modal verbs - E

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MODAL VERBS
Can
Could
May
Might
Must
Needn’t
Shall
Will
Would
Should
Ought to
mohu, umím
mohl, uměl, mohl by
smím, možná
možná
muset
nemuset
mám (future)
budu
by
měl by
měl by
Modální slovesa tvoří velmi komplexní a složitou strukturu, mají několik úrovní,
tj.významů a chovají se jinak než klasická slovesa.
Pravidla která platí pro klasická slovesa zde ne vždy platí, např.zápor není vždy stejný
jako základní sloveso – must x needn´t, odpověď na otázku nepoužívá vždy stejné
modální sloveso v odpovědi, např. Could you help me? – Yes, I can.
Basic rules:
1 po modálním slovese v oznamovací větě nebo záporné větě vždy následuje další
plnovýznamové sloveso v infinitivu bez - tonapř. can play, must go, should study, will visit
2 jsou ve všech osobách stejné
3 otázka se tvoří pouze inverzí, tj. přehozením slovosledu,
např. Can you sing? Shall we go?...
4 zápor se tvoří pouze přidáním - notnapř. I cannot sing. She mustn´t watch TV.
5 základní tvary modálních sloves tvoří pouze některé časy
např. must (jen přítomný čas, eventuelně budoucí čas )
pro ostatní časy je nutno použít tzv. opis
must – have to
can – be able to
may – be allowed to
6
nikdy nejsou dvě základní modální slovesa za sebou
NEVER: may can, will may
BUT may be able to, will be allowed to, must be able to
CAN
Present Tenses
+ I can speak English.
- I cannot /can´t speak Chinese.
? Can you speak French? – Yes, I can. / No, I can´t.
Past Tenses
+ I could swim when I was 5.
- I could not/couldn´t speak French when I was 5.
? Could you skate when you were 5? Yes, I could. / No, I couldn´t.
Future
1
I can do it tomorrow.
2
I will probably be able to go there next weekend.
Present Perfect - have/has been able to
+ I have been able to swim since I was 5.
- She hasn´t been able to drive her car since that accident she had last year.
? Have you been able to ski? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
! to be able to – může se vyskytovat i v přítomnosti a v minulosti s drobným rozdílem
ve významu can – umět x be able to – dokázat (překonat překážky)
! for can referring to probability see “Modals in specific situations”
MAY
Present Tenses
+ I may go to the party because my mother let me go.
- I must not / mustn´t go to the party because my mother didn’t let me go. - nesmím
? May I go to the party? Yes, you may/ can. / No, you mustn´t.
Past Tenses
+ I was allowed to go to the party.
- I wasn’t allowed to go to the party.
? Were you allowed to go to the party? – Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.
Future Tenses
1
I may visit London in June.
2
She will be allowed to study English in England next year.
Present Perfect – have/has been allowed to
+ I have been allowed to watch TV for 2 hrs a day.
- I have never been allowed to eat chocolates.
? Have you ever been allowed to stay up late? Yes, I have. / No, I haven´t.
! for may referring to probability see “Modals in specific situations”
MUST
Present tenses
1
+ I must do my HW.
- I needn’t study hard. - nemusím
or
I mustn’t be late. - nesmím
? Must you do your HW? – Yes, I must. / No, I needn’t.
2
+ I have to do my HW.
- She doesn’t have to write her HW.
? Do you have to do your HW? – Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
Past Tenses
+ I had to write my HW yesterday.
- I didn’t have to write my HW yesterday.
?Did you have to write your HW yesterday? Yes, I did. – No, I didn´t.
Future tenses
1 must
I must go there next week.
I needn´t go there next week.
Must I write the homework tomorrow? – Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.
2 have to
I have to do it tomorrow.
I don’t have to do it tomorrow.
Do you have to do it tomorrow? – Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
3 will have to
I will have to go there next week.
I won´t have to go there next week.
Will you have to go there next week? – Yes, I will. / No, I won´t.
Present perfect – have/has had to
+ I have always had to study hard.
- She has never had to study hard.
?Have you ever had to study hard? Yes, I have. / No, I haven´t.
! I have always had to have a car. !
! be careful about the correct use of must a have to!
WILL/SHALL
- vyjadřují budoucnost
např. + I will probably do it next week.
- She won’t do it at the weekend.
?When will you do there?
! shall – 1 os. jč + mč v otázce
např. Shall I go there? - Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn´t.
SHOULD
- vyjadřuje doporučení, radu = měl bys, měla by...
- = ought to (staromódní výraz)
např. + You should study hard.
- You shouldn´t speak in the lessons x You mustn´t speak in the lessons.
(advice)
(strong recommendation)
? Should I go there? – Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn´t.
WOULD
- vyjadřuje podmiňovací způsob -bynapř. + I would like to study university.
- I wouldn´t go there if I were you.
? Where would you like to go?
Would you like to go with me?
Yes, I would. / Yes, I’d love to. / Yes, that would be great.
I’m sorry I can’t. / I’m sorry I’m busy.
Modals in specific situations
1. Continuous
- modal + be + verb(-ing)
např. You must be joking.
2. Passive
- modal + be + verb in past participle
např. It must be cleaned.
3. Orders and advice
(strongest) __________________________________________(weakest)
must
She must be quiet!
had better
ought to/should
You should study.
could
You could start looking for a job.
4. Modální slovesa jsou významně používána pokud o něco žádáme
např. May I borrow your car, please? - Yes, you can. No, you can´t /mustn’t.
Could you help me, please? - Yes, I can. / I´m sorry, I can´t. (very polite)
Can you help me, please? - Yes, I can. / I´m sorry, I can´t. (less polite)
5. Některá modální slovesa kromě základních významů (ability, permission atd.)
vyjadřují i pravděpodobnost
may / might / could
(asi ano)
may not / might not
(asi ne)
např. He may not be at home.
must
(určitě ano)
can´t / couldn´t
(určitě ne)
- Možná není doma.
It must be Jack behind the door. It can´t be true, you are lying.
Za dveřmi je určitě Jack.
- To určitě není pravda, ty lžeš.
! ! Možná bude smět navštívit Paříž. – He may be allowed to visit Paris.
Určitě nebude moci přijít.
–He can´t be able to come.
Asi bude muset zůstat doma.
– She may have to stay at home.
Translations:
nesměl, umí, nemohl, musí, nemohl …
nebude muset, bude umět…
možná nebude smět, určitě nesměl, měl by umět…
Sentence transformations:
1
I am certain he is 30.
He must be 30.
2
He is allowed to visit the museum.
He may visit the museum.
be
may

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