Introduction To Java And Hello World

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Introduction To Java
And Hello World
Java History
• Developed By Sun Microsystems (merged with Oracle on
January 27, 2010)
• Projected Headed By James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick
Naughton.
• Originally named Oak and then changed to Green before
becoming Java.
• Developed in 1994. First stable release in 1995
• Sun Microsystem’s Tag Line:
• “Write Once, Run Anywhere”
• The Public’s Initial Reaction:
• “Write Once, Debug Everywhere”
Java History
• Perfect Timing
• The PC revolution occurred around the time Java
was introduced. Java was quickly utilized for
further development of online content (java
applets) because of its device independent nature.
Platform Independence
• Capable of running on many types of
computers (PCs, Macs, Unix and Linux,
mainframes, cell phones, etc.)
• Sun Microsystems estimated that there were 5.5 million
different java capable devices in 2010.
Platform Independence
How Does It Work?
• Previous Thought: Create a compiler that can
run on any platform.
• Java Thought: Develop a method to have code
translated into a language that all platforms
could run without compiling on a specific
machine.
Platform Independence
How Does It Work?
• Editor
• Program used to type, review, and edit commands in a programming
language
• Java Code (.java)
• The source code of a Java program. The code written in the Java
language
• Compiler
• A program that processes statements written in a particular language
and turns them into machine language that a processor uses
• Byte code (.class)
• Machine code that is created after the java language has been
compiled
Platform Independence
How Does It Work?
• Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
• Acts as an Emulator – Sets aside part of your hard drive to
act like a computer that can execute Java Programs
• Offers all classes needed to enable the JVM to run your
program
• Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
• Part Of The JRE
• A Hypothetical Computer Platform – A design for a
computer that does not exist as actual hardware
• Acts as the “processor” which processes your program
instructions.
Platform Independence
How Does It Work?
Object-Oriented Programming
• Java Is Inherently Object-Oriented
• Objected-Oriented: a programming entity that represents
either some real-world object or an abstract concept.
• Objects have two basic characteristics
– Objects Have Data, also known as state.
• An object that represents a book has data such as the book’s
title, author, and publisher
– Objects also have behavior which means that they can
perform certain tasks. These tasks are called methods.
• Methods for a car may be start, stop, drive, and crash.
Object-Oriented Programming
• Classes are closely related to objects
– Classes: the program code that you write to create
objects.
• The class describes the data and methods that define
the object’s state and behavior.
• When the program executes, classes are used to create
objects.
Object-Oriented Programming
• Example: The Payroll
– The program needs objects to represent the company’s employees
– The program would include a class called Employee that defines the data
and methods for each Employee object.
– When the program runs it uses this class to create an object for each of
your company’s employees
The Java API
• Java Application Programming Interface: a
library of classes that provide commonly used
utility functions that most Java programs can
not do without.
• The Java Language has 50 Keywords
• The Java Language has several thousand
classes.
Features of Java
• Type Checking: The way that a language handles
variables that store different types of data.
• Java does complete type checking at runtime.
• Automatic Memory Management: You do not
have to explicitly release memory when you are
done with it.
– The Java Virtual Machine has a special process called
the garbage collector that determines when data is no
longer being used and automatically deletes that data.
– The result, speedier computing.
Features of Java
• Exception Handling
– The Java Runtime Environment intercepts and
folds errors of all types into a special type of
object called an exception object.
• Java requires that any statement that can potentially
cause an exception be bracketed by code that can catch
and handle the exception.
• When programming in Java you must anticipate
errors that can occur while your programming is
running.
The Downside
• The API (Application Programming Interface) is
gigantic.
• Some API classes are over complicated
• Java does not directly support decimal data.
– Without special coding, Java does not know how
to add.
HELLO WORLD
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
}
Hello World
public class HelloApp
• A Keyword of the Java Language.
• States that the elements that follow (a class
named HelloApp) should be made public
• Public = Accessible To Other Classes
Hello World
public class HelloApp
• A Keyword Of The Java Language
• Indicates That The Element Defined Here Is A
Class.
• All Java Programs Are Made Up Of One Or More Classes.
• A class definition contains code that defines
the behavior of the objects created and used
by the program.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
• An Identifier* that provides the name for the
class being defined here.
