Unit 2.6 Name: Section Title: Ecology

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Unit 2.6
Section Title: Ecology-the ecosystem level
Opening Activity:
Review of Old Information: mbgnet.net
New Information: Ecology Notes-the ecosystem level.
a. ______________ – a large terrestrial ecosystem that contains a number of smaller ecosystem
i. Specific organisms are characteristic of each biome
b. The Seven Major Biomes
i. _____________________
1. Cold and largely treeless
2. Largest and northernmost biome
3. Permafrost layer in soil that is low in nutrients
4. Long and bitterly cold winters
ii. _____________________
1. Forested; dominated by evergreens
2. Long winters, short summers, nutrient-poor soils
iii. ____________________________________________________________
1. Trees lose all leaves in fall
2. Have pronounced seasons, MORE precipitation than taiga
iv. _____________________________
1. Dominated by grasses; rich fertile soil
2. Much has been transformed into farmlands
v. ____________________
1. LITTLE precipitation
2. Vegetation SPARSE; organisms adapted to conserving water
vi. ____________________
1. Tropical or subtropical grasslands
2. MORE rainfall than deserts; LESS than tropical forests
vii. _______________________________________
1. Characterized by tall trees
2. NEAR equator
3. Stable, year-round growing season
4. HIGHEST species richness of all biomes
viii. Aquatic Ecosystems
1. ________________________: area near the shoreline affected by the tides
2. ________________________: area of ocean over the continental shelf
3. Ocean
a. Oceanic Zone: deep water of the open sea
b. ________________ Zone: open ocean
c. ________________ Zone: ocean bottom
d. ________________ Zone: part of the ocean that receives sunlight
e. ________________ Zone: cold and dark part of the ocean
f. ________________: area where freshwater flows into the sea
g. Lakes, Rivers and Streams
Biome Classification On-line lab. Your objective is to gain a better understanding of
the plants, animals, climate, and location of each biome listed in the table.
Site: http://mbget.mobot.org/index.html
Types of Plants
Types of
Details & Climate
1. Describe the leaves of trees that live in the taiga.
2. The changing of seasons is best viewed in which biome?
3. Second to the rainforest, which biome gets the most amount of rain?
4. Why do the leaves of deciduous trees fall in the autumn?
5. What is the world’s largest desert?
6. In order to be classified as a “tropical rain forest” a forest must be located between what two Tropics.
Where can you find a rain forest in the United States?
8. Relative to rainfall, the tundra is most like what other biome?
9. What is an estuary?
Comparing Ecosystems Mini-Project
Introduction: There are many different types of biomes on the planet that are characterized by a certain
weather pattern, dominant plants and dominant animals. These areas are also called ecosystems. In some
areas, particularly those biomes that are close on the map, you will have some overlap of plant and animal
species. For instance, deer can be found in grasslands and in temperate forests. In this activity, you will
work together to create a VENN diagram to compare two ecosystems, illustrate what features are distinct
to each and what they have in common. Each group will have a pair of ecosystems to investigate.
Group 1
Tropical Rain Forest
Temperate Forest
Group 2
Group 3
Instructions: As a group, brainstorm a list of animals and plants you can find in each ecosystem. Find any
animals or plants that you would probably find in both areas. The venn diagram can also include other
features of the ecosystem, such as average temperature, physical features, geography.
Unit 2.7
Section Title: Ecology-The biosphere level.
Opening Activity:
Review of Old Information: N/A
New Information:
Biome WebQuest – Major Land Biomes
Data Collection and Analysis
Biomes are regions of the earth that have similar environmental conditions and as a result, similar types of living organisms.
Environmental conditions (abiotic factors) include temperature, rainfall, soil conditions, sunlight, and seasonal changes.
Living organisms (biotic factors) must have strategies for survival in their environment, and through the course of
evolution have developed adaptations that maximize their ability to survive.
