Best Practices for General User
igital data are well-secured against malware thanks to firewall, and anti-virus
software. However, if a computer is stolen,
this kind of prevention will be useless. A
physical barrier has also to be created to protect the
resources of an organization. All levels of the network have to be protected in order to ensure the
best security. In fact, in the OSI layers, the first one
is the physical layer. In order to have an entirely
secured system, physical security has to be taken
Physical Security Threat
Several situations can constitute a threat to information system. Knowing them is the first step in
systems protection. These threats can be caused
accidentally, intentionally or by natural disasters.
Natural disasters can result in catastrophic losses.
Earthquake occurs without warning and can create
great damages, even worse than hurricanes. Personnel and equipment are both at risk. Flooding areas can also provoke casualties with long lasting
effects. Therefore the location choice of a data center is crucial.
Some environmental conditions can also damage
systems and, thereby, data incorporated. Inappropriate temperature and humidity can lead to interruption of services and data damage. For instance,
computer systems should normally be kept between 10 and 32 degrees Celsius1. High humidity
can provoke corrosion whereas too low humidity
can modify material shape and dwindle their performance. In fact, humidity should be maintained
between 40 and 60%. Moreover, fire is not a threat
only from the flame but also from heat, toxic fumes,
and water damage linked to fire extinguishers. Fi-
nally, dust can block equipment with moving parts,
as rotating storage media.
Electrical devices require uninterrupted utility voltage. In fact, if the voltage received is less important
than the required one, (under 20%) the system will
be interrupted and the computer will automatically
shut down. In the case of an overvoltage, the damage will depend on the intensity and the duration of
the surge of voltage. Some components can even be
destroyed. Logical errors can be created by noise
interference in the electronic device.
Electromagnetic interference can be caused by
noise but also by motors, fans or other computers.
Space, as well as power lines, can transmit these
interferences. Nearby commercial radio station and
microwave can also create interferences.
Human-caused threats are harder to manage because they are unpredictable, and are generally designed to pass through prevention measures. Unlike
logical threats, which refer to damage done to software and data and are handled by hackers, physical
threats can be achieved by people without any
computer sciences knowledge. Theft of equipment
and illegal copying of data can be realised by an intruder who gains unauthorized access or by an insider. Equipment can also be destructed as well as
data and resources can be misused.
Moreover, data can also be recovered from old devices. If hard drive is not correctly sanitized before
the sale of a computer, the purchaser can recover all
the data and gain access to them. According to a
student’s analysis of 158 disk drives purchased on
eBay2, 71% contained old data that could be recovered and read, and even if 36% had been formatted,
they still contained old data that could be recovered.
Only 9% were properly cleared. Thus, students easily got access to a log file containing credit card
numbers, an ATM financial log file, medical records,
and personal e-mails.
Student Information Exposure
Caused By Laptop Theft3
In 2005, a laptop was stolen from a “restricted
area” of the University of California Berkeley.
The man entered the area while it was unoccupied. This computer contained files with names
and Social Security number of over 98.000 students.
When a computer is accessed by someone else,
it is not only the device that has been lost but
also the valuable information that it contains.
Physical Security Prevention and
Physical Security represented a market of $48 billion in 2012 and should reach $125 billion by 20194.
To prevent the threats mentioned above, several
measures can be taken.
Technical Threats Prevention
In case of power fail, alternate power sources
should be available. Each critical room should be
protected by an Uninterruptible Power Supply
(UPS)5. It is a battery that will provide power to the
equipment for a short period. This additional time
should be used to shut down properly all servers in
order not to lose data or to switch to a generator,
which may take few minutes. In fact, when power
runs out, all data contained in the RAM will be
erased. For longer electrical issues, generators
should be employed. If it is often supplied with fuel,
the generator will be able to work indefinitely. Filters and shielding can prevent some electromagnetic interference.
Cloud computing will reduce the number of physical
systems and thus of physical access. All data stored
in the cloud will not be physically threatened.
Human Threats Prevention
In order to restrict access, several options are available. Restricting access to a building in which sensitive data are stocked will finally restrict access to
these data. Lockers are the cheapest and easiest
way to control access.
The choice of the site location is important to minimize likelihood of environmental threats. For instance, a data center should not be located on the
top floor (for fire consideration), in the basement
(for flooding consideration), in the core of a building (to provide protection from natural disasters or
bomb attacks) or close to a public area (for security
In order to prevent laptops and other portable
hardware (as hard drives) from being stolen, security cables will fix hardware to the wall or to desks.
Another option is to put a tracking device on movable resources to prevent it from being taken out of a
predefined area. Also recognizable laptop bags
should be avoided as well as using in public such
Temperature and humidity can be controlled thanks
to threshold warnings and air conditioner. The rate
of humidity can be monitored thanks to a hygrometer. Fire can be avoided thanks to automatic fire detectors and extinguishers but those not containing
Some simple precautions should also be applied to
ensure minimal security. Writing down the manufacturer name, model and serial number of a laptop
can help to find it more easily. A careless moment
even very short is enough to rob a small device.
Valuables should not be left in common areas or
If a drive needs to be sanitized, the best way to
guarantee it is to destroy it physically. However
some less invasive methods exist. For instant,
overwriting the drive’s data will lead to the impossibility of recovering them. Simply delete or erase
data will not remove them from the drive. Consumers need to be better educated to know how to
erase properly data stored on computer hard drive.
