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BE FOOD SAFE:
CLEAN. SEPARATE. COOK. CHILL.
2
Food safety
matters
W
hile the food supply in the United States may be the
safest in the world, it is important to note that there are
many organisms you can’t see, smell or taste that can
infiltrate that food supply. Bacteria, viruses and tiny parasites are
everywhere in the environment. According to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, each year 48 million illnesses,
128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths in this country can be
traced to foodborne pathogens. That is why food safety is a serious matter. Publix Super Markets Inc. has partnered with Florida
Press Educational Services to bring you this Newspaper in
Education publication to enhance your awareness of foodborne
illnesses and how you and your family can stay healthy.
The shopping experts
Think about it
Foodborne illnesses are a
preventable and often underreported public health problem. An
awareness of food safety risks
is especially important to high
school students.
In addition to the fact that you
will be on your own soon and
preparing your own food, high
school students also:
• Prepare food for younger
siblings or older relatives.
• Work in restaurants,
supermarkets and other
places that sell, handle
and serve food.
• Eat food in restaurants
and friends’ homes.
fpesnie.org
Publix Super Markets Inc. is the
nation’s largest independently owned
grocery retailer. So, it goes without
saying that they take food safety very
seriously. Publix associates are food
safety experts, and they want to share
their knowledge with you.
Publix has associates that are
experts in food safety. Food safety
training includes instruction on
proper food handling, hygiene, food
storage, cleaning and sanitation, and
pest management.
Publix wants to make sure your
food stays safe in the store. To learn
more about Publix programs, go to
tbtim.es/13pb.
serious illness and even death. The
partnership delivers science-based
behavioral health messaging and a
network of resources that support
consumers in their efforts to reduce the
risk of foodborne illness.
The partnership’s food and safety
educators, known as BAC! Fighters, help
consumers protect their health through
safe food handling and hand hygiene. To
learn more or become a BAC! Fighter,
go to teamfoodsafety.org/bac-fighters.
foodborne pathogens, the United
States Food and Drug Administration estimates that 2 to 3 percent of
all foodborne illnesses lead to serious secondary long-term illnesses.
That means that a case of food
poisoning could result in meningitis,
sepsis or kidney failure. Not only is
this bad for your health, but it is bad
for public health in general. Foodborne illnesses also contribute significantly to the cost of health care.
A major problem
Not only can you get sick from
Partners in education
Publix Super Market Charities is a
national sponsor of the Partnership for
Food Safety Education. The 25 partner
organizations and federal liaisons of the
Partnership for Food Safety Education
help educate millions of consumers
about preventive practices that halt
the growth and spread of dangerous
foodborne pathogens that can cause
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services; U.S. Food and Drug Administration;
National Science Teachers Association; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the
Partnership for Food Safety Education
Government resources
CLEAN
CLEAN
SEPARATE
SEPARATE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Food Safety and Inspection Service: fsis.usda.gov
U.S. Department of Agriculture: usda.gov
U.S. Food and Drug Administration: fda.gov
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: foodsafety.gov
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: cdc.gov
Florida Health Department: floridahealth.gov
Florida Department of Agriculture: freshfromflorida.com
Going beyond the text
Journaling to self discovery
COOKCHILL
COOKCHILL
The core four
Knowing who you are is the first step in being healthy and
taking charge of your life. Keeping a journal is a great way
to learn more about yourself. Who are you? Why do you do
what you do? Do you have strong convictions? Are you able
to stand up to others when your ideas are questioned? In
other words, what makes you, you? While you read through
this food safety publication, keep a journal, cataloguing
your thoughts and ideas about what you are reading and
learning. In addition, read your local newspaper to learn
more about the world around you. Each day, write down
your thoughts about something you read in the newspaper.
To begin your journal, write about something that you have
read in the newspaper and in this publication that directly
affects your life. Share some of your journal entries and
thoughts with your peers and teachers.
You
have the power to reduce your risk of foodborne illness. It’s as
KEEPYOURFAMILYSAFERFROMFOODPOISONING
• Fast-food restaurants
easy
as following these core four Fight BAC! practices for food safety:
KEEPYOURFAMILYSAFERFROMFOODPOISONING
employ more high
school students than
•
Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often
CLEAN:WashHandsAndSurfacesOften
any other industry.
• Separate: Don’t cross-contaminate raw meat with vegetables
CLEAN:WashHandsAndSurfacesOften
SEPARATE:SeparateRawMeatsFromOtherFoods
•
Cook: Cook your food to the safe internal temperature
• Today, nearly 50
•
Chill: Refrigerate foods quickly and don’t overstuff the fridge
SEPARATE:SeparateRawMeatsFromOtherFoods
percent of the money
COOK:CookToTheRightTemperature
COOK:CookToTheRightTemperature
CHILL:RefrigerateFoodPromptly
CHILL:RefrigerateFoodPromptly
2011, there were 31
ns. By
of five foodborne pathoge
ew
kn
ts
tis
ien
sc
,
50
19
• In
e foodborne illnees.
pathogens known to caus
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idium and Campylobacter
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year with Salmonella.
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and 45 deaths.
ses, 2,026 hospitalizations
resulting in 29,395 illnes
CheckyourstepsatFoodSafety.gov
CheckyourstepsatFoodSafety.gov
we spend on food
goes toward buying
food that others
prepare.
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services; U.S. Food and
Drug Administration; National Science Teachers Association; Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention; and the Partnership for Food
Safety Education
tampabay.com/nie
3
4
Preventable public health challenge
F
oodborne illness is a preventable public
health challenge that causes an estimated
48 million illnesses and 3,000 deaths each
year in the United States. It is an illness
that comes from eating contaminated food.
Some people may become ill after ingesting
only a few harmful bacteria; others may remain
symptom free after ingesting thousands. The
onset of symptoms may occur within minutes to
weeks and often presents itself as flu-like symptoms, as the ill person may experience symptoms
such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or fever.
Everyone is at risk for getting a foodborne
illness. However, some people are at greater risk
for suffering a more serious illness should they
get a foodborne illness. Those at greater risk are
infants, young children, pregnant women and
their unborn babies, older adults and people with
weakened immune systems (such as those with
HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease and
transplant patients).
can become cross-contaminated with pathogens
transferred from raw egg products and raw meat,
poultry and seafood products and their juices,
other contaminated products, or from food handlers with poor personal hygiene. Most cases of
foodborne illness can be prevented with proper
cooking or processing of food to destroy pathogens.
