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Chapter 28
Revolutions and National
States in the Atlantic World
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1
Popular Sovereignty




Ancient and medieval notions of kingship:
“mandate of heaven,” “divine right of kings”
Impact of Enlightenment ideas
Kings to be made responsible to subject
populations
John Locke (1632-1704)



Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
Argues that rulers derive power from consent of ruled
Individuals retain personal rights, give political rights
to rulers
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2
Individual Freedoms

Voltaire (pen name of François-Marie Arouet,
1694-1778)


Écrasez l’infame, “erase the infamy:” criticism of
Roman Catholic church
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)


Argues for equality of all individuals, regardless of
class, before the law
The Social Contract (1762), argues that society is
collectively the sovereign
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
3
Revolution in America




Little indication of forthcoming revolution in
mid-eighteenth century
Thirteen colonies regarded themselves as British
subjects
Long cultural and personal connections with
England
Mutually profitable military and economic
relationship
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4
French and Indian War, 1754-1763


Expensive, extensive
Overlapped with Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)


Conflict in Europe, India
British victory ensured global dominance, North
American prosperity
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5
Increased Taxation in 1760s


Bills come due from the Seven Years’ War
Tax burden falls to the colonies




Sugar Act (1764)
Stamp Act (1765)
Quartering Act (1765) (housing of British troops)
Tea Act (1773)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6
The Declaration of Independence


British products boycotted, officials attacked
Protests



Boston Tea Party (1773), tea dumped into Boston
harbor in protest against Tea Act
“No taxation without representation”
Continental Congress formed (1774), coordinates
colonists’ resistance to British policies


July 4, 1776, adopts Declaration of Independence
Influence of Locke: retention of individual rights,
sovereignty based on consent of the ruled
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
7
Divided Loyalties

Patriots


Loyalists (Tories)


Estimated 20% of white population that remained loyal
to British monarchy
Neutrals


Those who supported revolution, in majority
Quakers
Divided

Native Americans, African-Americans
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
8
Revolutionary War

Colonies:





Logistic advantage
Popular support
Support of British rivals
George Washington
(1732-1799) provides
imaginative military
leadership
Britain:



Strong central
government
Navy, army
Loyalist population
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
9
The American Revolution
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
10
Building an Independent State


War-weariness sets in by 1780
British forces surrounded at Yorktown, Virginia


Military conflict ceases, treaty at Peace of Paris,
1783


Surrender in October 1781
Recognition of American independence
1787 Constitution of the United States drafted

Political and legal equality for men of property
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
11
The French Revolution

Serious fiscal problems in France

War debts, 1780s



50% of tax revenues to war debts
25% of tax revenues to military
Leads to revolution more radical than the
American

Repudiation of many aspects of the ancien régime
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
12
The Estates General

Three Estates

First estate: Roman Catholic clergy


Second estate: nobles



400,000
Third estate: everyone else


100,000
24,000,000 serfs, free peasants, urban residents
Estates General founded 1303, had not met since 1614
One vote per estate
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
13
1789



Protest of nobility forces King Louis to call
Estates General for new taxes, May 1789
Third estate demands greater social change
June, third estate secedes


Renamed “National Assembly”
July, mob attacks Bastille, bloody battle won by
mob
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
14
Declaration of the Rights of Man and
the Citizen



August 1789
American influence
Equality of men



Women not included: Olympe de Gouges (Marie
Gouze) unsuccessfully attempts to redress this in 1791
Sovereignty resides in the people
Individual rights
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
15
Radicalization of Revolution







“Liberty, equality, fraternity”
National Assembly abolishes old social order
Seizes church lands, redefines clergy as civilians
New constitution retains king, but subject to
legislative authority
Convention: elected by universal male suffrage
Levée en masse: conscription for war
1793: King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette
found guilty of treason and sent to guillotine
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
16
Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)




“The Incorruptible,” leader of Committee of
Public Safety
Leader of Jacobin party
Dominated Convention, 1793-1794
Churches closed, priests forced to marry



Promoted “cult of reason” as secular alternative to
Christianity
Calendar reorganized: Ten-day weeks,
proclaimed Year I
Executed 40,000; imprisoned 300,000
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
17
The Directory (1795-1799)