In order to ensure physical security, users have to
be aware. In fact, the foundation of security starts
with individuals. Basic behaviour has to be respected. Any suspicious act should be identified and reported; employees should know how to react in the
case of an incident, therefore comprehensive security awareness should be provided to employee. Sensitive physical documents and equipment should
not be easily detectable.
and will be more and more present in daily life. The
main challenge remains its high cost. Retinal
recognition analyses the layer of blood vessels at
the bottom of the eye. The process is 10 to 15
seconds long. To date, it remains mainly used for
high-risk security. However, as iris scanning, it is
promised to a bright future.
Fingerprint scanning is now widely used (even on
the iPhone). However, it remains vulnerable.
Thanks to gelatinous materials, fingerprints can
easily be copied. In order to prevent it,
manufacturers have added other components which
take also into account the vein structure.
Moreover, up-to-date list of personnel and their access right has to be provided to the security staff to
ensure that only authorised people can gain access.
Physical Access Control System
There are several factors to authenticate a person. It
can be done with something he knows as a
password, something he owns as a token,
something he is as finger print, something he does
as voice recognition. Combining these factors
increases security level.
Biometric refers to the analysis and measurement
of human body characteristics, thanks to
technological tools, in order to authenticate people6.
Generally, it consits of a reader or scanning device, a
software to convert the information in digital data
and to compare the matching points, and a database
to store the data for comparison.
Iris and retinal recognition is based on the eye
pattern. It is considered as being a secure form of
biometric authentication because it is harder to
duplicate. Iris recognition has a promising future
Figure 1: Fingerprint scanner7
Facial recognition is used both to authenticate and
to identify. In fact, it can even be used to find
someone in the crowd. It remains vulnerable since
covering his head with a hat or wearing sun glasses
is enough to disable the recognition as well as using
a picture of someone else face. Voice recognition as
face recognition can easily be reproduced thanks to
Speed, accuracy, user-friendliness, low-cost, public
counterfeiting and fast enrollment times are
characteristics to take into account before choosing
a biometric system.
Badges / RFID
RFID badge contains the site code and the badge ID.
Its operation is simple, employees have just to
swipe their card in close proximity to a scanner9.
Thanks to that, it is possible to determine the
identity and passing time at a precise location of
each user. However, RFID has some drawbacks.
Badges are easily cloned, and RFID is vulnerable to
brute force attack. In fact, unlike smart applications
which are able to lock out if too many failed attempt
have been done, RFID system will let user try billion
of times and as badge ID numbers are generally
incremental the system will be easily cracked.
Compared to key, the main advantage is that a card
can be disabled and thus, may deny access to
premises a day after the end of an employee
With the use of RFID the human part is being lost
and unfortunately, scanner does not determine if
the one using the card matches with the owner of
Facial Recognition in
San Francisco University8
On campus, students generally move together and only
one person provides his badge for the entire group access. This creates a lack of security. In order to control
dormitory access, the University of San Francisco was
looking for a passive and non-intrusive way to check
people identity. They finally choose the iOmniscient’s
face recognition system. This system can check many
faces at the same time and thus remains operational
even during peak hours. Thanks to this system, visitors
can be identified by attendant for proper check-in.
A key fob is a key with an integrated control access
to network services and information. This token is a
two factor identification because it needs a token
(the key) but also a pin known only by the owner.
As it is an object, the owner will notice wether it has
been stolen, whereas, people generally ignore
wether their password has been stolen.
Figure 2: key fobs10
Video surveillance has been existing for a long time
but it becomes really sophisticated. Facial
recognition can even be integrated. Camera
definition and quality are constantly improving. The
main limitation is due to bandwidth. It remain the
largest market of physical security with 72% in
2012 and keeping growing11.
Video monitoring systems are especially helpful in
checking incident and historical analysis. To be used
as a real time identification tool, a human has to be
monitoring the screen all the time, otherwise
security camera will remain confined to a role of
Physical security is essential to improve security
and is as important as data security. It would be a
significant error to underestimate the importance of
its implementation. Access should be physically limited only to authorised people. Moreover, education
remains the key to avoid security threats. As each
university has different needs and budget, each security protocol will be unique. Measures taken
should depend on the operating environment.
To use it, the user enters his pin and as a response,
the token delivers a number to log onto the
“Google books: cyber Security and IT Infrastructure Protection by J. R. Vacca” 2013 Web. 29 July 2015
“Remembrance of Data Passed: A Study of Disk Sanitization Practices” S. L. Garfinkel and A. Shelat 2003 pdf.
“UC Berkeley police investigating theft of laptop containing grad student ID data” March 2005 Web. 31 July 2015
“Uninterruptible Power Supply” April 2015 Web. 30 July2015
“Physical Security Market is Expected to Reach USD 125 Billion Globally in 2019” 30 July 2015
“Physical Security: A Biometric Approach” SANS Institute Reading Room site 2003 pdf.
“Fingerprint scanner” November 2013 Web. 31 July 2015
“iOmniscient’s Facial Recognition system deployed at the University of San Francisco to enhance security and safety
of residence halls” September 2013 Web. 30 July 2015
9. “The 8 most significant ways physical security has evolved” January 2014 Web. 29 July 2015
10. “Crypto card two factors” October 2013 Web. 31 July 2015
11. “Physical Security to mitigate Social Engineering Risks”
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