For each of the major terrestrial (land) biomes listed below, make a chart of 3 abiotic environmental conditions that
act as limiting factors in the biome. These are abiotic factors that are found at a high or low level that make survival
difficult for organisms without adaptations. 3 evolutionary adaptations that organisms (plants and animals) in the biome
possess to help them survive. As well, indicate 3 countries where the biome is located.
In Review: Environmental conditions that act as limiting factors for population growth in the biome, evolutionary adaptations
of organisms to survive, 3 countries that are located within the biome. WRITE YOUR POINTS OF INFORMATION IN BULLETED
Land Biomes
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Tropical Rainforest
Chart is attached to the back of the notes packet.
Unit 2.8
Section Title: Ecology-The biosphere level.
Opening Activity Day 1:
Opening Activity Day 2:
Review of Old Information: N/A
New Information: Nutrient Cycling:
The Biosphere Level
a. Humans affecting the Biosphere
i. Human Population Growth
1. Requires more energy, food, space, and disposal of waste (affects the
ii. _____________________________
1. Currently, species are disappearing faster than any time since the last mass of
extinction because of the increase of the human population
iii. __________________________________________
1. The ozone layer – protects earth’s living organisms by absorbing UV ray’s that
would overheat the earth.
2. ______________________________________ (CFC’s) that are produced by
humans are currently destroying the ozone layer.
a. Aerosol sprays, plastics
iv. _______________________________________
1. ____________________________________________ - Carbon Dioxide and
Water Vapor help keep the earth warm by not allowing heat to escape after is
trapped in the atmosphere
2. By burning fossil fuels, humans produce more carbon dioxide which traps more
heat than normal – this is what causes global warming
Video Worksheet: “Global Warming: The Signs and The Science” 1. Over the past 100 years how much has the average global temperature risen? 2. Over the past 50 years how much has the average temperature risen in the Artic and Alaska? 3. Plants use sunlight to stimulate the process of… 4. Ancient sunlight comes in the form of… 5. Concentrations of CO2 remain in the atmosphere for how long? 6. What country is the biggest greenhouse gas emitter in the world today? 7. What are the worlds largest polluters? 8. The spikes in temperature in big cities have threatened human health. How many degree warmer are urban areas than their surroundings? 9. Add in global warming and unhealthy air days in urban cities could increase by… 10. In the summer of 2003 a human health disaster developed in Colorado where the moisture and increased temperatures allowed mosquiotoes to carry what disease? 11. How do warming sea temperatures affect our weather/climate? 12. What drives the process of rising sea levels? 13. Rising sea levels could impact what offshore energy deliverer? 14. What is being affected by droughts in Colorado? 15. What food crop would be greatly affected by a 1 degree warming? 16. An increased amount of nitrogen in the soil causes microbes to feed and release a greater amount of carbon dioxide out of the soil. Where does the increase amount of nitrogen come from? 17. How do melting glaciers affect the density of cooler water, causing climate change? 18. The Kioto agreement attempted to decrease a countries release of… 19. How is China trying to enforce lower carbon emissions into the atmosphere? 20. How are cars changing to become more energy efficient? 21. In New Hampshire, what is used to power the recycle plant? 22. What alternative energy source is found in California, the Dakotas, Kansas, and Texas? 23. What is the largest source of alternative energy? 24. How do plants help reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere? Activity:
1. _____The combustion of fossil fuels has increased atmospheric levels of a. Ammonia b. Nitrogen c. CFC’s d. Carbon dioxide 2. _____The thinning of the ozone is caused by a. CFC’s b. Carbon dioxide c. Oxygen gas d. Carbon monoxide 3. _____Many scientists think that humans have caused an increase in the size of the ozone hole by a. Burning large quantities of fossil fuels b. Generating a lot of carbon dioxide that has resulted in an increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide level c. Releasing large quantities of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere d. All of the above 4. _____The small percentage of ultraviolet radiation that strikes the earth from the sun is the cause of a. Climate changes b. Global warming c. Sunburns and skin cancer d. The greenhouse effect 5. _____The greenhouse effect is a. Energy and materials needed by a species b. Decreased average global temperatures due to trapped excess greenhouse gases c. Phenomenon that insulates earth from the freezing temperatures of space Unit 2.9
