Standard 5 Notes

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Transcript

You have until 1:45 to look at the
images for imperialism and
isolationism and create YOUR
OWN definition and draw a
picture!
If you need to see an image, just
ask!
Isolationism
Imperialism
Standard 5:
US Becoming a World Power
 Standard USHC-5: The student will
demonstrate an understanding of domestic
and foreign developments that contributed
to the emergence of the United States as a
world power in the twentieth century.
Standard 5.1 and 5.2Expansion/Spanish-American War
 USHC-5.1 Analyze the development of American
expansionism, including the change from isolationism
to intervention and the rationales for imperialism
based on Social Darwinism, expanding capitalism, and
domestic tensions.
 USHC-5.2 Explain the influence of the SpanishAmerican War on the emergence of the United States
as a world power, including the role of yellow
journalism in the American declaration of war against
Spain, United States interests and expansion in the
South Pacific, and the debate between pro- and antiimperialists over annexation of the Philippines.
Foreign Policy
 Since the Washington
administration, the
US had steered clear of
‘entangling alliances,’
as Washington had
advised in his Farewell
Address, the
predominance of
domestic interests
and the United States’
limited military
capacity.
American Expansionism
 The United States was involved in
westward expansion since the
beginning; American expansionism
changed in the late 19th century.
 Previous expansion had been
motivated by land hunger and resulted
in new states that entered the Union,
the expansion of the late 19th century
reached beyond the North American
continent to markets.
Seward's Folly
 The purchase of Alaska in the 1860s was the
last land on the North American continent to
be added (was not a state until 1950).
Expanding Capitalism
 The US moved from
isolationism to
intervention
because of expanding
capitalism that
increased the need
for raw materials
and new markets for
the products of
developing
industries.
 Overseas markets were potential outlets for
American products that would increase
demand and ensure continuous production
for factories.
Nationalism
 Growing
nationalism
fostered the desire
to expand naval
power to compete
with other nations
to protect trade,
secure markets,
and to spread
Christianity
around the world.
Competition
 Developments in other countries
contributed to the United States’
emergence as a world power,
including competition for markets
among the European nations and a
continuing movement for liberation
in Latin America, especially in Cuba.
Social Darwinism
 Social Darwinism fostered the idea that
Americans were superior to other
cultures and countries and should
expand to fulfill the nation’s destiny.
Foreign Resentment
 The United States initiated their status as a
world power with their involvement in the
Spanish-American War.
 This new expansion led the United States
to spread American ideas, religious beliefs,
and capitalism to other nations but also
initiated foreign resentment of American
interference.
Spanish-American War
 The involvement of the United States in
the Spanish-American War marked
America’s emergence as a world power.
 The push for increased
naval power also
contributed to the
United States’ entry
into the war and the
expanded navy helped
to prepare America for
involvement worldwide.
 Yellow journalism led to a public
outcry for American involvement in
Cuba’s struggle for independence.
 Competition for sales between
newspapers in New York was intensified
by the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine in
Havana’s harbor and the publication of the
DeLome letter.
 All of these factors put pressure on
President McKinley to ask Congress for a
declaration of war.
Results of SAW
 The initial result of the war was expansion
of the US in the South Pacific with the
annexation of Hawaii and the capture of
the Philippines.
 Both of these islands offered the United
States a convenient fueling stop on the way
to the markets of the Far East (China).
 When the war ended, the Anti-Imperialists
argued against annexation of the Philippines on
the grounds that the Filipinos could never be
incorporated into the union.
 McKinley argued that it was an American
responsibility to govern the Filipinos who
were incapable of governing themselves.
 The treaty ending the war recognized
United States’ ownership of the
Philippines, Wake Island, Guam and
Puerto Rico and United States’ control
of Cuba.
 With the
acquisition of new
lands came the
struggle to govern
these areas.
 The United States
soon faced armed
resistance in the
Philippines.
 The United States Supreme Court ruled in
several cases [known collectively as the
Insular cases] that the ‘Constitution does
not follow the flag’ so subject peoples did
not have the same rights as citizens of the
United States.
Colonial Power
 Unlike the territories populated by
westward migration, these new lands were
not offered statehood.
 The perception of the United States among
subject peoples therefore changed from a
champion of liberty to a colonial power,
just like European powers.
Focus Questions
 How did the Spanish-American War influence the
emergence of the United States as a world power?
 What was the role of yellow journalism in the American
declaration of war against Spain?
 How did yellow journalism drive United States
interests and expansion in the South Pacific, and the
debate between pro- and anti-imperialists over
annexation of the Philippines?
Create 4 Yellow Journalism headlines for ANY event that
has been discussed this year.
White Man’s Burden Instructions
 Author- What is the author’s point of view





(positive/negative, sarcastic, etc)? Explain.
Prior Knowledge- How is this similar to other time
periods in US History? Give 2 specific examples.
Audience- Who is this poem directed to? Explain.
Reason- What was the purpose behind the poem?
Explain.
