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1
Name________________________________ Core _______________ Date___________
I. 3.1 Early Civilizations
A.
Greek Historian , Herodotus, said “Egypt is the gift of the Nile.”
1.
Meaning:
B. The Nile flows from the mountains and lakes of East Africa
C. The Nile floods every year
1. soil spread by the yearly floods was so rich that ancient Egyptian farmers
could easily grow _____________________________________________________.
2. Farmers grew about ____________________________..
3 Farmers fed others with the surplus food.
4. Non farmers
a. craftsmen
b. traders
c. leaders of communities
D. Pharaohs and Farmers
1. Two kingdoms developed in Egypt along the Nile
2. Pharaohs led Egypt.
3. Egyptians depended on the Nile River Valley
4. Every harvest, farmers turned over their surplus grain to the pharaoh’s tax collectors.
5. System allowed Pharaoh, his family, and court to live a life of luxury.
2
E. Egyptian Religion
1. Egyptians believed in many gods.
2. They worshipped a ____________________________________.
3. They believed In animal gods
4. The Egyptians believed that after a person died, his or her life continued in the
Afterlife_________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
F. Decline of Ancient Egypt
1. Egypt had no foreign invaders for 1,500 years.
2. Desert landforms offered some protection.
3. Foreign forces began to attack around 1100 B.C.
4. Assaults by the Assyrians and Persians weakened Egypt.
5. 332. B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the kingdom and ended the power of
The pharaohs.
G. Kush and Egypt
1. Kush was Egypt’s neighbor and trading ____________________________________.
2. Egypt and Kush were ________________________.
3. their locations encouraged contacts between them
4. travel on the Nile was not easy.
a. South of ancient Egypt, the Nile’s waters tumble over a series of six cataracts.
b. the first waterfall was between Egypt and Kush
5. Egypt was a desert country with few natural resources. It looked to Kush and other
For raw materials
6. Egypt took direct control of Kush in 1500 B.C.
3
7. Egypt rule Kush for 500 years.
H. The Kingdom of Kush
1. Kush broke away and became an independent kingdom.
2. Kush’s rulers steadily gained in wealth and power.
3. THe army of Kush conquered Egypt around 730 B.C. The victorious King had
An account of his conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis carved on a
Granite monument.
4. Kings of Kush ruled Egypt for about 70 years.
5. they adopted Egyptian beliefs and customs.
6. Kushite control of Egypt ended with the invasion of Assyrians from the
East.
7. The rulers of Kush continued to govern their kingdom, although t hey moved
the center of government south. Their new capital, Meroe, grew on the banks
of the Nile near the sixth cataract.
8. Kush became wealthy and influential. Kush’s
___________________________________ made it the crossroads for trade
between Asia and the Mediterranean world.
9. Kush used their own written and spoken language
10. Eventually they stopped following Egyptian gods
11. Kush remained a powerful empire in Africa for around 450 years.
12. Egypt and the Roman Empire bought trade goods from Kush between
250 B.C. and 200 A.D. How many years is that?
13. As the roman Empire declined, fewer buyers wanted the luxury goods from
Kush.
14. Kush’s foreign trade decreased b/c of competition from Axum, another
_____________________________________.
4
I. The Kingdom of Axum
1. Axum opened directly onto the _____________________.
2. Replaced Meroe and Kush as a center of African trade
3. From Meroe, traders had to haul their goods overland to the Red Sea. Such
Travel by land was difficult and dangerous.
4. Axum’s Red Sea port city of Adulus gave Axum and advantage in taking
control of the trade.
5.Traders carried their goods north to Egypt and across the Mediterranean to
Rome and Byzantium.
6. By A.D. 200s, Axum had become the most impressive kingdom in Africa
Or SW Asia.
7. Axum minted its own coins of gold, silver, and copper.
8. Farmers raised large herds of cattle and produced a variety of crops
9. King Ezana, Axum’s most powerful ruler, led his soldiers in destroying Meroe.
10. In A.D. 324, King Ezana converted to Christianity. After his conversion the
people of Axum also accepted Christianity.
11. In the 600s, Muslim armies took control of Egypt and north Africa,
spreading Islam and cutting Axum, off from other Christian countries.
12. With the support of the Christian Church, Axum withstood the spread of
Islam. It became “A Christian island in a Muslim sea” Explain this quote.
13. Much of Axum’s wealth disappeared when it lost its foreign trade.
14. In the early 800s, Axum’s rulers led their people south into the highlands
of what is today Ethiopia.
15. Over time, the kingdom of Ethiopia replaced what had been
_________________________________. A lasting legacy of Axum is the
Christian faith of the Ethiopian people.

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