Section Title: Unit 2 Ecology Review
Opening Activity:
Review of Old Information:
1. _____The broadest most inclusive level of organization in ecology is
a. An ecosystem
c. a population
b. A community
d. the biosphere
2. _____When organisms affect and are affected by other organisms in their surroundings and with the nonliving parts of their
environment, it is called
a. Ecology
c. interdependence
b. Disturbances of the ecosystem
d. modeling
3. _____An example of an abiotic factor is
a. a tree
b. bird
c. sunlight
d. grass
4. _____Conformers are organisms that
a. use energy to control their internal conditions
b. do not regulate internal conditions
c. change over many generations
d. none of the above
5. _____A long term strategy to avoid unfavorable conditions by moving to another, more favorable habitat is called
a. dormancy
c. migration
b. hibernation
d. all of the above
6. _____A
species fundamental niche is
the range of resources it can potentially use
the range of conditions it can potentially tolerate
where it probably competes for resources
all of the above
7. _____the range of resources a species actually uses is called
a. an abiotic factor
c. a realized niche
b. resource tolerance
d. a regulator
8. _____A pond is an example of
a. a population
b. a community
c. a biosphere
d. an ecosystem
9. _____Once biotic factor that could influence a plant might be
a. the amount of sunlight
c. carbon dioxide concentration
b. soil pH
d. a pollinating insect
10. _____People who spend time at high elevations develop more red blood cells, which helps them obtain oxygen from the “thin
air”. This phenomenon is an example of
a. acclimation
c. adaptation
b. migration
d. dormancy
11. _____An animal that maintains its body temperature within a narrow range even when the environmental temperature varies is
an example of a
a. specialist
c. generalist
b. conformer
d. regulator
12. _____The role a species play in its environment is called the species
a. habitat
c. niche
b. resources
d. tolerance curve
13. _____ A forest is an example of
14. _____
A population
A community
A biosphere
An ecosystem
A group of Japanese beetles is an example of
A population
A community
A biosphere
A ecosystem
15. _____
16. _____
All the living and nonliving things in a given area is known as
A community
An ecosystem
The earth and it’s atmosphere fall into which ecological category?
A population
A community
A biosphere
An ecosystem
17. _____
Temperature and precipitation would be an example of
Biotic factors
Abiotic factors
Climate factors
18. _____
Organism adjusting their tolerance to an abiotic factor is known as
19) Which of the following types of dispersion patterns would a flock of snow geese display?
a. clumped
b. even
c. random
d. logical
20) The measure of how crowded a population is referred to as
a. size.
b. density
c. dispersion.
d. growth rate.
For numbers 4-7, use the diagrams below.
21) The diagram on the left occurs only under ideal
conditions and in the absence of limiting factors. This type of growth model is called
a. exponential
b. logistic
22) The diagram on the right involves carrying capacity, and is therefore which growth model?
a. exponential
b. logistic
c. Malthusian
d. irruptive
23) Human population growth is most reflective of which growth model?
a. exponential
b. logistic
c. Malthusian
d. irruptive
Match the following terms with their corresponding environmental factors.
24) _____Disease
a. density-dependent factor
25) _____Weather
b. density-independent factor
26) _____Fire
27) _____Food Shortage
1) The measure of how crowded a population is, or the number of individuals per unit area, is called
a) population size.
b) population density. c) dispersion.
d) population dynamics.
2) Ecologists use survivorship curves in order to illustrate the death rates of different populations. An example of an organism
with a Type III survivorship curve, where MOST organisms die relatively “early” in their life, is a
a) human.
b) bird.
c) salmon.
d) elephant.
3) When the birth rate and death rate of a population are equal,
a) the population is growing in size.
b) the population is remaining constant in size.
c) the population is decreasing in size.
d) the life expectancy of individuals in the population is increasing.
