Psych 1 Test 3

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Name: ______________________
Class: _________________
Date: _________
ID: A
Psych 1 Test 3
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____
1. How does motivation offer a survival advantage?
a) It dictates the formation of social bonds.
b) It stimulates competition and ingenuity.
c) It fosters ambition and perseverance.
d) It prevents the waste of precious energy resources.
____
2. Why are animals motivated to explore their environments?
a) To find potential mates and pass on their genes
b) To act more effectively when the need arises
c) To boost overall brain function through curiosity
d) To avoid confrontation by ensuring that the territory is unmarked
____
3. Sally loves to run, and works jogging into her daily schedule because of the “runner’s high” she
experiences. Sally is motivated by a(n) ____ reward.
a) top-down
c) extrinsic
b) bottom-up
d) intrinsic
____
4. Achievement is usually defined as ____.
a) the need to reach a level of self-perfection
b) a desire to excel or outperform others
c) the fulfillment of culturally dictated goals
d) meeting the needs of those we seek to please
____
5. Whose career path displays characteristics consistent with high levels of achievement motivation?
a) Desmond, who takes over as the CEO of a fledgling company as a fair boss but one
who enforces strict adherence to his guidelines
b) Sabina, who graduates at the top of her medical school class and chooses to do a
residency in neurology, a challenging field with few therapeutic options for patients
c) Mateo, who is a state senator and works tirelessly trying to get his constituents to
sign off on bills that will support his district
d) Donna, who is a dedicated scientist, and puts her heart and soul into her research
knowing that her experiments are just as likely to fail as they are to succeed
____
6. Compared with other species, why are social connections especially important for the survival of human
beings?
a) Human beings typically lose the drive to survive during times of prolonged isolation.
b) Human beings require the greatest amount of parenting to survive to adulthood.
c) Human beings have a set point for social activity and need external connections to
monitor the balance.
d) Human beings suffer both psychological and physical damage from isolation, whereas
most other species are unaffected by it.
1
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____
7. What evidence illustrates that the need for affiliation has a genetic component?
a) Adoption studies show that siblings raised in different environments show similar
patterns of social activity.
b) Our set point for needing affiliation correlates with cortical thickness.
c) People who are low in their need for affiliation are more likely to have genetic
5-HTTLPR polymorphism.
d) Twin studies show that set points for the need for affiliation are influenced by
genetics.
____
8. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, ____ (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908).
a) the ideal amount of arousal interacts with the complexity of a task
b) performance and arousal function independently
c) heightened arousal leads to heightened performance on complex tasks
d) dampened arousal disinhibits instinctive behaviors
____
9. Consider the case of Eliot (Damasio, 1994), who had frontal lobe surgery to remove a tumor. What did
we learn with regard to the brain’s use of emotional information?
a) Emotions act as the gateway for social intelligence by establish limits for and patterns
of appropriate behaviors that promote survival.
b) Emotions regulate higher order cognition by allowing the mind to integrate concrete
knowledge with abstract reasoning.
c) Emotions set the stage for forming strong connections with other individuals and
establishing long lasting bonds.
d) Emotions provide a bridge to past experiences that can be used to set priorities such
as approach and avoidance.
____ 10. The emotional quality of pain likely results from information processing at which level of the brain?
a) basal ganglia
c) cingulate cortex
b) amygdala
d) insula
____ 11. Which process below is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience?
a) learning
c) reflex
b) fixed action pattern
d) variable action pattern
____ 12. Why does associative learning provide an enormous survival advantage?
a) Organisms are able to instinctively and rapidly respond to threats.
b) Organisms can comprehend the complex relationship between environment and
habitant.
c) Organisms can predict the future and thus are given time to prepare for future events.
d) Organisms can change their behaviors and the unpredictably protects them from
natural enemies.
