ESRT - 2001 - Regents Earth

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The University of the State of New York • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov
cm 1
Earth Science Reference Tables
2
14
14
Carbon-14
N
C
K
{
solid
liquid
gas
10
Properties of Water
...............
Energy released during freezing
............
........
Energy released during condensation
..........................
540 calories/gram
540 calories/gram
13
Density at 3.98°C
....
80 calories/gram
12
Energy gained during vaporization
80 calories/gram
11
Energy gained during melting
9
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.24
0.20
0.19
0.11
0.09
0.03
8
10
SPECIFIC HEAT
(calories/gram • C°)
7
Dry air
Basalt
Granite
Iron
Copper
Lead
9
4.9 × 10
Sr
Rb
9
87
87
Rubidium-87
Water
4.5 × 10
Pb
U
1.3 × 10
3
206
238
Uranium-238
5.7 × 10
MATERIAL
6
Potassium-40
40
Ar
40
Ca
40
HALF-LIFE
(years)
5
DISINTEGRATION
4
Specific Heats of Common Materials
Radioactive Decay Data
RADIOACTIVE
ISOTOPE
3
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
1.00 gram/milliliter
14
15
EQUATIONS
16
Eccentricity of an ellipse
eccentricity = distance between foci
length of major axis
Gradient
gradient =
Rate of change
rate of change =
Density of a substance
density =
18
deviation (%) =
17
difference from accepted value
× 100
accepted value
Percent deviation
from accepted value
19
change in field value
distance
20
change in field value
time
21
mass
volume
22
23
2001 EDITION
EURYPTERUS
24
New York State Fossil
25
This edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables should be used in the
classroom beginning in the 2000–2001 school year. The first examination
for which these tables will be used is the January 2001 Regents
Examination in Earth Science.
LAKE
ERIE
AP
P
AL
A
U
EA
T
A
PL
KEY
S)
ND
A
PL
(U
TUG
HILL
PLATEAU
.
ST
International Boundary
State Boundary
Landscape Region Boundary
S
ND
LA
W
LO
THE
CATSKILLS
ADIRONDACK
MOUNTAINS
E
NC
E
R
W
LA
Major Geographic Province Boundary
ALLEGHENY PLATEAU
ERIE–ONTARIO LOWLANDS
(PLAINS)
LAKE ONTARIO
INTERIOR LOWLANDS
GRENVILLE PROVINCE
(HIGHLANDS)
Generalized Landscape Regions of New York State
N
CH
IA
DS
HU
ND S
L
AT
K LO
W
ON –
M O H AW
N
LO EW
W AR
L K
A
ND
S
EW
N
E
C
N
I
V
O
R
P S)
D ND
N A
LA L
G GH
EN (HI
A
CO
IC
T
AN
IN
L PLA
STA
N
S
AND
GHL
I
H
SON
HUD
ONG
N PR
A
T
T
HA
MAN
DS
AN
CHAMPLAIN LOWL
LA
TA
C
O
N
IC MO
UNTAIN
S
2
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
}
}
limestones, shales, sandstones, and dolostones
}
CAMBRIAN and EARLY ORDOVICIAN sandstones and dolostones
Moderately to intensely metamorphosed east of the Hudson River.
CAMBRIAN and ORDOVICIAN (undifferentiated) quartzites, dolostones, marbles, and schists
Intensely metamorphosed; includes portions of the Taconic Sequence and Cortlandt Complex.
TACONIC SEQUENCE sandstones, shales, and slates
Slightly to intensely metamorphosed rocks of CAMBRIAN through MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ages.
MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC gneisses, quartzites, and marbles
Lines are generalized structure trends.
Intensely Metamorphosed Rocks
(regional metamorphism about 1,000 m.y.a.)
MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC anorthositic rocks
ORDOVICIAN
CAMBRIAN
CRETACEOUS, TERTIARY, PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays
LATE TRIASSIC and EARLY JURASSIC conglomerates, red sandstones, red shales, and diabase (in Palisades Sill)
PENNSYLVANIAN and MISSISSIPPIAN conglomerates, sandstones, and shales
DEVONIAN
limestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates
Silurian also contains salt, gypsum, and hematite.