• Unlike keywords, Identifiers are words that YOU
create.
• Identifiers provide names for various elements
that you use in your program.
*Though Identifier is the correct term it is
sometimes referred to as a symbol or name.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
}
{ and }: Define the beginning and end of the Body of the
class. Everything between these brackets belong to the
class.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
• Public keyword is used to indicate that a METHOD should
have public access.
• Classes other than HelloApp can use it.
• All Java programs must have at least one class that declares
a public method named main.
• The main method contains the statements that are executed
when you run the program
Method: a unit of code that can calculate and return a value
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
• The Java language requires that you specify
static when you declare the main method
• Static to be explained in future lessons.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
• Specifies the main method will not return a
value
Method: a unit of code that can calculate and return a
value
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
• The identifier that provides the name of the method
• As previous stated, Java requires that this method be
called main
• When creating other methods you can name them
anything that will help you with proper organization
and workflow.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
• Parameter List: Used to pass data to the method.
• You have to code (String [ ] args) on the
declaration for the main methods in ALL of your
Java programs
• A further explanation of Parameter List will come
in the future.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
}
• These brackets mark the body of the main method.
• Whenever you come to a closing bracket it is paired with
the most recent opening bracket that has not been closed.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
• The only statement in the entire program!
• Calls a method named println that belongs to the
System.out object
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
• This method displays a line of text on the
console.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
• The text to be displayed is passed to the println
method as a parameter in parentheses following the
word println.
• The text is the string literal Hello, World! Therefore
those characters are displayed on the console
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
• In Java, most (but not all) statements must end
with a ;
• As this is the only statement in the program this
is the only line that requires a ;
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
• This closing bracket marks the end of the main
method body
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
}
• This bracket marks the end of the HelloApp class.
• As this program consists of one class, this line also
marks the end of the program.
Hello World
public class HelloApp
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println ("Hello, World!");
}
}
Java Basics Continued
Keywords
•
•
Public, class, static, and void were all used in HelloWorld
true, false, and null are considered literals.
•
•
Literals are reserved for the Java language and work in a similar way to keywords
const and goto are reserved by the java language but do not do anything (they are
carryovers from C++)
Working With Statements
• Like many other programming languages, Java
uses statements to build programs.
• Unlike most other languages, Java does not
use statements as its fundamental unit of
code (it uses classes)
Examples Of Statements
• Declaration statements: create variables that
can be used to store data
int I;
String s = “This is a new string”;
Customer c = new Customer ( ) ;
Examples Of Statements
• Expression statements: perform calculations
i=a+b
salesTax = invoiceTotal * taxrate;
System.out.println (“Hello, World!”) ;
Expression Statements In Action: the last statement
in this group is the same as line 5 of HelloApp
Examples Of Statements
• if-then statements: execute other statements
only if a particular condition has been met
• for, while, and do statements: execute whole
groups of statements one or more times.
; and Statements
• When piecing together a statement, many must
end with ;
– Declaration and Expression statements must end with
a;
– Most other statement types do not need a ;
• The java compiler will let you know if you should not use a ;
if statement
expression statement
if (total > 100)
discountPercent = 10;
White Space/Workflow
• White space: one or more consecutive space
characters, tab characters, or line breaks.
• Within Java, all white space is considered the
same whether it is one space or 15 line
breaks.
White Space/Workflow
• All of the following statements will function
the same way:
x
x = (y + 5) / z;
x=
(y + 5) / z;
=
(
y
+
5
)
/
Z
;
White Space/Workflow
All of the following statements will function the same way:
public static void main (String [] args)
public
static
void
main
(String [] args)
Exceptions: You can not put white space between keywords or
identifiers
p u b l i c static v o i d main (String [] args) will not work
The Importance Of White Space
• When developing lengthy code white space
becomes important
– Use line breaks to separate statements
– Use tabs to line up elements that belong together
When you start to program regularly you will develop
your own methods.
Remember that these methods SHOULD help you
better organize your ideas for easier access and editing
Working With Blocks
• Block: a group of one or more statements that is enclosed
in braces { }. A block can contain one or more statements.
{
int i, j;
i = 100;
j = 200;
}
A block itself is a type of statement. Anytime the Java
language requires a statement you can substitute a block.
