Module 15: Network Structures A Distributed System

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Module 15: Network Structures
■ Background
■ Topology
■ Network Types
■ Communication
■ Communication Protocol
■ Robustness
■ Design Strategies
Operating System Concepts
15.1
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
A Distributed System
Operating System Concepts
15.2
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Motivation
■ Resource sharing
✦ sharing and printing files at remote sites
✦ processing information in a distributed database
✦ using remote specialized hardware devices
■ Computation speedup – load sharing
■ Reliability – detect and recover from site failure, function
transfer, reintegrate failed site
■ Communication – message passing
Operating System Concepts
15.3
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Network-Operating Systems
■ Users are aware of multiplicity of machines. Access to
resources of various machines is done explicitly by:
✦ Remote logging into the appropriate remote machine.
✦ Transferring data from remote machines to local machines,
via the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) mechanism.
Operating System Concepts
15.4
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Distributed-Operating Systems
■ Users not aware of multiplicity of machines. Access to
remote resources similar to access to local resources.
■ Data Migration – transfer data by transferring entire file,
or transferring only those portions of the file necessary for
the immediate task.
■ Computation Migration – transfer the computation, rather
than the data, across the system.
Operating System Concepts
15.5
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Distributed-Operating Systems (Cont.)
■ Process Migration – execute an entire process, or parts of
it, at different sites.
✦ Load balancing – distribute processes across network to
even the workload.
✦ Computation speedup – subprocesses can run concurrently
on different sites.
✦ Hardware preference – process execution may require
specialized processor.
✦ Software preference – required software may be available
at only a particular site.
✦ Data access – run process remotely, rather than transfer all
data locally.
Operating System Concepts
15.6
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Topology
■ Sites in the system can be physically connected in a
variety of ways; they are compared with respect to the
following criteria:
✦ Basic cost. How expensive is it to link the various sites in
the system?
✦ Communication cost. How long does it take to send a
message from site A to site B?
✦ Reliability. If a link or a site in the system fails, can the
remaining sites still communicate with each other?
■ The various topologies are depicted as graphs whose
nodes correspond to sites. An edge from node A to node
B corresponds to a direct connection between the two
sites.
■ The following six items depict various network topologies.
Operating System Concepts
15.7
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Network Topology
Operating System Concepts
15.8
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Network Types
■ Local-Area Network (LAN) – designed to cover small
geographical area.
✦ Multiaccess bus, ring, or star network.
✦ Speed ≈ 10 megabits/second, or higher.
✦ Broadcast is fast and cheap.
✦ Nodes:
✔ usually workstations and/or personal computers
✔ a few (usually one or two) mainframes.
Operating System Concepts
15.9
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Network Types (Cont.)
■ Depiction of typical LAN:
Operating System Concepts
15.10
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Network Types (Cont.)
■ Wide-Area Network (WAN) – links geographically
separated sites.
✦ Point-to-point connections over long-haul lines (often leased
from a phone company).
✦ Speed ≈ 100 kilobits/second.
✦ Broadcast usually requires multiple messages.
✦ Nodes:
✔ usually a high percentage of mainframes
Operating System Concepts
15.11
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Communication Processors in a Wide-Area Network
Operating System Concepts
15.12
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Communication
The design of a communication network must address four basic
issues:
■ Naming and name resolution: How do two processes
locate each other to communicate?
■ Routing strategies. How are messages sent through
the network?
■ Connection strategies. How do two processes send a
sequence of messages?
■ Contention. The network is a shared resource, so how
do we resolve conflicting demands for its use?
Operating System Concepts
15.13
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Naming and Name Resolution
■ Name systems in the network
■ Address messages with the process-id.
■ Identify processes on remote systems by
<host-name, identifier> pair.
■ Domain name service (DNS) – specifies the naming
structure of the hosts, as well as name to address
resolution (Internet).
Operating System Concepts
15.14
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Routing Strategies
■ Fixed routing. A path from A to B is specified in
advance; path changes only if a hardware failure disables
it.
✦ Since the shortest path is usually chosen, communication
costs are minimized.
✦ Fixed routing cannot adapt to load changes.
✦ Ensures that messages will be delivered in the order in
which they were sent.
■ Virtual circuit. A path from A to B is fixed for the
duration of one session. Different sessions involving
messages from A to B may have different paths.
✦ Partial remedy to adapting to load changes.
✦ Ensures that messages will be delivered in the order in
which they were sent.
Operating System Concepts
15.15
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Routing Strategies (Cont.)
■ Dynamic routing. The path used to send a message
form site A to site B is chosen only when a message is
sent.
✦ Usually a site sends a message to another site on the link
least used at that particular time.
✦ Adapts to load changes by avoiding routing messages on
heavily used path.
✦ Messages may arrive out of order. This problem can be
remedied by appending a sequence number to each
message.
Operating System Concepts
15.16
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Connection Strategies
■ Circuit switching. A permanent physical link is
established for the duration of the communication (i.e.,
telephone system).
■ Message switching. A temporary link is established for
the duration of one message transfer (i.e., post-office
mailing system).
