Earth Science Ch. 5 Practice Test

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Earth Science Ch. 5 Practice Test
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1.
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called
a.
shearing.
b.
tension.
c.
compression.
d.
deformation.
____ 2.
The Earth’s crust at Owens Valley in California is under tension, resulting in
a.
compression faults.
b.
normal faults.
c.
reverse faults.
d.
strike-slip faults.
____ 3.
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume is called
a.
an aftershock.
b.
friction.
c.
liquefaction.
d.
stress.
____ 4.
In a normal fault, the part of the fault that lies below the other part is called the
a.
hanging wall.
b.
reverse fault.
c.
footwall.
d.
anticline.
____ 5.
Which type of stress force produces reverse faults?
a.
shearing
b.
tension
c.
compression
d.
deformation
____ 6.
In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways
with little
a.
noise.
b.
shaking.
c.
up-or-down motion.
d.
movement.
____ 7.
The land between two normal faults moves upward to form a
a.
fold.
b.
syncline.
c.
hanging wall.
d.
fault-block mountain.
____ 8.
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is called a(n)
a.
anticline.
b.
syncline.
c.
plateau.
d.
canyon.
____ 9.
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level is called a
a.
syncline.
b.
plateau.
c.
canyon.
d.
fault.
____ 10.
The point beneath Earth’s surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers an
earthquake is called the
a.
syncline.
b.
footwall.
c.
epicenter.
d.
focus.
____ 11.
The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing
and expanding the ground like an accordion are called
a.
S waves.
b.
P waves.
c.
Surface waves.
d.
Mercalli waves.
____ 12.
S waves are also known as
a.
primary waves.
b.
secondary waves.
c.
surface waves.
d.
focus waves.
____ 13.
Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move
a.
faster.
b.
slower.
c.
at the same rate.
d.
farther from the epicenter.
____ 14.
In what direction do seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake?
a.
away from the focus
b.
toward the focus
c.
from the surface to the interior
d.
through the mantle only
____ 15.
What type of earthquake wave can travel through both liquids and solids?
a.
P waves
b.
S waves
c.
focus waves
d.
surface waves
____ 16.
Which scale would most likely be used to tell how much earthquake damage was
done to homes and other buildings?
a.
the Richter scale
b.
the Mercalli scale
c.
the moment magnitude scale
d.
the seismic scale
____ 17.
The rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake is called
the
a.
Richter scale.
b.
moment magnitude scale.
c.
mechanical seismograph scale.
d.
Mercalli scale.
____ 18.
What does a seismograph record?
a.
the Mercalli scale rating for an earthquake
b.
the speed of seismic waves
c.
the ground movements caused by seismic waves
d.
the location of the epicenter
____ 19.
A device that uses wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of
the ground is called a
a.
creep meter.
b.
laser-ranging device.
c.
tiltmeter.
d.
satellite.
____ 20.
Which of the following monitors both vertical and horizontal movements along a
____ 20.
fault?
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 21.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 22.
a.
b.
Which of the following monitors both vertical and horizontal movements along a
laser-ranging device
GPS satellite system
tiltmeter
creep meter
Which type of fault-monitoring device is most like a carpenter’s level?
tiltmeter
laser-ranging device
creep meter
satellite
What happens when friction between the opposite sides of a fault is high?
A plateau may form on one side of the fault.
The fault locks, and stress builds up until an earthquake
occurs.
c.
Folding of the crust may occur.
d.
The rocks on both sides of the fault easily slide past each
other.
____ 23.
Geologists cannot yet predict earthquakes because
a.
they have too much data.
b.
they can’t be sure when and where stress will be released
along a fault.
c.
they need to know where all past earthquakes occurred.
d.
there are too many faults to monitor.
____ 24.
Geologists know that wherever plate movement stores energy in the rock along faults,
a.
earthquakes are not likely.
b.
earthquakes are likely.
c.
an earthquake is occurring.
d.
an earthquake could never occur.