Though a block is a type of statement it shouldn’t end with a ;
Creating Identifiers
• Identifier: a word used to refer to a Java
programming element by name.
– Identifiers are most used for the following
elements:
•
•
•
•
Classes (HelloApp)
Methods (main)
Variables and fields (hold data used by your program)
Parameters (pass data values to methods)
Creating Identifiers
• Important things to remember about Identifiers:
– Case-sensitive: SalesTax, Salestax, and salesTax are all distinct
identifiers
– Can be made up of uppercase and lowercase letters, numerals,
underscore characters (_), and dollars signs ($). Examples:
Sales_Tax, sale$Tax, Sa1esTax
– All identifiers must begin with a letter (sadly $alesTax will not
function as an identifier)
– Identifiers can not be the same as ANY Java keywords (say
goodbye to public, transient, and package)
– Watch out for bling: it is recommended that you avoid using $ in
your identifiers because code generators use $ to create
identifiers. Avoiding $ may help prevent conflicts with generated
names.
Crafting Comments
• Comments: text that provides explanations of
your code which is formatted in a specific way
to avoid compiling errors.
• Java Has 3 Basic Types Of Comments:
– End-of-line Comments
– Traditional Comments
– Javadoc Comments
Crafting Comments
• End-of-line Comments
– Typically used to explain the purpose of a
particular line
– Begin with the sequence / / (everything typed
after those two slashes is ignored by the compiler)
– End at the end of the line
– Can be placed at the end of ANY line
total = total * discountpercent; // calculate the discounted total
Crafting Comments
• End-of-line Comments
– Typically used to explain the purpose of a particular line
– Begin with the sequence / / (everything typed after those
two slashes is ignored by the compiler)
– End at the end of the line
– Can be placed at the end of ANY line
Typical End-of-line comment
total = total * discountpercent; // calculate the discounted total
Separate Line End-of-line comment
// calculate the discounted total
total = total * discountpercent;
Crafting Comments
• End-of-line Comments
– Typically used to explain the purpose of a particular
line
– Begin with the sequence / / (everything typed after
those two slashes is ignored by the compiler)
– End at the end of the line
– Can be placed at the end of ANY line
Middle Of Statement End-of-line Comment
total = (total * discountpercent)
+ salestax:
// calculate the discounted total first
// then add the sales tax
Crafting Comments
• Traditional Comments
– Typically placed at the beginning of a class to
indicate its function, purpose, and/or
additional information about it (author, year
it was written, etc.)
– Begin with the sequence /*
– End with */
– Can span multiple lines
– Can begin and end ANYWHERE on a line (as
long as your required code is not within it)
Crafting Comments
•
Traditional Comments
– Typically placed at the beginning of a class to indicate its function, purpose,
and/or additional information about it (author, year it was written, etc.)
– Begin with the sequence /*
– End with */
– Can span multiple lines
– Can begin and end ANYWHERE on a line (as long as your required code is not
within it)
/* This class makes the words “Zlomek 4 Lyfe” appear on the console. Ryan Zlomek wrote, or rather stole, this code in order to
make it appear that he knew how to code. This occurred sometime in 2013 though no one can be sure when. If he is to keep up
this pace he might be able to build an app by the time he graduates from life. Good day y’all. */
public class helloworld
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
System.out.println (“Zlomek 4 Lyfe");
}
}
Crafting Comments
•
Traditional Comments
– Typically placed at the beginning of a class to indicate its function, purpose,
and/or additional information about it (author, year it was written, etc.)
– Begin with the sequence /*
– End with */
– Can span multiple lines
– Can begin and end ANYWHERE on a line (as long as your required code is not
within it)
One bad habit: Some people use Traditional comments to block out code for
temporary compiling. This WILL NOT work if there is a traditional comment within it.
/*
int x, y, z;
y = 10;
z = 5;
x = (y + /* a strange place for a comment */ 5) / z;
*/
Crafting Comments
• JavaDoc Comments
– A special type of Traditional Comment used to
automatically create web-based
documentation for a program.
– This type of comment is to be explained
further when we get to specific ObjectOriented concepts.
Comment Fiddling
• Take a look at your HelloApp program and start to
implement End-of-line and Traditional comments
into it.
• Test different methods and see what you can
incorporate
• Try making intentional errors to see how the
compiler deals with them.

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