Silk Roads Sites in Uzbekistan

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Silk Roads Sites in Uzbekistan
Ouzbékistan
Date de soumission : 19/02/2010
Critères: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)
Catégorie : Culturel
Soumis par :
Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Ref.: 5500
Description
No.
Name of property
State, Province or
Region
1
Ancient Termiz
Surkhandarya
500
Region,
Termiz ha
District
2
Historic
Qoqon
3
Kanka
Tashkent
Region, 220
Akkurgan District
ha
41º12' N; 68º59' E
4
Shahruhiya
Shahruhiya
400
ha
41º14' N; 68º52' E
5
Ahsiket
Namangan Region
25
ha
40º88'N; 71º 45' E
6
Pap
Namangan Region
9 ha
40º50'N; 71º02'E
7
Andijon
Andijon Region
100
ha
40º45' N; 72º15'E
8
Poykent
Bukhara Region
14
ha
39º30' N; 63º50' E
9
Varakhsha
Bukhara Region
5,1 ha 39º52' N; 64º03' E
10
Vobkent Minaret
Bukhara Region
100
sq.m
40º04' N; 64º30' E
11
Chashma-Ayub
Mausoleum
Bukhara Region
400
sq.m
40º15' N; 64º30' E
12
Chor-Bakr
Bukhara Region
17
ha
38º40' N, 63º10' E
13
Bahoutdin Complex
Bukhara Region
25
ha
39º45' N; 64º15' E
14
Raboti Malik
Navoi Region
42,3
ha
40º21' N; 65º15' E
15
Mir-Sayid Bakhrom Navoi Region
Mausoleum
Center
Area
(ha)
of Ferghana Region
Geographic (lat/long) or
UTM Coordinates of
approximate centre
point
67º11'34" N, 37º15'52"E
40º35''N; 71º E
36º53' N; 67º15' E
16
Qosim Sheikh
Navoi
Region, 36,3
Karmana District
ha
40º15'N; 65º20' E
17
Sheikh Mukhtor-Vali
Khorezm Region
39º35'N; 66º45' E
18
Khazarasp
Khorezm
Region, 25 ha 41º18'N; 61º04' E
Khazarasp District
6 ha
1. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Ancient Termiz
Brief description of the component property:
Ancient Termiz includes Qoratepa, Fayaztepa, Zurmala Mortar, Qirq-Qiz, Khakim at-Termiziy, Sultan-Saodat,
Kokildor Khonaqo, Djarqurgan Minaret and Kampirtepa. Old Termiz is located in 5 km to the northwest from Termiz,
on the right branch of Amudarya River. A total area is 500 hectares consists of four parts, a citadel - Kala, two
shakhristans (city) and rabad - the suburb, divided by the fortifications. Capacity of the cultural layers from 2 till 19 m
on the citadel. It has arisen in IV - III centuries B.C. The city settlement is formed by the fortress, probably known as
Demetriya in III - II centuries B.C. In Kushan period, the large administrative and ideological center of the Northern
Bactria was the city of Tarmit with the several Buddhist monasteries - Fayaztepa and Qoratepa. Special blossoming
has reached at the IX - X centuries - beginning of XIII century, being the largest trade center-craft of the Northern
Toharistan. Mongols destroyed the city in 1220. Partially grows roots in the XVI - XVII centuries. Archeological
excavations discovered Buddhist monasteries, palace of Termiz shahs, mosque, buildings of metalworker and
potters, walls, economic-inhabited complexes. Necropolis Sultan-Saodat, Kokildor Khonaqo, complex of Qirq-Qiz, the
mausoleum Al-Khakim at-Termiziy, Zurmal Mortar, Djarqurgan Minaret, Oq-Ostona Bobo, Kampirtepa are located in
the territory of the ancient Termiz.
UNESCO is associated with 2500th anniversary of foundation of the Termiz city in 2001.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property [see Paragraphs 78-95 of the
Operational Guidelines]:
Numerous monuments and their preserved remains testify that Termiz is the coeval with cities of Akhemenid Iran, the
Ancient Greece and Rome. The antique name of the city is Demetreya. Earlier medieval and medieval age
monuments until XIX century A.D. show dynamics of the historical development of Termiz during almost 3 millennia.
Moreover, the most ancient monuments of Termiz are in the stage of studying, and discovered parts have preserved
its authenticity. Considering these circumstances, ancient Termiz should be included in the unique objects of culture.
Ancient Termez, which came down to us with its archaeological and architectural monuments, located in the area of
500 ha, generally, meets the requirements for integrity. Each of its constituent parts preserved its initial structure of
planning; its constructions preserved their initial architectural appearance. Although, the majority of ancient
monuments, which are the examples of adobe architecture, are in a ruined condition, there are some documentary
evidences, which could serve as a reference points in their restoration.
Buddhist Temple Complex of Kara Tepe
Located on three hills, the Buddhist Temple with its constituent parts and architecture is identified with cave Buddhist
monasteries. In the stone rock of the hill prayerrooms were cut with typical cells for monks. Above-ground part also
has a place of ritual character, organized around courtyard and shaded with sheds and and having with stupas.
Buddhist Temple Complex of Fayaz Tepe
The complex in terms of architectural form and decorative finish, with its items, found during archaeological
excavations (sculptures, utensils), is identified with the Buddhist temple facilities of sangarama type. The plan of the
walls and a detached shrine - stupa, are in a good condition. Ruined parts of the complex were conserved. The
monument serves as a museum and is open for tourist visits.
Zurmala Buddhist Stupa
The monument, according to the form and archaeological remains, found in the surrounding area, was identified with
a large stupa, erected from adobe material, in the Kushan epoch. Despite the fact that the top part of it was lost, its
details and elements, especially, its typical form, certifies, that it is a stupa of the large Buddhist Temple. Generally,
the Stupa was preserved in its initial dimensions.
Complex of Khakim at-Termiziy
Initial architectural parameters, decorative finish of the premises of the complex of Khakim at-Termiziy, despite
reinforcement measures, undertake at different times, did not change. The monument was preserved in a good
condition. Its historical environment was also preserved in its initial appearence.
Kyrk-Kyz Complex
Although there are some ruined parts, the complex preserved its planning of rooms, general architectural composition
and appearance, the integrity of facades. Minor restoration and conservation works were done on the monument. The
complex is one of the rare country estates (kjoshks), preserved in the-territory of Uzbekistan.
Sultan-Saodat Complex
The complex preserved all main elements of architecture of burial vaults, the lost parts of which were restored
according to their initial appearance. The integrity of the composition and planning was preserved. Also, surrounding
historical and landscape environment was preserved.
Khanqah Kokildora
Khaqah Kokildora was preserved in its initial dimensions and corresponds to the typical characteristics. At the
beginning of the XXI century on the monument restoration and beautification works were done.
Djarkurgan Minaret
Minaret was preserved in its initial appearance.
Site of ancient town of Kampyr Tepe
The site is in a ruined condition. Planning, borders and plans of independent constructions were revealed through the
archaeological excavations. Found materials were deciphered and indentified. The results of the excavations certify
to the authenticity of the monument and allows identifying it with the ancient city of Alexandria Oxiana.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected
Ancient Termez
Termez is a well preserved and outstanding site, surrounded by a unique landscape. For 27 centuries it played a
significant role in cultural exchange, and was one of the most important strategic points on the Great Silk Road. The
city, encompassing the territory of 500 ha, has many monuments of tangible culture, relating to Greco-Bactrian,
Kushan and Islamic civilizations. In the Central Aia the Ancient Termez was one of the centers of dissemination of the
Buddhist culture and of early Islamic philosophy.
Fayaztepa
Fayaz tepa is not a single monument of Buddhist culture in Uzbekistan. The unique temple complex of Qoratepa
locates in 1 km. to the southwest from it. Analogical monuments with the mortars have researched in Ayritam and
Dalverzin, Gandahar - India.
The complex of Fayaz Tepe combined an original technology of construction culture (usage of adobe materials),
architectural ideas and beautiful decorated finishing, all of which allow revealing important stages of Buddhist
architecture development.
Zurmala Mortar
The stupa of Zurmala in the comparing of the mortars, discovered in Ayrimtam, Qoratepa, Fayaztepa and others, by
its size, it is 10 times bigger than same age constructions. Seemingly, it had a special value in the compare with the
analogical monuments, erected in Epoch of Great Kushan on the territory of Uzbekistan and contiguous countries.