____ 13. An environmental cue or event whose significance is learned through classical conditioning is referred to
as a(n) ____.
a) unconditioned stimulus
c) characteristic stimuli
b) conditioned stimulus
d) uncharacteristic stimuli
2
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 14. Dr. Graham exposes rats to a vanilla scent prior to receiving a food pellet in the left corner of their cage,
but provides no food after exposure to a lemon scent. After several trials, upon smelling a vanilla scent,
the rats wait at the far left corner of the cage regardless of whether a food pellet is present. However,
they do not wait in the far left corner when exposed to the lemon scent. What is the unconditioned
stimulus in the experiment?
a) vanilla scent
c) left corner of cage
b) food pellet
d) lemon scent
____ 15. As Ronnie hears a song on the radio, she feels stressed: her heart races, her hands became clammy, and
her breathing became rapid. The song is familiar because it was very popular at a time when her parents
were going through a divorce. During this time, they fought bitterly with one another, causing Ronnie
intense anxiety. In this scenario, identify the following in the same respective order: the conditioned
stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response, and the unconditioned response.
a) parents fighting; song; anxiety towards parents fighting; anxiety towards song
b) parents fighting; anxiety towards parents fighting; song; anxiety towards song
c) song; parents fighting; anxiety towards song; anxiety towards parents fighting
d) song; anxiety towards song; parents fighting; anxiety towards parents fighting
____ 16. The development of a learned response is called ____.
a) generalization
c) habituation
b) higher order conditioning
d) acquisition
____ 17. When a conditioned stimulus can predict the nonoccurrence of an unconditioned stimulus, this is referred
to as ____.
a) extinction
c) latent inhibition
b) inhibition
d) discrimination
____ 18. When Roxie the dog was a puppy, she would jump excitedly on anyone who entered the house; receiving
praise for her actions. Now that Roxie weighs 65 pounds, Roxie’s owner has asked everyone who enters
the house to ignore the dog until she settles down. This scenario illustrates the use of ____.
a) latent inhibition
c) extinction
b) discrimination
d) generalization
____ 19. The tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to an original conditioned stimulus is called ____.
a) generalization
c) aggregation
b) sensitization
d) habituation
____ 20. The learned ability to distinguish between stimuli is referred to as ____.
a) delectability
c) desensitization
b) differentiation
d) discrimination
____ 21. According to Rescorla and Wagner, the association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned
stimulus is strongest when the association is ____.
a) consistent
c) familiar
b) surprising
d) variable
____ 22. A modified cage containing levers or buttons that
investigate operant conditioning is referred to as
a) puzzle box
c)
b) sequential conditioning chamber
d)
3
can be pressed or pecked by animals and is used to
a ____.
Skinner box
pigeon chamber
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 23. Compared with classical conditioning, the role of the learner for operant conditioning is ____.
a) more active
c) more passive
b) less affected by incentives
d) less productive
____ 24. Nick wants to encourage his six-year-old daughter, Anna, to help with family chores. He makes an
outline of a rainbow with seven bands so that Anna can color in a band each time she does a chore. If she
does seven chores in a week, coloring in the full rainbow, she gets one dollar. Nick’s technique
demonstrates which methods?
a) habituation, positive punishment, and a fixed interval schedule
b) shaping, negative reinforcement, and a variable interval schedule
c) chaining, negative punishment, and a variable ratio schedule
d) a token economy, positive reinforcement, and a fixed ratio schedule
____ 25. Marcus, who runs a software development company, repeatedly thanks his administrative assistant,
Shana, for her hard work. Lately however, Marcus neglects to acknowledge the accomplishments of
Shana; leading to her dwindling performance. What likely contributed to Shana’s performance problems?
a) negative reinforcement
c) negative punishment
b) latent inhibition
d) extinction
____ 26. Lucia, who experiences extreme anxiety when taking an exam, practices meditation breathing to reduce
her anxiety prior to taking a test. Her meditation breathing is an example of a ____.