SILURIAN
GEOLOGICAL PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORK
modified from
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
1989
Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State
ara River
ag
Ni
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
3
}
}
Dominantly
Metamorphosed
Rocks
Dominantly
Sedimentary
Origin
NG
LO
O UND
AND S
ISL
N
Surface Ocean Currents
4
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
5
KEY:
Fiji
Plate
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Divergent Plate Boundary
(usually broken by transform
faults along mid-ocean ridges)
Philippine
Plate
Convergent Plate Boundary
(Subduction Zone)
subducting
plate
overriding
plate
Transform Plate Boundary
(Transform Fault)
Sandwich
Plate
Tectonic Plates
Mid-Atlantic Ri
dge
Relative Motion
at Plate Boundary
Mantle
Hot Spot
NOTE: Not all plates and boundaries are shown.
Complex or Uncertain
Plate Boundary
Rock Cycle in Earth’s Crust
Relationship of Transported
Particle Size to Water Velocity
De
po
s it
ion
SEDIMENTS
n
/or Pressure
t a nd
Hea tamorphism
Me
re
io n
lift)
os
(Up & Er
ring
the
Wea
lting
Me
Me
ltin
g
li d
PEBBLES
0.2 cm
0.1
SAND
0.01
0.006 cm
0.001
SILT
0.0004 cm
0.0001
0.00001
IGNEOUS
ROCK
So
1.0
CLAY
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
STREAM VELOCITY (cm/sec)
*This generalized graph shows the water velocity needed to
maintain, but not start, movement. Variations occur due to
differences in particle density and shape.
if
ic
METAMORPHIC
ROCK
BOULDERS
25.6 cm
COBBLES
6.4 cm
10.0
MAGMA
Pumice
Vesicular Basaltic Glass
Vesicular Rhyolite
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Scoria
Peridotite
Pegmatite
LIGHT
COLOR
DARK
LOW
DENSITY
HIGH
COMPOSITION
TEXTURE
Glassy
Nonvesicular
Vesicular
(gas
pockets)
Fine
Coarse
Nonvesicular
Very
Coarse
MAFIC (Fe, Mg)
100%
100%
Potassium
feldspar
(pink to white)
75%
Quartz
(clear to
white)
75%
Plagioclase feldspar
(white to gray)
50%
50%
Pyroxene
(green)
Biotite
(black)
25%
Amphibole
(black)
0%
6
Vesicular
Basalt
Vesicular
Andesite
GRAIN
SIZE
Noncrystalline
Basaltic Glass
Dunite
INTRUSIVE
(Plutonic)
EXTRUSIVE
(Volcanic)
Obsidian
(usually appears black)
FELSIC (Al)
MINERAL COMPOSITION
(Relative by Volume)
CHARACTERISTICS
IGNEOUS ROCKS
ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION
Scheme for Igneous Rock Identification
10 mm 1 mm
less than
or
to
1 mm
larger 10 mm
Melting
Heat and/or Pressu
(Up
We
lift)
athe
ring
& Er
osio
Erosion
SEDIMENTARY
ROCK
Metamorphism
PARTICLE DIAMETER (cm)
100.0
(Uplift)
Weathering & Erosion
e
on
at i
nt
at
ion
Ce
m
Burial
Compaction
Olivine
(green)
25%
0%
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification
INORGANIC LAND-DERIVED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
TEXTURE
GRAIN SIZE
COMPOSITION
COMMENTS
ROCK NAME
a
MAP SYMBOL
a
Pebbles, cobbles,
and/or boulders
embedded in sand,
silt, and/or clay
Clastic
(fragmental)
Sand
(0.2 to 0.006 cm)
Silt
(0.006 to 0.0004 cm)
Clay
(less than 0.0004 cm)
Rounded fragments
Mostly
quartz,
feldspar, and
clay minerals;
may contain
fragments of
other rocks
and minerals
Conglomerate
Breccia
Angular fragments
Fine to coarse
Sandstone
Very fine grain
Siltstone
Compact; may split
easily
Shale
CHEMICALLY AND/OR ORGANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
TEXTURE
GRAIN SIZE
COMPOSITION
Varied
Halite
Varied
Gypsum
Varied
Dolomite
Microscopic to coarse
Calcite
Cemented shell
fragments or precipitates
of biologic origin
Limestone
Varied
Carbon
From plant remains
Coal
Crystalline
Bioclastic
COMMENTS
ROCK NAME
Rock Salt
Crystals from
chemical
precipitates
and evaporites
Rock Gypsum
Dolostone
Scheme for Metamorphic Rock Identification
GRAIN
SIZE
TYPE OF
METAMORPHISM
Regional
Fine
to
medium
(Heat and
pressure
increase
with depth)
Medium
to
coarse
AMPHIBOLE
GARNET
PYROXENE
Fine
Fine
NONFOLIATED
COMPOSITION
MICA
QUARTZ
FELDSPAR
MINERAL
ALIGNMENT
BANDING
FOLIATED
TEXTURE
Variable
Contact
(Heat)
Quartz
Fine
to
coarse
Low-grade
metamorphism of shale
Foliation surfaces shiny from
microscopic mica crystals
ROCK NAME
Slate
Phyllite
Platy mica crystals visible from
metamorphism of clay or
feldspars
Schist
High-grade metamorphism;
some mica changed to feldspar;
segregated by mineral type
into bands
Gneiss
Various rocks changed by
heat from nearby
magma/lava
Hornfels
Metamorphism of quartz
sandstone
Quartzite
Metamorphism of
limestone or dolostone
Marble
Regional
Calcite and/or
dolomite
or
Contact
Coarse
COMMENTS
Various minerals
in particles
and matrix
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Pebbles may be distorted
or stretched
Metaconglomerate
. . . . .
