The Aztec Calendar

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The
Aztec
Calendar
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This is the Aztec Calendar,
perhaps the most famous
symbol of Mexico.
• The original object is a 12' PreColumbian stone slab.
• Many renditions of it exist
throughout Mexico.
Cuauhxicalli
• Historically, the Aztec name for the
huge basaltic monolith is
Cuauhxicalli (Eagle Bowl), but it
is universally known as the Aztec
Calendar or Sun Stone.
When Was It Created?
• It was during the reign of the 6th
Aztec monarch in 1479 that this
stone was carved and dedicated to
the principal Aztec deity: the sun.
• The stone has both mythological
and astronomical significance.
What Is It’s Size?
• It weighs almost 25 tons, has a
diameter of just under 12 feet, and
a thickness of 3 feet.
• On December 17th, 1760 the stone
was discovered in the "Zocalo"
(the main square) of Mexico City.
Where Is It Located?
• After it was discovered in 1760, it
was embedded in the wall of the
Western tower of the Metropolitan
Cathedral, where it remained until
1885.
• In 1885 it was transferred to the
National Museum of Archaeology
and History in Mexico City.
The face
portrayed at
the center of
the stone is
generally
interpreted as
the Mexican
sun god,
Tonatiuh
Tonatiuh
Symbolizes
the Fifth Sun,
the sun of
Motion
.
Tonatiuh is also called the Earth-Quake Sun
Tonatiu, The
Earth-Quake Sun
The Aztecs
believed that the
world was
destroyed and recreated four times
prior to the
current era or sun.
They believe
the current era will also be destroyed.
The four
quadrants spaced
around the central
figure represent
the preceding
eras, or suns
Each contains a
representation of
the name of the
particular era
derived from the
sign of its last
day, a name that also indicates the way of its destruction
The first, on the
upper right, designates
the first Sun, 4-Jaguar,
followed in
counterclockwise
order by the second
Sun, 4-Wind;
the third sun, 4-Rain;
and the fourth sun, 4Water.
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The Second Ring
The second ring from
the center is
composed of the 20
named days
contained in one
month. Each year
starts on one of
four of these 20
days.
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1st Day: Crocodile
Cipactli
• Protector of the day
Cipactli (Crocodile) is
Tonacatecuhtli, Lord of
Nurturance, the
primordial god of
creation and fertility.
Cipactli is an auspicious
day, signifying
advancement and honor.
It depicts energy and
work, rewards and
recognition. A good day
for beginnings.
2nd Day: Wind
Ehecatl
• The protector of day
Ehecatl (Wind) is
Quetzalcoatl. Ehecatl
is a bad day for
working with others.
Its influences are
inconstant and vain.
A good day to root
out bad habits.
3rd Day: Underworld or House
Calli
• Daysign Calli The
protector of day Calli
(House) is Tepeyollotl,
Heart of the Mountain.
Calli is a good day for
rest, tranquility and
family life. Not a good
day for participating in
public life. Best spent
cementing
relationships of trust
and mutual interests.
4th Day: Lizard
Cuetzpallin
• The protector of day
Cuetzpallin (Lizard)
is Huehuecoyotl, Old
Coyote, the Trickster,
god of deception.
Cuetzpallin signifies
rapid reversals of
fortune. It is a good
day to work on your
reputation through
actions, not words.
5th Day: Snake
Coatl
• The day Coatl (Snake)
has Chalchihuitlicue as
its protector. Coatl is
the day of the snaking
river that always
changes without
changing. It signifies
the fleeting moment of
eternal water. A good
day for humility, a bad
day for acting on selfinterests.
•
6th Day: Death
The protector of day Miquiztli
Miquiztli (Death) is
Tecciztecatl, god of the
conch, symbol of
Metztli, the Moon God,
sometimes identified
with Tezcatlipoca. He
has the conch as an
attribute, which is
associated with the
feminine. Miquiztli is
the the Unknown, that
which emanates
shadow. It is a good
day for reflecting on
•
7th Day: Deer
Mazatl
The protector of day
Mazatl (Deer) is Tlaloc,
He Who Makes Seeds
Sprout, god of rain and
thunderstorms. Mazatl is
the day of the hunt. It is
a good day to stalk your
quarry, a bad day to be
stalked. Mazatl is a day
for breaking old routines
and to pay close
attention to the routines
of others. This is a day
for doubling-back on
your tracks.
8th Day: Rabbit
Tochtli
• The bearer of
this year is
Tochtli (Rabbit).
As a year-bearer
Tochtli is
associated with
the south.