a) negative punishment
c) positive punishment
b) negative reinforcer
d) positive reinforcer
____ 27. Three conditions must be met for punishment to have any observable effects on behavior: ____.
a) application, explanation, and reinforcement
b) selection, focus, and severity
c) significance, immediacy, and consistency
d) quality, quantity, and relevance
____ 28. What type of partial reinforcement depends on the number of times a behavior occurs?
a) ratio
c) continuous
b) variable
d) interval
____ 29. What delays the process of extinction?
a) continuous reinforcement
b) partial reinforcement
c) inhibitory reinforcement
d) arbitrary reinforcement
____ 30. What is an effective method for teaching a new behavior that involves balancing too much versus too
little reinforcement?
a) chaining
c) molding
b) shaping
d) imprinting
____ 31. Allan and Bob are debating the true meaning of the term memory. How does your textbook define this
process?
a) The acquisition of knowledge through experience
b) The ability to detect and learn from environmental stimuli
c) The ability to retain knowledge
d) The acquisition and retention of sensory information
4
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 32. The information processing continuum flows both from the bottom up and the top down. What is the
correct order of steps in this process, starting from the bottom up?
a) cognition, memory, learning, perception, sensation, attention
b) attention, sensation, perception, learning, memory, cognition
c) attention, perception, sensation, cognition, memory, learning
d) cognition, learning, memory, attention, sensation, perception
____ 33. From the bottom up, the gateway to information processing is attention, which prioritizes ____.
a) encoding, storage, and retrieval
b) thinking, problem solving, and language
c) sensory adaptation, survival, and consistency
d) unfamiliar, changing, or high-intensity stimuli
____ 34. What is the correct ordering of the processes of memory?
a) storage, encoding, and retrieval
c) encoding, storage, and retrieval
b) retrieval, storage, and encoding
d) encoding, retrieval, and storage
____ 35. Jenna tickles her five-year old son. This sensory input is first translated into ____.
a) echoic memory
c) iconic memory
b) acoustic code
d) haptic code
____ 36. The second stage of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model holds a small amount of information for a limited time.
This is called ____.
a) sensory memory
c) working memory
b) short-term memory
d) iconic memory
____ 37. Stephen has just finished composing his first poem, entitled Clouded Memories, for his poetry slam class.
He is slated to recite the first ten lines during class tonight, and repeats them over and over to himself as
he is walking there. This is called ____.
a) rehearsal
c) chunking
b) a mnemonic device
d) consolidation
____ 38. Will is ten years old and preparing for a spelling contest. He is starting to memorize the spelling of the
word antidisestablishmentarianism. He realizes that he can group the letters into anti, dis, establish, and
so forth. This process is called ____.
a) rehearsal
c) consolidation
b) chunking
d) encoding
____ 39. The four components of working memory proposed by Baddeley et al. are called the central executive,
the episodic buffer, the visuospatial sketch pad, and the ____.
a) phonological loop
c) semantic loop
b) schematic loop
d) maintenance loop
____ 40. As Harry walks out of the supermarket, he sees his parked car get hit by another car. He tries to
memorize the make, model, and license plate number of the other car. According to Baddeley’s model,
he is using the ____.
a) central executive
c) episodic buffer
b) visuospatial sketch pad
d) phonological loop
5
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 41. The final stage of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model refers to the location of permanent memories. This is
called ____.
a) maintenance memory
c) long-term memory
b) procedural memory
d) working memory
____ 42. According to the levels of processing theory, the depth (shallow to deep) of processing ____.
a) enhances long-term memory capacity
b) predicts the duration of information in long-term memory
c) predicts the ease of retrieval
d) exemplifies the power of maintenance rehearsal
____ 43. According to the levels of processing theory, who will be able to remember the most definitions of the
vocabulary words in a given chapter?
a) James, who reads through each term and its definition
b) Pat, who takes turns with her roommate defining and explaining each term
c) Phil, who memorizes the definitions by chunking
d) Renee, who repeats each term and its definition multiple times out loud
____ 44. Declarative memories are consciously retrieved memories that are easy to verbalize and include ____.
a) semantic, episodic, and autobiographical information
b) explicit and implicit memories
c) semantic, procedural, and autobiographical memories
d) non-declarative and implicit aspects
____ 45. Jen and Ed first met while sitting in adjacent seats in the psychology lecture hall. Three years later they
were married. What role does autobiographical memory play in this type of scenario?
a) It reduces reaction time to respond to predators.
b) It changes our response to a stimulus after pre-exposure to related stimuli.
c) It provides general knowledge about the world.
d) It helps us build social bonds with others throughout the lifespan.