The Stupa, in terms of dimensions, ten times exceeds all known stupas of the region. Its significance in construction
culture also lies in its adobe materials, preserved to our days, despite natural impacts (earthquakes, atmospheric
moisture, etc).
Qirq-Qiz
Minimal conservation works have been made in Qirq-Qiz complex. The monument in a greater part is preserved, but
only in ruined condition. The rests of caravanserai in Merv could serve as analogue of Qirq-Qiz. Prototypes of such
structures it is possible to see on the rests of ancient locks in Khorezm, for example Guldursun, Qiz-Kala on SutonKala in Merv. Qirq-Qiz is one of the rare preserved monuments from the raw in territory of medieval Termiz.
The complex is a large one and represents a palace-estate (kjoshk), created applying the original technology of
construction culture. Its architectural dimensions, usage of adobe materials, two-tier planning do not have analogues
in the Samanid epoch of development of Architecture. The complex stands out in terms of historical and architectural
values, which make it an outstanding monument of adobe architecture of Central Asia.
Khakim at-Termiziy
Analogue of the complex are Kusam ibn Abbas Mausoleum in Shokhi-Zinda in Samarkand, Pahlavon Makhmud
Complex in Khiva and others.
The complex, as well as the Ancient Termez in general, in the IX-XII centuries, were considered the most important
centers of early Islamic culture of Central Asia. Natives of Termez played leading roles in dissemination of Islamic
beliefs; the personality of Khakim at-Termiziy was known as a great theologian and his tombstone - as a sacred place
for all muslims of Central Asia. The architecture of the complex combined unique for the XI-XII centuries techniques
of costruction and decoration styles, which defined the direction of the future development of architecture of cult
constructions of the region.
Sultan-Saodat
Sulton-Saodat as the type ensemble buildings, concerns to earlier period. Subsequently in Samarkand and in other
cities there are similar constructions, as Shakhi-Zinda, the mausoleum Guri-Amir, and with the domestic shape
Khazrati-imam in Shakhrisyabz. The Architectural decor especially in brick facing can be compared with well-known
Samanids Mausoleum in Bukhara, mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun. It is not excluded, that the Sulton-Saodat
has formed the basis for development here medieval Termiz
Compositionally, the complex is uniformly connected with oblong courtyard of the burial vaults of Termez Seyids (who
played leading roles in political history of Central Asia), relating to different times. Architecture of the complex
demonstrates the development of cult constructions (burial vaults) during six centuries.
Kokildor Khonaqo
Typological difference from similar constructions on territories of Uzbekistan and its relation with monuments in Balkh
make this object outstanding, reflecting school of architecture of Tokharistan and Balkh.
The Khanqah in terms of its original planning lay out and decorative finish represents a unique object in the region.
Djarqurgan Minaret
This minaret similar in techniques of performance - palace of Termiz governors (XI - XII centuries), the mosque in the
complex Khakim at-Termiziy (XI - XII centuries) mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun district of Surkhandarya
Region, and also mausoleum Zul Kifl on the island of «Orol Payg'ambar» in Amudarya. The minaret was exposed to
insignificant conservation works. As a whole on 95 % of minaret was preserved in the primeval shape.
Minaret is a unique, original example of cultural traditions, the development of which is observed in the Х - XIX
centuries. It reflects a particular direction of Termez School of Architecture.
Kampirtepa
Kampirtepa is the unique city in all Central Asian Regions. The port customs city has been constructed by the
Alexander Great, and has identified with the most ancient city Alexandria Ocean. It has not enough analogues.
It is the trade city (town) of the antiquity, located on the Great Silk Road, and stands in the third place, after Ayritam
and Ancient Termez; it played significant role in trade-cultural and spiritual links between East and West; was one of
the strategic and ifluental points in dissemination of Buddhist faith and culture during the Kushan period.
City planning and its constructions made a positive impact on further development of town building, architecture and
monumental art of Central Asia.
2. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Historic Center of Qoqon
Brief description of the component property:
Qoqon - is one of the cultural centers of Ancient East. It is located in the western part of Ferghana valley in the lower
stream of Sokh. Historical Center of Qoqon consisting of following cultural objects: Komol-Kozi Madrasah, Dahman
Shahon, Madarihon Madrasah, Norbutabiy Madrasah, Gishtlik Mosque, apartment houses. The most ancient data
about Qoqon date back to the II century B.C. and belong to the Chinese traveller Chzhan Tszjan, who has
characterized it as a large and developed city of the valley. Data of Qoqon presented in the works of the Arabian
historians and geographers in the X-XII cc., al-Istakhri, Ibn Khav Kala, Al-Makdisi and in other sources. The city that
described by ancient authors is still functioning in this place now. There were 52 madrasahs, many mosques,
caravanserais, bazaars, baths and other public constructions at the beginning of the last century in the city. The most
worthy attention are fine and unique by their beauty and architectural shape of buildings - a residence of governors
Qoqon Khanate - Urda, Norbutabiy Madrasah, Djamiy mosque, Kamol Kozi Madrasah, Dasturkhonchi, Sohibzod
Kazrat, Zingbardor and many others, have been realized talent and skill of residents of Ferghana valley, which are
admired all people. Qoqon has preserved its historical structure. It consists of old and new parts. One of the most
remarkable constructions is Urda - palace of Qoqon Khanate governors. The palace occupies an area of 4 hectares
of the extended form and represents a multi yard composition. The front entrance is designed by the portal, turned to
the east, leads a wide ramp. Above the entrance in ktoba of the main portal, there is an inscription «Arki oliy - Said
Mukhammad Khudoyorkhan» (High chambers of Said Mukhammad Khudoyorkhan). The complicated plan of the
palace containing more than hundred premises, which have closed the area of 65х138 m. The front door and a
residential zone were functionally marked out. In the first part of palace, there was the smart courtyard with ayvan by
the perimeter, hall for receptions, exchequer and mosque with the separate courtyard. In the central have been
constructed small hall for the reception, groups of premises for khan and economic courtyard with warehouses. In
architectural design of facades and interiors of the building were reflected thrift and traditions of the national
architecture. The special attention has given to the main facade, Darvozahona (gate) and front hall. Other premises
were modest enough. In the center of the east facade was erected portal, flanked by towers with the decorative
lanterns, underline main entrance. Madrasah Komol-Kozi has been built in the middle of XIX century, to the west
Madrasah Djami and was the supreme Muslim educational institution including an audience (darskhona), small
premises (hudjra) and mosque - ayvan. As a whole, they make building with domestic composition. The special
attention is deserved to the entrance part (darvazahana), marked out by the decoratively trimmed portal with flanked
cylindrical towers on the corners with coming to the end of dome lanterns. Behind the portal was erected a two-tiered
building served as educational room, the top part of which was overlapped by tetrahedral dome. Balcony of
darskhona (classroom), directed to the main facade, is original peak above an entrance in the square courtyard (20 х
20), build up with hudjras and mosque. The mosque represents itself as a four-columned, opened to the east ayvan
with trabeation. Interiors are trimmed ganch, and external walls have been laid out from the baked brick without
plaster. In the southern part of Qoqon is located Madrasah of Miyon Khazrat, constructed in XVIII century. It is a
complicate three-domestic complex by its a plan: two court yard are located on an axis the east-west, the third
adjoins them from the south. The front entrance to the Madrasah is arranged from the western side of the southern
courtyard, it is marked out by the portal-dome darvazahana with the wooden gate with carving. On perimeter of the
southern courtyard (32 х 26) are constructed inhabited hudjras, only in the southern part is erected multicolumn
square plan mosque with the flat trabeation. Here, in the southeast corner was preserved a short minaret. Other
courtyards also surrounded with hudjras. In the east part Madrasah has erected ayvan (removed in nowadays), and
educational room is constructed in the western part. Here it is possible to observe various constructive kinds of
overlapping: arches, domes and flat trabeations. Facades of Madrasahs are imposed by an ordinary bricklaying. It is
remarkable, that in this Madrasah studied known Uzbek poet Muhammad Amin Khodja -Muqimiy. Among numerous
constructions, the certain attention deserves necropolises of Dahman-shahon and Моdarihon. Both constructions
were found in XIX century and contain characteristic features of the Ferghana memorial architecture. In Ferghana
valley has received development of the compound architecturally spatial memorial complexes called «khazira». A
core of such complex is the esteemed burial place allocated by fencing and erected near the memorial mosqueziyaratkhona. Khazira is one of those techniques in medieval architecture history where has been reflected the
influence of Islam and architecture forms. Khazira Dahman-Shahon (the gravestone of shahs) represents a family
tomb of Qoqon governors. Its architecturally-spatial composition consists of smart portal-dome entrance (9,4х11,7),
lead to the courtyard with burial places, and two-columned mosque-ayvan. Carved entrance doors, paintings of the
interiors and plafonds of the mosque make decorative furniture of the complex. In Khazira Modarikhan (mother of
khan) were buried women, representatives of khan's dynasties. It was kept only the entrance portal-dome building
from the complex with the sizes on the sides 7,5 х 7,5 m, with two faceted towers, which flanked the corners of the
main facade. As distinct from Dahmon-shahon, there are proportions which are more graceful and considerably smart
decor of portal here, where mosaic tiled geometrical figure is combined with majolica gentle, fine vegetative ornament
and ganch stalactite filling of lancet niche. On the right on the portal, architect has left in one of the hexahedral tiles
under glaze the date of the construction 1241 khidjra (1825). An interior of the dome is originally furnished that
decorates spirally-ridge of ganch figure. The category of earlier architectural constructions of Qoqon concerns the
Madrasah of Norbuta-biya (XVIII century), constructed on the area of Chorsu. Here listeners received the highest
spiritual education. Madrasah represents a one-storey building of the symmetric domestic composition by the form of
the rectangular (52х79) with cylindrical towers at the corners. A square courtyard (38х38) with the oblique corners
built up vaulted inhabited hudjras. The front entrance marked out with the portal, focused to the north. By the sides
from it has constructed the mosque with the dome on the crossed arches and cylindrical drum that is cut by twelve
lancet windows, and darskhona. The brick building is completely deprived decorative furniture. The laying of the
facade is naked and interiors shine white ganch plasters. The hall of the mosque with stalactite under domes eaves
and stellar filling of mihrab looks more beautiful than darskhona. Front doors have decorated with simple geometrical
figure that the superficial carved vegetative ornament fills internal space. The form of the portal and volumetric-spatial
construction of Madrasah remind similar monuments of Bukhara (Madrasah Kukaldosh, Abdulaziskhon, Mir-Arab).