____ 25.
The risk of earthquakes is high along the Pacific coast of the United States because
a.
there have been no earthquakes there lately.
b.
serious earthquakes are rare east of the Rockies.
c.
satellites have detected increasing elevation of the ground
surface.
d.
that’s where the Pacific and North American plates meet.
____ 26.
Which of the following can cause damage days or months after a large earthquake?
a.
the arrival of surface waves.
b.
liquefaction.
c.
a tsunami.
d.
an aftershock.
____ 27.
If the Coast Guard warns of a giant wave of water approaching the shore as a result
of a major earthquake, they are warning of
a.
an aftershock.
b.
liquefaction.
c.
a tsunami.
d.
landslides.
____ 28.
A building designed to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the building during
an earthquake is called a
a.
fixed-base building.
b.
wood-frame building.
c.
base-isolated building.
d.
brick building.
____ 29.
The best way to protect yourself in an earthquake is to
a.
run as fast as you can.
b.
drop, cover, and hold.
c.
go into the basement.
d.
stand under a tree.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____
a.
b.
c.
d.
30.
run as fast as you can.
drop, cover, and hold.
go into the basement.
stand under a tree.
Most earthquake-related deaths and injuries result from
tsunamis.
damage to buildings or other structures.
liquefaction.
P waves.
Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to
make the statement true.
____ 31.
The squeezing together of rocks by stress is called shearing.
_________________________
____ 32.
In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways.
_________________________
____
33.
An upward fold in a rock is called a plateau. _________________________
____ 34.
When an earthquake occurs, S waves are the first seismic waves to arrive at a given
location. _________________________
____ 35.
During an earthquake, seismic waves move outward from the focus in all directions.
_________________________
____ 36.
The Richter scale describes the effects of an earthquake on people, buildings, and land
at a given location. _________________________
____ 37.
Geologists use a creep meter to measure the horizontal movement along a fault.
_________________________
____ 38.
With the range of data available, geologists cannot predict exactly where and when
earthquakes will occur. _________________________
____ 39.
An earthquake on the ocean floor can produce a tsunami, which may grow into a
huge wave as it approaches the shore. _________________________
____ 40.
A type of building that absorbs the energy of seismic waves is a fixed-base building.
_________________________
Completion
Complete each statement.
41.
The stress force that pulls on the crust where two plates are moving apart is called
____________________.
42.
The stress force that causes a mass of rock to pull or twist in opposite directions is
called ____________________.
43.
The Klamath Mountains in California were produced by a(n) ______________ fault,
which is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to move over the footwall.
44.
The block of rock that lies above a fault is called the ____________________.
45.
California.
Shearing creates ____________________ faults, like the San Andreas fault in
46.
The Sierra Nevada is a(n) ____________________ mountain range, formed when a
block of rock was pushed upward by normal faults.
47.
Layers of rock that bend can produce a downward fold known as a(n)
____________________.
48.
A valley that dips between two parallel ranges of hills was formed by a downward
fold in rock called a(n) ____________________.
49.
The seismic waves that travel along Earth’s surface and produce the most severe
ground movements are called ____________________.
50.
Vibrations that move through the ground carrying the energy released during an
earthquake are called ____________________.
51.
Earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side and up and down only through solids
are known as ____________________.
52.
The point beneath the surface where rock breaks and an earthquake starts is the
____________________.
53.
The scale that measures the strength of an earthquake based on seismic waves and
movement along a fault is called the ____________________ scale.
54.
The ____________________ scale accurately rates the size of seismic waves only for
small, nearby earthquakes.
55.
Geologists use a(n) ____________________ to measure the tilting of the ground
along a fault.
56.
Laser-ranging devices can detect even tiny movements of the crust along a(n)
____________________.
57.
Geologists determine earthquake risk by locating where ____________________ are
active.
58.
The process in which the violent shaking of an earthquake turns soft soil into liquid
mud is called ____________________.
59.
An earthquake that occurs shortly after a larger earthquake is a(n)
____________________.
60.