Bacteria and food
Microorganisms are sneaky and often invisible
to the naked eye. Even though you cannot see
them, these organisms may be present on food
products. Think about it: plastic-wrapped boneless chicken breasts and ground meat were once
part of live chickens or cattle. Raw meat, poultry,
seafood and eggs are not sterile. And despite its
appearance and health benefits, fresh produce is
not sterile either.
Thousands of types of bacteria are naturally
present in our environment. Most of these
bacteria are harmless. However, some are
not.
Microorganisms may be present on food
products when you purchase them. Thousands
of types of bacteria are naturally present in our
environment. Microorganisms that cause disease
are called pathogens. When certain pathogens
enter the food supply, they can cause foodborne
illness. While some bacteria, such as the bacteria
in yogurt, may be healthy, the unhealthy ones can
spread quickly.
All foods, including safely cooked and
ready-to-eat foods,
When microorganisms attack
Think about it
The best ways to avoid getting
or spreading the bacteria are:
• Keep food properly
refrigerated before cooking
• Clean hands with soap
and warm water before
handling food
• Clean surfaces before
preparing food on them
• Separate cooked foods
from ready-to-eat foods
• Cook foods to a safe
internal temperature
• Chill foods promptly
after serving and when
transporting from one
place to another.
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services;
U.S. Food and Drug Administration; National Science Teachers Association;
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the Partnership for Food Safety Education
fpesnie.org
Beware of pathogens
Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. The
severity and symptoms of food poisoning vary depending on the bacteria
involved. The U.S. Public Health Service has identified the following
microorganisms as being the biggest culprits of foodborne illness, either because
of the severity of the sickness or the number of cases of illness they cause.
• Campylobacter – This is the second most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the
United States. The sources are raw and undercooked poultry and other meat, raw milk and
untreated water.
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Handbook of Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and
• Clostridium botulinum – This organism produces a toxin which causes botulism, a lifethreatening illness that can prevent the breathing muscles from moving air in and out of the
lungs. The sources are improperly prepared home-canned foods.
• E. coli – This is a bacterium that can produce a deadly toxin and causes approximately
73,000 cases of foodborne illness each year in the U.S. The worst type of E. coli is known as E.
coli O157:H7. The sources include beef, especially undercooked or raw hamburger; produce,
fruits and vegetables; raw milk; and unpasteurized juices and ciders.
• Listeria monocytogenes – This bacterium causes listeriosis, a serious disease for
pregnant women, newborns and adults with a weakened immune system. The sources are
unpasteurized dairy products, including soft cheeses; sliced deli meats; smoked fish; hot dogs;
pate and deli-prepared salads.
• Norovirus – This organism is the leading viral cause of diarrhea in the United States.
Poor hygiene causes norovirus to be easily passed from person to person and from infected
individuals to food items. The sources include any food contaminated by someone who is
infected with this virus.
• Salmonella – Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the United
States, and the most common cause of foodborne deaths. It is responsible for 1.4 million
cases of foodborne illness a year. The sources of this bacteria are raw and undercooked eggs,
undercooked poultry and meat, fresh fruits and vegetables, and unpasteurized dairy products.
• Staphylococcus aureus – This bacterium produces a toxin that causes vomiting shortly
after being ingested. The sources are cooked foods high in protein, such as cooked ham,
salads, bakery products and dairy products that are left too long at room temperature.
• Shigella – Shigella causes an estimated 448,000 cases of diarrhea illnesses per year.
Poor hygiene causes Shigella to be easily passed from person to person and from infected
individuals to food items. Sources of this bacterium are salads, unclean water and any food
handled by someone who is infected with the bacterium.
• Toxoplasma gondii – This is a parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a very severe disease
that can produce central nervous system disorders, particularly mental retardation and visual
impairment in children. Pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems are at a
high risk. The source is primarily raw or undercooked pork.
• Vibrio vulnificus – This bacterium causes gastroenteritis, wound infection, and severe
bloodstream infections. People with liver diseases are especially at high risk. The source is raw
or undercooked seafood, particularly shellfish.
Introduction
Want to learn more?
Food
safety is a complex
has second
an impactedition
on all segments
• Download
the Badissue
Bugthat
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here: of societ
publichttp://tbtim.es/11i9
to government, industry, and academia. The second edition of the B
published by the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, of the Foo
• A-Z Index for Foodborne Illness: http://tbtim.es/11ih
Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, p
• Checkabout
out these
twoknown
chartsagents
from that
the cause
Food foodborne
Safety andillness. Th
information
the major
Inspection
Service:is abbreviated and general in nature, and is inten
provided
in this handbook
It is not
intended to beBacteria
a comprehensive
scientific or clinical reference.
o Foodborne
- http://tbtim.es/11ia
o Foodborne disease-causing organisms -
Under the
laws administered by FDA, a food is adulterated if it contains (1
http://tbtim.es/11ie
otherwise harmful substance that is not an inherent natural constituent of t
Sources:
of Health possibility
and HumanofServices;
U.S.
Food or
and(2) a subs
amount
thatDepartment
poses a reasonable
injury to
health,
Drug Administration;
Centers
forfood
Disease
Control
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natural constituent
of the
itself;
is notand
thePrevention;
result of environm
the
Partnership
for
Food
Safety
Education
industrial, or other contamination; and is present in an amount that ordinar
injurious to health. The first includes, for example, a toxin produced by a f
contaminated a food, or a pathogenic bacterium or virus, if the amount pre
be injurious to health. An example of the second is the tetrodotoxin that oc
Going
beyond
the text
organs of some types
of pufferfish
and that ordinarily
will make the fish in
either case, foods adulterated with these agents are prohibited from being i
Creating
a public service
for introduction, into
interstate commerce.
announcement
Our scientific understanding
of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxin
advancing.
When
scientific
evidence
a particular
microorganis
Newspaper advertising is a greatshows
way tothat
reach
a large number
cause
foodborne
illness,
the
FDA
may
consider
that
microorganism
to be c
of people. Newspaper advertising has been around longer than
food to be adulterated. Our knowledge may advance so rapidly that, in som
any other type of advertising. The purpose of an advertisement
found to be capable of adulterating food might not yet be listed in this han
is to sell something or provide information. A public service
situations, the FDA still can take regulatory action against the adulterated
announcement (PSA) is providing information to the public.
can bedescribed
in printed
broadcasted
form.live
PSAs
are usedorganisms,
to
TheItagents
in or
this
book range from
pathogenic
s
inform,worms,
educate
persuade
the public.
