers of
higher tier
ISPs
connecting
them to rest
of Internet
Tier 3
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
local
ISP
local
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
local
ISP
ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
Introduction
1-98
Internet structure: network of networks
 a packet passes through many networks!
local
ISP
Tier 3
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
local
ISP
local
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
local
ISP
ISP
Tier 1 ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
Tier-2 ISP
local
ISP
Introduction
1-99
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-100
How do loss and delay occur?
packets queue in router buffers
 packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link
capacity
 packets queue, wait for turn
packet being transmitted (delay)
A
B
packets queueing (delay)
free (available) buffers: arriving packets
dropped (loss) if no free buffers
Introduction
1-101
Four sources of packet delay
 1. nodal processing:
 check bit errors
 determine output link
 2. queueing
 time waiting at output
link for transmission
 depends on congestion
level of router
transmission
A
propagation
B
nodal
processing
queueing
Introduction
1-102
Delay in packet-switched networks
3. Transmission delay:
 R=link bandwidth (bps)
 L=packet length (bits)
 time to send bits into
link = L/R
transmission
A
4. Propagation delay:
 d = length of physical link
 s = propagation speed in
medium (~2x108 m/sec)
 propagation delay = d/s
Note: s and R are very
different quantities!
propagation
B
nodal
processing
queueing
Introduction
1-103
Caravan analogy
100 km
ten-car
caravan
toll
booth
 cars “propagate” at
100 km/hr
 toll booth takes 12 sec to
service car (transmission
time)
 car~bit; caravan ~ packet
 Q: How long until caravan
is lined up before 2nd toll
booth?
100 km
toll
booth
 Time to “push” entire
caravan through toll
booth onto highway =
12*10 = 120 sec
 Time for last car to
propagate from 1st to
2nd toll both:
100km/(100km/hr)= 1 hr
 A: 62 minutes
Introduction
1-104
Caravan analogy (more)
100 km
ten-car
caravan
100 km
toll
booth
 Cars now “propagate” at
1000 km/hr
 Toll booth now takes 1
min to service a car
 Q: Will cars arrive to
2nd booth before all
cars serviced at 1st
booth?
toll
booth
 Yes! After 7 min, 1st car
at 2nd booth and 3 cars
still at 1st booth.
 1st bit of packet can
arrive at 2nd router
before packet is fully
transmitted at 1st router!

See Ethernet applet at AWL
Web site
Introduction
1-105
Nodal delay
d nodal  d proc  d queue  d trans  d prop
 dproc = processing delay
 typically a few microsecs or less
 dqueue = queuing delay
 depends on congestion
 dtrans = transmission delay
 = L/R, significant for low-speed links
 dprop = propagation delay
 a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs
Introduction
1-106
Queueing delay (revisited)
 R=link bandwidth (bps)
 L=packet length (bits)
 a=average packet
arrival rate
traffic intensity = La/R
 La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small
 La/R -> 1: delays become large
 La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be
serviced, average delay infinite!
Introduction
1-107
“Real” Internet delays and routes
 What do “real” Internet delay & loss look like?
 Traceroute program: provides delay
measurement from source to router along end-end
Internet path towards destination. For all i:



sends three packets that will reach router i on path
towards destination
router i will return packets to sender
sender times interval between transmission and reply.
3 probes
3 probes
3 probes
Introduction
1-108
“Real” Internet delays and routes
traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu to www.eurecom.fr
Three delay measurements from
gaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu
1 cs-gw (128.119.240.254) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.145) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.130) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms
4 jn1-at1-0-0-19.wor.vbns.net (204.147.132.129) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms
5 jn1-so7-0-0-0.wae.vbns.net (204.147.136.136) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms
6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.11.9) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms
7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.8.46) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms trans-oceanic
8 62.40.103.253 (62.40.103.253) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms
link
9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net (62.40.96.129) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms
10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.96.50) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms
11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.103.54) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms
12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr (193.51.206.13) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms
13 nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.102) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms
14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.110) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms
15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net (193.48.50.54) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms
16 194.214.211.25 (194.214.211.25) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms
17 * * *
* means no response (probe lost, router not replying)
18 * * *
19 fantasia.eurecom.fr (193.55.113.142) 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms
Introduction
1-109
Packet loss
 queue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer has
finite capacity
 packet arriving to full queue dropped (aka lost)
 lost packet may be retransmitted by previous
node, by source end system, or not at all
buffer
(waiting area)
A
B
packet being transmitted
packet arriving to
full buffer is lost
Introduction
1-110
Throughput
 throughput: rate (bits/time unit) at which
bits transferred between sender/receiver
instantaneous: rate at given point in time
 average: rate over longer period of time