Earthquake damage can be reduced by making buildings more
____________________ so that they twist and bend without breaking.
Short Answer
Use the diagram to answer each question.
61.
Describe the rock layers shown in Diagram A and any forces acting on the rock.
62.
What caused the rock layers to take on the shape shown in diagram C?
63.
Contrast the plate movements that cause the stresses in diagrams B and C.
64.
Compare diagram B to diagram A. How is it different?
65.
In diagram B, which type of fault will form if the stress force continues? Explain.
66.
D? Explain.
Will a normal fault result from the stresses being applied to the rock unit in diagram
Use the diagram to answer each question.
67.
How do California and Nevada compare in possible severity of earthquake damage?
68.
In which direction does the major earthquake risk zone in Idaho run?
69.
In which part of Maine should you live if you want the least possible risk of damage
from an earthquake? Explain.
70.
What kind of risk is shown on the map and how is this risk determined?
71.
According to the map, which part of the United States is least likely to suffer
earthquake damage?
72.
What earthquake damage is Texas likely to suffer?
73.
Compare and contrast a normal fault and a reverse fault.
74.
What is a plateau and how can one form?
75.
Distinguish between the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake.
76.
Explain the difference between P and S waves in an earthquake.
77.
How is the moment magnitude scale used to describe earthquakes?
78.
Explain how GPS satellites are used to monitor faults.
Essay
79.
Which is likely to experience more damage during an earthquake, a house built on a
solid rock ledge or a nearby house built on a soil river bank? Explain your answer.
80.
How does the design of base-isolated buildings reduce their risk of damage by
earthquakes?
Earth Science Ch. 5 Practice Test
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
2.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.f
BLM: application
3.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
4.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
5.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
6.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
7.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: comprehension
8.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
9.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
10.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
11.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
12.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
13.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
14.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
15.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
16.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: application
17.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
18.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.1 Explain how seismographs work.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: application
19.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
20.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
21.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
22.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.3 Explain how seismographic data are used.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
23.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.3 Explain how seismographic data are used.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
24.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
25.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: application
26.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
27.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: application
28.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
29.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
30.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE
31.
ANS: F, compression
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
32.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
33.
ANS: F, anticline
DIF:
L1
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
35.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
DIF:
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
36.
ANS: F, Mercalli
L2
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
34.
ANS: F, P waves
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: application
37.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
DIF:
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
38.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
DIF:
OBJ: CaES.5.3.3 Explain how seismographic data are used.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
39.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
DIF:
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
40.
ANS: F
base-isolated
base isolated
L1
L1
L2
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
COMPLETION
41.
ANS: tension
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
42.
ANS: shearing
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
43.
ANS: reverse
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.f
BLM: application
44.
ANS: hanging wall
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: knowledge
45.
ANS:
strike-slip
strike slip
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.f
BLM: comprehension
46.
ANS:
fault-block
fault block
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.f
BLM: comprehension
47.
ANS: syncline
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: comprehension
48.
ANS: syncline
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: application
49.
ANS: surface waves
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
50.
ANS: seismic waves
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: comprehension
51.
ANS: S waves
PTS:
1
DIF:
L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d
BLM: knowledge
52.
ANS: focus
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
53.
ANS: Richter
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: application
54.
ANS: Richter
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
55.
ANS: tiltmeter
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
BLM: comprehension
56.
ANS: fault
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
BLM: comprehension
57.
ANS: faults
STA: S 6.1.g
STA: S 6.1.g
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
58.
ANS: liquefaction
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
59.
ANS: aftershock
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: knowledge
60.
ANS: flexible
PTS: 1
DIF: L1
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.2.d
BLM: knowledge
SHORT ANSWER
61.
ANS:
Diagram A shows a section of rock that contains three different layers. All layers are parallel and are
equal in thickness. There are no forces being exerted on the rock layers.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
62.
tension
BLM: analysis
ANS:
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: analysis
63.