■ Packet switching. Messages of variable length are
divided into fixed-length packets which are sent to the
destination. Each packet may take a different path
through the network. The packets must be reassembled
into messages as they arrive.
■ Circuit switching requires setup time, but incurs less
overhead for shipping each message, and may waste
network bandwidth. Message and packet switching
require less setup time, but incur more overhead per
message.
Operating System Concepts
15.17
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Contention
Several sites may want to transmit information over a link
simultaneously. Techniques to avoid repeated collisions include:
■ CSMA/CD. Carrier sense with multiple access (CSMA);
collision detection (CD)
✦ A site determines whether another message is currently
being transmitted over that link. If two or more sites begin
transmitting at exactly the same time, then they will register
a CD and will stop transmitting.
✦ When the system is very busy, many collisions may occur,
and thus performance may be degraded.
■ SCMA/CD is used successfully in the Ethernet system,
the most common network system.
Operating System Concepts
15.18
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Contention (Cont.)
■ Token passing. A unique message type, known as a
token, continuously circulates in the system (usually a
ring structure). A site that wants to transmit information
must wait until the token arrives. When the site
completes its round of message passing, it retransmits
the token. A token-passing scheme is used by the IBM
and Apollo systems.
■ Message slots. A number of fixed-length message slots
continuously circulate in the system (usually a ring
structure). Since a slot can contain only fixed-sized
messages, a single logical message may have to be
broken down into a number of smaller packets, each of
which is sent in a separate slot. This scheme has been
adopted in the experimental Cambridge Digital
Communication Ring
Operating System Concepts
15.19
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Communication Protocol
The communication network is partitioned into the following
multiple layers;
■ Physical layer – handles the mechanical and electrical
details of the physical transmission of a bit stream.
■ Data-link layer – handles the frames, or fixed-length parts
of packets, including any error detection and recovery
that occurred in the physical layer.
■ Network layer – provides connections and routes packets
in the communication network, including handling the
address of outgoing packets, decoding the address of
incoming packets, and maintaining routing information for
proper response to changing load levels.
Operating System Concepts
15.20
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Communication Protocol (Cont.)
■ Transport layer – responsible for low-level network
access and for message transfer between clients,
including partitioning messages into packets, maintaining
packet order, controlling flow, and generating physical
addresses.
■ Session layer – implements sessions, or process-toprocess communications protocols.
■ Presentation layer – resolves the differences in formats
among the various sites in the network, including
character conversions, and half duplex/full duplex
(echoing).
■ Application layer – interacts directly with the users’ deals
with file transfer, remote-login protocols and electronic
mail, as well as schemas for distributed databases.
Operating System Concepts
15.21
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Communication Via ISO Network Model
Operating System Concepts
15.22
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
The ISO Protocol Layer
Operating System Concepts
15.23
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
The ISO Network Message
Operating System Concepts
15.24
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
The TCP/IP Protocol Layers
Operating System Concepts
15.25
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
15.26
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Robustness
■ Failure detection
■ Reconfiguration
Operating System Concepts
Failure Detection
■ Detecting hardware failure is difficult.
■ To detect a link failure, a handshaking protocol can be
■
■
■
■
used.
Assume Site A and Site B have established a link. At
fixed intervals, each site will exchange an I-am-up
message indicating that they are up and running.
If Site A does not receive a message within the fixed
interval, it assumes either (a) the other site is not up or (b)
the message was lost.
Site A can now send an Are-you-up? message to Site B.
If Site A does not receive a reply, it can repeat the
message or try an alternate route to Site B.
Operating System Concepts
15.27
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Failure Detection (cont)
■ If Site A does not ultimately receive a reply from Site B, it
concludes some type of failure has occurred.
■ Types of failures:
- Site B is down
- The direct link between A and B is down
- The alternate link from A to B is down
- The message has been lost
■ However, Site A cannot determine exactly why the failure
has occurred.
Operating System Concepts
15.28
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Reconfiguration
■ When Site A determines a failure has occurred, it must
reconfigure the system:
1. If the link from A to B has failed, this must be broadcast
to every site in the system.
2. If a site has failed, every other site must also be
notified indicating that the services offered by the failed
site are no longer available.
■ When the link or the site becomes available again, this
information must again be broadcast to all other sites.
Operating System Concepts
15.29
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Design Issues
■
Transparency – the distributed system should appear as
a conventional, centralized system to the user.
■ Fault tolerance – the distributed system should continue
to function in the face of failure.
■ Scalability – as demands increase, the system should
easily accept the addition of new resources to
accommodate the increased demand.
■ Clusters – a collection of semi-autonomous machines
that acts as a single system.
Operating System Concepts
15.30
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
Networking Example
■ The transmission of a network packet between hosts on
■
■
■
■
■
an Ethernet network.
Every host has a unique IP address and a corresponding
Ethernet (MAC) address.
Communication requires both addresses.
Domain Name Service (DNS) can be used to acquire IP
addresses.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to map MAC
addresses to IP addresses.
If the hosts are on the same network, ARP can be used. If
the hosts are on different networks, the sending host will
send the packet to a router which routes the packet to the
destination network.
Operating System Concepts
15.31
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002
An Ethernet Packet
Operating System Concepts
15.32
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002

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