Probably, Bukhara masters took part in the construction of Qoqon Madrasah, and Bukhara school of architects was
reflected on this Madrasah. The latest architectural monument of Qoqon is mosque Gishtlik (brick). It constructed at
the beginning of the XX century by local masters for parishioners of its quarter-guzar (city center). The symmetric
building consists of various area of the hall and ayvan (7,8х18,4), oriented to the east. On an axis of symmetry on the
western winter room walls and ayvan are mihrab niches in the form of lancet deepening. 12 wooden columns
installed in two ranks support flat ceiling of the summer part. Joist ceiling is laid out from vassa - semi-cylindrical
poles laid by the convex part downwards that enriches the plastic view of the overlapping. In the construction of
overlapping halls, has affected the influence of Russian engineers, the system of wooden rafters with false ceiling,
excluding traditional intermediate support here is used. Special value on the monument is represented with
decorative furnish of the mosque. Transition from trunks of columns to figured bolsters is carried out through original
wooden flat triangles with the through openwork ornament. Plafonds of the ceiling were covered only worked
ornament of vegetative motives in which red and green colors are prevail. The laconic plan and original decor put
mosque Gishtlik in the line of the best monuments of Qoqon architecture. The building after restoration has used on
an initial function. The quarter mosque of Mulkabad constructed in 1332 hidjra (1913) is originally intertwined in the
housing estate. Frontal raised ayvan and magnificent painting of eaves marked out it among surrounding buildings
and underline former public destination. Symmetric in the plan mosque with flat ceilings consists of various sizes by
the area of the winter hall and ayvan, attached with the east part. Convolvulus and flowers are masterfully entered in
the geometrical frame on the green background of the ceiling, testifies to fine feeling of the artist that finished an
interior. Originally planed construction and decor of interiors in the apartment house of Ayubbay, house Alimjan-khoji,
the house Qozi (judge) Abdurakhman, the house of Qazi Saidkhan. The simplicity of the plan made in local traditions,
and original decorative elements allow referring these houses to uncommon creations of the Ferghana architects.
The valuable historical and cultural issues represent the monuments of the cultural heritage located in European part
of the city. They are: building of the Russian-Asia bank, house of Vadyaev, apartment house of Potelyahov, houses
of brothers Simhaev, private residence of brothers Mandalak and others.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The given monuments of Ancient Qoqon reflect the influence, rendered by the changing of common to all mankind
values on the stage of its historical development in the Middle Age time, and starting of European urbanization of
Central Asia at the same time has being preserved the national tradition of architecture and town-planning.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Almost all big cities are developed similarly to them in Uzbekistan: Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Termiz and
Kogon. From the earliest times Qoqon was important trade centre, located on the Great Silk Road at the entrance to
the Fergana Valley from the west, which border with Kashgar and China in the east.
Last archaeological works carried out in 2008, particularly in Kurgantepa which located in the central part of Qoqon
(according to Ya. Dadabaev, member of the expedition) testifies active life activity of the human being on the territory
of the city in the beginning of our era that is two thousands years ago.
However, due to several destructions in the city, especially after devastations of Chingizkhan forces, the most ancient
constructions were lost, but many splendid and quite original architectural objects of the period of its late medieval
prosperity were preserved. It is number of traditional architecture of the XVIIIth - beginning of the XXth centuries with
attractive features of architectural school of Fergana. Among them: expressive on construction large multi column
mosque of Djami, ward mosques and madrashs in the quarters with different architecture, unique buildings of khazir
Dakhmai Shakhon and khazir Modarikhan, as well as magnificent palace of Khudoyorkhan and gorgeous houses.
Construction of the European part of the Qoqon, which started at the end of the XIXth - in the beginning of the XXth
centuries, is one of the most significant in Central Asia. It demonstrates stages of introduction into Turkistan and
development town-planning and architecture of European style, which served as basis for the development of modern
architecture of Uzbekistan in synthesis with local traditional heritage. Architectural constructions which built in
modern, Russian, neoclassic and other styles were well preserved in the European part of Qoqon. These are
buildings of banks (Russian -Asian, Russian State Bank and others), mansions of the European and local
businessman (Mandalaki, Kraft, Knabbe, Potelyakhov, Vadyayev and others), industrial buildings and offices
(Companies of Treugolnik, Vysotski and others), drugstore of Vilde, as well as well preserved background
construction which concerns beginning of the XXth century.
3. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Kanka
Brief description of the component property:
A site of ancient settlement of Kanka in the territorial and administrative attitude is located in 80 km in the southeast
from Tashkent, in the southeastern outskirts of Eltamgali settlement. It is the ancient and one of the large city centers
of Tashkent oasis. In its northeast part rise the most powerful construction of the city-citadel-arch, with the height
more than 40 meters with palace of governor, man-sided bastions and house temple. The total area is 220 hectares.
Kanka divides into three parts - citadel, shakhristan - town territory and rabad - trade and commercial outskirt. Citadel
is almost square-shaped at the height of 35 m. There is a huge castle with four towers at the base of citadel. The
castle has been separated from building with huge ditch. It stands on the powerful platform, the top part of which has
nine lines of pahsa (adobe clay). Inside of the platform are concealed more ancient buildings. There are buildings of
VI - VII and XI - XII centuries in top layer of citadel. In the centre of northern facade was placed the only entrance to
citadel. Distinctive peculiarity of Kanka is that it has three Shakhristans, establishing of which reflects stages of
dynamics of town development. Shakhristan I includes citadel (in the northwestern edge and it has correct square
form of quadrangle stretched to the west from the river. The height of fortification walls from its base is 26 m.
Shakhristan I was encompassed with wide ditch (about 35 m.). The only gate is in the center of the southern side.
