K.L.N. College of Engineering. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE1254. ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II PART-A 1.What is synchronous impedance , leakage reactance and synchronous reactance. 2. What is SCR? Explain the terms direct and quadrature –axis reactance of salient pole alternator. 3. What is the role of damper winding in an alternator. 4.What conditions are required to be fulfilled for the successful parallel operation of alternators? 5.Discuss the use of synchroscope in the parallel operation of alternator. 6.What is an infinite bus? 7.An alternator is connected to infinite bus and is running at no-load. Explain briefly how to increase its real and reactive power outputs? 8.What do you understand by “power angle” of alternator? 9.What is meant by Hunting? What the causes ,its bad effects and methods of elimination of hunting 10.Why bright lamp method is preferred over dark lamp method for synchronization of alternator? 11.How do synchronizing lamps indicate the phase variation of the incoming machine and the running machine? 12.What is synchronizing current, synchronizing power, synchronizing torque? 13. What is the role of damper winding in an (i) alternator (ii).Synchronous Motor. 14. Does the change in excitation affect the speed or power factor of the synchronous motor? 15. What happens when (i)the excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is varied, the load torque remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is varied at constant load. 16. Write the expression for maximum power developed by Salient and non-salient pole synchronous motor. 17.What is a synchronous capacitor? 18.Draw the phasor diagram of a synchronous motor for leading, lagging and unity power factor load 19.How will you reverse the direction of rotation of synchronous motor? 20. What is meant by hunting in (i) Synchronous motor ? (ii)Alternator. 21.Write short notes on induction generator. Mention its advantages and disadvantages, 22.What is asynchronous induction motor? 23.What is the application of induction generator? 24.Draw torque-slip characteristics of induction generator. 25.What is meant by single phasing? 26.How will you improve the staring torque of 3 phase induction motor? 27.What is meant by cogging and crawling? How to avoid it? 28.Which type of induction motor develops higher starting torque. 29. What is meant by harmonic induction Torque? Draw the torque-Speed characteristics due to such effects. 30. Draw the torque – slip & torque –speed characteristics of a 3φ IM. 31. What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when the applied voltage is reduced to half ,supply frequency remaining unchanged? 32.What will be the effect on the torque developed by an induction motor when both the applied voltage and supply frequency are reduced to half? 33. What are the possible reasons of failure of a 3-phase induction motor? 34. On what factors does the speed of an induction motor depend? 35.which is the cheapest method of starting a 3-phase induction motor? 36.What type of protection is provided in the starter meant for 3-phase induction motor. 37.What is the usual cause of blow-outs in induction motor? 38.What are the possible reasons of failure of a 3-phase induction motor to start? 39.What is slip test? 40.Draw capability curves. 41.What is slip power recovery scheme. 42.Draw hysteresis motor and mention its applications. 43. Name the motors used in ceiling fan and in lathes. 44. Which type of single phase induction motor is to be selected for driving fans and blowers and Why? 45.Why centrifugal switches provided on many single phase induction motor? 46.What type of motor is used in computer drivers? 47.Determine the step angle of a single stack,4phase,6 pole stepper motor. 48. What happens to a capacitor start induction motor, if the auxiliary winding is left in the circuit after it has been used to start the motor? 49. What is a Universal motor? How can the direction of rotation be reversed? 50.Why compensating winding is provided in a universal motor for ac operation? PART-B51.(a)Discuss the constructional details and principle of operation of Alternator. Draw different types of ac generators in use. Explain the essential differences in their construction. Mention their salient features ,range of speed of its prime mover and places of application. What type of alternator is preferable for (i)diesel engines (ii).steam engines (iii).Turboalternator.Why field system is rotating in alternator? (b.)(i)Derive an expression for emf equation of alternator. Define pitch factor and distribution factor and derive the expression. State the advantages and disadvantages of short-pitched and distributed winding in alternator. (ii).A 3 phase ,8 pole,750 rpm,star connected alternator has 72 slots on the armature.Each slot has 12 conductors and winding is short chorded by 2 slots.Find the induced emf between lines , given the flux per pole is 0.06Wb. [β=20º,α=20º,EL=2,998V][JBG 209] (OR) 52.(a). What is armature reaction? Explain the effect of armature reaction on the terminal voltage of an alternator at (i)unity power factor load(ii). Zero leading power factor load(iii).zero lagging power factor load. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams. What are the causes of harmonics in in the voltage waveform of an alternator?.How can these be minimized?. (b).Define voltage regulation of alternator. Describe (i)emf (ii) mmf (iii).Potier triangle method of voltage regulation of alternator. Why the name pessimistic and optimistic method?.Which method of VR is the most accurate one? A 3 phase ,star connected alternator is rated at 1,600kVA,13,500V.The armature resistance and reactance are 1.5Ω and 30Ω respectively per phase.Calculate the percentage regulation for a load of 1,280kW at 0.8 leading power factor.[IL=68.4A,Eo =6,860V,%R=-11.98%][JBG 226] 53. (a).Describe with neat sketches, the construction, principle of operation a 3 phase synchronous motor. What could be the reasons if a 3 phase synchronous motor fails to start? Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed? List any two merits ,demerits and applications of Synchronous motor. Discuss the starting methods of Synchronous motor. (b). Describe briefly the effect of varying excitation upon the armature current and power factor of a 3 phase synchronous motor when the input power to the motor is maintained constant. Draw ‘V’and inverted ‘V’ curves of a synchronous motor. What happens when (i)the excitation of a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus is varied, the load torque remaining constant?(ii).the excitation of a synchronous motor is varied at constant load. Explain the experimental method of determining V and inverted V curves. (OR) 54.(a)(i)Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor. Derive the expression for the power developed by a synchronous motor, interms of the load angle. What is the condition for maximum power developed? (ii) A 75kW,400V,3Φ,star connected synchronous motor has resistance and synchronous reactance per phase of 0.04Ω and 0.4Ω respectively. Compute for full load ,0.8power factor leading, the open circuit emf per phase and gross mechanical power developed Assume efficiency as 92.5%. [E=226.1V,Pm =78.2kW] (b).(i)Explain how a synchronous motor can be operated as synchronous condenser? Explain how it can be used for power factor improvement? (ii)A 500V,50Hz,3Φ load takes 20A at 0.8pf lagging. A Synchronous motor is used to improve the power factor to unity. Calculate the kVAR input to the motor and its power factor when driving a mechanical load of 7.5kW.The motor has an efficiency of 85%.[kVARs=10.39.Φs=36.8º] 55. (a) Explain with the help of suitable diagrams how rotating magnetic field is produced .Explain the construction and working of 3φ IM.What are the differences between SCIM and SRIM constructionally?What is skewing?. Explain the terms slip, slip frequency, wound rotor, cage rotor. (b). Derive an expression for toque developed in a 3 φ IM and find the condition for maximum torque (i)starting (ii)running.Draw the torque –speed characteristics of poly phase IM and clearly indicate the effect of change in rotor resistance. For an IM derive a relationship between (i)starting torque and maximum torque (ii) Full load torque and maximum torque. What is the effect of variation of supply Frequency and supply voltage on starting torque, synchronous speed, % slip and Load current? (OR) 56.(a) .Explain the procedure for drawing Circle Diagram. A 400v ,3ph I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line ) values No load test- 400v, 9A, 1250W Short circuit test-150v, 38 A, 4000 w. Draw the circle diagram if the normal rating is 14.9kW. Find from the circle diagram the full load value of current, power factor, slip &efficiency. (ans:n=82%, ø=30, S=5.12%,Il=26A) (b).A 400v ,3ph delta connected I.M gave the following results on no load and short circuit (line ) values No load test- 400v,3A,645W Short circuit test-200v, 12A,1660 w. The friction & windage losses among two 183 W. Determine energy magnetizing components, no load current, no load power factor , no load resistance &reactance, equivalent resistance &reactance/ph referred to primary, power factor on S.C and S.C with normal applied voltage of 400v across the stator. Stator resistance may be assumed to be 5 Ω. (ans: pcu=45W, pi=417W, cosø=0.2, R01=11.11 Ω,x01=26.63 Ω) 57.(a)Why a starter is necessary to start an induction motor?State various methods of starting of a 3-phase induction motor.Explain with the help of diagram the working of an automatic direct –on- line starter.Derive the expression for the torque developed on starting of induction motor by Direct switching.(b) .Explain ,with the help of a neat diagram the working of a star-delta starter. what is its limitation?A small 3 phase induction motor has a short –circuit current equal to 4 times the full load current. Determine the starting torque as a percentage of full-load torque if full –load slip is 2.5% (OR) 58.(a).Explain auto transformer starter in detail.Compare DOL,Star-Delta and auto transformer starters on the basis of (i).starting torque and starting current.(ii).adoptability to motor rating ,terminal arrangements and s(iii)starting condition. A 12k W,3phase,6pole,50Hz,400V,delta connected induction motor runs at 960 rpm on full load.It takes 85A on direct starting,find the ratio of the starting torque to full load torque with a star/delta starter.Full load efficiency and power factor are 88% and 0.85 respectively. (b) Discuss the method of speed control of squirrel cage induction motor by (i). changing the number of poles (ii).cascade operation. Derive the expression for the speed of the cascaded set. (iii).injecting emf in the rotor circuit.A 4pole induction motor and a 6-pole induction motor are connected in cumulative cascade.The frequency in the secondary circuit of the 6-pole motor is observed to be 1.0Hz.Determine the slip in each machine and the combined speed of the set.Take supply frequency as 50Hz.(60.8%,3.3%) 59. Give constructional details,principle of operation,draw the circuit diagram,phasor diagram, characteristics,Torque-Speed characteristics,advantages and disadvantages,power rating, Specific application and method of reversal of rotation of the following single phase induction motor (i).SHADED POLE (ii).REPULSION MOTOR.(iii).UNIVERSAL MOTOR.(iv).STEPPER MOTOR (v).RELUCTANCE MOTOR. (OR) 60.(a)Explain the constructional features and principle of operation of a single phase induction motor with the help of (i).Double field revolving theory (ii).Cross field theory. Explain why single phase induction motor does not self start. Sketch and explain its torque-slip characteristics. (b).Derive the equivalent circuit of a single phase induction motor. Discuss the experimental procedure to obtains its parameters. Find the mechanical power output at a slip of 0.05 of the 185 W,4 pole ,110V,60HZ,single phase induction motor whose constants are given below. Resistance of stator main winding=1.86Ω,Reactance of stator main winding=2.56Ω,Magnetising reactance of the stator main winding=53.5Ω,Rotor resistance at standstill =3.56Ω,Rotor reactance at standstill =2.56Ω.[Ans201.5W]