. . . .
. . . . .
. . . .
MAP SYMBOL
MAP SYMBOL
7
GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF NEW YORK STATE
F
G
H
J
I
K
Valcouroceras
Tetragraptus
Eucalyptocrinus
Centroceras
Cryptolithus
Ctenocrinus
Dicellograptus
Manticoceras
Phacops
Elliptocephala
Hexameroceras
Era
Period
Epoch
Life on Earth
Millions of years ago
MESOZOIC
CRETACEOUS
Important Geologic
Events in New York
Inferred Position of
Earth’s Landmasses
EARLY
MISSISSIPPIAN
DEVONIAN
323
LATE
EARLY
LATE
Oldest microfossils
Earliest reptiles
Extensive coal-forming forests
MIDDLE
418
LATE
SILURIAN
EARLY
C
F
Earliest insects
Earliest land plants and animals
Peak development of eurypterids
E
LATE
ORDOVICIAN
Invertebrates dominant
– mollusks become abundant
Diverse coral and echinoderms
MIDDLE
490
Estimated time of origin
of Earth and solar system
LATE
MIDDLE
Graptolites abundant
Earliest fish
Algal reefs
Burgess shale fauna
Earliest chordates, diverse trilobites
Earliest trilobites
Earliest marine animals with shells
EARLY
G
I
443
Oldest known rocks
Passive Margin
Rifting
Appalachian (Alleghanian) Orogeny
caused by collision of North America
and Africa along transform margin,
forming Pangea
B
D
H
K
N
M
Q
P
Earth’s first
coral reef
X
Z
V
Y
U
T
W
J
A
1300
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Passive Margin
Rifting
Ediacaran fauna
Soft-bodied organisms
CRETACEOUS
119 million
years
ago
TRIASSIC
232 million
years
ago
Catskill Delta forms
Erosion of Acadian Mountains
R
544
580
59 million
years
ago
Earth’s
first forest
362
EARLY
Geochemical evidence
for oldest biological
fixing of carbon
Abundant sharks and amphibians
Large and numerous scale trees
and seed ferns
Earliest amphibians, ammonoids, sharks
Extinction of armored fish, other
fish abundant
TERTIARY
Extensive erosion
Transform Collision
LATE
PENNSYLVANIAN
Z
Intrusion of Palisades sill
Pangea begins to break up
Continental Collision
290
Y
Initial opening of Atlantic Ocean
North America and Africa separate
BRACHIOPODS
EARLY
GASTROPODS
PERMIAN
L
CORALS
Transition to
atmosphere
containing
oxygen
Modern coral groups appear
Earliest dinosaurs and mammals with
abundant cycads and conifers
Extinction of many kinds of marine
animals, including trilobites
First mammal-like reptiles
X
Development of passive continental margin
VASCULAR PLANTS
PALEOZOIC
LATE
MIDDLE
EARLY 251
LATE
W
Sands and shales underlying Long Island and Staten
Island deposited on margin of Atlantic Ocean
PLACODERM
FISH
TRIASSIC
206
CAMBRIAN
8
V
U
Advance and retreat of last continental ice
Uplift of Adirondack region
Earliest birds
Abundant dinosaurs and ammonoids
MIDDLE
EARLY
4600
S
Subduction
E
A
R
L
Y
T
142
EURYPTERIDS
M
I
D
D
L
E
Tectonic
Events
Affecting
Northeast
North
America
LATE
JURASSIC
E
A
R
L
Y
Earliest flowering plants
Decline of brachiopods
Diverse bony fishes
EARLY
First
appearance
of sexually
reproducing
organisms
Beluga
Whale
A
O
S
R
Q
Bothriolepis
Naples Tree
Lichenaria
Pleurodictyum
Mucrospirifer
Platyceras
Cooksonia
Aneurophyton
Condor
Eospirifer
Maclurites
Cystiphyllum
Time Distribution of Fossils
Rock
Record (Including Important Fossils of New York)
in
Lettered circles indicate the approximate time of existence of a specific
NYS index fossil (e.g. Fossil
lived at the end of the Early Cambrian).