Evidently, there was built a tower, from where was thrown a drawbridge. The depth of the cultural layers is not the
same, and in the western part, it equals to 26 m. In the territory of Shakhristan I was found urban development of XI XII centuries and ruins of town temples of VI - VII centuries. Shakhristan II surrounds Shakhristan I from three sides
and it has square form too, but it stretches along riverbed. Its total area equals to 45 hectares. It has very compact
planning and encompassed with its own fortification wall. Separation of this territory is the result of temporary
shortening of urban territory in the beginning of VII century. Shakhristan III includes all these parts; its planning nears
to trapezium. Total area of urban territory, surrounded by the stronghold walls, is occupied 160 hectares. It has
discovered that there was a terrace and little ditch in front of stronghold walls. Southwestern and Central tracts of
Shakhristan III have been planned very densely with street net and bazaar squares. Western and northeastern parts
do not have any buildings. During the archeological researches on the Kanka site of ancient settlement was
discovered a palace of the ruler with house temple of fire in citadel. The monumental city temple was discovered in
Shakhristan I, direct data that is given in Chinese sources. The unique discovered here the remains of monumental
lists of temple and type-bull connected with Manichean religion. The residential area, industrial workshops, big
monumental caravanserai and bazaar squares were discovered in Shakhristan III. UNESCO is associated with
2200th anniversary of foundation of the Toshkent city in 2008-2009.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
A site of ancient city is unique as monument of history and culture humanity, town-planning history of Uzbekistan and
included into the list of ten great sites of ancient cities of Central Asia. Monument is unique by its safety
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
By its size, meaning and role became close to such cities like Merv, Samarkand and Balkh. Kanka is the first capital
of Chach state, small estate of Kanguy. Monumental fortification walls with towers surround the huge territory of more
than 160 hectares. There are three cities inside, allocated into each other, and each of them by own fortification,
curtains and ditches. Inside-small town typical of antique plan, once it has affixed with other suspension bridge.
There are unique production shops and city caravanserai, which were discovered as well in this part of the
settlement. Rabad encompasses urban territory as horseshoe from the east and southwest. It is unknown whether
stronghold walls have been installed because large territory of rabad is ploughed up. City appeared in the IV century
B.C. and it was identified by the Greek sources with Antihiey Zayaksartskoy. In further centuries it was apart of
Kanguy State and was known as a first capital of Chach (in Chinese sources - Yuni-Shi). The north route of the Great
Silk Road ran through it. It was described as Kharashet in Arabian sources (etymological meaning is «the city of holly
farna»), a second under the economical and cultural center of Shash in Middle Age.
4. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Shahruhiya
Brief description of the component property:
A site of ancient settlement Shahruhiya (Sharkiya) located in 88 km to the southwest from Tashkent on the right coast
of Syrdarya River. It is the first large city of Tashkent oases, situated on the Great Silk Road through Yaksart
(Syrdarya). In the oriental sources, it was famous under the name Benaket and the portion of the Great Silk Road
direction called by its name. It consisted of citadel, two cities' territories and wide tradecraft suburb-rabad, in total
area - 400 hectares. Fortress walls with towers have surrounded by citadel, Shakhristan and Rabad. The walls were
kept better, which erected by Amir Temur, called Ancient Benaket by the name of his youngest son Shahruh in 1392.
Archeological researches discovered fortification constructions, handicraft workshops of potters and glass blower,
bazaars areas, systems of municipal improvements of the city and remains of the front residential constructions of the
Epoch of Temurids and Uzbek Khanates. The memorial complex "Shomir-kara ovlia" functioned in the northwestern
part of Rabad in XVI century. The traces of the memorial mosque of Abdullakhan I were preserved here, that was
built for Shah Emir Asadulla, the ishan of Shahruhiya and marble grave. A site of ancient settlement of Shahruhiya
existed from III-IV until XVIII centuries A.D. Originally, it was a small city at the passage, but it became a huge city at
the X-XI cc
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The monument partly destroyed by Syrdarya River, the safety of other part of the city and necropolis of Uzbek elite is
quite satisfied.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Safety of the architectural constructions of site of ancient settlement of Shahruhiya allows transforming after
preservation it into unique city - museum on the Great Silk Road - the most valuable tourist object. Site of ancient
settlement of Shahruhiya in many respects is original. In comparison with other similar monuments discovered an
affinity to such largest monuments like Otrar (Kazakhstan) and Ahsiket in Namangan Region (Ferghana Valley,
Uzbekistan).
Shahruhiya is one of the very large archaeological sites in Central Asia. It consisted of citadel, two cities' territories
and wide tradecraft suburb-rabad, in total area - 400 hectares. Fortress walls with towers have surrounded by citadel,
Shakhristan and Rabad.
Shahruhuya was destroyed by Mongols, later has reconstructed by Amir Temur, and named as Shahruhiya. Since
that time, it became an important economical and cultural center in the state of Temurids and Sheybanids. Here was
functioned own mint. The city connected with the names of outstanding scientists, poets, penmen and artists lived
here. UNESCO is associated with 2200th anniversary of foundation of the Toshkent city in 2008-2009.
5. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Ahsiket
Brief description of the component property:
A site of ancient settlement Ahsiket located on the right branch of Sirdarya River in Turakargan district of Namangan
Region. Its area occupies the territory of more than 25 hectares. The city structure consisted of the citadel,
Shakhristan - the city itself and rabad - suburb of the city. All three parts of the city have been enclosed by the
fortification. The palace of governors and zindan - prison were situated in the arc. There was a city market, cathedral
mosque, khouz, erected from backed brick in Shakhristan. Handicraftsmen area was located in the rabad.
Metallurgical production of Ahsiket was known far beyond the Central Asia. It was the only place in Central Asia,
where have been produced very high-quality steel more known as Damascus or Damask steel. Here has been
discovered the bath constructed in II century A.D. After the Mongolian invasion, new Ahsiket has arisen in 5-6 km to
the west from ancient one. According to historical data, the known poet and historian - Bobur, grandson of Amir
Temur, was governor
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Ahsiket, as many ancient cities of Central Asia has precise planed structure. It appeared on the ancient caravan ways
and was place of crossing of two ways from Sogd (Samarkand) and Shash (Tashkent). The Great Silk Road directed
from Ahsiket through Andijon to China.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Territories with preserved areas of relict tertiary forests have not been taken under protection at national and
international levels yet. Moreover, this nomination at present time is the only proposal from these forest landscapes.
The city found in III - II centuries B.C. and functioned up to 1219 A.D. It has been completely destroyed by Mongolian
forces. It connected China to the western countries.
6. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Pap
Brief description of the component property:
A site of ancient settlement Ancient Pap and adjoining urban burial ground are located on the right bank of Syrdarya
River. A site of ancient settlement has entered into the scientific literature under the name - Balandtepa (local
population calls as Munchaktepa - Ayritom city). A site of ancient settlement Balandtepa (Bab-Pap) - ruins of ancient
city, the area of more than 9 hectares, it is destroyed, especially from side of Syrdarya River and consists of two
parts. Collected archeological materials chronologically covered the period from the I to VIII centuries. Ancient Pap
structurally consisted of following parts: 1. A citadel - the raised and strengthened southeast part of the site of ancient
settlement. 2. Internal city - more lowered part around the arc. The remains of ancient ditch were preserved between
arc and internal city. 3. The suburb (rabad) was in the northern part of Balandtepa (Munchaktepa or Ayrtom city).
Definition is conditional since there are materials no earlier than the IX century in this part, and most likely, is territory
of medieval city. At last, the city necropolis Munchaktepa I, II - to the west from suburb, between internal city and
necropolis formed a deep ravine. The City necropolis - Munchaktepa adjoins to the northwest part of Balandtepa. In
Munchaktepa I are opened single burials soil tombs and tamping pick. Altogether 14, 9 of them are in soil tombs and
5 - burials in tombs with tamping pick. Inventory in tamping pick burials are more various. Vessels (one or two) were
put to the legs or heads, on the right or left side of buried. Spindles, rests of leather products are revealed only in
female burials. Iron knifes, knifes-daggers were observed in both men and female burials. In Munchaktepa II were
found out the unique funeral constructions in the form of the underground crypts, which have been cut down in the
sand-loess adjournment. They are located by the chain on the line of the west - east in the natural oblong hill. In total,
it has opened eight crypts. Underground crypts can be divided into two groups according its dimensions: small groups
(the area about 5 sq. m.) where have been buried from one to four persons (crypts 2, 3, 4) and big one (6 sq. m. and
more) where have been marked about 50 burial places (crypts 1, 5, 7, 9). In the design of the crypts is clearly visible
its three-private structure: (1) A front of the entrance platform; (2) A corridor (dromos); (3) The funeral chamber
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Territories with preserved areas of relict tertiary forests have not been taken under protection at national and
international levels yet. Moreover, this nomination at present time is the only proposal from these forest landscapes.