Revolutionary enemies of the Jacobins
1794 Robespierre arrested, sent to guillotine
Men of property take power in the form of the
Directory
Unable to solve economic and military problems
of revolutionary France
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
18
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)






From minor Corsican noble family
Army officer under King Louis XIV, general at
age 24
Brilliant military strategist
Overthrew Directory in 1799
Established new government, the Consulate
Crowned himself emperor in 1802
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
19
Napoleonic France

Agreement with Pope: Concordat (1801)



1804 promulgates Napoleonic Code



France retains church lands, but pay salaries to clergy
Freedom of religion, also for Protestants, Jews
Patriarchal authority
Became model for many civil codes
Tight control on newspapers, use of secret police
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
20
Napoleon’s Empire





Conquered Iberian, Italian peninsulas, Netherlands
Forced Austria and Prussia to enter into alliance
Disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812
Burned Moscow, but defeated by Russian weather
British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies force
Napoleon to abdicate, 1814


Exiled to Island of Elba, escaped to take power again for
100 days
Defeated by British at Waterloo, exiled to St. Helena,
dies 1821
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
21
Napoleon’s Empire in 1812
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
22
The Revolution in Haiti


Only successful slave revolt
Island of Hispaniola



Spanish colony Santo Domingo in east (now
Dominican Republic)
French colony of Saint-Domingue in west (now Haiti)
Rich Caribbean colony


Sugar, coffee, cotton
Almost one-third of France’s foreign trade
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
23
Society in Saint-Domingue

40,000 white French settlers


28,000 gens de couleur (free people of color, i.e.
mixed-race, freed slaves)


Dominated social structure
Holders of small plots
500,000 slaves


High mortality rate, many flee to mountains
“Maroons,” escaped slaves
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
24
The Revolt

Inspired by American and French revolutions





500 gens de couleur sent to fight British in American
War of Independence
1789 white settlers demand self-rule, but with no
equality for gens de couleur
1791 civil war breaks out
Slaves revolt under Vodou priest named
Boukman
French, British, Spanish forces attempt to
intervene
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
25
François-Dominique Toussaint
(1744-1803)







Renames self Louverture (“the opening”), 1791
Descendant of slaves, freed in 1776
Helped his original owners escape, then joined rebel
forces
Built army of 20,000, eventually dominated SaintDomingue
1801 promulgated constitution of equality
1802 arrested by Napoleon’s forces, died in jail
French troops driven out, 1804 Haiti declares
independence
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
26
Latin American Society


30,000 peninsulares, colonial officials from
Iberian peninsula
3.5 million criollos (creoles), born in the
Americas of Spanish or Portuguese descent



Privileged class, but grievances with peninsulares
1810-1825 led movements for creole-dominated
republics
10 million others

African slaves, mixed-race populations
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
27
Mexican Independence


Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and Portugal (1807)
weakens royal authority in colonies
Priest Miguel de Hidalgo (1753-1811) leads revolt


Creole general Augustín de Iturbide (1783-1824)
declares independence in 1821


Hidalgo captured and executed, but rebellion continues
Installs self as emperor, deposed in 1823, republic
established
Southern regions form federation, then divide into
Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa
Rica
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
28
Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)




Led independence movement in South America
Native of Caracas (Venezuela), influenced by
Enlightenment, George Washington
Rebels against Spanish rule 1811, forced into
hiding
Forms alliances with many creole leaders



José de San Martín (Argentina, 1778-1850)
Bernardo O’Higgins (Chile, 1778-1842)
Spanish rule destroyed in South America by 1825
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
29
Gran Colombia


Bolívar hoped to form U.S.-style federation
Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador form Gran
Colombia



Attempts to bring in Peru and Bolivia
Strong political differences, Gran Colombia
disintegrates
Bolívar goes into self-imposed exile, dies of
tuberculosis
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
30
Brazilian Independence



Napoleon’s invasion sends Portuguese royal court
to exile in Rio de Janeiro
1821, king returns, son Pedro left behind as regent
Pedro negotiates with creoles, declares
independence of Brazil