CRINOIDS
PROTEROZOIC
PALEOGENE
P
O
Stylonurus
Eurypterus
Mastodont
GRAPTOLITES
4000
NEOGENE
Coelophysis
HOLOCENE 0
0.01
PLEISTOCENE 1.6 Humans, mastodonts, mammoths
PLIOCENE 5.3 Large carnivores
Abundant grazing mammals
MIOCENE
24 Earliest grasses
OLIGOCENE
Large running mammals
EOCENE 33.7 Many modern groups of mammals
54.8
PALEOCENE
65 Extinction of dinosaurs and ammonoids
Earliest placental mammals
LATE
Climax of dinosaurs and ammonoids
EARLY
L
A
T
E
ARCHEAN
P R E C A M B R I A N
3000
M
I
D
D
L
E
Oldest
multicellular
life
TERTIARY
L
A
T
E
1000
2000
QUATERNARY
CENOZOIC
CARBONIFEROUS
500
PHANEROZOIC
Millions of years ago
0
N
M
AMMONOIDS
Eon
L
BIRDS
E
MAMMALS
D
NAUTILOIDS
C
TRILOBITES
B
A
DINOSAURS
(Fossils not drawn to scale)
Acadian Orogeny caused by collision of
North America and Avalon and closing
of remaining part of Iapetus Ocean
DEVONIAN/MISSISSIPPIAN 362 million
years
ago
Salt and gypsum deposited in evaporite basins
Erosion of Taconic Mountains; Queenston Delta forms
Taconian Orogeny caused by closing of
western part of Iapetus Ocean and
collision between North America and
volcanic island arc
ORDOVICIAN
458 million
years
ago
Iapetus passive margin forms
Rifting and initial opening of Iapetus Ocean
Erosion of Grenville Mountains
Grenville Orogeny: Ancestral Adirondack
Mtns. and Hudson Highlands formed
Stromatolites
99-098 CDK(rev) 8/2000
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
9
a
Inferred Properties of Earth’s Interior
T
LAN
AT
IC
OCE
AN
DENSITY (g/cm3)
IC
TLANT
MID-AIDGE
R
E
S
LA
(P
3.3–5.5
LE
NT
MA
PRESSURE
(millions of atmospheres)
9.9–12.1
IC
&
N
RE
CO KEL
12.7–13.0
IRO
IN N
ER
E
N
CO
R
STI
FF
ER
AS
4
EARTH’S CENTER
3
2
1
0
?
6000
?
?
? ?
MEL
TING
POIN
T
MANTLE
TEMPERATURE (°C)
?)
ON
(IR
O UT
ER
PACIFIC
OCEAN
C
A
T
S
R C
E A
N D
C E
H S
CR
US
T
a
SP
HE
R
M R IG
AN ID
TH
TL
EN
E
O
NO
RT
H
AM
ER
I
CA
RE
LE)
HE
P
NT
S
A
O
M
C
TH
TI
LI
2.7 continental crust
3.0 oceanic crust
MOHO
5000
4000
3000
2000
AC
?
?
?
?