Burial ground of Munchaktepa is the unique most investigated city necropolis in the earlier medieval epoch of
Ferghana. Importance of the burial ground consists of good safety of its materials and variety of types of burials for
period V-VIII centuries. All this gives the unique opportunity for studying a facilities and economy of townspeople, and
restoration funeral ceremonies and customs too. The city of Pap or Bab in the medieval sources being arisen on the
place site of ancient settlement Balandtepa and gradually expanding has moved up to the southern part of the
modern Regional center. From all mentioned follows, that Pap developed as the city at the certain place and
archeological supervision testifies its two thousand-year history. Pap during several centuries played the important
role in the trade and economic relations of Ferghana with the neighbor Regions. It was promoted by its favorable
geographical position of vivid trading-caravans on the lines of the Great Silk Road. It is interesting to note of
confirming these toponymy and ethnographic materials. So, preserved road name «Ulug' yol - Great Road» that
specifies its importance up to now. Besides traces of the passage (the ferry on Syrdarya) to Qoqon (Hokand) it was
preserved near to Balandtepa and (ancient part of Pap). The city necropolis of Pap possesses an exclusive historical
value: here organic remains were preserved. It is possible to consider these opened crypts as underground
"museum" with unique ethnographic finds (in total more than 5000). This monument is one of few monuments where
better and much preserved textile products. In the necropolis of the city of Pap textile products were fixed in 25
cases, little entirely kept silk dresses from them. There are many ornaments have found among the most numerous
beads, they are about 10000. Gracefully woven baskets are found out also here (a peach, dried apricots) etc. All this
allows investigating musical instruments, wooden vessels, the rests of fruit more authentically to beat and culture
ancient Ferghana citizens. Valuable materials have received about funeral ceremony and religious system earlier
medieval population. Such monuments have been kept very seldom. The safety of the remained parts of city and
necropolis are satisfactory.
7. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Andijon
Brief description of the component property:
Andijon is the biggest historical and cultural centre in Central Asia. It is one of the ancient cities located in the busiest
crossroad of the Great Silk Road. Andijon had a significant role in economic and cultural relations of Bactria, Sogd,
Shosh with China (Southern Turkistan). As the other countries of Central Asia, Andijon also consist of "Old" and
"New" part of the city. Many of historical sites are located in the old part of the city. Since 30-40 years of the past
millennia, these sites are researched. In particular, many materials on medieval building of the city were collected. Till
the present citadel and site of ancient settlement of the city were defined and carried out archaeological researches.
Total area of the citadel is 9 hectares, site of ancient settlement is located in the North of the citadel and its territory is
100 hectares. In the place of the medieval citadel is located "Ark ichi" ("Inner side" of the citadel) quarter. According
to the Chinese manuscripts more than 70 large and small cities were in Ferghana Valley in the I-II centuries B.C.
Location of the cities like Ershi (Mingtepa), Yuchen (outskirts of Uzgan), and later Khumin (Quva) near Andijon is
acknowledged by the archaeologists. Undoubtedly, that one of the mentioned city in the Chinese chronicles is
Andijon. Further medieval cultural layers were marked in Chordona, Qoshtepa, Ark ichi, Shakhriston. According to the
sources, since X century, the city was mentioned as "Andukon" for the first time. In the first quarter of the XIII century
Andijon was the capital of the Ferghana. Later, according to the Bobur's written sources Ark of Andijon was
considered by its size in the third position after Samarkand and Kesh. Since that period Andijon had own mint.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Andijon has been developing for 25 centuries in one certain place. All these were proved by archeological findings.
The quarter "Ark ichi" and is monuments (mosques and Ethnographic craft exhibitions) have been preserved its initial
condition. 3-5 meters deep of the present densely populated of area of the old city has been revealed cultural layers.
Old part of Andijon and its historical monuments remind specific museum under the open sky. More than 100 artisans
work in the "Khunarmandchilik" (handicraft) centre. In this ethnographic territory more than 30 craftsmen are
preserved their craft.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Historical part of Andijon could be compared with cities and settlement of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Kashgar,
Yorkent, Yangisar in China; Oratepa in Tajikistan and Ozgan in Kyrgizstan. All these cities have preserved cultural
ethnographic craft zones.
Andijon is the biggest historical and cultural centre in Central Asia. It is one of the ancient cities located in the busiest
crossroad of the Great Silk Road. Andijon had a significant role in economic and cultural relations of Bactria, Sogd,
Shosh with China (Southern Turkistan).
. In the place of the medieval citadel is located "Ark ichi" ("Inner side" of the citadel) quarter. According to the Chinese
manuscripts more than 70 large and small cities were in Ferghana Valley in the I-II centuries B.C. Location of the
cities like Ershi (Mingtepa), Yuchen (outskirts of Uzgan), and later Khumin (Quva) near Andijon is acknowledged by
the archaeologists. Undoubtedly, that one of the mentioned city in the Chinese chronicles is Andijon. Further
medieval cultural layers were marked in Chordona, Qoshtepa, Ark ichi, Shakhriston. According to the sources, since
X century, the city was mentioned as "Andukon" for the first time. In the first quarter of the XIII century Andijon was
the capital of the Ferghana.
8. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Poykent
Brief description of the component property:
Poykent is located in the lower stream of Zarafshan River and was one of the largest cities of the oasis. The city was
consisted of citadel, two sites of ancient settlement and rabod (suburb). According to the archaeological researches,
this place was found as a small village in the IV century B.C. and later was transformed into fortress. At that period
being as trading place, this city connected Southern countries (Bactria, India, Iran) with Northern countries (Front of
Ural, Coast of Volga, Northern Caucus) and Poykent was one of the important military and trade centre of the
Western borders of the Sogd. Due to the development of the Great Silk Road and joining with Poykent fortress have
been found first and second sites of ancient settlement. Hence was found the city Poykent. According to Chinese
chronicles, this city was under the "An" (Bukhara) kingdom and was the centre of "Bi" khanate. Also was noted that in
Poykent was not khokim (governor), the city was ruled by traders' council and in full sense of the word the city was
the republic in the VI-VII century. The scientists of Institute of Archaeology of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Uzbekistan carrying out scientific researches in ruins of the city for a long times. As a result, Zoroastrian temples,
palace and the mosque, built by IX century, and remnants of tower were found in citadel. In the inner part of city were
discovered defensive walls, gate, roads and remains of quarters (makhallas), while in outside of rabads the city potter centers and caravanserais. According to the researchers, due to inaccessibility of lower flaw of Zarafshon
River, the city seized existence in the middle of the IX century.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Monument preserved in good condition.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Poykent was one of the largest and old cities in Central Asia. According to the archaeological researches, this place
was found as a small village in the IV century B.C. and later was transformed into fortress. VIII century here were
more built 2-3 floors living houses. Poykent connection city north and south cities to each other.
9. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Varakhsha
Brief description of the component property:
Varakhsha is one of the biggest cities located in 45 km from the West of Bukhara, in the bank of abounding in water
Rometonrud an ancient stream of Zarafshon River. It was consisted of triangle shape small city- shakriston and
fortress connected in the Eastern wall. Some times this city was surrounded by defense ditch filled with flowing water.
The site is surrounded by plumb wall; height of the citadel is 20 meters and remains of shakhriston wall are 10
meters. There are defense forts along Western side of the city distances between of which 30 meter and a place of
only gate, where walls of the shakhriston are connected with citadel, could be seen in the East. According to
archaeological sources primarily Varakhsha was found as village in IV-III centuries B.C. As mentioned in medieval
sources city was residence of the dynasty Bukhorokhudot - governors of Bukhara. According to Mukhammad
Narshakhiy - historian of Bukhara, Varakhsha more ancient than Bukhara and mentioned Rajfandun - one of the
ancient names of the city. Also he wrote that Varakhsha was stable place where lived kings and described beauty of
fortress. Here every fifteen days was one-day market and at the end of year, market was lasted twenty days.