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and Drug
protozoa,
andorfungi,
to non-living
entities,
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as viruses,
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the United
States Department
of characteristics,
Agriculture andhab
Included
in the chapters
are descriptions
of the agents’
the Centers
Controlsymptoms
and Prevention
often use PSAs
infective
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general disease
and complications.
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outbreaks,
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public ofthe
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recalls. with
You can
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addition,
the
chapters
contain
brief
overviews
o
on this website: foodsafety.gov/recalls.
methods
used
to
detect,
isolate,
and/or
identify
the
pathogens
or
toxins.
A PSA that you read in the newspaper will be different from one
you see on the Internet, in a text or on television. Look through
However,
while sometogeneral
survival of
andtraditional
inactivation
characteristics are
your newspaper
find examples
advertisements
the scope of this book to provide data, such as D and z values, that are use
and public service announcements. Notice the difference in the
visuals, language used and rhetoric being presented.
With a partner or in a small group, you are going to create
a PSA. Using the information on these pages and the links
provided, create a PSA to be printed in the newspaper and one
to be presented on television or the Internet. The focus of your
PSA will be that foodborne illness is a preventable public health
challenge. Share your PSA with your classmates.
fpesnie.org
5
Cleanliness matters
D
id you know that cleanliness is a
major factor in preventing foodborne illness? Even though food
safety inspections are monitored at the
federal, state and local levels, your role,
as a consumer, is very important.
Illness-causing bacteria can survive
in many places around your kitchen,
including your hands, utensils and
cutting boards. Unless you wash your
hands, utensils and surfaces the right
way, you could spread bacteria to your
food and your family.
Making sure food is safely handled
after you purchase it is paramount to
avoiding food borne illnesses.
Everything that touches food should
be clean because bacteria are everywhere.
Wash your hands
The first step in preparing a meal
is to wash your hands. The process
is simple. First, wet your hands with
warm or cold running water. Second,
apply soap. Third, rub your hands
together to make a lather and scrub
them well.
Bacteria can hide everywhere, so be
sure to scrub the backs of your hands,
between your fingers and under your
nails. Rub and scrub your hands for at
least 20 seconds. After you rinse your
hands well under running water, dry
your hands using a clean towel or air
dry.
It is important to clean your hands
• before and after handling food
6
tampabay.com/nie
• after using the bathroom
• after changing a diaper
• after handling pets
• after tending to a sick person
• after blowing your nose, coughing
or sneezing
• after handling uncooked eggs or
raw meat, poultry or fish and their
juices.
Wash your scene
You need to thoroughly wash with
hot, soapy water all surfaces that come
in contact with raw meat, poultry,
fish and eggs before preparing a meal.
You can use disposable paper towels
to clean kitchen surfaces. If you use
dishcloths, wash them often in the hot
cycle of your washing machine. You
also need to clean all kitchen surfaces
and food preparation items.
• Keep cutting boards clean by washing them with hot, soapy water
after each use. Cutting boards can
be sanitized with a solution of one
tablespoon of unscented, liquid
chlorine bleach per gallon of water.
• Non porous acrylic, plastic, glass
and solid wood boards can be
washed in a dishwasher. Once
cutting boards become excessively
worn or develop hard-to-clean
grooves, replace them.
• When using a food thermometer,
you should wash the probe after each
use with hot, soapy water before reinserting it into a food.
• When cooking outdoors or preparing a picnic, be sure to bring plenty
of clean utensils and bring clean, dry,
and wet and soapy cloths for cleaning surfaces and hands.
Washing food
You should always wash fruits and
vegetables before cooking or eating.
Even if you plan to peel fruits and veggies, it is important to wash them first
because bacteria can spread from the
outside to the inside as you cut or peel
them. You should rinse the produce
under running water. It is okay to use
a clean produce brush, but do not use
soap, detergent, bleach or commercial
produce washes.
Do not wash meat, poultry or eggs.
Washing raw meat and poultry can
actually help bacteria spread, because
their juices may contaminate your
sink and countertops. All commercial
eggs are washed before sale. Any extra
handling of the eggs, such as washing,
may actually increase the risk of crosscontamination, especially if the shell
becomes cracked.
Fight BAC! like a producepro.
fightbac.org/food-safety-education/
safe-produce
Sources: Department of Health and Human
Services; U.S. Food and Drug Administration;
National Science Teachers Association; Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention; and the
Partnership for Food Safety Education
Be smart. Keep foods apart
The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection
Service defines cross-contamination as the transfer of harmful bacteria to food
from other foods, cutting boards and utensils. Cross-contamination can occur
when you handle raw meat, poultry and seafood. Keeping these foods and their
juices away from already-cooked or ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce will
avoid spreading bacteria.
Think about it
Harmful bacteria and
pathogens from raw meat,
poultry, seafood and eggs can
spread to other foods if they
are not separated properly.
This is especially risky when
bacteria are spread to foods
that are eaten raw, such as
fresh fruits and vegetables.
Separating food will prevent
cross-contamination.
In the grocery store
• Separate raw meat, poultry,
seafood and eggs from other
foods in your shopping cart.
• Place produce and meat
products in separate plastic
bags to prevent juices from
getting on other foods.
• If you use reusable grocery
bags, wash them frequently
in the washing machine.
At home
• Separate raw meat, poultry,
seafood and eggs from other
foods in the refrigerator.
Place these items in
containers or sealed plastic
bags on the bottom shelf of
the refrigerator. That way, if
there is a leak, it will not mix
with the other food.
• If you are not planning to use
meat products within a few
days, freeze them.
• Keep fresh fruits and
vegetables separate from
raw meat, poultry, seafood
and eggs.
Food preparation
It is important to keep raw and cooked products separate to avoid crosscontamination. Don't use the same platter and utensils that held the raw
product to serve the cooked product. Any bacteria present in the raw meat or
juices can contaminate the safely cooked product. Serve cooked products on
clean plates, using clean utensils and clean hands.