A
TU
E
LT
TU
RA
E
MP
NG
TI
EL
M
RE
T
IN
PO
PARTIAL MELTING OF
ULTRAMAFIC MANTLE
1000
0
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
DEPTH (km)
10
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Average Chemical Composition
of Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere
CRUST
ELEMENT
(symbol)
Oxygen (O)
Silicon (Si)
Aluminum (Al)
Iron (Fe)
Calcium (Ca)
Sodium (Na)
Magnesium (Mg)
Potassium (K)
Nitrogen (N)
Hydrogen (H)
Other
Percent by
Mass
Percent by
Volume
46.40
28.15
8.23
5.63
4.15
2.36
2.33
2.09
94.04
0.88
0.48
0.49
1.18
1.11
0.33
1.42
HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHERE
Percent by
Percent by
Volume
Volume
21.0
33.0
78.0
0.66
0.07
66.0
1.0
1.0
Earthquake P-wave and S-wave Travel Time
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
S
17
TRAVEL TIME (minutes)
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
P
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
2
3
4
5
6
7
3
EPICENTER DISTANCE (×10 km)
8
9
10
11
Dewpoint Temperatures (°C)
Dry-Bulb
Temperature (°C)
– 20
–18
–16
–14
–12
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°)
0
– 20
–18
–16
–14
–12
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
1
– 33
– 28
– 24
– 21
–18
–14
–12
–10
–7
–5
–3
–1
1
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
19
21
23
25
27
29
2
– 36
– 28
– 22
–18
–14
–12
–8
–6
–3
–1
1
3
6
8
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
– 29
– 22
–17 – 29
–13 – 20
– 9 –15 – 24
– 6 –11 –17
– 4 – 7 –11 –19
–1 – 4 – 7 –13 – 21
1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14
1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 – 28
4
4
1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –16
6
6
4
1 – 2 – 5 –10 –17
9
9
7
4
1 –1 – 6 –10 –17
11
11
9
7
4
2 – 2 – 5 –10 –19
13
14 12 10
7
4
2 –2 – 5 –10 –19
15
3
–1 – 5 –10 –19
16 14 12
10
8
5
17
6
2 –1 – 5 –10 –18
18 16 14
12 10
8
20
9
6
0 –4 –9
20 18 17
15 13
11
3
22
11
9
4
1 –3
22 21 19
17 16
14
7
24
12 10
8
5
1
24 23 21
19 18
16 14
26
Relative Humidity (%)
Dry-Bulb
Temperature (°C)
– 20
–18
–16
–14
–12
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
12
Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°)
0
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
1
28
40
48
55
61
66
71
73
77
79
81
83
85
86
87
88
88
89
90
91
91
92
92
92
93
93
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
11
23
33
41
48
54
58
63
67
70
72
74
76
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
86
13
20
32
37
45
51
56
59
62
65
67
69
71
72
74
75
76
77
78
79
11
20
28
36
42
46
51
54
57
60
62
64
66
68
69
70
71
72
1
11
20
27
35
39
43
48
50
54
56
58
60
62
64
65
66
6
14
22
28
33
38
41
45
48
51
53
55
57
59
61
10
17
24
28
33
37
40
44
46
49
51
53
55
6
13
19
25
29
33
36
40
42
45
47
49
4
10
16
21
26
30
33
36
39
42
44
2
8
14
19
23
27
30
34
36
39
1
7
12
17
21
25
28
31
34
1
6
11
15
20
23
26
29
5
10
14
18
21
25
4
9
13
17
20
4
9
12
16
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Pressure
Temperature
Fahrenheit
Celsius
110
Water boils
220
Human body
temperature
Room
temperature
70
140
60
120
50
20
10
–20
–30
–40
–40
–60
–50
30.50
30.30
1024.0
30.20
1020.0
30.10
310
1016.0
30.00
300
one
atmosphere 1012.0
1013.2 mb
29.90
29.80
1008.0
29.70
1004.0
270
–10
–20
1028.0
280
0
0
350
290
60
20
1032.0
320
40
Ice melts
30.60
330
30
80
1036.0
360
340
40
100
30.70
30.40
80
160
1040.0
370
90