According to the medieval geographical sources, Varakhsha often mentioned as one of the biggest city along
Bukhara - Khorezm trade route. The reason of decay of the city was becoming lower of the water of Zarafshon River
and it is fully destruction was connected to conquest of Mongols. The ruins of the city became a well-known all over
the world. The reason was related with the archeological excavations carried out by archaeologist V.A.Shishkin in the
palace of Bukhorokhudot dynasty in 1937-1939 and 1947-1954 years. In the walls of "Red hall" and "Eastern hall"
were painted riders on the elephants fighting with mythic predators. Among the wall paintings of the Eastern hall,
partly preserved image of sitting king on the throne is merited special attention. Remains of ganch panel in the
second floor of the palace are unique as wall paintings. Plantings, human, animals and mythic animals are decorated
in it. Many findings excavated here not only present artistic culture of that period but also valuable information on the
history of the palace.Varakhsha and Bukhara became large economic and strategic place after the conquest of
Arabs.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Partially preserved monument.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Vararhsha was centre of masters and handcrafts. According to Mukhammad Narshakhiy - historian of Bukhara,
Varakhsha more ancient than Bukhara and mentioned Rajfandun - one of the ancient names of the city. Also he
wrote that Varakhsha was stable place where lived kings and described beauty of fortress. Here every fifteen days
was one-day market and at the end of year, market was lasted twenty days.
10. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Vabkent Minaret
Brief description of the component property:
The minaret represents columnar shaped tower. The height of the minaret from the bottom of the socle up to the top
of the basic column is equal to 40,3 m. The height of 12-cut socle is 2,3 m. Diameter of the basis of the trunk is 6,19
m. Diameter of the top of a trunk (under the lantern) is 2,81 m, diameter of the lantern 3,66 m, diameter of the basic
column is 1,05 m. The trunk of the minaret has an entasis. The minaret in Vobkent (1196-1197), is similar to the
minaret of Kalyan in Bukhara and differs from it with decoration. The zones and edges are sharply dismembered.
Here zones of type «maudj» are clearly readable. All of the laying like «maudj» - from pair bricks flat wise, with
vertical inserts of the unique paintings. First three strips from below are divided only smooth hem from brick into the
edge. Then wide foreparts alternate with narrow paths. The fourth strip contains the historical inscription from which it
was established that the minaret is constructed in 593. (1196-1197). The name of the builder is completely specified
in the bottom fillet of the inscription. It says: minaret has constructed by the son of Sadr Burhaniddin Muhammad
Bukhara Sadr Burkhaniddin Abdalaziz II, son of Sadr Hasanaddin Omar, the son of the founder of Sadr dynasty. The
fifth path represents the abstract stylization «under kufi», the sixth - decorative lattice, the seventh - the prayerful
formula, three followings - again lattice. Under the lantern eight-final rectangular stars with inserts from glazed brick,
accented from below by the band of pattern «under kufi» are arranged. The third relief inscription from the plates with
the handwriting inscription «divoni» is above it. It contains the date of the complement of construction 1198-1199. On
the socle, on the parapets and above are continuous laying and groove of openwork painting.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The minaret has the exact date, and almost completely preserved. It is very important for studying genesis and
development of the Central Asian minarets. Building methods and architectural furniture in synthesis with its
proportions put it in the line of the outstanding monuments of culture. Its location in ancient Vobkent, being the large
center in the Great Silk Road, makes it very outstanding.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Vobkent minaret was lighthouse in the Great Silk Road. In this minaret Muazzin (caller to prayer) was called Muslims
to prayer by reading Azan. Only Vobkent minaret standing till eight centuries in this area. Vobkent minaret was built
by burnt brick, and burnt bricks were not in other countries those times. One of the unique that is in minaret was
made ornaments by burnt bricks.
11. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum
Brief description of the component property:
Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum is in the middle of the small ancient cemetery. The construction has reached with some
losses to present day. The preserved parts represent a combination of harmonious entrance portal and adjoining to it
the rests of the fencing wall from the west. The constructive scheme of the portal is a traditional and made up in the
form of two pylons, forming the niche overlapped by the semi vault. The II-shaped frame inside of which forms the
obverse surface, tympanum and ktoba are concluded with an inscription above the lancet arch. From the northern
part of the niche portal is limited gable wall with a doorway. From the western end face the portal is adjoined with the
deep bricked wall in the extent of 5,9 m, which the western piece has been lost. The wall has the form of the trapeze
in section with big size in the basis. The central room is overlapped by the tent peaked dome. Except for the made
proportions this monument differs well considered and perfectly executed décor, which basic part is concentrated to
the portal. The most effective place in the general composition of the decor is ktoba, filled with Arabian inscription on
the background of the vegetative ornament. The portal frame on the external contour is marked out by the II-shaped
zone strengthened by girikh from intertwining octahedrons, made of terracotta bricks. Glazed inserts of turquoise
color fill the central octahedral sockets. The tape bordered frame and ktoba.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The huge volume of the monument preserved during almost 200 years. On an example of Chashma-Ayub
Mausoleum, it is possible to consider dynamics of the development of architecture of Central Asia, since an epoch of
the government of Karakhanids from the end of the XI century down to the middle XV century A.D.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Its architecture and affinity make this construction the unique by some elements with funeral mosque of the first
construction's period with mausoleum of Al-Khakim at-Termiziy in Termiz and tent dome similarly with mausoleum of
Khazrat-Imam in Shakhrisyabz, and mausoleum Turabek-Khanum in Kunya-Urgench.
The historical value of the monument consists of the exact dating written on ktoba (1208-1209 .A.D.) or 605 year by
Muslim Calendar.
12. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Chor-Bakr
Brief description of the component property:
Memorial complex of Chor-Bakr has developed in the place of the prospective burial place of Abu-Bakr-Said who has
died in 360 year by Muslim Calendar (970-971 A.D.) - one of the four of Abu-Bakrs (Chor-Bakr) - descendants of the
Prophet Muhammad. At the tomb "sacred" appeared the necropolis of family tombs, constructed court yards enclosed
with walls. In 1858 Adullahan II, in gratitude for support and help at his accession, has started to build the complex of
buildings (khonaqo and mosque) for Djuybarsk sheikhs near the tomb of their ancestor, connecting road of Bukhara
with «Chor-Bakr». The necropolis continued to develop, and its new composite center became buildings of khonaqo
and mosque, erected between them in two stages of khudjra. All constructions of the complex are erected above
family burial places of Djumbarsks' sheikhs. Finally, the memorial develops at the beginning of the XX century when
the small minaret is erected on the area before the basic constructions. The territory occupies both memorial and
ancient cemetery equal to 3 hectares.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Memorial complex of «Chor-Bakr» is very much valuable with its planned and the volumetric-spatial shape. The
memorial was exposed to insignificant restoration works, has losses of an architectural decor, and in the separate
constructions is lost domes. Improving and sparing conservational works were executed. «Chor-Bakr» as a whole
has preserved on 80 % the authenticity and integrity.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Complex Chor-Bakr is similar to the memorial Bahouddin Naqshbandi formed as a necropolis of the supreme estate
of the clergy and governors of Bukhara. The most remarkable is its architecture and planned structure that makes it
an outstanding sample of the architectural and technological ensemble, illustrating important stage of development of
the human history and its spiritual culture.
Many constructions of ensemble have richly decorated polychromatic by the tiles. In many courtyards above burial
places, marble gravestones with epigraphic inscriptions and groove of the vegetative and geometrical ornament are
installed. The structure of ensemble includes 25 constructions - khonaqo, mosque, ayvan with khudjras,
darvazahana, minaret and 20 small objects - courtyards - burial places with the dome coverings, separately standing
portals.
13. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Bakhoutdin Complex
Brief description of the component property:
Sheikh Bohoutdin was the great representative of clergy from Nakshbandiy order, was considered as the spiritual
patron of Bukhara governors, and died in 1389. That is why his necropolis, which has erected subsequently at his
tomb, always was and remains the most esteemed in Uzbekistan and, at present, in the other countries, which
practice Islam. Ancient toponymy of this settlement is known under the name Kasri Arifon. The architectural complex
consists of several nonsimultaneous constructions.
1. The most ancient is dahma (gravestone) of Bohoutdin Nakshaband, reveted by marble blocks and enclosed above
an openwork marble lattice. The tomb of Bohoutdin is located on the top platform with the marble gravestone and
stele. Small khauz (basin) settles down at the north, as reveted by the marble as well.
2. The following site of the complex is Saho-khona, representing quadrangular pavilion of the type of rotunda. A
construction of four-arch, flanked on the corners of minaret shaped turrets, which are completed by small domes.
3. At the complex, there is a mosque called Khakim Kushbegi, with the flat trabeation, supported by the two columns
and forming six painted plafonds. From the south to it adjoins ayvan with five columns and the same amount of
painted plafonds. From the northern part is located another ayvan, also with five wooden columns, beam ceiling and
vassa.