Even after you’ve cleaned your hands and surfaces thoroughly, raw meat,
poultry, seafood and eggs can still spread illness-causing bacteria to ready-toeat foods. That is why you need to keep them separated.
Follow these tips to keep bacteria away:
Going beyond the text
Researching food safety
practices
Food safety practices have
changed a great deal throughout
the centuries. Research food
safety practices from long ago,
such as the following:
• use of drying and salting meats
• use of ice to cool and fire to cook
• first use of thermometers
in determining safe food
temperatures
• invention of pasteurization and
irradiation
Think about how the industrial
revolution and technology have
changed food safety practices.
Are these practices applied
throughout the world? How might
people in different parts of the
world deal with food safety? Does
the availability of soap, water and
electricity make a difference?
What happens when natural
disasters, such as earthquakes,
hurricanes, tornadoes and floods,
hit? In addition to using books and
the Internet for research, use your
local newspaper for your research.
Write a research paper based on
the information you discover. At
the end of your paper, include
strategies for good food safety
practices during times of disaster
or emergency.
Activity adapted from the
Partnership for Food Safety
Education.
• Use separate cutting boards and plates for produce and for meat, poultry,
seafood and eggs.
• Use separate plates and utensils for cooked and raw foods.
• Before using these plates or utensils again, thoroughly
wash them.
• Keep meat, poultry, seafood and eggs separate from
all other foods at the grocery store and in your
grocery bags.
• Keep meat, poultry, seafood and eggs separate
from all other foods in the fridge.
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services;
U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention; and the Partnership for Food
Safety Education
fpesnie.org
7
8
Every year, one in six Americans, that’s 48 million, will get sick from
eating food contaminated with germs. The fact is that bacteria can
multiply quickly when food is between 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
Avoiding crosscontamination
Think about it
While many people think they can tell
when food is done simply by checking
its color and texture, that is not the
best way to determine safety. Cooked
food is safe only after it’s been
heated to a high enough temperature
to kill harmful bacteria. Color and
texture alone won’t tell you whether
your food is done. Instead, use a food
thermometer to be sure.
When you think your food is done,
place the food thermometer in the
thickest part of the food, making sure
not to touch bone, fat or gristle. Wait
the amount of time recommended
for your type of thermometer. Some
foods need 3 minutes of rest time after cooking to make sure that harmful
germs are killed. Remember to wash
your food thermometer with hot,
soapy water after each use.
In addition to handling food safely by washing
your hands and avoiding cross-contamination, it is
important to make sure foods are chilled and cooked
at the proper temperatures. Here are some facts from
the Partnership for Food Safety Education:
• Bacteria that can cause illness grow rapidly in
the “danger zone”: between 40 and 140 degrees
Fahrenheit.
• The predicted number of cases of listeriosis would
be reduced by more than 70 percent if home
refrigerator temperatures stayed at 40 degrees
Fahrenheit or below.
• Proper storing of food in a refrigerator at 40
degrees Fahrenheit or below helps to reduce the
risk of food poisoning.
• Leftover refrigerated food should be consumed or
frozen within three or four days.
• Refrigerate perishable foods within 2 hours.
• Divide leftovers into shallow containers and
refrigerate immediately. Do not let them cool on
the counter.
• Food should be thawed or marinated in the
refrigerator, not at room temperature.
• Frequent refrigerator cleaning and sanitizing can
help to reduce the likelihood of bacterial crosscontamination.
• Cook all raw ground beef, pork, lamb and veal to
an internal temperature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit
as measured with a food thermometer.
• Cook all poultry to a safe minimum internal
temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit as
measured with a food thermometer.
Temperature matters
Barbecues and picnics can be a lot of fun. Hanging
out in your yard, at the beach or at a park with good
friends and good food can be a great experience unless
something, like food poisoning, dampens the mood.
Did you know that illness-causing bacteria
can grow in perishable foods within two hours
unless you refrigerate them? And if the outdoor
temperature is above 90 degrees Fahrenheit, that
growth can begin growing in half that time. Cold
temperatures slow the growth of illness-causing
bacteria. So it’s important to chill food promptly and
properly.
Know when to throw food out
You can’t tell just by looking or smelling whether
harmful bacteria has started growing in your leftovers
or refrigerated foods, but looking and smelling food
is important. Anything that looks or smells suspicious
should be thrown out. Mold is a sign of spoilage. It
can grow even under refrigeration.
for pets can
d nutritional supplements
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sick?
Did you know tha
n make people and pets
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severe or even life-threaten
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Sources: Department of Health and Human Services; U.S. Food and Drug Administration;
National Science Teachers Association; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the
Partnership for Food Safety Education
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Think about it
The possibility of bacterial growth actually increases as food
cools after cooking because the drop in temperature allows
bacteria to thrive. But you can keep your food above the
safe temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit by using a heat
source like a chafing dish, warming tray or slow cooker.
Using a food thermometer
• Place the food thermometer in the thickest part of the food. It should
not touch bone, fat or gristle.
• Start checking the temperature toward the end of cooking, but before
you expect it to be done.
• Be sure to clean your food thermometer with hot, soapy water before
and after each use.
Convenience foods
Many Americans’ freezers are stocked
with fast, tasty convenience foods.
While the shortest distance between
the freezer and the table may be the
microwave oven, not all convenience
foods can be cooked in the microwave.
You can prevent foodborne illness
due to under-cooking frozen or other
convenience foods with these four
simple tips:
1. Read and follow the cooking
instructions on the package.
2. Know when to use a microwave or a
conventional oven.
3. Know the microwave wattage before
microwaving food.
4. Use a food thermometer to ensure the
food has a safe internal temperature.
Microwaving tips
Using a microwave to cook or reheat
food is very convenient. However,
they vary in power and efficiency, and
sometimes cause foods to cook unevenly.
Here are some tips you should follow to
make sure your food is safe.
• Step one is to make sure it is okay
to use a microwave instead of a
conventional oven for the
item you are cooking.
• Know your microwave wattage
before cooking food.
• Read and follow the cooking
instructions on the package.
• When you microwave, stir your food
in the middle of heating.
• If the food label says, “Let stand for x
minutes after cooking,” don’t skimp
on the standing time. Letting your
microwaved food sit for a few minutes
actually helps your food cook more
completely by allowing colder areas of
food time to absorb heat from hotter
areas of food.