4) The type of dispersion where individuals are clustered together is called _____. One example of organisms with this type of
dispersion are _____.
a) even; birds. b) clumped; fish.
c) random; trees.
d) random; fish.
Match the type of growth rate with their characteristics in Questions 15-17. Answers will be used more than
5) _____Follows J-shaped curve.
a) Exponential Model
6) _____Follows S-shaped curve.
b) Logistic Model
7) _____Birth rates decline and death rates
increase as a population grows until the
growth rate is zero.
8) Which of the pairs of parasites listed below are endoparasites?
a) tapeworms and leeches
c) leeches and fleas
b) tapeworms and bacteria
d) ticks and mosquitoes
9) Pioneer Species
a) are usually small.
b) reproduce fast.
10) Species Richness is HIGHEST in areas
a) close to the equator.
b) with small islands.
c) predominate early in succession.
d) ALL of the above.
c) far from the equator.
d) with low community stability.
Match the types of species reactions with their characteristics in Numbers 21-25.
11) _____Similar to predation, but does not result
in immediate death of host.
12) _____Relationship where one species benefits
and the other is NOT affected.
13) _____Cooperative relationship in which two
Species derive some benefit.
14) _____Determines relationships in the food web.
15) _____Caused by two or more species using the
same limited resource.
a) Predation
b) Parasitism
c) Competition
d) mutualism
e) commensalism
16) What percent of the total energy consumed in one trophic level is incorporated into the next level?
a) 10%
b) 25%
c) 50%
d) 75%
17) Organisms that are autotrophic and use photosynthesis to obtain energy are called
a) carnivores.
b) producers.
c) herbivores.
d) decomposers.
18) Omnivores eat
a) only producers.
b) only consumers.
c) producers and consumers.
d) only other omnivores.
19) Organisms that feed on the “garbage” of an ecosystem are called
a) carnivores.
b) producers.
c) herbivores.
d) decomposers.
20) The 1 trophic level of an ecosystem typically contains
a) carnivores.
b) producers.
c) herbivores.
d) decomposers.
21) Which of the following methods do wild organisms use to decrease their competition with other species for limited resources?
a. character displacement
b. resources partitioning
c. dormancy d. both a. & b.
22) The richness and stability of a community are relatively _____ if the area is large and near the equator.
a. low
b. high
c. unstable
d. oscillating
23) Jordan and Taylor did not listen to Smokey’s advice and accidently started a wildfire. The regrowth of that forest following the
fire is an example of
a. primary succession
b. secondary succession
c. climax community
24) Which organism is the best example of a pioneer species?
a. grizzly bear
b. bald eagle
c. white-tailed deer
d. field mouse
25) A “random” distribution of individuals in a population would be most likely to result from
a. clumped food resources.
c. herding behavior by individuals in the population.
b. territorial behavior by the population.
d. the dispersal of seeds by the wind.
26) The stable end point of succession is called the
a. staged community.
c. climatic change.
b. climax community.
d. community development.
27) Compared to the lowest trophic level, the highest trophic level contains
a. more individuals.
b. less energy.
c. more producers.
28) All producer organisms are
a. autotrophs.
b. heterotrophs.
c. detriivores.
d. fewer carnivores.
d. omnivores
29) A population of cheetahs has a birth rate of 2.5 and a death rate of 1.5. What is the growth rate of this population?
a. 4.0
b. 1.53
c. 0.6
d. 1.0
57. _____A
large terrestrial ecosystem that contains a number of smaller ecosystems is known as a
Trophic level
Food chain
Intertidal zone
58. _____The biome that is dominated by grasses and has rich fertile soil is a
a. Tundra
b. Taiga
c. Grassland
d. Tropical rainforest
59. _____Tropical to subtropical grasslands are known as
a. Tundra
b. Savannah
c. Temperate deciduous forest
d. Taiga
60. _____The biome that has the highest species richness and is near the equator is known as
a. Tundra
b. Temperate deciduous
c. Tropical rainforest
d. Savannah
61. _____The biome that has very little precipitation and organisms that are adapted to conserving water
a. Tundra
b. Tropical rainforest
c. Desert
d. Savannah
62. _____The biome that is dominated by evergreens (coniferous forests) are known as
a. Tundra
b. Taiga
c. Desert
d. Savannah
63. _____The largest and northern most biome is known as the
a. Savannah
b. Tropical rainforest
c. Tundra
d. Taiga
64. _____The cold and dark part of the ocean that receives no light is known as the
a. Neritic zone
b. Aphotic zone
c. Photic zone
d. Benthic zone
65. _____The area where fresh water runs into the sea
a. The oceanic zone
b. The pelagic zone
c. Estuaries
d. The aphotic zone
66. _____What protects earth’s living organisms by absorbing UV ray’s that would overheat the earth?