180
inches
380
100
200
millibars
Kelvin
29.60
260
1000.0
250
996.0
29.40
992.0
29.30
240
230
988.0
220
29.50
29.20
29.10
984.0
Weather Map Symbols
980.0
Station Model
Temperature (°F)
Present weather
Visibility (mi)
Dewpoint (°F)
28
1
2✱
27
Wind speed
whole feather = 10 knots
half feather = 5 knots
total = 15 knots
Present Weather
Drizzle
Rain
Smog
Hail
✱
Snow
Sleet
Freezing
Rain
Fog
Haze
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Amount of cloud cover
(approximately 75% covered)
Barometric pressure
196 (1019.6 mb)
Barometric trend
+19/ (a steady 1.9-mb rise
the past 3 hours)
.25 Precipitation
(inches past 6 hours)
✱
Snow
Showers
28.90
976.0
28.80
972.0
28.70
968.0
28.60
28.50
Wind direction
(from the southwest)
(1 knot = 1.15 mi/hr)
Air Masses
ThunderRain
storms Showers
∞
29.00
Front Symbols
cA continental arctic
Cold
cP continental polar
Warm
cT continental tropical
mT maritime tropical
mP maritime polar
Hurricane
Stationary
Occluded
13
Selected Properties
of Earth’s Atmosphere
mi
km 150
Water
Vapor
Atmospheric
Pressure
Temperature
Zones
75
100
Thermosphere
Mesopause
50
Altitude
Mesosphere
Stratopause
50
25
Stratosphere
100°
10–4
10–3
10–2
10–1
10 0
0°
–100°
15°
–90° –55°
Temperature (°C)
0
20
40
Concentration
(g/m3)
Pressure (atm)
0.000,000,1
0.000,001
0.000,01
0.000,1
0.001
0.01
0.1
1.0
10
100
1,000
Electromagnetic Spectrum
0.000,000,01
cm 10–10
0
0.000,000,001
cm
0.000,000,000,1
Sea Level 0
Tropopause
Troposphere
10–9
10–8
10–7
10–6
10–5
10–4
10–3
10–2
10–1
100
101
102
103
Gamma rays
x rays
Visible
Microwaves
Ultraviolet
Infrared
Radio waves
Decreasing Wavelength
Increasing Wavelength
Visible Light
7.0 × 10
–5
Red
6.3 × 10–5
Orange
5.8 × 10
4.9 × 10
Yellow
–5
Green
5.3 × 10–5
Blue
–5
4.3 × 10–5
4.0 × 10–5
Violet
Tropopause
Polar Front Jet Stream
DRY
Polar Front
N.E.
WET
60° N
S.W.
WINDS
DRY
30° N
N.E.
WINDS
0°
WET
Subtropical
Jet Streams
S.E.
WINDS
DRY
N.W.
WINDS
WET
30° S
Planetary Wind
and Moisture Belts
in the Troposphere
The drawing to the left shows
the locations of the belts near
the time of an equinox. The
locations shift somewhat with
the changing latitude of the
Sun’s vertical ray. In the
Northern Hemisphere, the belts
shift northward in summer and
southward in winter.
60° S
S.E.
DRY
14
Polar Front Jet Stream
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
Luminosity and Temperature of Stars
(Name in italics refers to star shown by a + )
Luminosity (Relative to the Sun)
1,000,000
Massive
Stars
Blue
Supergiants
Rigel
Betelgeuse
+
10,000
Luminosity is the
brightness of stars
compared to the
brightness of our
Sun as seen from
the same distance
from the observer.
Supergiants
+
Polaris +
Ma
in S
Red Giants
+ Aldebaran
equ
100
enc
e
+ Sirius
1
Sun
+
+
Alpha Centauri
White Dwarfs
+ Procyon B
0.01
Red
Dwarfs
Barnard’s
Star +
Small
Stars
0.0001
20,000
White Stars
Color
Blue Stars
5,000
10,000
Temperature (°C)
Yellow Stars
2,500
Red Stars
Solar System Data
Object
Mean Distance
from Sun
(millions of km)
Period
of
Revolution
Period
of
Rotation
Eccentricity Equatorial
of
Diameter
Orbit
(km)
SUN
—
—
27 days
—
MERCURY
57.9
88 days
59 days
0.206
4,880
VENUS
108.2
224.7 days
243 days
0.007
EARTH
149.6
365.26 days
23 hr
56 min
4 sec
MARS
227.9
687 days
JUPITER
778.3
333,000.00
Density Number
3
of
(g/cm )
Moons
1.4
–
0.553
5.4
0
12,104
0.815
5.2
0
0.017
12,756
1.00
5.5
1