link
capacity
that
can carry
server,
with
server
sends
bits pipe
Rs bits/sec
fluid
at rate
file of
F bits
(fluid)
into
pipe
Rs bits/sec)
to send to client
link that
capacity
pipe
can carry
Rfluid
c bits/sec
at rate
Rc bits/sec)
Introduction
1-111
Throughput (more)
 Rs < Rc What is average end-end throughput?
Rs bits/sec
Rc bits/sec
 Rs > Rc What is average end-end throughput?
Rs bits/sec
Rc bits/sec
bottleneck link
link on end-end path that constrains end-end throughput
Introduction
1-112
Throughput: Internet scenario
 per-connection
end-end
throughput:
min(Rc,Rs,R/10)
 in practice: Rc or
Rs is often
bottleneck
Rs
Rs
Rs
R
Rc
Rc
Rc
10 connections (fairly) share
backbone bottleneck link R bits/sec
Introduction
1-113
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-114
Protocol “Layers”
Networks are complex!
 many “pieces”:
 hosts
 routers
 links of various
media
 applications
 protocols
 hardware,
software
Question:
Is there any hope of
organizing structure of
network?
Or at least our discussion
of networks?
Introduction
1-115
Organization of air travel
ticket (purchase)
ticket (complain)
baggage (check)
baggage (claim)
gates (load)
gates (unload)
runway takeoff
runway landing
airplane routing
airplane routing
airplane routing
 a series of steps
Introduction
1-116
Layering of airline functionality
ticket (purchase)
ticket (complain)
ticket
baggage (check)
baggage (claim
baggage
gates (load)
gates (unload)
gate
runway (takeoff)
runway (land)
takeoff/landing
airplane routing
airplane routing
airplane routing
departure
airport
airplane routing
airplane routing
intermediate air-traffic
control centers
arrival
airport
Layers: each layer implements a service
 via its own internal-layer actions
 relying on services provided by layer below
Introduction
1-117
Why layering?
Dealing with complex systems:
 explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex system’s pieces
 layered reference model for discussion
 modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
 change of implementation of layer’s service
transparent to rest of system
 e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect
rest of system
 layering considered harmful?
Introduction
1-118
Internet protocol stack
 application: supporting network
applications

FTP, SMTP, HTTP
 transport: process-process data
transfer

TCP, UDP
 network: routing of datagrams from
source to destination

IP, routing protocols
 link: data transfer between
application
transport
network
link
physical
neighboring network elements

PPP, Ethernet
 physical: bits “on the wire”
Introduction
1-119
ISO/OSI reference model
 presentation: allow applications to
interpret meaning of data, e.g.,
encryption, compression, machinespecific conventions
 session: synchronization,
checkpointing, recovery of data
exchange
 Internet stack “missing” these
layers!
 these services, if needed, must
be implemented in application
 needed?
application
presentation
session
transport
network
link
physical
Introduction
1-120
Encapsulation
source
message
segment
M
Ht
M
datagram Hn Ht
M
frame Hl Hn Ht
M
application
transport
network
link
physical
link
physical
switch
destination
M
Ht
M
Hn Ht
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
application
transport
network
link
physical
Hn Ht
Hl Hn Ht
M
M
network
link
physical
Hn Ht
M
router
Introduction
1-121
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-122
Network Security
 The field of network security is about:
 how bad guys can attack computer networks
 how we can defend networks against attacks
 how to design architectures that are immune to
attacks
 Internet not originally designed with
(much) security in mind
original vision: “a group of mutually trusting
users attached to a transparent network” 
 Internet protocol designers playing “catch-up”
 Security considerations in all layers!