4. The mosque of Muzaffarkhan also a component of the complex has bricked walls. Flat beam ceiling supported by
the wooden columns and ayvan on the four columns with five various painted plafonds.
5. From the northern part of the mosque, the small minaret constructed from the backed brick with lantern from eight
arches towers.
6. Small madrasah belongs to the complex as well.
7. Abdul-Lazizkhan khonaqo is located in the northwest part of the courtyard. The composition of khonaqo has
constructed in classical method on the square plan. The entrance into the complex was from two gates, named as
Toki-mionka, in the form of the small arched-dome construction and Khodja Dilyavar gate. In front of the main
khonaqo facade is located the necropolis - Dahman-Shahon (a cemetery of governors). It represents 6 rectangular
sufa in height of up to 2,5 m with the reveted walls from marble blocks. Besides of that, there are 2 wells and 2 khauz
(basins).
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The Complex is a historical source, with an interesting architecturally spatial composition of the courtyard with
accommodation of the whole complex of occurring at different time's constructions.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
A principle of decoration of dahma (mausoleum), ayvans for praying - khazir, widespread on the Near and Middle
East, for example, in Samarkand - dahma Sheybanids and Complex of Khodja Ahror Vali, Qosim Sheikh ensemble in
Navoi.
Sheikh Bakhoutdin was the great representative of clergy from Nakshbandiy order, was considered as the spiritual
patron of Bukhara governors. He is founder way Naqshbandiya in Sufizm. Naqshbandiya was well known big
countries those times like Central Asia, Rum, Iraq, India and others. Necropolis of complex of Bakhoutdin
Naqshband, which has erected subsequently at his tomb, always was and remains the most esteemed in Uzbekistan
and, at present, in the other countries, which practice Islam. Hundred Thousands visitors visit to complex of
Bakhoutdin Naqshband in a year.
14. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Raboti Malik
Brief description of the component property:
Raboti Malik consisting of two cultural objects: Caravanserai and Sardoba.
Raboti Malik Caravanserai is constructed according to the order of Karakhanid Shams-al-Mulk Nasr, son of
Tamgachkhan Ibragim ruled in Samarkand from 1068 until 1080. Only its portal has reached until now from the old
huge caravanserai on the surface of the ground. The portal of caravanserai - one of the most ancient place in the
territory of the Central Asia portals - peshtak with the central lancet arch of niche in which there is a rectangular
doorway. The arch is concluded in the П-shaped frame executed from the carved terracotta in the form of eight-final
stars connected with each other, limited by intertwining tapes. Ring is decorated by the Arabian inscription. On
overhanging walls, under the layers of repair plaster the rests of ancient ganched plasters with figure of vegetative
character are traced. The portal, as well as all caravanserais has been laid out from adobe brick with the subsequent
facing backed bricks in size of 25х25х4 cm on the ganched solution. Due to archeological excavations in the territory
of caravanserai is partially installed the initial plan of the building. The average height of the kept walls shakes from
0,4 up to 0,7 m. The caravanserai occupies - 8277 sq.m.
The time of the construction of Sardoba (water reserve) is certain based on the architecturally archaeological
research and dated in the XIV century. It was built as a water supply point construction on the route of the Great Silk
Road. Besides this monument represents an integral part of Raboti Malik caravanserai. Sardoba is a traditional for
such type of constructions. The cylindrical bases overlapped by the spherical dome, six meters embed into the
ground. In the elevated part, there are four arch window apertures, shining an interior. Apertures are located on the
sides of the world. From the northern part under the window aperture there is the door arch pass leading in the
interior. An inclined corridor conducts to an aperture from the surface of the ground. The rectangular entrance portal
is formed it. Internal diameter of Sardoba - 12,3 m, the thickness of walls at the basis - 1 m, the height of all premise 11 m.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Archeologists have carefully investigated the caravanserai; rests of planning structures were discovered. The IIshaped massif portal partially restored, and in the majority, completely kept volume is conserved. The caravanserai
has preserved its antiquity and integrity and in such form has reached our time. Sardoba is an outstanding sample,
characteristic for the given Region, water use and interaction of the person with the environment, especially marking,
that it is located on the Great Silk Road line and during many centuries is a source of the life of many people living in
this area and trading caravans. The monument was preserved until present more than 80 %. The top part of the fallen
dome has been restored and an entrance portal with a ladder marches, leading to water. In the basis of sardoba was
executed the posting of the lost parts of foundation. The safety of sardoba is provided for long years.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
The caravanserai is one of the largest constructions of similar type in the territory of Central Asia and has successive
relations with old traditions of constructions. In particular, an architectural decor from the carved and coupled bricks
present in the sources of building techniques on the ensemble of Sulton-Saodat in Termiz city, mausoleum Samanids
and Namazgoh in Bukhara. Separate analogues can be seen on the architectural monuments of Karahanids' capital
in Uzgen city. The caravanserai is located on the route of the Great Silk Road. In the territory of Uzbekistan has
known constructions for the water supply point. To their number, except for presented, it is possible to add sardoba in
Kasbi in Kashkadarya Region, sardoba in Djizzak Region, sardoba in Bukhara city is a part of the complex of KhalifaKhudaydod.
Caravanserai Rabati Malik is distinguished with its impressive size, clear combination of constructional methods and
techniques used in architecture of Central Asia of the Х and XIII centuries. The former provided its façade, like in the
case of ancient fortresses, with corrugations (flutes), while the latter - with monumental portal and flanking minarets
(towers), looking like wings.
Semi-fortress feature and developed layout of the Caravanserai, constructed back in the XI century, stand out from
among typical constructions, that existed along the Great Silk Road.
15. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Mir-Sayid Bakhrom mausoleum
Brief description of the component property:
Mir-Sayid Bakhrom Mausoleum represents central (with central axle system) construction. The sizes of the external
walls consist of 6,06х6,1m in the plan. In the interior 4,47х4,4 m. Mausoleum is laid out from backed brick. The main
facade issued in the form of the portal. On an axis is located the superficial arch niche in 2,13 cm width with the
rectangular doorway and arch window above them. From the external part, the arch frames with large inscription with
significant losses. The facade flanked cut columns also is designed by the II-shaped frame in the form of the
repeating geometrical figure with verge "plait". The dome is based upon on the octahedron in the interior. The interior
of the mausoleum in an original form has been entirely decorated by the groove on the ganch. The original
gravestone deserves special attention in the mausoleum, which originally has been made by wood, and in the
consequence, large plates from the black stone covered it.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Mir-Sayid Bakhrom Mausoleum in its architectural, constructive, volumetric-spatial form is one of the most interesting
monuments of architecture that reflects one of the parts of the development of architecture of Central Asia in general
and memorial constructions in particular. Insignificant preservation works were carried out in the monument. Until
now, it was almost entirely preserved. Once built ayvan was not preserved. The rests of marble bases of columns are
preserved.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Mir-Sayid Bakhrom Mausoleum has features similar to the mausoleum of Samanids in Bukhara, Arab-Ata in
Samarkand Region and mausoleum of Oq Ostona Bobo in Surkhandarya Region and deserves its including to the
number of outstanding monuments of the world architecture, located on the way of the Great Silk Road.
Although small in size, in the mausoleum (end of the X century) new ideas of architectural construction and designing
of such kind constructions developed, which subsequently determined further direction of architecture as applied in
mausoleums of Central Asia.
16. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Qosim Sheikh
Brief description of the component property:
The complex consists of three different time's courtyards. Dahma (mausoleum) stays in front of the building of
ziyorathona (pilgrim room) type of a mosque-namazgoh place, with three dome buildings and three-dome gallery on
the facade. In 80th years of the XVI century from the rear to the west of ziyorathona according to the order
Abdullakhan II have attached monumental khonaqo, one of outstanding products of the architecture of Central Asia.
There are two more courtyards to the south and west of the khonaqo. The western courtyard is similar to the ancient
«khazira», with the mosque-ayvan. The southern courtyard closes the area between all previous structures beside
khudjras and fencing. The general sizes of a complex 92х87 m. The most valuable in the complex is khonaqo of
Qosim-sheikh. Its composition as a whole is central. The center of the square building occupies cruciform hall,
overlapped by the double dome on the extraordinary high drum. The middle of facades is cut by deep portal niches.