•
9th Day: Water
Atl
The protector of day Atl
(Water) is Xiuhtecuhtli,
Lord of the Year, the old
god of fire. Atl is a day for
purification by subjecting
oneself to the ordeal of
conflict. It is a good day for
battle, a bad day for rest.
Water brings out the
scorpion, who must sting
its enemies or else sting
itself. Atl is the day of the
holy war, which is always a
battle with one's own
enemies within.
•
10th Day: Dog
Izcuintli
The protector of day
Itzcuintli (Dog) is
Mictlantecuhtli, god of
death. Itzcuintli is the
guide for the dead, the
spirit world's link with the
living. Itzcuintli is a good
day for funerals and
wakes and remembering
the dead. It is a good
day for being
trustworthy, a bad day
for trusting others of
questionable intent.
•
11th Day: Monkey
Ozomatli
The protector of day
Ozomahtli (Monkey) is
Xochipili, god of the arts,
god of pleasure, feasting,
frivolity. Ozomahtli is a
day for creating, for play,
for celebrating. A good
day for lightheartedness,
a bad day for
seriousness. Ozomahtli is
a warning about how
easily the noble person
can be trapped by the
lures of public life.
12th Day: Grass or Dry Herb
Malinalli
• 13-day period Malinalli
(Grass) is ruled by
Mayahuel, Goddess of the
Maguey and Pulque. These
are 13 days of
intoxication, infatuation,
excitement and passion: it
is a time of excesses,
when moderation is
impossible, and so is often
a time of disastrous
consequences. These are
good days to bind the
community together; bad
days to sow discord and
discontent.
13th Day: Reed or Cane
Acatl
• he protector of day
Acatl (Reed) is
Tezcatlipoca. Acatl is
the scepter of
authority which is,
paradoxically, hollow.
It is a day when the
arrows of fate fall
from the sky like
lightningbolts. A good
day to seek justice, a
bad day to act against
others.
14th Day: Jaguar
• The protector of day Ocelotl
Ocelotl (Jaguar) is
Tlazolteotl. Ocelotl is a
good day for doing
battle. It signifies
power, valor, and
reckless abandon in
the face of danger.
This is a day of the
Warriors of
Tezcatlipoca, those
who willingly sacrifice
their lives to keep the
flame of the Old Ones
burning forever.
•
15th Day: Eagle
Cuahtli
The protector of day
Cuauhtli (Eagle) is Xipe
Totec, god of the shedding
of skins, God of Seedtime,
the elemental force of
rebirth. Cuauhtli is a day
of fighting for freedom and
equality. It is a day of the
Warriors of Huitzilopochtli,
those who sacrifice their
lives willingly to keep the
present age, the Fifth Sol,
moving. It is a good day
for action, a bad day for
reflection. A good day for
16th Day: Owl or Vulture
Cozcacuauhtli
• The protector of day
Cozcacuauhtli (Vulture) is
Itzpapalotl. Cozcacuauhtli
signifies long life,
wisdom, good counsel
and mental equilibrium.
It is a good day to
confront the
discontinuities,
disruptions, failures and
deaths one suffers in life.
Cozcacuauhtli is a day for
tricking the Trickster.
•
17th Day: Movement or
Earthquake
Ollin
The protector of day Ollin
(Movement) is Xolotl. This
is an auspicious day for the
active principle, a bad day
for the passive principle.
Ollin is a day of the purified
heart, signifying those
moments where human
beings may perceive what
they are becoming. A good
day for transmutation,
which arrives like an
earthquake that leaves in
its wake the ruins of
•
18th Day:
Obsidian Knife or Stone
Tecpatl
The 13-day period
Tecpatl (Stone Knife)
is ruled by
Mictlantecuhtli, Lord
of the Region of the
Dead, god of death.
This trecena signifies
an ordeal or trial
that pushes one to
the very threshhold
of endurance: it
forebodes an abrupt
change in the
continuity of things.
19th Day: Rain
Quiahuitl
• The protector of day
Quiahuitl (Rain) is
Tonatiuh. Quiahuitl is
a day of relying on
the unpredictable
fortunes of fate. It is
a good day for
traveling and
learning, a bad day
for business and
planning.
20th Day: Lord or Flower
Xochitl
•
The protector of day Xochitl (Flower)
is Xochiquetzal. Xochitl is a day for
creating beauty and truth, especially
that which speaks to the heart who
knows it will one day cease to beat.
Xochitl reminds us that life, like the
flower, is beautiful but quickly fades. It
is a good day for reflection,
companionship and poignancy; it is a
bad day for repressing deep-seated
wishes, desires and passions.

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