Main Idea- Summarize the poem in 8 words or less
Significance- Has this changed out view of other
cultures? Explain using 2 examples
March 15
 What role did Yellow Journalism play in the US entry
in the Spanish-American War?
 What did the US gain as a result of the Spanish-
American War?
Standard 5
 Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an
understanding of domestic and foreign developments
that contributed to the emergence of the United States
as a world power in the twentieth century.
Foreign Diplomacy
 USHC-5.3 Summarize United States foreign policies in
different regions of the world during the early
twentieth century, including the purposes and effects
of the Open Door policy with China, the United States
role in the Panama Revolution, Theodore Roosevelt’s
“big stick diplomacy,” William Taft’s “dollar
diplomacy,” and Woodrow Wilson’s “moral diplomacy”
and changing worldwide perceptions of the United
States.
China
 In China, European countries had special
trade privileges in areas called ‘spheres of
influence,’ but the U.S. did not.
 In an effort to open trade with China, the
United States issued a series of diplomatic
notes asking that all foreign powers allow
other foreign powers equal opportunity to
trade within their sphere of influence.
 This Policy was not designed to help China.
However, it did lead to increased economic
opportunity.
 The success of the Open Door Policy was
due, like the success of the early Monroe
Doctrine, to the relationship of the US and
Great Britain.
 When Chinese nationalists called “Boxers”
resisted foreign encroachment on their
freedom, the United States took a leading
role in the multinational effort to put down
the Rebellion, further upsetting the Chinese.
Cuba, Again
 The United States’ involvement in Latin
America increased after the Spanish
American War.
 The Platt Amendment to the Cuban
Constitution brought about an extended
American supervision over Cuban affairs
and the right to lease a military base at
Guantanamo Bay.
Panama=Gunboat Diplomacy
 When the government
of Colombia refused
to accept the US
payment for the
Isthmus of Panama,
the US sent gunboats
to support the
bloodless revolution
in Panama.
 Then the leader of the revolt signed a treaty
giving exclusive rights to build a canal to the
United States.
 This alienated the Colombians, but gave the
US a foothold in Central America for almost
a century
Roosevelt’s Corollary
 Eventually, the Panamanians also
resented the American presence.
 In addition, President Theodore
Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine described the role of the US
as a policeman that would keep
Europe out of the Americas.
Big Stick Diplomacy
 This “Big Stick” diplomacy increased the
profile of the US on the world scene.
 The US intervened in several Central
American countries, taking over their
customs houses and collecting taxes to
pay trade debts owed to European nations
to prevent the Europeans from attacking.
 President Roosevelt sent the Great
White Fleet on a trip around the world
to show off America’s naval superiority.
Dollar Diplomacy
 President William Howard Taft supported ‘dollar
diplomacy’, promising to protect the investments of
American businesses in Latin America with a
guarantee intervention if any problems arose, thus
increasing both American investment and control.
Moral Diplomacy
 President Woodrow Wilson vowed to use
‘moral diplomacy’ to intervene in Mexico
to ‘teach the Mexicans to elect good men’
while also supporting the economic
interests of American businessmen in the
Western Hemisphere.
Foreign Policies
Open
Door
President
Location
Cause
Intent
Effect
Gunboat
Big Stick
Moral
Dollar
Corollary
March 15
 What are 2 positives and negatives of U.S. expansion?
 Do you think all Americans approved
imperialism/expansion? Explain.
Standard 5
 Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an
understanding of domestic and foreign developments
that contributed to the emergence of the United States
as a world power in the twentieth century.
World War I
 USHC-5.4 Analyze the causes and consequences of
United States involvement in World War I, including
the failure of neutrality and the reasons for the
declaration of war, the role of propaganda in creating a
unified war effort, the limitation of individual
liberties, and Woodrow Wilson’s leadership in the
Treaty of Versailles and the creation of the League of
Nations.
What is a Nation?
 ‘Nation’ refers to a group of people
who share a common language,
religion, history and traditions.
 Not all nations had states; many were
included in empires. Ethnic and
ideological differences led to conflict
within these empires.
 Nationalism spurred competition among
states in military strength and led
European nations to establish a system of
military alliances.
World War I
 The igniting incident of the Great War was the
assassination of the Archduke Franz
Ferdinand, of Austria-Hungary, in Bosnia by a
Serbian nationalist.
 The resulting confrontation between AustriaHungary and Serbia quickly involved much of
Europe in conflict due to alliances.
 The US declared neutrality at the
outbreak of the war.
 The traditional trading partnership with
Great Britain and the blockade of
German ports by the British navy severely
limited American trade with Germany.
 American businesses made loans to the
Allies in order to continue trade.
 The German use of the submarine affected
public opinion against Germany and
alienated President Wilson, who was
angry by the loss of innocent lives.
Lusitania
 The 1915 German U-boats sunk the British
passenger ship, the Lusitania, brought sharp
protests from Wilson but did not bring the United
States into the war.
 As a result of American protests, Germany pledged
to restrict their use of submarines.
Zimmerman Note
 Wilson campaigned for re-
election in 1916 on the
slogan that “he kept us
out of war.”
