Mott phases, phase transitions, and the role of zero-energy states in graphene Igor Herbut (Simon Fraser University) Collaborators: Bitan Roy (SFU) Vladimir Juricic (SFU) Oskar Vafek (FSU) Graphene: 2D carbon (1s2, 2s2, 2p2) Two triangular sublattices: A and B; one electron per site (half filling) Tight-binding model ( t = 2.5 eV ): (Wallace, PR , 1947) The sum is complex => two equations for two variables for zero energy => Dirac points (no Fermi surface) Brillouin zone: Two inequivalent (Dirac) points at : +K and -K Dirac fermion: “Low - energy” Hamiltonian: i=1,2 , (v = c/300 = 1, in our units) Experiment: how do we detect Dirac fermions? Quantum Hall effect (for example): Landau levels: each is 2 (spin) x 2 (Dirac) x eB (Area)/hc degenerate => quantization in steps of four ! (Gusynin and Sharapov, PRL, 2005) (Y. Zhang, PRL, 2006) Symmetries: exact and emergent 1) Lorentz (microscopically, only Z2 (A <-> B) x Z2 ( K <-> -K) = D2, dihedral group) 2) Chiral : = , Generators commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian (in 2D). Only two are emergent! 3) Time-reversal (exact) : ( + K <-> - K and complex conjugation ) (IH, Juricic, Roy, PRB, 2009) 4) Particle-hole (supersymmetry): anticommute with Dirac Hamiltonian , => and so map zero-energy states, when they exist, into each other! Only the zero-energy subspace is invariant under both symmetry (commuting) and supersymmetry (anticommuting) operators. “Masses” = supersymmetries 1) Broken chiral symmetry, preserved time reversal + 2) Broken time reversal symmetry, preserved chiral + In either case the spectrum becomes gapped: , = , On lattice? 1) 2) m staggered density, or Neel (with spin); preserves translations (Semenoff, PRL, 1984) circulating currents (Haldane, PRL, 1988) ( Raghu et al, PRL, 2008, generic phase diagram IH, PRL, 2006 ) 3) + ( Hou, Chamon, Mudry, PRL, 2007) Kekule hopping pattern Relativistic Mott criticality (IH, Juricic, Vafek , arXiv:0904.1019) Order parameters: Haldane; singlet, triplet singlet (CDW), triplet (SDW) Field theory: RG flow: singlet (triplet) Exponents: Long-range “charge”: Analogous to QED4? (Kogut-Strouthos, PRD 2005) Irrelevant! Emergent relativity: define small deviation and it is irrelevant perturbation : Consequence: universal ratio of fermionic and bosonic specific heats Transition: from Dirac fermions to Goldstone bosons! “Catalysis” of order: magnetic and otherwise Strong interactions are needed for the gap because there are very few states near the Fermi level: Density of states is linear near Dirac point: and ( IH, Viewpoint, Physics 2009 ) In the magnetic field: Landau quantization => => critical interaction infinitesimal ( Gusynin, Miransky, Shovkovy, PRL, 1994) Zero-energy level is split, others only shifted => quantum Hall effect at new filling factor at zero! IH, PRB 2006, PRB 2007, IH and Roy, PRB 2008 DOS infinite But which order is catalyzed? The Hamiltonian is : so that, where, is TRS breaking mass. so all zero energy states have the same eigenvalue ( +1 or -1) of for a uniform magnetic field. For a non-uniform magnetic field: where ( In Coulomb gauge, .) Zero-energy states with and without magnetic field are simply related: since at large distance, for a localized flux F normalizability requires them to be -1 eigenstates of !! Since, however, half of zero-energy states have +1, and half -1 eigenvalue of For any anticommuting traceless operator, such as (IH, PRL, 2007) So: TRS broken explicitly => CS broken spontaneously Is the opposite also true? Consider the non-Abelian potential: which manifestly breaks CS, but preserves TRS. Since, for example, represents a variation in the position of the Dirac point, induced by height variations or strain. still anticommutes with but also with so CS broken explicitly => TRS broken spontaneously (IH, PRB, 2008) Pseudo-magnetic catalysis: Flux of non-abelian pseudo-magnetic field => Subspace of zero-energy states (Atiyah-Singer, Aharonov-Casher) => Equally split by TRS breaking mass => With next-nearest neighbor repulsion, TRS spontaneously broken In a non-uniform pseudo-magnetic field (bulge): local TRS breaking! In sum: 1) Dirac Hamiltonian in 2D has plenty of (emergent) symmetry 2) Chiral symmetry + Time reversal => plethora of insulators 3) Mott QCP controllable near 3+1D: emergent relativity 4) Interactions need to be strong for Mott transition in 2+1D , but 5) Ubiquitous zero-energy states => catalyze insulators (QHE at filling factors zero and one in uniform magnetic field) 6) Non-abelian flux catalyzes time-reversal symmetry breaking!