• After waiting a few minutes, check
the food with a food thermometer
to make sure it is at least 165 degrees
Fahrenheit.
Do the research
There are different ways that you can
cook food. Research the following terms
and methods of cooking:
• Conventional oven
• Crockpot
• Slow cookers
• Barbecue
• Smoker
• Rest time
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services;
U.S. Food and Drug Administration; National Science Teachers Association;
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the Partnership for Food Safety Education
Thermometers make a difference
If you don’t already have one, consider
buying a food thermometer. Learn
more about the different types of food
thermometers available: http://tbtimes/1287.
Using the information on this page,
provided by the United States Department of
Agriculture, create a chart showing the pros
and cons of each different device.
Going beyond the text
Scavenger hunt
Look through the daily newspaper for pictures, articles, photos,
cartoons, advertisements and recipes depicting food. Based on your
research, note how long and by which method the foods should be
prepared and cooked to make sure they are safe and taste good.
Make a poster showing at least 10 items, with captions explaining the
purpose of the preparation and cooking tips. Share what you have
learned with your class.
The incredible egg
Eggs can be good for you nutrionally,
but they also can contain illnessinducing pathogens.
• Always keep shell eggs refrigerated at or
below 45 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Throw out cracked or dirty eggs.
• Wash hands, cooking utensils and food preparation surfaces with
soap and water after contact with raw eggs.
• Cook recipes containing eggs mixed with other foods to an internal
temperature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Promptly refrigerate any leftover foods that contain eggs.
• Do not keep eggs warm or at room temperature for more than two
hours.
• Avoid eating raw or undercooked eggs.
Learn more at foodsafety.gov/keep/types/eggs.
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9
10
Safeguarding your food
S foodborne illnesses begins not at home,
afeguarding your home against
but at the grocery store or any other place
where you buy food that you plan to store
and serve.
Combating foodborne illnesses is
a top priority at the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). According to the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), the top five pathogens caused almost
5.5 million illnesses last year.
Consumers play a key role in
preventing these illnesses. While
shopping for food, you should:
• Check for cleanliness at the store. Buying
from a retailer who follows proper foodhandling practices helps ensure that the
food is safe.
• Keep certain foods separated. Separate
raw meat, poultry and seafood from other
foods in your grocery shopping cart. Place
these foods in plastic bags to prevent their
juices from dripping on other foods. It is
also best to separate these foods from other
foods at checkout and in your grocery bags.
• Inspect cans and jars. Don't buy food in
cans that are bulging or dented. Also, don't
buy food in jars that are cracked or have
loose lids.
• Inspect frozen food packaging. Don't buy
frozen food if the package is damaged.
Packages should not be open, torn or
crushed on the edges. Also, avoid packages
that are above the frost line in the store's
freezer or if the package has frost or ice
crystals.
• Select frozen foods and perishables last.
Meat, poultry, fish and eggs should be the
last items placed in your shopping cart.
• Choose fresh eggs carefully. Before putting
eggs in your cart, open the carton and
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make sure that the eggs are clean and none
are cracked.
• Be mindful of time and temperature.
It's important to refrigerate perishable
products as soon as possible after grocery
shopping. If it will take more than an hour
to get your groceries home, use an ice
chest to keep frozen and perishable foods
cold. Also, when the weather is warm and
you are using your car's air conditioner,
keep your groceries in the passenger
compartment, not the trunk.
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Taking food seriously
Publix associates take food safety very
seriously. Publix associates receive thorough
food safety training specific to the tasks they
perform. Store managers and associates
who handle fresh foods in the deli, bakery,
meat, seafood and produce departments,
as well as the Aprons kiosk, receive even
more extensive training. In addition, Publix
associates take the following food safety
measures.
• They use a nationally accredited Food
Protection Manager Certification
training program to help management
associates with food safety knowledge and
techniques.
• All Publix stores receive monthly cleaning
and sanitation focus visits from sanitation
specialists.
• Stores have bi-annual food safety audits,
conducted by an independent, professional
food safety management organization
that reviews food safety practices and
helps associates understand the key
practices to maintain a safe food-handling
environment.
Managing food safely from source to plate
Safe food handling doesn’t begin with the consumer, but it does end on
the consumer’s plate. No matter how careful you are, if you start out with
contaminated food you will almost certainly get sick. To ensure that foods are
safely produced and transported from the farm or sea to the store, the FDA
and other agencies have created strict rules for everything from pesticide use
on the farm to cold storage in trucks to proper storage in the supermarket.
Even with all the rules in place, though, it’s possible to slip up. That’s why
it’s important to buy from a reputable source – whether you’re purchasing
food to cook at home or prepared food from a store or restaurant.
Here’s how one major reputable grocery chain, Publix, ensures that
the food you buy in their stores is both fresh and safe to eat, so the final
step in the food source chain, you, the consumer, have a safe product to
prepare.
Step 1
SOURCING
During this step, corporate purchasing associates purchase products that meet Publix’s strict quality and food safety specifications. For sliced meats, representatives from
Corporate Quality Assurance, the deli retail business unit, manufacturing and supply purchasing, and marketing discuss supplier qualifications. The objective of this step is
to ensure all suppliers are able to maintain the safety and quality of all products and ingredients.
Step 2
RECEIVING
During receiving, Publix distribution associates check the product for temperature and trucks for cleanliness. Associates take the product’s internal temperature and review
the truck’s data logger to monitor the load’s temperature throughout shipping.
Step 3
PROCESSING AND PACKAGING
Processing the product involves any steps related to preparing the product before it’s packaged, stored and ready to ship. In the case of pre-sliced meats, these steps
include seasoning, cooking, chilling product and packaging for further distribution to stores. Associates at the deli kitchen check the product at each step to ensure it meets
all quality and food safety standards.
Step 4
STORAGE
In this case, the Publix brand deli meats are sent to our manufacturing central warehouse, while food safety tests are conducted by a food testing laboratory partner. Once
the testing is complete and the food safety controls are verified, the product is transferred to one of the Publix distribution centers. The focus at this step is time and temperature. These meats must be kept cold throughout the supply chain. Forklift operators are responsible for storing the product properly.
