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CHAPTER 2
Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating
Marketing Strategies
TEACHING RESOURCES QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE
Resource
Location
Purpose and Perspective
IRM, p. 21
Lecture Outline
IRM, p. 22
Discussion Starters
IRM, p. 30
Class Exercise
IRM, p. 32
Semester Project
IRM, p. 34
Chapter Quiz
IRM, p. 35
Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
IRM, p. 36
Answers to Application Questions
IRM, p. 39
Answers to Internet Exercise
IRM, p. 40
Answers to Developing Your Marketing Plan
IRM, p. 41
Comments on the Cases
IRM, p. 42
Case 2.1
IRM, p. 42
Case 2.2
IRM, p. 43
Strategic Case 1
IRM, p. 44
Instructions for Role-Play Team Case
IRM, p. 45
Examination Questions: Essay
Testing CD
Examination Questions: Multiple-Choice
Testing CD
Examination Questions: True-False
Testing CD
PowerPoint Slides
Instructor’s website
Note: Note: Additional resources may be found on the accompanying student and instructor websites at
www.cengagebrain.com.
PURPOSE AND PERSPECTIVE
This chapter focuses on strategic planning. We begin this chapter with an overview of the strategic
planning process. Next, we examine the process of strategic planning and the importance of missions and
goals, corporate and business-unit strategies, and resources and opportunities to an organization’s
strategy. We then explore how to implement the marketing strategy and the creation of the marketing
plan. These elements provide a framework for the development and implementation of marketing
strategies, as we will see throughout the remainder of this book.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
LECTURE OUTLINE
I.
Introduction
A. Strategic marketing management is the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating the
performance of marketing activities and strategies based on both effectiveness and efficiency.
B. The overall goal of strategic marketing management is to facilitate customer relationships and
reduce costs.
II.
The Strategic Planning Process
A. With competition increasing, firms must spend more time planning—determining how to use
resources and capabilities to achieve objectives and satisfy customers.
B. The process of strategic planning helps a firm establish an organizational mission and goals,
corporate strategy, marketing objectives, marketing strategy, and a marketing plan.
1. The process begins with an organization establishing or revising its mission and goals, and
then developing corporate strategies to achieve these goals.
2. The company then analyzes its strengths and weaknesses and identifies opportunities and
threats within the marketing environment and the industry.
3. Each functional area must support overall organizational goals and mission and should focus
on market orientation.
C. Establishing an Organizational Mission and Goals
1. The goals of any organization derive from its mission statement, which is a long-term view,
or vision, of what the organization wants to become. An organization’s mission really
answers two questions:
a. Who are our customers?
b. What is our core competency?
2. A company’s mission, goals, and objectives must be properly implemented to achieve and
communicate the desired corporate identity—a company’s unique symbols, personalities, and
philosophies.
a. An organization’s goals and objectives should guide its planning efforts.
b. Goals focus on the end results sought by the organization.
D. Developing Corporate and Business-Unit Strategies
1. Strategic planning often begins at the corporate level and proceeds from there to the businessunit and marketing levels, although some firms are developing strategy from the top-down
and from the bottom-up to seek expertise from multiple levels.
2. Corporate strategy should be developed with the organization’s overall mission in mind,
business-unit strategy should be consistent with corporate strategy, and marketing strategy
should be consistent with both.
3. Corporate Strategy
a. Corporate strategy determines the means for utilizing resources in the functional areas of
marketing, production, finance, research and development (R&D), and human resources
to reach the organization’s goals.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
23
b. Corporate strategy planners are concerned with broad issues (corporate culture,
competition, differentiation, diversification, interrelationships between business units,
and environmental and social issues).
c. They are also concerned with defining the scope and role of the organization’s business
units so the units coordinate efforts to reach the desired ends.
4. Business-Unit Strategy
a. A strategic business unit (SBU) is a division, product line, or other profit center within
the parent company. Strategic planners should recognize the strategic performance
capabilities of each SBU and carefully allocate resources among the divisions.
b. A market is a group of individuals and/or organizations that have needs for products in a
product class and have the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase these products.
The percentage of a market which actually buys a specific product from a specific
company is referred to as that product’s (or business unit’s) market share.
c. The market-growth/market-share matrix, the Boston Consulting Group (BCG)
approach, is based on the philosophy that a product’s market growth rate and its market
share are important considerations in determining its marketing strategy.
(1) All the organization’s SBUs and products should be integrated into a single, overall
matrix and evaluated to determine appropriate strategies for individual products and
overall portfolio strategies.