Introduction
1-123
Bad guys can put malware into
hosts via Internet
 Malware can get in host from a virus, worm, or
trojan horse.
 Spyware malware can record keystrokes, web
sites visited, upload info to collection site.
 Infected host can be enrolled in a botnet, used
for spam and DDoS attacks.
 Malware is often self-replicating: from an
infected host, seeks entry into other hosts
Introduction
1-124
Bad guys can put malware into
hosts via Internet
 Trojan horse
 Hidden part of some
otherwise useful
software
 Today often on a Web
page (Active-X, plugin)
 Virus
 infection by receiving
object (e.g., e-mail
attachment), actively
executing
 self-replicating:
propagate itself to
other hosts, users
 Worm:
 infection by passively
receiving object that gets
itself executed
 self- replicating: propagates
to other hosts, users
Sapphire Worm: aggregate scans/sec
in first 5 minutes of outbreak (CAIDA, UWisc data)
Introduction
1-125
Bad guys can attack servers and
network infrastructure
 Denial of service (DoS): attackers make resources
(server, bandwidth) unavailable to legitimate traffic
by overwhelming resource with bogus traffic
1.
select target
2. break into hosts
around the network
(see botnet)
3. send packets toward
target from
compromised hosts
target
Introduction
1-126
The bad guys can sniff packets
Packet sniffing:
broadcast media (shared Ethernet, wireless)
 promiscuous network interface reads/records all
packets (e.g., including passwords!) passing by

C
A
src:B dest:A

payload
B
Wireshark software used for end-of-chapter
labs is a (free) packet-sniffer
Introduction
1-127
The bad guys can use false source
addresses
 IP spoofing: send packet with false source address
C
A
src:B dest:A
payload
B
Introduction
1-128
The bad guys can record and
playback
 record-and-playback: sniff sensitive info (e.g.,
password), and use later
 password holder is that user from system point of
view
A
C
src:B dest:A
user: B; password: foo
B
Introduction
1-129
Network Security
 more throughout this course
 chapter 8: focus on security
 crypographic techniques: obvious uses and
not so obvious uses
Introduction
1-130
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
 end systems, access networks, links
1.3 Network core
 circuit switching, packet switching, network structure
1.4 Delay, loss and throughput in packet-switched
networks
1.5 Protocol layers, service models
1.6 Networks under attack: security
1.7 History
Introduction
1-131
Internet History
1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles
 1961: Kleinrock - queueing
theory shows
effectiveness of packetswitching
 1964: Baran - packetswitching in military nets
 1967: ARPAnet conceived
by Advanced Research
Projects Agency
 1969: first ARPAnet node
operational
 1972:




ARPAnet public demonstration
NCP (Network Control Protocol)
first host-host protocol
first e-mail program
ARPAnet has 15 nodes
Introduction
1-132
Internet History
1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets
 1970: ALOHAnet satellite





network in Hawaii
1974: Cerf and Kahn architecture for
interconnecting networks
1976: Ethernet at Xerox
PARC
ate70’s: proprietary
architectures: DECnet, SNA,
XNA
late 70’s: switching fixed
length packets (ATM
precursor)
1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes
Cerf and Kahn’s internetworking
principles:
 minimalism, autonomy - no
internal changes required
to interconnect networks
 best effort service model
 stateless routers
 decentralized control
define today’s Internet
architecture
Introduction
1-133
Internet History
1980-1990: new protocols, a proliferation of networks
 1983: deployment of




TCP/IP
1982: smtp e-mail
protocol defined
1983: DNS defined
for name-to-IPaddress translation
1985: ftp protocol
defined
1988: TCP congestion
control
 new national networks:
Csnet, BITnet,
NSFnet, Minitel
 100,000 hosts
connected to
confederation of
networks
Introduction
1-134
Internet History
1990, 2000’s: commercialization, the Web, new apps
 Early 1990’s: ARPAnet
decommissioned
 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on
commercial use of NSFnet
(decommissioned, 1995)
 early 1990s: Web
 hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson
1960’s]
 HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee
 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape
 late 1990’s:
commercialization of the Web
Late 1990’s – 2000’s:
 more killer apps: instant
messaging, P2P file sharing
 network security to
forefront
 est. 50 million host, 100
million+ users
 backbone links running at
Gbps
Introduction
1-135
Internet History
2007:
 ~500 million hosts
 Voice, Video over IP
 P2P applications: BitTorrent
(file sharing) Skype (VoIP),
PPLive (video)
 more applications: YouTube,
gaming
 wireless, mobility
Introduction
1-136
Introduction: Summary
Covered a “ton” of material!
 Internet overview
 what’s a protocol?
 network edge, core, access
network
 packet-switching versus
circuit-switching
 Internet structure
 performance: loss, delay,
throughput
 layering, service models
 security
 history
You now have:
 context, overview,
“feel” of networking
 more depth, detail to
follow!
Introduction
1-137

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