Step 5
SHIPPING
From manufacturing to our distribution centers to their final destination in Publix stores, the products are monitored closely by associates. The goal with some, as in this
example, is to keep them cold until they’re ready to come off the truck. Publix drivers, shippers and quality specialists work together to make this happen.
Source:
Publix Super Markets
Step 6
STORE RESPONSIBILITIES
Store associates receive, unload and refrigerate the product. Maintaining the cold chain at retail is
critical to minimize the time the product is in the temperature danger zone (between 40 degrees
Fahrenheit and 140 degrees Fahrenheit). Publix associates are trained to get these products under
proper refrigeration. In the case of deli meats, associates take the product from the reach-in or walkin cooler and slice it for sub kits for later use or to fill a customer’s order and return unused product
to the cooler. Food preparation equipment and utensils are kept cleaned and sanitized.
Additional steps include rotating unopened product, identifying how long it should be open and
properly marking opened items to maintain quality and reduce the potential growth of bacteria on
products. Just as important is the health of all associates involved in food preparation.
Step 7
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
Remember, as soon as food is purchased, it becomes the consumer’s responsibility to safely handle
and prepare the food so that everyone who eats it continues to be protected. Though there are
seemingly endless varieties of foods, preparation practices, eating customs, traditions and habits,
proper food safety practices can be effectively applied in any kitchen. Food safety is literally in your
hands.
Going beyond the text
Researching new ideas
The Publix associates know their customers want our food to taste good and to be safe. Publix follows
government regulations that are designed to protect consumers from getting sick. Scientists continually
look for new and better ways to ensure food safety. Some ideas being tested include treating food with
high-pressure processing or gamma rays and creating new packaging that better prevents bacteria. Scientists
have discovered that sterilizing eggs in their shells and changing the diet of cattle can destroy disease-causing
microorganisms. Use the newspaper, the Internet and magazines to research new food products and how they’re
being developed. Write a report on one of the new products you find interesting. Present the information you have
learned to your class.
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11
Food safety careers
W
Agriculture and food scientist
Food animal veterinarian
a laboratory, or from working for
Agricultural and food scientists research ways to
improve the efficiency and safety of agricultural
establishments and products. Agricultural and food
scientists work in various industries, including
colleges and universities, manufacturing, and
scientific research and development. They work in
offices, laboratories and food production facilities.
Veterinarians care for the health of animals and
work to improve public health. They diagnose,
treat and research medical conditions and
diseases of pets, livestock and other animals. Most
veterinarians work in private clinics and hospitals,
while others travel to farms, work in laboratories or
classroom, or work for the government.
an independently owned farm
Agricultural and food science technician
orking in the food industry
can be a fulfilling career
choice. From working in
the great outdoors to working in
stand to a corporate government
facility, you can make a difference
in protecting the health of the
American people. There are many
career opportunities in the food
industry focusing on food handling
and safety, nutrition, health-related
sciences and health policies. Here
are just a few of the career choices.
12
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Agricultural and food science technicians assist
agricultural and food scientists by performing
duties such as measuring and analyzing the quality
of food and agricultural products. Agricultural
and food science technicians work in laboratories,
processing plants, farms and ranches, greenhouses
and offices.
Consumer safety inspector
Food inspector
Consumer safety inspectors work in one or more
privately owned meat, poultry and egg processing
plants. They ensure the plant is operating within
its written plans for sanitation and processing.
In addition, they conduct regulatory oversight
activities inside the plants in matters relating to
other areas of consumer protection.
Entry-level food inspectors in private commercial
slaughtering plants provide the first line of defense
against diseased and adulterated meat and poultry.
They are responsible for much of the day-to-day
in-plant inspection of animals before and after
slaughter.
Food preparation worker
Food preparation workers perform many routine
tasks under the direction of cooks, chefs or food
service managers. Food preparation workers
prepare cold foods, slice meat, peel and cut
vegetables, brew coffee or tea, and perform many
other food service tasks. Food preparation workers
are employed in restaurants, hotels and other
places where food is served, such as cafeterias,
grocery stores, hospitals and schools.
Food processing operator
Food processing workers operate equipment that
mixes, cooks or processes ingredients used in the
manufacture of food products. Most food processing
workers are employed in manufacturing facilities.
These workplaces are usually noisy and may be hot
or cold, depending on the goods being produced.
Food safety specialist
Food safety specialists help to ensure the quality
and safety of our food supply. Most become
experts in a specific aspect of food production
or in a segment of the food industry, such as
meat processing. For food grown in the United
States, food safety specialists enforce proper
methods of seed selection, fertilization, pest
control, harvesting, storage and transport. They
make sure foods are properly labeled, kept at the
right temperature and taken off the shelves once
they expire. Import inspectors are charged with
ensuring that food products imported into the
United States meet the same safety standards.
For commercially prepared foods, food safety
specialists monitor processing operations, inspect
equipment and identify potential sources of
contamination. Food safety specialists also inspect
food service operators, such as restaurants and
caterers, to enforce health and safety regulations.
Career resources
Food service worker
Food and beverage servers and related workers
perform a variety of customer service, food
preparation and cleaning duties in restaurants,
cafeterias and other eating and drinking
establishments. Food and beverage servers and
related workers are employed in restaurants, schools,
hospitals, cafeterias and other dining places.
Import inspector
Import inspectors are stationed at ports and other
points of entry to the United States. They make
sure that products imported from other countries
are as safe as those produced domestically.
Institute of Food Technologists
http://tbtim.es/13f7
Publix Corporate Careers
http://tbtim.es/13f6
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
http://tbtim.es/13f5
United States Department of Agriculture
Food Safety and Inspection Service
http://tbtim.es/13f4
United States Food and Drug
Administration
http://tbtim.es/13f8
Microbiologist
Microbiologists study microorganisms such as
bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi and some types
of parasites. They try to understand how these
organisms live, grow and interact with their
environments. Microbiologists work in laboratories
and offices, where they conduct scientific
experiments and analyze the results.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
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Going beyond the text
Food safety inspector
By now you are aware of ways to keep your
food and yourself safe. Check out the following
website – http://tbtim.es/13f9 -- to get a more
detailed picture of what health inspectors look
for in dining areas. Then do an inspection at
home, school and your favorite fast food or
dine-in restaurant. In your journal, write down
the positive things you see as well as the areas
that need improvement. Using the letters to
the editor in your newspaper as models, write
a letter to the editor about your observations
and your recommendations. Make sure to
explain why following health safety precautions
is so important. Be sure to include specific
suggestions for improvement. Also write a letter
to the owner of the establishment. You can
use the form letter module on the Read, Write,
Think website: http://tbtim.es/13fa.