 The interception and
publication by the British
of Germany’s Zimmerman
note to Mexico negatively
impacted American public
opinion.
 The decision of Germany to resume
unrestricted submarine warfare in the
spring of 1917 and Wilson’s desire to broker a
peace plan prompted Wilson to ask
Congress for a declaration of war on Germany
in April of 1917.
Fourteen Points
 President Wilson announced his intention to
“make the world safe for democracy” and
later issued his Fourteen Points peace plan.
 In order to achieve a fair and lasting peace
Wilson proposed that the adversaries agree
to:
 Freedom of the seas
 No secret treaties
 Arms reduction
 Democracy
WWI Ends
 As a result of American involvement, the
Germans were defeated in France and the
armistice of November 11, 1918 ended the
fighting between the Allies and the Central
Powers.
 President Wilson was in a position to take
part in the peace negotiations.
Treaty of Versailles
 In order to get agreement from the
Allies to support the creation of the
League of Nations, Wilson made
concessions to the interest of his
European allies.
 The treaty imposed a war guilt clause
on Germany and forced them to
reduce their military.
 To fulfill one of the Fourteen Points and to
eliminate boundary disputes based on
nationalism, new national borders were
drawn at the conference based on self
determination of peoples.
 However these borders could not
accommodate all of the complexities of
ethnic diversity within Europe.
 The war guilt clause, reparations, and
borders laid the basis for the next war.
WWI at Home
 Propaganda created a
united war effort at
the expense of
individual liberties.
 Americans were
persuaded to plant
victory gardens,
enlist in the military
and buy war bonds.
 Wartime propaganda also
characterized Germans
as “Huns” and resulted in
discrimination against
Americans of German
descent.
 Americans stopped
teaching German in
schools, restricted the
playing of German
music and renamed
German foods.
 The passage of the
Sedition Act
restricted the
individual liberties
of Americans to
voice their
objections to the
war effort and
contributed to the
post-war Red Scare.
March 21st
 What were two reasons the U.S. used to get involved in
WWI?
 How did the U.S. government promote the war at
home?
 You have until 7:55 for homework and 8:05 for bell
ringer
Standard 5
 Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an
understanding of domestic and foreign developments
that contributed to the emergence of the United States
as a world power in the twentieth century.
Post War Problems
 USHC-5.5 Analyze the United States rejection of
internationalism, including postwar disillusionment,
the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty, the
election of 1920, and the role of the United States in
international affairs in the 1920s.
League of Nations and Senate
 According to the US Constitution, foreign policy
is the domain of the executive branch but the
system of checks and balances requires that the
Senate ratify all treaties.
 Despite Wilson’s central role in the drafting of
the Versailles Treaty and his desire for the US to
play a leading role in the League of Nations, the
Senate refused to ratify the treaty.
 Some members of the Senate were
concerned that the principle of collective
security, which was the central idea of the
League, would require the US become
involved in future military action under
the auspices of the League without
consent of the Senate.
 The rejection of the treaty was the result of
political partisanship.
 Republican leadership in the Senate
opposed ratification outright or had
reservations about the treaty.
 Democrat Wilson refused to compromise
with the Republican Senate.
 Wilson took his case to the American
people on a cross country speaking tour,
attempting to secure the election of
Democrats to the Senate in the upcoming
elections.
 The Senate never ratified the Versailles
Treaty. The United States later made a
separate peace with Germany.
1920 Election
 The election of 1920 became a referendum on
the League of Nations. The Democratic
candidate supported internationalism while the
Republican candidate (Harding) advocated a
‘return to normalcy’.
 Americans were cynical by the brutality of
the war, the cost in human life, and the
greed of the post war Allies.
 The Republicans won in a landslide; the
American people seemed to have rejected
internationalism for isolationism.
Still Involved
 Although the United States had rejected
collective security, it had not rejected
economic involvement with the rest of the
world.
 As a result of the war, the United States
became the world’s leading economic
power, the leading exporter of goods, a
major creditor nation and the world’s
financial capital.
Good Neighbor Policy
 America continued to be involved in
Latin America and attempted to improve
relations there through the Good
Neighbor policy.
 The US never joined the League, but
did send observers to meetings of the
League of Nations and participated
actively in several international
conferences to limit the size of the
world’s navies.
 The US also helped to make it possible for
the Germans to continue to pay the war
reparations through a loan programDawes and Young Plans.
 The United States took a hands-off
approach to events in Europe as dictators
rose to power in Italy and Germany in the
1920s and 1930s.
Stock Market Crash
 After the crash of 1929 signaled the start of
the Great Depression, Americans were
too concerned with their domestic
economic problems to pay attention to
the gathering storm in Europe.
Neutrality Acts
 In Congressional hearings early in the
1930s, testimony about how the US
became involved in WWI led the
Congress to pass legislation to attempt to
keep the US out of any future war.
 The resulting Acts would tie FDR’s
hands and delay American entry in
World War II.
Questions to Answer
 Why did the United States reject internationalism?
 What was postwar disillusionment?
 How did the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Versailles
Treaty, and the election of 1920, change the role of the
United States in international affairs in the 1920s.

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