Becomes Emperor Pedro I (r. 1822-1834)
Social structure remains largely intact
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
31
Latin America in 1830
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
32
Emergence of Ideologies

Conservatism




Edmund Burke (England, 1729-1797)
Disavowed rapid revolutionary change
Favored slow evolution of society
Liberalism



Viewed conservatives as defenders of illegitimate
status quo
Manage, not stifle, social change
John Stuart Mill (England, 1806-1873)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
33
The End of the Slave Trade

Campaign to end slavery begins in eighteenth
century




Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)
Gains momentum after American, French and
Haitian revolutions
William Wilberforce (England, 1759-1833),
philanthropist, succeeds in having Parliament
outlaw slave trade, 1807
Other states follow suit, but illegal trade continues
until 1867
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
34
End of the Institution of Slavery


Haiti: slavery ends with revolution
Mexico slavery abolished 1829



Partially to stop U.S. development of slave-based
cotton industry in Mexico
1833 Britain abolishes slavery, offers
compensation to former owners
Other states follow, but offer freedom without
equality

Property requirements, literacy tests, etc. block voting
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
35
Enlightenment Ideals and Women

Enlightenment thinkers remained conservative
regarding women’s rights



Rousseau argues women should receive education to
prepare for lives as wives and mothers
Mary Astell (England, 1666-1731) argues that
women essentially born into slavery
Mary Wollstonecraft (England, 1759-1797)

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
36
Women and Revolution

Women active in all phases of French revolution





Women storm Versailles in 1789, demands for food
Republican Revolutionary Women patrol streets of
Paris with firearms
Yet hold few official positions of authority
Revolution grants equality in education, property,
legalized divorce
Yet women not allowed to vote, major task of
nineteenth century

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (U.S., 1815-1902)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
37
Nations and Nationalism



“Nation” a type of community, especially
prominent in nineteenth century
Distinct from clan, religious, regional identities
Usually based on shared language, customs,
values, historical experience


Sometimes common religion
Idea of nation has immediate relationship with
political boundaries
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
38
Types of Nationalism

Cultural nationalism



Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) praises the
Volk (“people”)
Literature, folklore, music as expressions of Volksgeist:
“spirit of the people”
Political nationalism



Movement for political independence of nation from
other authorities
Unification of national lands
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872), “Young Italy”
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
39
Nationalism and Anti-Semitism





Nationalist ideologies distrustful of indigenous
minorities
Pogroms, violent attacks on Jewish communities in
Russian empire beginning 1881
Anti-Semitism rallying cry of many European
nationalists
French military Captain Alfred Dreyfus framed for
selling military secrets to Germany
Eventually exonerated, but great debate on loyalty of
Jews in European societies
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
40
Zionism



Theodor Herzl (Austria, 1860-1904) journalist at
Dreyfus trial
Observed intense mob anti-Semitism, concluded
that Enlightenment and revolution could not solve
this human ill
Worked to create refuge for Jews by
re-establishing Jewish state in Palestine


Zion synonymous with Jerusalem
1897 convened first World Zionist Organization
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
41
The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)




Meeting after defeat of Napoleon
Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria, 17731859) supervises dismantling of Napoleon’s
empire
Established balance of power
Worked to suppress development of nationalism
among multi-national empires like the Austrian
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
42
Nationalist Rebellions

Greeks in Balkan peninsula seek independence
from Ottoman Turks, 1821


With European help, Greece achieves independence in
1830
Rebellions all over Europe, especially in 1848


Rebels take Vienna, Metternich resigns and flees
But rebellions put down by 1849
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
43
Unifications of Italy and Germany

Italy and Germany formerly disunited groups of
regional kingdoms, city-states, ecclesiastical
states



Germany: over three hundred semiautonomous
jurisdictions
Nationalist sentiment develops idea of unification
Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) and
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) unify Italy under
King Vittore Emmanuele II
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
44
Unifications of Italy and Germany


Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) advances
Realpolitik (“the politics of reality”), uses wars
with neighbors to unify Germany
Second Reich proclaimed in 1871 (Holy Roman
Empire the first), King Wilhelm I named emperor
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
45
The Unification of Italy and Germany
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
46

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