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13
Playing with food
Food safety is not just about food preparation, it
also includes the types of foods that you buy and
eat. You’ve probably been told that it is better to eat
fresh food than it is to eat food that has been heavily processed. Just as all bacteria isn’t bad, not all
processed foods are bad. It is a good idea to limit
your intake and, of course, read labels carefully.
Fast food is a convenient option for people who
lead busy lives and it can be fairly inexpensive.
However, having a steady diet of fast food is not a
great idea. Here is an experiment for you to learn
the difference between fresh and processed foods.
For this experiment, you will need a kid’s meal
from a local fast food restaurant: a cheeseburger,
fries and apple slices. You also will need the following from your local Publix: bakery hamburger
bun, cooked hamburger, fresh fruit and french fries
from the deli.
Store each meal in an airtight container on a
shelf. Do not open the containers until it is time to
observe their contents.
Chart the results for each check-in: Two hours,
four hours, eight hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48
hours, 60 hours, 72 hours, 84 hours and 108 hours.
At each time increment, note how the food looks,
smells, feels and decomposes. Take photos at
each time increment. When you have finished the
experiment, write a report, being sure to include
as many details and your conclusions about those
details.
Food for thought
Did this experiment gross you out? Do you
think the better-looking meal is the one you would
want to eat? Why or why not? Think about this:
While mold is not pretty, it is a living organism
that needs nutrients to survive. It obtains those
nutrients by decomposing materials.
The purpose of preservatives is to resist that decomposition process, allowing food to be shipped
and to be shelf stable. Your body also gains nutrients by breaking down food. If your food resists
breakdown, you can’t get important nutrients from
that food. So, if mold doesn’t want the ingredients,
why would you want to eat that food?
Source: Kohl’s Cooks for Kids and Fit4Allkids staff
14
Separating fact from fiction
Here are some common myths about food safety from the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services.
Myth: Food poisoning isn’t that big of a deal.
Fact: Some foodborne illnesses can actually lead to long-term health conditions, and 3,000
Americans a year die from foodborne illness.
Myth: It is fine to thaw meat on the counter. Since the meat is frozen, bacteria isn’t really a problem.
Fact: Bacteria grow surprisingly fast at room temperatures, so the counter is never a place you
should thaw foods.
Myth: When cleaning my kitchen, I should use a lot of bleach. Since bleach kills bacteria, it is
safe for my family, if I use a lot of bleach.
Fact: There is no advantage to using more bleach than needed. To clean kitchen surfaces
effectively, use just 1 teaspoon of bleach to 1 quart of water.
Myth: I don’t need to wash fruits or vegetables if I’m going to peel them.
Fact: Because it’s easy to transfer bacteria from the peel or rind when you are cutting fruits and
veggies, it’s important to wash all produce, even if you plan to peel it.
Myth: In order to remove any bacteria on my meat, poultry or seafood, I should rinse off the
juices with water first.
Fact: Rinsing meat, poultry or seafood with water can increase your chance of food poisoning.
When you wash the meat product, you may splash juices and any bacteria they might contain onto
your sink and counters.
Myth: The only reason to let food sit after it’s been microwaved is to make sure I don’t burn
myself on food that’s too hot.
Fact: Letting microwaved food sit for a few minutes helps your food cook more completely by
allowing colder areas of food time to absorb heat from hotter areas of food.
Myth: Leftovers are safe to eat until they smell bad.
Fact: The types of bacteria that cause food poisoning do not affect the look, smell or taste of food.
Myth: Once food has been cooked, all the bacteria have been killed.
Fact: The possibility of bacterial growth increases after an item is cooked because the drop in
temperature allows bacteria to thrive.
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Food safety matters
The answers to the puzzle questions can be found
in the pages of this publication.
Across
2. This can result in serious symptoms and long-term illness.
4. Publix Super Markets Inc. is the nation’s largest
_____-owned grocery retailer.
6. Consumers need to be educated about preventive practices
that halt the growth and spread of these dangerous
pathogens.
9. This food can be good for you, nutrionally, but also can
contain illness-inducing pathogens.
10. You can become a BAC ____.
12. In 2014, 2,382 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported
in this state.
13. The most common foodborne illnesses are caused by this.
15. You cannot see or smell these items, but they can infiltrate
a food supply.
16. Clean produce with this type of water.
17. These may be present on food products when you
purchase them.
18. This happens when you refrigerate foods quickly.
19. By doing this to your food, you will not cross-contaminate
raw meat with vegetables.
21. Don’t buy food in cans that have these.
Down
1. If you come in contact with bad bugs, drink plenty of these.
3. This is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the
United States.
5. You need to wash all cooking spaces this way.
7. This industry employs more high school students than any
other industry.
8. Publix Super Market Charities is a national sponsor of the
_____ for Food Safety.
11. Foodborne illnesses are this if you are careful with the
handling of food.
14. You should do this to make sure your food has a safe
internal temperature.
18. You must do this to hands and surfaces often.
20. These people are at risk for getting a foodborne illness.
21. Between 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit is known as this
type of zone.
Going beyond the text
Learning new words
When you study new things, you often come up
against some tough vocabulary words. There are
a lot of challenging words in the field of science,
especially in regard to nutrition and food safety.
Most vocabulary words are learned from context
clues or good old-fashioned dictionary work.
While you read this publication, be sure to
highlight or circle words you don’t know. Try to
figure out the words’ meanings by looking for
clues in the sentences around them. Write down
your best guesses, and then look the words up
in a dictionary. As a group activity, make a list
of the words your classmates identified and see
which ones stumped the class. Next, use these
words for a news scavenger hunt. See if you can
find these words in your newspaper. Write down
each time you find one of the words. The team
with the most words wins.
tampabay.com/nie
15
Crossword puzzle answers
Across: 2. Food poisoning, 4. Independently, 6. Foodborne, 9. Eggs, 10. Fighter, 12. Florida, 13.
