China and Japan`s Reactions

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First found May 22, 2018

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Outcome: China and Japan’s Reactions
2.
How did China and
Japan react to European
explorers/traders and
why?
1.
2.
3.
4.
The Ming & Qing Dynasties
The Voyages of Zheng He
Ming Relations with Foreign
Countries
Contact with Japan
1.
Setting the Stage
a. East Asia was a hot spot for luxury goods
b. Many Europeans were looking to trade with China and Japan
Ming & Qing China
2.
a.
b.
c.
The Chinese people had rebelled and driven out their Mongol (Yuan)
rulers and had established the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
The Ming government had ruled for 200 years and was weakening
Later, the Manchus, people from Manchuria, invaded China and
established the Qing Dynasty which ruled for 260 years
3.
The Ming Dynasty & The Voyages of Zheng He
a. Emperor Hongwu and son Yonglo were curious about the
outside world and launched voyages of exploration
b. Chinese Admiral Zheng He led seven voyages
c. Purpose of Voyages: Show of China’s might and power
3.
The Voyages of Zheng He & The Ming Dynasty
d. Voyages ranged from Southeast Asia to eastern Africa
e. From 40 to 300 ships sailed on each voyage
f. Some ships were 400 feet long (p. 537)
Zheng He
The Voyages of Zheng He & The Ming Dynasty
3.
g.
Voyages included sailors, soldiers, carpenters, interpreters, accountants,
doctors and religious leaders
h.
After 7th voyage and Zheng He’s death, China withdrew into isolation and
destroyed the fleet
Zheng He’s Voyages
In 1498, Da Gama reached
Calcutta, China’s favorite port!
Ming Relations with Foreign Countries & Rules
4.
a. China’s trade policies in the 1500s reflected isolation
b.
c.
If foreign states wanted to trade with China, they would have to
follow Chinese rules because the Chinese did not want Europeans
threatening the peace and prosperity the Ming had brought to
China.
China had a long history of being self-sufficient as well
4.
Ming Relations with Foreign Countries & Rules
d. Rules
a.
b.
c.
d.
Only the government was allowed to conduct foreign trade
Trading was only allowed at certain ports
China expected Europe to pay tribute to Ming leaders;
Tribute is a peace tax
e.
Kowtow ritual: kneeling in front of the emperor and touching forehead to
ground 9 times
The Dutch accepted these restrictions and were allowed to trade
f.
Japan
6.
a.
In 1467, civil war shattered Japan’s feudal system and the country
became chaotic
b.
Warrior chieftains called daimyos became lords in a new Japanese feudalistic
system
Contact Between Europe and Japan
7.
a.
Europeans began coming to Japan in the 16th century and were welcomed
b.
c.
Within a century, the aggressive Europeans had worn out their welcome
The Portuguese brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, and firearms
d.
By 1600, European missionaries had converted 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
e.
After peasant rebellion (most were Christian) the shoguns ruthlessly
persecuted Christians and led to the formation of an exclusion policy
The Closed Country Policy
8.
a.
1639 the shoguns sealed Japan’s borders and excluded merchants and
missionaries
b.
Only port of Nagasaki remained open but only to Dutch and Chinese traders
c.
d.
Lasted for more than 200 years
Why???
a.
b.
Japanese were forbidden to leave so as to not bring back foreign ideas
Japan wanted to continue to develop as a self-sufficient country

Result: Europeans begin to explore west across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World.
2.
How did China and
Japan react to European
explorers/traders and
why?

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