6th Grade Earth Science

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4th Grade Earth
Science
Chapter 9
Changing of Earth’s Surface
What is the Earth made of?
• Landforms on Earth include:
–
–
–
–
–
Mountains
__________
__________
- flat land
Plateaus
________
Gorges - a deep crack
Plains - flatlands with few trees
______
valleys - on land where mountains are close
_______
together
– ______
Ridges - beneath the ocean, long row of towering
mountains
– ________
Trenches - long narrow canyons in the ocean floor
Earth’s Features
• Earth’s surface is made up of many different
__________.
Landforms
• Earth’s surface is constantly ________
and so
changing
are the landforms
weathering
• ___________
- the process of breaking down
rock into smaller pieces
• Forces of __________
include ________
and
weathering
water
_____
ice
Mechanical / Chemical Weathering
• _________________
- process of breaking
Mechanical Weathering
down rock into smaller pieces as a result of ice
or water – MINERALS THAT MAKE UP THE
ROCK DO NOT CHANGE!
• ________________
- minerals that make up
Chemical Weathering
the rock change.
• The cause of chemical weathering is a
_________
with something in the
reaction
water or ________
oxygen
environment such as ____
Erosion
erosion
• ________
- the process by which soil and
sediments are transferred from one location
to another
• The movement of soil and sediments can be
caused by:
– _________
wind
– ________
water
– ______
ice
– ________
gravity
Water
• _________
- solid particles that are moved from
sediments
one place to another
deposition
__________
- sediments that form during
weathering and erosion are deposited in another
location
During the process of deposition, the _______
and
shape
direction of a river’s flow changes
________
As rivers flow to the oceans they carry ________
sediments
Dissolved minerals which are useful to plants
and ______________
and animals to carry out their __________
Life processes
Soil Erosion
• Areas of land with no plant covering are
Soil erosion
susceptible to __________
• __________
- help prevent soil erosion by
Plant roots
holding the soil in place
Cover crops
• ___________
- planted by farmers in between
harvests to prevent soil erosion and add
nutrients to the soil
• ______________
Dust Bowl of 1930’s - years of drought and poor
farming practices left bare areas of soil
Soil
soil - made of weathered rock, air, water, and
• ____
the remains of living things.
weathering
• __________
- process of breaking down rocks
through physical factors such as _____,
frost
drought
rainwater or__________________.
Changes in temperature
_________,
_______
• ________
= non-living parts of the soil
inorganic
• As rock breaks down small pieces collect on
the surface
Volcanoes
• __________
occur when magma from the
Volcanoes
mantle either flows or explodes through the
crust.
– Opening in the surface of the Earth through which
magma rises
– Occur near ______________
Plate boundaries
– Theory of plate tectonics – one plate sinks
beneath another at a plate boundary – sinking
crust melts into _______.
magma
lava - Magma that reaches the surface
– _____
Draw and Label Volcanoe page 270271
Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by the sudden shifting
• _________
of rock as tectonic plates shift positions
– Pressure builds up, rocks lurch forward, and the
Earth’s crust shakes.
– ______
focus - the underground point where the
earthquake occurs
epicenter - point on the Earth’s surface directly
– ________
above the focus.
Waves
• Energy from the earthquake is carried by
_______.
waves
focus and
• Waves spread out from the _____
________.
Volcanoes
• Waves can cause the Earth to move ________,
Up and down
___________,
or in a ___________
Back and forth
Circular motion
• As the waves spread out from the epicenter,
they __________.
Lose energy
Earthquakes and Plate boundaries
California
Alaska
• ____________
and _________
have had the
most earthquakes because they are located on
Plate Boundary between the Pacific plate and
a ____________
the North American Plate.
• The strength of an earthquake can be
measured on a ____________
Magnitude scale - a series of
numbers that is based on the amount of
energy that is released.
×

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