Norovirus, 15. Organisms, 16. Running, 17. Microorganisms, 18. Chill, 19. Separate, 21. Dents
Down: 1. Fluids, 3. Salmonella, 5. Thoroughly, 7. Fast food, 8. Partnership, 11. Preventable,
14. Cook, 18. Clean, 20. Everyone, 21. Danger
Sharing informational text …
and knowledge
Publix wants to hear from you. Publix Super Markets is excited about
engaging teachers and their students in learning about food safety. Please
go to surveymonkey.com/r/C6Q9J98 and take the short survey. Teachers
who complete the survey will be entered into a random drawing, sponsored
by Florida Press Educational Services, to win a $50 gift card to Publix. Ten
teachers will be selected at random to receive gift cards.
Food for thought
Food safety is an important and relevant subject
for exploration. You can learn more from the
following sources:
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
Food Safety
cdc.gov/foodsafety
• Florida Health Department
floridahealth.gov
• Florida Department of Agriculture
freshfromflorida.com
• Food Safety Modernization Act
fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA
• Food Safety and Inspection Service
fsis.usda.gov
• Partnership for Food Safety Education
fightbac.org
• Publix – Food Safety
publix.com/foodsafety
• U.S. Department of Agriculture
usda.gov
• U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and
Nutrition Service
fns.usda.gov
• U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Food
fda.gov/Food
• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
foodsafety.gov
The Partnership for Food
Safety Education
The Partnership
for Food Safety
Education is
composed of public
and sponsoring
partners that form
the leadership base
of the organization.
The partnership’s
mission is to improve
public health and
reduce foodborne illness. Companies such as
Publix Super Markets, trade associations and
public interest and scientific organizations
with involvement in securing, maintaining
and promoting a safe food supply are invited
to become partners. Anyone who cares about
ending illness and death from foodborne
infection can become a BAC! Fighter. BAC!
Fighters simply fight BAC – harmful bacteria
that can cause foodborne illness. BAC Fighters
can be dietitians, nutritionists, parents,
caregivers, nurses, local, state or federal public
health officials, private company food safety
professionals, health educators, food retailers or
food producers. To learn more or become a BAC!
Fighter, go to teamfppdsafety.org/bac-fighters.
Sources: Department of Health and Human Services; U.S. Food
and Drug Administration; National Science Teachers Association;
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the Partnership
for Food Safety Education
Going beyond the text
Creating an argument
Many food safety issues are controversial. Look for articles in the newspapers about food safety
issues. As you read, try to identify different points of view in the articles. In your journal, draw a
line down the middle of the paper. On one side, write “facts.” On the other side write “opinions.”
Write down the facts and opinions in each article. Then decide which side has the stronger case.
Discuss your thoughts with your classmates.
Florida Press Educational
Services Inc. (FPES) is a non
profit 501(c)(3) organization
of newspaper professionals that promotes literacy,
particularly for young people.
FPES members consist of daily and weekly newspapers
throughout the state of Florida. Through its member newspapers, FPES serves educators, students and families in all 67
Florida counties.
Newspaper in Education (NIE) programs across Florida
are a cooperative effort between schools and the newspapers
to encourage the use of newspapers in print and electronic
form as educational resources – a living textbook. Our educational resources fall into the category of informational text,
a type of nonfiction text. The primary purpose of informational text is to convey information about the natural or social world. NIE teaching materials cover a variety of subjects
and are correlated to the Florida State Standards.
For more information about FPES and its member newspapers, visit fpesnie.org. For additional copies of this publication, email [email protected] or [email protected]
© Florida Press Educational Services Inc. 2016
Credits
Project manager: Karen Tower, Florida Press Educational
Services
Written by Jodi Pushkin, Tampa Bay Times
Designed by Stacy Rector, Fluid Graphic Design LLC
For questions about this FPES NIE publication, contact
Karen Tower at [email protected] or 321-283-5345.
Florida Standards
The Florida Standards reflect the Florida Department of
Education’s foundational expectations of what all students
should know and be able to do in each grade, from kindergarten through 12th grade. This publication and its activities
incorporate the following Florida Standards for middle and
high school students.
Health: HE.B.3.1; HE.B.3.2; HE.B.3.3; HE.B.4.1; HE.B.4.3;
HE.B.5.1; HE.B.5.2; HE.B.5.4; HE.B.6.1; HE.B.6.4; HE.C.1.1;
HE.C.1.3; HE.C.1.4; HE.C.2.2; HE.C.2.3; HE.C.2.4; HE.C.2.5;
HE.C.2.6; HE.P.7.1; HE.P.7.2; HE.P.8.1; HE.P.8.2; HE.P.8.3;
HE.P.8.4 Science: SC.CS-CC.1.3; SC.CS-CC.1.4;
SC.CS-CC.1.5; SC.CS-CS.1.1; SC.CS-CS.1.2; SC.CS-CS.1.3;
SC.CS-CS.1.5; SC.CS-PC.1.2 SC.CS-PC.3.3;
SC.CS-PC.3.4; SC.N.1.1 Language Arts: LAFS.L.1.1;
LAFS.L.1.2; LAFS.L.2.3; LAFS.L.3.4; LAFS.L.3.5; LAFS.L.3.6;
LAFS.RI.1.1; LAFS.RI.1.2; LAFS.RI.1.3; LAFS.RI.2.4;
LAFS.RI.2.5; LAFS.RI.2.6; LAFS.RI.3.7; LAFS.RST.1.2;
LAFS.RST.1.3; LAFS.RST.2.4; LAFS.RST.2.5; LAFS.RST.2.6;
LAFS.RST.3.7; LAFS.RST.3.8; LAFS.RST.3.9; LAFS.SL.1.1;
LAFS.SL.1.2 LAFS.SL.1.3; LAFS.SL.2.4; LAFS.SL.2.5;
LAFS.SL.2.6; LAFS.W.1.1; LAFS.W.1.2; LAFS.W.1.3;
LAFS.W.2.4; LAFS.W.2.5; LAFS.W.2.6; LAFS.W.3.7;
LAFS.W.3.8; LAFS.W.3.9; LAFS.W.4.10; LAFS.WHST.1.1;
LAFS.WHST.1.2; LAFS.WHST.2.4; LAFS.WHST.2.5;
LAFS.WHST.2.6; LAFS.WHST.3.7; LAFS.WHST.3.8;
LAFS.WHST.3.9; LAFS.WHST.4.10
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