____ 46. The spreading activation model proposes that people organize general knowledge based on ____.
a) individual experiences
c) semantic similarities
b) predetermined hierarchies
d) cultural norms
____ 47. Which of the following is one of the most important schemas we have for organizing and remembering
what we study?
a) hierarchies from most important to least important
b) the self
c) alphabetization
d) categorization by purpose and properties
____ 48. Ron is about to leave his apartment. His keys are not where he usually tries to leaves them – on his
bureau. He starts to retrace his steps from the night before and realizes that he should look in the
bathroom, as this was his first stop upon arrival. This reflects the process of ____.
a) reconstruction
c) flashbulb memory
b) encoding specificity
d) decay
6
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 49. State-dependent memory means that a person has better recall of material that is learned ____.
a) in a similar physical environment or body position
b) in a similar location
c) in a similar physiological state or mood
d) at a similar time of day
____ 50. Former members of a Girl Scout troop have gotten back in touch on Facebook. Verda reminds the others
of their camping trip, where it rained for three days. Others share their memories of that weekend as
well. What is most likely to happen to Verda’s memories?
a) They remain essentially the same.
b) They are stored in a separate section of long-term memory from the memories of
others.
c) They are over-written by the memories shared by others.
d) They interact with others’ memories and are re-encoded as new long-term memories.
____ 51. In a study by Loftus and Palmer, participants viewed a short video of an automobile accident. One group
was asked “About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” A second group was asked
“About how fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?” One week later, both groups were
asked if they recalled seeing glass on the road after the accident (there was no glass on the road in the
video). Which of the following statements is true?
a) There was no difference in responses among those that heard smashed, those that
heard hit, and the control group.
b) Those that heard smashed were almost three times more likely than those that heard
hit to report seeing glass.
c) Those that heard smashed were about as likely as the control group to report seeing
glass.
d) Those that heard hit were almost three times more likely than those that heard
smashed to report seeing glass.
____ 52. Brian cannot remember whether he told his parents that he would be bringing his three roommates over
for dinner on Sunday, or if he had just reminded himself to tell them. Which of the following statements
best describes processing in this type of scenario?
a) False memories regarding external sources account for the discrepancy.
b) False memories regarding internal sources account for the discrepancy.
c) Source monitoring can serve as a checkpoint.
d) We are largely unable to distinguish between internal and external sources of
information.
____ 53. Extremes in memory retrieval, such as the complete failure to recall an emotional event or an intrusive,
overly vivid amount of recall, start to occur when an event ____.
a) involves a family member
b) has been encoded during severe levels of depression
c) has been encoded during unusually high levels of stress
d) triggers the release of high levels of serotonin
____ 54. Kevin is legally required to send a quarterly check to his former wife, whom he divorced twenty years
ago. It annoys him greatly and he finds he often forgets until several days after the due date. This is
likely an example of ____.
a) retroactive interference
c) repressed memory
b) suppressed memory
d) motivated forgetting
7
Name: ______________________
ID: A
____ 55. Henry must study for three finals and write a term paper in six days. He has decided to devote 15 hours
of preparation time to his History of Modern China exam. What would be the best allocation of his time?
a) Study throughout the night before the exam for 15 hours.
b) Study three hours a day for five days.
c) Study the two days before the exam, about eight hours a day.
d) Study 15 hours during the day before the exam.
____ 56. What is the basis for the effectiveness of the method of loci?
a) The method provides mnemonics to store memories.
b) Explaining material to someone else points out our gaps in understanding.
c) We form excellent representations of visual images in memory.
d) Distributing practice over time consolidates memories.
