Ancient Rome ch 11Cullen

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Ancient Rome Part II
6th grade Social Studies
First Five: 4/4/16
Write down one thing you did over
Spring Break.
List and describe the two main social
classes in the Roman Republic.
Take out your Chapter 10 (Rome) notes,
Italy Map and begin reviewing your
materials. You have a TEST Wednesday!
Roman Republic
Tripartite Government – 3 offices that
represent all groups of society, giving
everyone a voice in government
Made up of elected officials
2 most powerful were called CONSULS
Served 1 year term as both political and
military leader
Held power over all other officials and citizens
◦ a council that advised the consuls
◦ Held office for life, all magistrates became
senators after one year term over
◦ Were only patricians at first, but eventually
plebeians could also serve in the Senate
 Tribunes -Represented the plebeians
and had power of veto
 Assemblies – elected magistrates
 Served one year terms
First Five: 4/5/16
Which group was responsible for
representing the “common people?”
Who did the Romans fight during the
Punic Wars?
For your test:
Cornell notes
 Vocabulary
 Map:
◦ Italy, Rome, Sicily, the Alps, Greece, and
First Triumvirate
An alliance
between Julius
Caesar, Pompey,
and Crassus
 Rule Rome as
consuls for 10
 Goal – to weaken
the Senate and
patrician class
Julius Caesar
Military general
 Conquered Gaul
(modern day France)
between 58 BC and
50 BC
 Excellent orator
(public speaker)
 Becomes a key
political figure in
End of the Triumvirate
Crassus died in 53 BC
 Caesar grows more and more popular
after he conquers Gaul
 Pompey’s allies in the Senate began to call
for Pompey to be sole ruler of Rome
 They ordered Julius Caesar to give up
control of his army
◦ He refused and marched back into Rome with
his army (which was illegal), ready for war
with Pompey
Pompey and his allies fled Italy
 Caesar and his army chase after, finally
defeating them in Greece in 48BC
 The Egyptian king orders Pompey killed
 Caesar is now solely in control of Roman
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar declared himself to be
dictator for life in 45 BC.
On March 15, 44 BC (the Ides of
March), Caesar is attacked by the
Senators and assassinated because
they were scared he was trying to be
◦ Senate was angry with him for reducing their
◦ The citizens of Rome resented the way he took
The Second Triumvirate
Marc Antony (Caesar’s former
assistant) and Octavian (Caesar’s
adopted son) emerge and take control
of the Roman government.
◦ The 3rd consul was Marcus Lepidus. He controlled Northern Africa
while Antony took control of the east and Octavian the west (including
They vow to seek revenge for the murder of
Julius Caesar.
◦ Their army defeats most of the assassins in 42
BC, and the remaining killers commit suicide.
Marc Antony
The Second Triumvirate
The Senate gives this alliance complete
political authority (in effect making them 3
dictators who rule their own part of the
 Rule for two 5 year terms
before civil war breaks out
due to disagreements,
ambition for power, and
jealousies between the
The Young and the Restless
43 BC – Octavian married Antony’s
 40 BC – Antony married Octavian’s sister
 After 8 years of marriage, Antony
divorces Octavian’s sister and goes to live
with Cleopatra.
◦ Octavian is furious! He uses
this to turn public opinion
against Marc Antony.
Octavian obtains a copy of Antony’s will,
which leaves substantial money to his and
Cleopatra’s 3 children and instructions for
his body to be buried in Alexandria, Egypt
 Octavian makes the will public in Rome
which leads to outrage amongst the
Roman Senate.
◦ They declare war on Cleopatra in 32 BC
Civil War
Octavian’s army defeats Antony and
Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in
Greece in 31 BC
 Antony and Cleopatra escape to Egypt
◦ In 30 BC, they commit suicide
◦ Octavian declares himself ruler of Egypt and
adds it to Roman territory
End of the Republic
27BC – Octavian
is given the title
the Senate
making him sole
ruler, or emperor,
of Rome.
 This marks the
beginning of the
Roman Empire.
Quick Write Assignment
Write a short summary of how Rome
changed from a monarchy to a republic
and now to an empire.
Use your Chapter 10 and 11 notes to
help you.
Bonus: 5 Points
List 2 ways the US government is similar to
the Roman Republic.
Come in quietly and
take your Chapter 11
Notes and
Vocabulary out
Expansion of the Empire
Rome continues to expand its territory
and grant citizenship to conquered
◦ Took over all of the North African coast, Jerusalem,
Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, the island of Britain
◦ Empire included
parts of Europe,
Africa, and
Expansion of lands promoted trade
in the empire
◦ New goods for Rome – Chinese silk,
Indian spices, African animals
◦ Used gold and silver coins to trade
 In the event that no one wanted Roman goods, gold
and silver ensured foreigners would still trade with
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace”
◦ A period of growth, wealth, invention, and
stability that lasted 200 years
◦ Included both political and cultural
Reached its height under Emperor
◦ Added Mesopotamia and Armenia
◦ Improved public works, including the road system
and bridges, harbors, and renovating the Forum
Most Roman accomplishments were
geared toward solving problems in every
day life. They often improved upon
previous inventions and made them
Architecture and Engineering
1.The Arch
◦ Was used to build higher, more stable
◦ Most famous example – the Coliseum
2.The Dome
◦ Used a series of arches to create a tall
open area, or vault, inside a structure
Can support more weight due to their
rounded shape
 Used in bridges, vaults, and aqueducts
 The KEYSTONE is the most important
stone in the arch. The arch would
collapse without it.