a. Greenhouse gases
b. Global warming
c. The ozone layer
d. Biomes
67. _____What is a main contributor to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere?
a. Photosynthesis
b. Burning of fossil fuels
c. Thinning of the ozone layer
d. CFC’s
68. _____The process in which carbon dioxide and water vapor help keep the earth warm by not allowing heat to escape after it
is trapped in the atmosphere is known as
a. Thinning of the ozone layer
b. Photosynthesis
c. The greenhouse effect
d. Global warming
69. _____The thinning of the ozone layer is caused by
a. CFC’s
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Oxygen gas
d. Carbon monoxide
70. _____.
The biosphere includes
All the members of one species
All the living and non-living factors in an environment
All parts of Earth where life exists
All members of one species in the same area
71. _____The combustion of fossil fuels has increased atmospheric levels of
a. Ammonia
b. Nitrogen
c. CFC’s
d. Carbon dioxide
72. _____Which of the following is not true of tropical rainforests?
a. They are found near the equator
b. They have the highest species richness of any biome
c. They show wide seasonal changes in temperature
d. They are rapidly disappearing
73. _____Which of the following best characterizes the difference between the tundra and taiga biomes?
a. Tundra biomes are located at lower latitudes than taiga biomes
b. Tundra biomes are warmer and have lower average annual precipitation than taiga biomes
c. Tundra has small, slow growing plants with root systems limited by a layer of permafrost, while the taiga has trees
adapted to cold temperatures
d. Tundra has extremely long and cold winters, and taiga has short and warm winters.
74. _____Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by
a. Pronounced seasons with high average annual precipitation
b. The presence of trees that lose their leaves during the winter
c. Mild winters, moderate average annual precipitation, and broad leaves
d. Pronounced seasons, broad-leaved trees, and grasses being the dominant plants.
75. _____One reason trees are unusual in the tundra is that
a. Large herbivores eat them
b. There is not enough rainfall to support them
c. Permafrost prevents root growth
d. Grass and shrubs crowd them out
76. _____The small percentage of ultraviolet radiation that strikes the earth from the sun is the cause of
a. Climate changes
b. Global warming
c. Sunburns and skin cancer
77. _____The greenhouse effect is
a. Energy and materials needed by a species
b. Decreased average global temperatures due to trapped excess greenhouse gases
c. Phenomenon that insulates earth from the freezing temperatures of space
d. Organisms interacting in a specific area
78. _____The photic zone of the oceans differ form the aphotic zones in that
a. There are living things in the photic zones but no living things in the aphotic zones
b. The photic zones receive sunlight, while the aphotic zones do not
c. The photic zones are less warm than the aphotic zones
The photic zones are found near the tropics, while the aphotic zones are found far from the tropics
79. _____Plants living in the taiga are adapted for
a. Long, cold winters
b. Long summers
c. Nutrient rich soil
d. Very small amounts of precipitation
80. _____Which of the following is not an adaptation that limits water loss in plants
a. Protective spines
b. A waxy coating
c. Broad, thin leaves
d. Opening of the stomata only at night
81. _____The amount of light that reaches the floor of a tropical rainforest is limited by the
a. Short growing season in the tropics
b. Forest canopy
c. Dense growth of short vegetation that covers most of the floor
d. Dense fog that exists within the forest

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