8
ID: A
Psych 1 Test 3
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS:
REF:
2. ANS:
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3. ANS:
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4. ANS:
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13. ANS:
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16. ANS:
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17. ANS:
OBJ:
18. ANS:
OBJ:
19. ANS:
OBJ:
20. ANS:
OBJ:
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
LO5
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
LO5
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO5
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
How Do Animals Use Reflexes, Instincts, and Learning
LO1
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
What Are the Three Main Types of Learning?
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO2
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
LO2
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
LO2
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO3
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO3
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
LO3
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO3
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
LO3
1
OBJ: LO1
OBJ: LO1
OBJ: LO1
OBJ: LO4
OBJ: LO4
OBJ: LO4
OBJ: LO4
REF: Why Are We Emotional?
REF: Why Are We Emotional?
REF: Why Are We Emotional?
to Respond to the Environment?
OBJ: LO2
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
ID: A
21. ANS:
OBJ:
22. ANS:
OBJ:
23. ANS:
OBJ:
24. ANS:
OBJ:
25. ANS:
OBJ:
26. ANS:
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42. ANS:
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43. ANS:
REF:
B
LO3
C
LO4
A
LO4
D
LO4
D
LO5
B
LO5
C
LO5
A
LO5
B
LO5
B
LO5
C
What
B
What
D
What
C
What
D
What
B
What
A
What
B
What
A
What
B
What
C
What
C
What
B
What
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
REF: What Is Classical Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand
REF: What Is Operant Conditioning?
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
PTS: 1
Are the Advantages
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
DIF:
of Memory?
2
Understand
OBJ: LO1
Analyze
OBJ: LO1
Understand
OBJ: LO1
Understand
OBJ: LO2
Apply
OBJ: LO3
Remember
OBJ: LO3
Apply
OBJ: LO3
Apply
OBJ: LO3
Remember
OBJ: LO3
Apply
OBJ: LO3
Remember
OBJ: LO3
Remember
OBJ: LO3
Apply
OBJ: LO3
ID: A
44. ANS:
REF:
OBJ:
45. ANS:
REF:
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46. ANS:
REF:
47. ANS:
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48. ANS:
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OBJ:
52. ANS:
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53. ANS:
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54. ANS:
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55. ANS:
56. ANS:
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
What Are the Different Types of Long-Term Memory?
LO4
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
What Are the Different Types of Long-Term Memory?
LO4
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
How is Long-Term Memory Organized?
OBJ:
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
How is Long-Term Memory Organized?
OBJ:
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
REF:
LO6
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Remember
REF:
LO6
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand REF:
LO6
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Analyze
REF:
LO6
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand REF:
LO6
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand REF:
LO6
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
REF:
LO7
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Apply
REF:
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Understand REF:
3
LO5
LO5
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
How Do We Retrieve Memories?
Why Do We Forget?
How Can We Improve Memory?
How Can We Improve Memory?
Psych 1 Test 3 [Answer Strip]
D
_____
7.
ID: A
B
_____14.
A
_____23.
B
_____32.
C
_____41.
D
_____24.
C
_____42.
D
_____
1.
A
_____
8.
D
_____33.
C
_____15.
B
_____43.
B
_____
2.
D
_____25.
C
_____34.
D
_____
9.
D
_____
3.
D
_____16.
D
_____35.
B
_____36.
B
_____17.
B
_____
4.
A
_____44.
B
_____26.
C
_____27.
C
_____10.
A
_____28.
A
_____11.
C
_____12.
A
_____37.
C
_____18.
A
_____
5.
D
_____45.
A
_____19.
B
_____38.
A
_____46.
B
_____29.
B
_____47.
D
_____20.
B
_____
6.
A
_____39.
B
_____30.
B
_____21.
B
_____13.
B
_____40.
C
_____31.
C
_____22.
B
_____48.
Psych 1 Test 3 [Answer Strip]
C
_____49.
D
_____50.
B
_____51.
C
_____52.
C
_____53.
D
_____54.
B
_____55.
C
_____56.
ID: A
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