(2) Managers can use this model to determine and classify each product’s expected
future cash contributions and future cash requirements.
(3) This model classifies an organization’s products into four basic types:
(a) Stars have a dominant share of the market and good prospects for growth; they
use more cash than they generate to finance growth, add capacity, and increase
market share. Example: Apple’s iPod
(b) Cash cows have a dominant share of the market but low prospects for growth;
typically they generate more cash than is required to maintain market share.
Example: Procter & Gamble’s Bounty paper towels
(c) Dogs have a subordinate share of the market and low prospects for growth; these
products are often found in established markets. Example: General Motors’ (now
defunct) Oldsmobile brand
(d) Question marks, sometimes called “problem children,” have a small share of a
growing market and generally require a large amount of cash to build market
share. Example: Mercedes mountain bikes
d. The long-term health of an organization depends on having some products that generate
cash (and provide acceptable profits) and others that use cash to support growth.
E. Assessing Organizational Resources and Opportunities
1. The strategic planning process begins with an analysis of the marketing environment, which
can influence an organization’s goals, resources, and opportunities.
2. Strategic planning must assess an organization’s available financial and human resources
capabilities and how the level of these resources is likely to change in the future. Resources
can include:
a. Goodwill
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
b. Reputation
c. Brand names
d. Core competencies, or things a firm does extremely well and can sometimes give a
company an advantage over its competition.
3. Analysis of the marketing environment also involves identification of opportunities in the
marketplace.
a. A market opportunity exists when the right combination of circumstances and
timing permits an organization to take action to reach a particular target market.
b. Strategic windows are temporary periods during which there is an optimum fit
between the key requirements of a market and the particular capabilities of a firm
competing in that market.
4. A company is said to have a competitive advantage when it matches a core competency to
opportunities in the marketplace.
5. A SWOT Analysis is one tool marketers use to assess an organization’s strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the marketing environment (see Figure 2.4).
a. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors that can influence an organization’s
ability to satisfy its target markets.
(1) Strengths refer to competitive advantages or core competencies that give the
organization an advantage in meeting the needs of its target markets.
(2) Weaknesses refer to any (internal) limitations that a company faces in developing
or implementing a marketing strategy.
(3) Both strengths and weaknesses should be examined from a customer perspective.
b. Opportunities and threats exist independently of the organization and therefore
represent issues to be considered by all organizations in an industry, even those that
are not competitors.
(1) Opportunities refer to favorable conditions in the environment that could produce
rewards for the organization if acted upon properly.
(2) Threats refer to conditions or barriers that may prevent the organization from
reaching its objectives.
c. When an organization matches internal strengths to external opportunities, it creates
competitive advantages in meeting the needs of its customers.
d. Companies should attempt to convert internal weaknesses into strengths and external
threats into opportunities.
6. First-Mover and Late-Mover Advantage
a. A first-mover advantage is the ability to achieve long-term competitive advantages
by being the first to offer a certain product in the marketplace.
(1) Benefits include building a reputation as a market leader, reducing competition,
establishing brand loyalty, and protecting trade secrets.
(2) Risks include high costs associated with creating and marketing a new product,
slower than predicted sales growth, and the potential for product failure.
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b. A late-mover advantage is the ability to achieve long-term competitive advantages
by not being the first to offer a certain product in a marketplace.
(1) Benefits include learning from first-movers’ mistakes, improved products and
marketing strategies, lower initial investment costs, more market certainty, and
more educated buyers.
(2) Risks include first-movers holding patents and other protections on products and
difficulty in convincing consumers to change brands.
(3) The timing of entry to the market is crucial and can determine the amount of latemover advantage.
F. Developing Marketing Objectives and Marketing Strategies
1. A marketing objective states what is to be accomplished through marketing activities.
a. Objectives can be stated in terms of product introduction, product improvement or
innovation, sales volume, profitability, market share, pricing, distribution,
advertising, or employee training activities.
b. They should be based on the SWOT analysis and relate matching strengths to
opportunities and/or convert weaknesses and threats.
c. Marketing objectives should:
(1) Be expressed in clear, simple terms
(2) Be written so that they can be measured
(3) Specify a time frame for accomplishment
(4) Be consistent with both business-unit and corporate strategy
(5) Contribute to corporate strategy
2. A marketing strategy is the selection of a target market and the creation of a marketing mix
that will satisfy the needs of target market members.
a. Selecting the Target Market
(1) Selecting a target market is the most important decision a company makes in the
strategic planning process.