Used to make structures last
 Is watertight
 Mixture of lime and volcanic rock and
3. Roads
◦ unified the empire, used for trade and
military protection
◦ Built in layers of different materials
◦ Built over 50,000 miles of roads
◦ Parts still remain today
◦ Milestones marked distances
4. Aqueducts
◦ Raised channels that supplied
fresh water to cities
◦ carried water from the mountains down to
lower elevations
Many roads and aqueducts are still in
use today
 Studied
science to improve health
 GALEN – surgeon who studied
the body
◦ Described valves in the heart
◦ Noted differences between
arteries and veins
Beautiful mosaics
 Realistic portraits
 Lifelike sculptures
(modeled after the
 Latin
 Still
used in science and medical
fields today
 Later developed into the
Romance languages
◦ Spanish
◦ French
◦ Italian
◦ Portuguese
Legal system based on written laws
 Inspired civil law used around the
world today
First Five: 4/11/16
What happened to Julius Caesar and
Which of the following governments
existed in Rome? (Choose more than
Representative Democracy
Roman Religion
 Most of their beliefs were adopted
from the Greeks
◦ Gave the gods Roman names
◦ Example: Zeus becomes Jupiter
Built temples, made sacrifices,
 Believed in afterlife
Allowed conquered people to keep
own religions as long as they did
NOT threaten Roman rule
◦ Judaism and Christianity seen as a
threat because they did not pray to the
Roman gods
◦ Jewish people rebel several times against the
Romans creating political problems. They are
defeated each time.
◦ In the early 100s, the Romans destroy the city
of Jerusalem and force the Jews to leave.
Belief in one almighty God (Yahweh)
 All knowing, all powerful, merciful, and just
 Believed God would send a Messiah to
restore the nation of Israel
◦ Jews believe they are the chosen people who share
a unique relationship with Yahweh
◦ In return,Yahweh gave them the land of Israel
FIRST major monotheistic religion
 Holy book is the Torah
Belief in one almighty God
 Belief in Jesus Christ as the Messiah
◦ This is where Christianity splits from Judaism
Holy book is the Bible
 Spread beyond Jerusalem as
Christians moved out of Judea after
being persecuted by the Romans
Carpenter from Nazareth
 Left home to become an traveling
minister with his twelve disciples
 While preaching, he was recognized as
a prophet and healer by some followers
and welcomed as the son of God
 His message was love and devotion to
God and all of mankind
Christian Teachings
Jesus is God in bodily form
 He died on the cross (the
Crucifixion) and was resurrected
from the dead so that man can be
forgiven for their sins
 He remains among mankind as the
Holy Spirit
Spread of Christianity
Banned in Roman Empire
 After the death of Jesus, his followers
(Peter, John the Apostle, and Paul)
continued to spread Christianity by
teaching throughout the Middle East
and Mediterranean
 Early 300s, Emperor
Constantine converts
and removes the ban
Decline of the Empire
1. Expensive to maintain the empire
◦ Keeping military in distant lands
◦ Protecting traders on land and seas
Taxes were continuously raised
◦ Angered the people because they couldn’t
pay the taxes and began to lose their lands
◦ Many moved into the cities needing the government
to care for them = even higher taxes
◦ Less farmers – less food – invite German tribes into
empire to farm abandoned lands
2. Division into eastern and western
empires led to civil wars between
competing groups
 The empire was too large to efficiently
govern so co-emperors ruled
 2 capitols = Rome and Constantinople
3. Corruption and immorality
amongst Roman citizens and
government officials
 Political leaders would often bribe and
threaten to achieve their goals and ignore
the needs of the citizens
 Some officials began to form their own
armies in order to overthrow emperors
4. Invasions and attacks from groups
such as the Vandals, Angles, Saxons,
Huns, and Visigoths
The Huns invaded the lands of the Visigoths, who in turn fled into
Roman lands
Goths successful in defeating western armies and in 410 destroy
the city of Rome
This victory inspires other groups to attack Rome as well and by
450, military leaders are ruling the Western Roman Empire
End of the Western Empire
476 AD – Western Roman Empire
fell to Germanic invaders
◦ A German military general overthrew the last
of the Roman Emperors and named himself
king of Italy
List 3 things that led to the decline of
the Roman Empire.
2. Who gave Octavian the title of Caesar
3. What unified the Roman Empire, by
making it easier to trade and provide
military protection?
Byzantine Empire
The eastern portion of the Roman
 Lasts for 1,000 years after the fall of
the Western Empire
◦ In 1453 the Ottoman Empire takes control
Preserved and spread the
accomplishments of the Greeks and
Center of the Byzantine Empire
 Became the greatest city of the
western world
 Straddled the Bosporous Strait, so it
was located on 2 continents – Asia
and Europe
 Was the crossroads for international
Byzantine emperor
 Organized and simplified the Roman
laws into a legal system called the
Justinian Code
◦ Made the laws fair for all people
Educated scholars and government
officials so they could better help
the citizens
Byzantine Accomplishments
Enhanced Roman artistic style of
making mosaics from marble by
adding brightly colored glass
Built highly decorated Christian
◦ Most famous is the Hagia Sophia
Studies Weekly 18 & 19

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