ANS:
The compression in diagram B occurs when one plate pushes against another. The tension in diagram
C occurs when two plates move apart.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: analysis
64.
ANS:
Diagram B shows how compression affects rock layers, causing the layers to bulge in the center and
occupy a smaller horizontal area.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.1.1 Explain how stress in the crust changes Earth's surface.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: synthesis
65.
ANS:
A reverse fault will form. Compression will squeeze the rock until a fault occurs in which the rock
forming the hanging wall slides up and over the footwall.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: synthesis
66.
ANS:
No, because the stresses being applied will not push the rock unit up or down but sideways. A
strike-slip fault rather than a normal fault will result.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: synthesis
67.
ANS:
Both states could suffer earthquakes causing moderate to major damage.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
68.
ANS:
north to south
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
69.
ANS:
You should live in the eastern part of the state, which has a minor risk. The western part of the state
has a greater, or moderate, risk.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: evaluation
70.
ANS:
The map shows the risk of damage from earthquakes. Geologists determine earthquake risk by
locating where faults are active and where past earthquakes have occurred.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
71.
ANS:
the southern part, including Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
72.
ANS:
No damage is likely to occur in the central part of the state. The northern part may suffer minor
damage, and a portion of the southwestern part may suffer moderate damage.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.1 Explain how geologists determine earthquake risk.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
ESSAY
73.
ANS:
In both types of faults, movement of the crust occurs at an angle along a break called a fault. A
normal fault results from tension, which causes the block of rock above the fault, called the hanging
wall, to slip downward. A reverse fault results from compression, which causes the hanging wall to
slide upward.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.2 Describe where faults are usually found and why they form.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: analysis
74.
ANS:
A plateau is a large, flat area of land elevated high above the surrounding land. Some plateaus form
when flat blocks of rock get pushed up by vertical faults.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.1.3 Identify the land features that result from plate movement.
STA: S 6.1.e
BLM: comprehension
75.
ANS:
The focus is the point beneath Earth’s surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an
earthquake. The epicenter is the point on the surface directly above the earthquake’s focus.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth. | CaES.5.2.3
Explain how scientists locate the epicenter of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
76.
ANS:
P waves compress and expand the ground they travel through, whereas S waves thrust the ground
from side to side and up and down. S waves are not as fast as P waves, and they cannot travel
through liquids as P waves can.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.1 Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels through Earth.
STA: S 6.1.d | S 6.1.g
BLM: analysis
77.
ANS:
The moment magnitude scale is a rating system that is used to estimate the total energy released by an
earthquake. Geologists rate earthquakes on the scale based on seismic wave data recorded by modern
electronic seismographs. The higher the magnitude of an earthquake on the scale, the more energy
released by the earthquake and the greater the destruction produced.
PTS:
1
DIF:
L2
OBJ: CaES.5.2.2 Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension
78.
ANS:
The Global Positioning System, or GPS, consists of a network of satellites that can be used to locate
points on Earth’s surface with great precision. This satellite network allows scientists to measure tiny
movements of receivers placed on the ground on opposite sides of a fault. GPS satellites can be used
to detect horizontal movements along a fault as well as vertical movements, like changes in elevation
or tilting.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.3.2 Describe how geologists monitor faults.
STA: S 6.1
BLM: synthesis
79.
ANS:
The house built on soil will likely experience more earthquake damage. The energy transmitted by
seismic waves to the ground causes loose soil to shake more violently than rock. As a result, a house
built on soil will shake more than one built on rock.
PTS: 1
DIF: L3
OBJ: CaES.5.4.2 Identify the kinds of damage an earthquake can cause.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: evaluation
80.
ANS:
Base-isolated buildings rest on shock-absorbing pads or springs. During an earthquake, these pads
or springs move back and forth gently rather than shaking violently, reducing the risk of damage.
PTS: 1
DIF: L2
OBJ: CaES.5.4.3 Provide suggestions to increase earthquake safety and reduce earthquake
damage.
STA: S 6.1.g
BLM: comprehension

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