(2) Identification and analysis of a target market provide a foundation on which a
marketing mix can be developed.
(3) When exploring possible target markets, marketing managers try to evaluate how
entering them would affect the company’s sales, costs, and profits.
(4) Marketers should also assess whether the company has the resources to develop the
right marketing mix to meet the needs of a particular target market. The size and
number of competitors is also a concern.
b. Creating Marketing Mixes
(1) The decisions made in creating a marketing mix are only as good as the
organization’s understandings of the target market.
(2) Understanding comes from careful in-depth research into demographics as well
as customer needs, preferences, and behavior with respect to product design,
pricing, distribution, and promotion.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
(3) Marketing mix decisions should also be flexible and consistent with the businessunit and corporate strategies.
(4) The organization details how it will achieve a competitive advantage at the
marketing mix level.
(5) It is important that the organization attempt to make this advantage sustainable.
A sustainable competitive advantage is one that cannot be copied by the
competition.
III.
Managing Marketing Implementation
A. Marketing implementation is the process of putting marketing strategies into action.
B. Organizing the Marketing Unit
1. The structure and relationships of a marketing unit strongly affect marketing activities.
2. Companies that truly adopt the marketing concept develop an organizational culture based on
a shared set of beliefs that makes the customer’s needs the pivotal point of the company’s
decisions about strategy and operations.
3. An important decision regarding structural authority is whether the marketing operation
should be centralized or decentralized.
a. In a centralized organization, top-level managers delegate little authority to lower
levels. Most traditional organizations are highly centralized.
b. In a decentralized organization, decision-making authority is delegated as far down the
chain of command as possible. Decentralized authority allows the company to respond to
customer needs more quickly
4. Organizing marketing activities in ways that mesh with a company’s strategic marketing
approach enhances performance.
C. Motivating Marketing Personnel
1. Managers must discover their employees’ needs and then develop motivational methods that
will help employees satisfy those needs.
2. A firm can motivate its workers by directly linking pay with performance, informing workers
how their performance affects department and corporate results, following through with
appropriate compensation, implementing a flexible benefits program, and adopting a
participative management approach.
3. Managers should also use a variety of other tools, including nonfinancial rewards such as
prestige or recognition, job autonomy, skill variety, task significance, increased feedback, or
even a more relaxed dress code.
D. Communicating within the Marketing Unit
1. With good communication, marketing managers can motivate personnel and coordinate their
efforts.
2. Marketing managers must be able to communicate with the firm’s upper-level management to
ensure marketing activities are consistent with the company’s overall goals.
3. Communication that flows upward from the frontline of the marketing unit to higher-level
marketing managers provides important information about the needs of customers and
employees.
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4. Training helps employees to learn, ask questions, and become accountable for marketing
performance.
5. Marketers need an information system to support a variety of activities, such as planning,
budgeting, sales analyses, performance evaluations, report preparation, and improving
communication.
E. Coordinating Marketing Activities
1. To achieve marketing objectives, marketing managers must coordinate actions within and
across departments, firms, and external organizations.
2. Marketing managers can improve coordination by making each employee aware of how his
or her job relates to others and how his or her actions contribute to the achievement of
marketing objectives.
F. Establishing a Timetable for Implementation
1. Successful marketing implementation requires that employees know the specific activities for
which they are responsible and the timetable for completing each activity.
2. Establishing an implementation timetable involves several steps:
a. Identifying the activities to be performed
b. Determining the time required to complete each activity
c. Separating the activities to be performed in sequence from those to be performed
simultaneously
d. Organizing the activities in the proper order
e. Assigning responsibility for completing each activity to one or more employees, teams,
or managers
IV.
Evaluating Marketing Strategies
A. Strategic performance evaluation consists of establishing performance standards,
measuring actual performance, comparing actual performance with established standards, and
modifying the marketing strategy.
B. Establishing Performance Standards
1. A performance standard is an expected level of performance against which actual
performance can be compared, such as a reduction in customer complaints, a sales quota,
or an increase in customer accounts.
2. Marketing objectives directly or indirectly set forth performance standards, usually in
terms of sales, costs, or communication dimensions.