24 hr
37 min
23 sec
0.093
6,787
0.1074
3.9
2
11.86 years
9 hr
50 min
30 sec
0.048
142,800
317.896
1.3
16
10
14
17
14
16
0.056
120,000
95.185
0.7
18
0.047
51,800
14.537
1.2
21
0.009
49,500
17.151
1.7
8
SATURN
1,427
29.46 years
URANUS
2,869
84.0 years
NEPTUNE
4,496
164.8 years
PLUTO
5,900
247.7 years
6 days
9 hr
0.250
2,300
0.0025
2.0
1
27.3 days
27 days
8 hr
0.055
3,476
0.0123
3.3
—
EARTH’S
MOON
149.6
(0.386 from Earth)
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
hr
min
hr
min
hr
1,392,000
Mass
(Earth = 1)
15
Either
Metallic Luster
COMMON
COLORS
DISTINGUISHING
CHARACTERISTICS
USE(S)
MINERAL NAME
COMPOSITION*
1–2
✔
silver to
gray
black streak,
greasy feel
pencil lead,
lubricants
Graphite
C
2.5
✔
metallic
silver
very dense (7.6 g/cm3),
gray-black streak
ore of
lead
Galena
PbS
5.5–6.5
✔
black to
silver
attracted by magnet,
black streak
ore of
iron
Magnetite
Fe3O4
6.5
✔
brassy
yellow
green-black streak,
cubic crystals
ore of
sulfur
Pyrite
FeS2
1–6.5
✔
metallic silver or
earthy red
red-brown streak
ore
of iron
Hematite
Fe2O3
white to
green
greasy feel
talcum powder,
soapstone
Talc
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
yellow to
amber
easily melted,
may smell
vulcanize rubber,
sulfuric acid
Sulfur
S
1
✔
✔
2
Nonmetallic Luster
FRACTURE
HARDNESS
CLEAVAGE
LUSTER
Properties of Common Minerals
2
✔
white to
pink or gray
easily scratched
by fingernail
plaster of paris
and drywall
Gypsum
(Selenite)
CaSO4 •2H2O
2–2.5
✔
colorless to
yellow
flexible in
thin sheets
electrical
insulator
Muscovite Mica
KAl3Si3O10(OH)2
2.5
✔
colorless to
white
cubic cleavage,
salty taste
food additive,
melts ice
Halite
NaCl
2.5–3
✔
black to
dark brown
flexible in
thin sheets
electrical
insulator
Biotite Mica
K(Mg,Fe)3
AlSi3O10(OH)2
3
✔
colorless
or variable
bubbles
with acid
cement,
polarizing prisms
Calcite
CaCO3
3.5
✔
colorless
or variable
bubbles with acid
when powdered
source of
magnesium
Dolomite
CaMg(CO3)2
4
✔
colorless or
variable
cleaves in
4 directions
hydrofluoric
acid
Fluorite
CaF2
5–6
✔
black to
dark green
cleaves in
2 directions at 90°
mineral
collections
Pyroxene
(commonly Augite)
(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al)
(Si,Al)2O6
5.5
✔
black to
dark green
cleaves at
56° and 124°
mineral
collections
6
✔
white to
pink
cleaves in
2 directions at 90°
ceramics
and glass
Potassium Feldspar
(Orthoclase)
KAlSi3O8
6
✔
white to
gray
cleaves in 2 directions,
striations visible
ceramics
and glass
Plagioclase Feldspar
(Na-Ca Feldspar)
(Na,Ca)AlSi3O8
furnace bricks
and jewelry
Olivine
(Fe,Mg)2SiO4
Quartz
SiO2
Garnet
(commonly Almandine)
Fe3Al2Si3O12
6.5
✔
green to
gray or brown
commonly light green
and granular
7
✔
colorless or
variable
glassy luster, may form
hexagonal crystals
7
✔
dark red
to green
glassy luster, often seen as red
grains in NYS metamorphic rocks
*Chemical Symbols:
Al = aluminum
C = carbon
Ca = calcium
Cl = chlorine
F = fluorine
Fe = iron
H = hydrogen
K = potassium
Mg = magnesium
CaNa(Mg,Fe)4 (Al,Fe,Ti)3
Amphiboles
(commonly Hornblende)
Si6O22(O,OH)2
glass, jewelry,
and electronics
jewelry and
abrasives
Na = sodium
O = oxygen
Pb = lead
S = sulfur
Si = silicon
Ti = titanium
✔ = dominant form of breakage
16
DET 633 (0-00-00,000)
Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition
9-073587 99-098 CDK

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