The southern portal is marked out as main by the raised size. Designs of overlapping khonaqo are unique: four
crossed arches and eight-thyroid pendentives form 12-faced basis of the double dome between them.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The architectural complex is preserved in primeval condition. Restoration works regarding engineering strengthening
are realized out on the complex, the dome is partly reveted, the lost parts of the bricklaying of walls are restored,
realized out improving works. The monument is located on the route of the Great Silk Road, in the territory of the
medieval Karmana (Berkuttepa).
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
In the territory of Uzbekistan similar complexes were preserved in Bukhara Region (Bohoutdin Nakshbandiy, ChorBakr), in Samarkand Region (Khodja Akhror Vali) in Khiva (Pahlavon Makhmud). The history of their construction is
followed also in the south of Uzbekistan in the ensemble of Sulton-Saodat in Termiz, which is dated in the XII century
Architectural complex of Kasim Sheikh with regard to its value represents a universal significance and is the evidence
of historical events, connected to the peace-making activity of well-known religious figure and preacher Kasim
Sheikh, who made an impact on the political life of Maverannakh in the XVI century. In terms of architectural
composition the complex completely reflects original and unique architectural ideas and methods applied in
construction of khanqahs - hospices, located along active caravan and trade routes.
In the XVI century the complex, in terms of planning, develops this kind of constructions, ideas, which were
established (developed) back in the XI century, parallel to the development of Sufism in Islam.
17. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Sheiyh Mukhtor Vali
Brief description of the component property:
The complex of "Sheikh Mukhtor-Vali» located in Ostana settlement of Khiva Region in the territory of the extensive
cemetery, which have formed around of the honored mausoleum. Legends represent the Sheikh Mukhtor-Vali as the
founder of settlement Ostana, contemporary of well-known poet and wrestler Pakhlavon Makhmud in Khiva. The
detailed architecturally archeological researches confirm the date of the construction of the complex - the beginning
of the XIV century. In the complex dissymmetric, space-planning composition of the mausoleum is marked out with
the large sizes - hall of the big mosque, behind it - small mosque. The complex of the mausoleum of Sheikh MukhtorVali is perceived as an entire ensemble. A variety is reached due to combination of the original arch vaulted and
dome ceilings, logically developing planning configuration of the premises. The hall of the mosque predominates. The
dome ceiling of the small mosque is laconic: an octahedral circle of arch pendentives, minimal by the height and
angular pendentives are presented original stalactite filling. The dome completed with the octahedral light lantern.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Complex of Sheikh Mukhtor-Vali, constructed at the end of XIII - the beginning of XIV centuries one of the first
monuments of the period of revival of local architecture after the Mongolian invasion. Its architecture rather than on
provincialism reflects critically best selection that has been created during great Khorezmshahs in the field of building
techniques. Limitation constructive and architecturally shaped has found the natural, perfect construction in this
monument. In the complex have found the reflection the further development of an architectural idea after the deep
crisis connected with the Mongolian conquer of Region, preservation and multiplied traditions of the Khorezm School
of architecture after 300-years of ruin and decline.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
This property was built at Great Silk Road coming to the Khorezm from desert. Second Name of this property is
Ostona. It means threshold of the city. After hundred kilometres this property will be meat as oasis.
18. Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Khazarasp
Brief description of the component property:
Khazarasp is one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia. Many ancient authors of East At-Tabbari (XI century),
Arabian historian Al-Istakhri (X century), Beykhaki (XI), Djuveni (XIII century) and many other were mentioned about
this city. It is a coeval to Memphis, Rome, Athenes, Merv, Samarkand, Bukhara and many other cities. Khazarasp
was the main advanced post of Khorezm state on the Great Silk Road and the largest trade center in the past. Ruins
of this ancient city amaze the looks of visitors until present. The city has been surrounded by the fortifications. Walls
are strengthened by towers. At present time, only 12 towers are left. In the southeast corner rises above the citadel
tower Dev-Solgan. The height of the walls of kept tops is 12 m, and without them - 10 m. In some places of the wall
are totally destroyed. They are combined from pahsa (adobe wall) and adobe bricks. The city arises not as
spontaneously developing structure, and as the unique center, that has been being construction simultaneously,
according to the common plan.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
Khazarasp is the unique and exclusive evidence of the cultural and town-planning tradition, since the most ancient
times, including the epoch of antiquity and developed Middle Ages. The monument has reached our time in ruined
condition with partially kept fortifications, a citadel and powerful fortification constructions. In the cultural layers of this
site of ancient settlement covered numerous cultural strata since times of Greek-Roman Empire, and even the latest
Middle Ages from the epoch of conquered Akheminids.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other
similar sites not selected).
Similar monuments in the territory of Uzbekistan are Afrosiyab in Samarkand, Erkurgan-Nasaf in Qarshi, Toprak Kala
in ancient Khorezm. The ancient city is located on route of the Great Silk Road. Conservation works have not made.
It is preserved the authenticity. It is possible to investigate the planning and dynamics of their development during 2
thousand years in the example of Khazarasp
Archeological researches in Khazarasp confirmed; that it has arisen based on the settlement in the middle of I
millennium B.C. In the beginning of the VIII century Khazarasp is known as one of the three most strengthened and
large cities of Khorezm.
Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionelle
The Silk Roads are routes of integration, exchange and dialogue between East and West that have contributed
greatly to the common prosperity of humankind for almost 2 millennia. The whole of the route is more than the sum of
its constituent parts. Flourishing in particular between the 2nd century BC and end of the 16th century AD, this
network of routes, started initially from Chang'an (present-day Xi'an)and ultimately stretching from East Asia to the
Mediterranean in the west, and down into the Indian subcontinent, facilitated and generated a two-way
intercontinental trade in a dazzling array of trading goods. Of these, Chinese silk was among the most valuable, but it
included materials such as precious metals and stones, ceramics, perfumes, ornamental woods, and spices in return
for cotton and wool textiles, glass, wine, amber, carpets and the celebrated horses. This trade connected various
civilizations, persisted over centuries and was sustained by a system of caravanserais, commercial settlements, trade
cities and forts along its entire length of more than 10,000 km, which makes it arguably the longest cultural route in
the history of humanity. But much more than trading goods was transported over the network of Silk Roads.
Buddhism, Judaism, Islam and Nestorian, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeanism spread over the Silk
Roads, Scientific and technological developments were also diffused by these routes, for example from China, paper,
printing, gunpowder, cast iron, the crossbow, the magnetic compass, and porcelain, whilst engineering developments
(particularly bridge building), the cultivation and working of cotton, tapestry weaving, calendrial sciences, vine
cultivation, as well as certain glazing and metal working techniques spread from Central Asia, Middle East,
Mediterranean and the west. There was also a substantial two-way exchange of medical knowledge and medicines,
as well as of what are now seen as universal fruit and other food crops. As such, the Silk Roads generated
outstanding manifestations of global significance in the realms of economy, society, culture and the environment. The
types of monuments, sites and cultural landscapes found along the Silk Roads can be categorized under:
1) Infrastructure (facilitating trade and transportation);
2) Production (of trading goods); and
3) Outcomes ( such as cities, art, knowledge as a result of contact and exchange).
The property includes outstanding examples of types of heritage under these categories. Attributes include:
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Topographical and natural features
Urban patterns and architectural designs
Socio-economic development
Political events
Religious and spiritual values
Achievements in science and technology
Achievements in the arts (sculpture, painting, carving, etc.)
Intangible heritage
Under Category 1 Infrastructure, the sites among others, comprises caravanserais and inns; military posts, garrison
stations and fortifications; bridges; irrigation systems; natural and cultural landmarks. Under Category 2 Production
the sites reflect mining, metal working, manufacturing and handicrafts, and other industrial and production sites.
Under Category 3 Outcomes the sites include trade cities, urban centres and settlements; religious, spiritual and
ceremonial sites (including shrines, caves, tombs, sites of pilgrimage); and places of associations with political
events, transfer of ideas, language, music, dance, poetry, etc.(ii) as the Silk Roads property exhibits preeminent
interchanges of human values;
Criteria:
(iii) as the Silk Roads property is an outstanding example of the trade and dissemination of cultural traditions over
long-distances;
(iv) as the Silk Roads property contains an outstanding example of urban, architectural and technological ensembles
that was necessary to sustain this trade and exchange over almost two millennia;
(v) as the Silk Roads property bears an exceptional testimony to human interactions with the environment;
(vi) as the Silk Roads property is directly and tangibly associated with historic and living traditions, beliefs and value
systems.

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