C. Analyzing Actual Performance
1. Sales analysis uses sales figures to evaluate a firm’s current performance.
a. It is most common method because sales data partially reflect the target market’s
reactions to the marketing mix.
b. Marketers use current sales data to monitor the impact of current marketing
efforts and compare them to forecasted sales, industry sales, a competitor’s sales,
or related costs.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
c. The basic unit of measurement is the sales transaction, which includes the
quantity, terms, the salesperson or sales team, and the date.
d. Firms frequently use dollar volume in their sales analyses, but price increases and
decreases affect total sales figures, and those effects should be factored out.
e. Market share analysis lets a company compare its marketing strategy with
competitor’s strategies and estimate whether sales changes have resulted from the
firm’s marketing strategy or from uncontrollable environmental forces. However,
the results must be interpreted carefully.
2. Marketing Cost Analysis
a. Marketing cost analysis breaks down and classifies costs to determine which are
associated with specific marketing efforts.
b. It can help isolate profitable or unprofitable customers, products, and geographic
areas and better allocate resources.
c. A company that understands and manages its costs appropriately has a
competitive advantage and can compete on price.
d. One way to analyze costs is by comparing a company’s costs with industry
averages; however, a company should take into account its own unique situation.
e. Costs can be categorized into fixed costs (always the same over time) such as rent
as well as variable costs (affected by sales or production volume) such as the cost
to produce product. They can also be categorized by whether they can be linked
to a specific business function.
D. Comparing Actual Performance with Performance Standards and Making Changes, If Needed
1. Comparing actual performance with established performance standards can result in
actual performance exceeding performance standards or actual performance failing to
meet performance standards.
2. It is important to find out why a particular strategy is effective or ineffective so that it
can be improved.
3. Marketers may have to alter the marketing objective to make it more realistic.
V.
Creating the Marketing Plan
A. The marketing plan is a written document that outlines and explains all the activities necessary
to implement marketing strategies and is an outcome of the planning process.
1. It is the basis for internal communication among employees.
2. It covers the assignment of responsibilities and tasks, as well as schedules for
implementation.
a. It presents objectives and specifies how resources are to be allocated to achieve these
objectives.
b. It helps marketing managers monitor and evaluate the performance of a marketing
strategy.
c. A company may develop multiple marketing plans that relate to different products or
brands.
3. Marketing planning and implementation are closely linked in successful companies.
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4. Organizations use many different formats, and it is important is to make sure that it aligns
with corporate and business-unit strategies and is shared with all key employees.
B. The major parts of a marketing plan include:
1. The executive summary, which provides an overview of the entire marketing plan.
2. The environmental analysis, which supplies information about the company’s current
situation with respect to the marketing environment, the target market, and the firm’s current
objectives and performance.
3. The SWOT analysis, which assesses an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats.
4. The marketing objectives, which state what the company wants to accomplish through
marketing activities and describes the target market and the marketing mix.
5. The marketing implementation section, which outlines how marketing strategies will be
implemented.
6. The performance evaluation section, which establishes standards for how results will be
measured, evaluated, and adjusted.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
DISCUSSION STARTERS
Discussion Starter 1: Identifying Core Competencies
ASK: What are McDonald’s core competencies?
Many students will focus on food, but the key to McDonald’s success is a focus on consistency.
McDonald’s restaurants all look very similar and serve a very consistent product. Customers know
what they will receive, no matter where they are in the world.
ASK: How many of you have eaten in McDonald’s in other countries? What was similar to the local
McDonald’s?
McDonald’s goal is to have consistent product, service and environment throughout the world. This
consistency gives the consumer confidence that the purchase will meet expectation. The other
competency McDonald’s possesses is the ability to identify local menu items which fit within
McDonald’s offerings.
Exercise Extender: Visit www.aboutmcdonalds.com/country/map.html and visit a number of
McDonald’s international sites. Discuss with the students the similarities and the differences between
the sites. This will bring the discussion of McDonald’s core competencies to life.
Discussion Starter 2: Mission Statements
Present Ben and Jerry’s Social, Product, and Economic mission statements (available at
http://www.benjerry.com/activism/mission-statement) as well as New Belgium Brewery’s history and
mission (available at http://www.newbelgium.com/our-story).
Discuss these two companies that are known for their high ethical standards and their mission
statements. Mission statements are important because they act as a compass to lead the company in
the right direction. Using the section in the book about mission statements, have students analyze
their strengths and weaknesses.
ASK: Can you think of any companies that are unique or different? Do you think their uniqueness is
reflected in their mission statements?
Have students look up these companies’ mission statements on their websites and analyze their content.
Discussion Starter 3: Entrepreneurship in Marketing: Rogers Family Company
ASK: How did the Rogers Family Company differentiate its coffee from other gourmet coffees? Do you
think it is doing enough to compete in today’s market?
Students should focus on the company’s mission to make a difference with its coffee. The Rogers Family
Company buys beans at prices that are fair to farmers and develops eco-friendly growing practices.
ASK: What are some potential threats to the Rogers Family Company? How might the company combat
these threats?
Although the company is the largest coffee roaster in the San Francisco area, students may argue that
more companies are adopting fair trade and sustainable growing practices, so the Rogers Family
Company may have to continue to innovate in order to remain successful. In addition, while single-serve
coffees are popular, they also create more waste, which may damage the company’s eco-friendly
reputation. Students will have a variety of suggestions for how to combat these threats.
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Discussion Starter 4: Internal Marketing
ASK: How many of you work for firms that have internal marketing efforts?
Many of the students will work for firms that offer programs and benefits designed to bond the
employees to the brand. For example, banks such as Bank of America offer employees access to
websites that provide discounts. Other companies have added social-media areas to their internal
networks.
ASK: Why is internal marketing so important?
In order to reach the new generation of workers, many firms are turning to their own media. An
excellent example is Ernst and Young’s use of Facebook. Originally targeted at recruits, this
initiative now serves employees as well as alumni and bonds the individuals within the organization
together. The following link connects to the Ernst and Young Facebook page:
http://www.facebook.com/ernstandyoungcareers
(Note: You can access this page even if you are not signed into Facebook. Nevertheless, be careful to
screen what is viewed in class as there may be objectionable information on many sites.)
ASK: Do you think these efforts will be successful? Should other firms use this technique as part of their
internal marketing efforts?
Students should be able to support their answers to this question.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
CLASS EXERCISES
Class Exercise 1: Campus Specific University Mission Statements
Note: If computer access is not available during class, you will need to provide students the university
mission statement.
Step 1: Analyze the mission statement for your university.
Step 2: Identify campus activities consistent with the mission statement.
Step 3: Identify the core competencies of the university.
Step 4: List any marketing activities consistent with the mission statement.
Class Exercise 2: A Personal SWOT Analysis Related to Getting a Great Job After
Graduation
Ask each student at the beginning of class to silently generate a SWOT analysis of their strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for getting a great job when they graduate. More specifically,
have them write out at least three strengths, three weaknesses, three opportunities they foresee, and
three threats that may impact their getting a job after college.
Have students refer to Figure 2.4 in the text for matching strengths to opportunities and converting
weaknesses to strengths and threats to opportunities. Most importantly, ask each student to put an
asterisk in the SWOT quadrant they believe is most important and why. This exercise should take
approximately 5 to 10 minutes.
Note: After the students have handed in their work, conduct a quick a frequency count on each
of the four quadrants that students marked as most important. Then ask the students to answer
the following question:
According to the SWOT analysis data generated and discussed in class, the quadrant that was
deemed to be the most important by our class was _____________ and the quadrant deemed to
be the least important was ______________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
opportunities; threats
strengths; threats
strengths; weaknesses
weaknesses; threats
threats; opportunities
Hopefully students will find that either strengths or opportunities are most important and weaknesses
are least important. Have the students discuss their answers.
Class Exercise 3: Class Mission Statement
A mission statement provides a long-term view, or vision, about what the organization wants to
become. It serves as the orienting point for the organization’s goals and objectives.
In this exercise you will develop a mission statement for the class.
Step 1: Begin by identifying customers’ needs and wants.
Step 2: Identify key elements that must be in the class mission statement.
Step 3: Write a mission statement for the class.
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Choose one member of the group to report the group’s activities to the class.
After this exercise the instructor should combine elements from the various mission statements and define
a single mission statement for the class.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
SEMESTER PROJECT
As outlined in Chapter 2, the strategic planning process begins with an assessment of the organization’s
current state. This task is generally accomplished through a SWOT analysis. In order to plan a successful
career, you too must understand your strengths and weaknesses. This exercise is designed to help you
conduct a personal SWOT analysis.
Step 1: Internal Assessment
The first step is to begin with a self-assessment. There are many tools available to help you identify your
own strengths and weaknesses. The following website contains a wide variety of tools to assist you in
identifying your wants and capabilities.
http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/aftercollege/career_planning.html
Write a brief statement about the results of your internal assessment. Remember, the key is to be honest
with yourself.
Step 2: External Assessment
Personality testing is used to help you identify careers which make best use of your personality type.
Organizations also use personality testing to identify ideal job candidates, testing applicants to determine
if personality profiles meet the job requirements. Access to personality testing is often available through
campus career resource centers. If your campus does not provide this service, then try online versions
such as http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm. After completing the online test, you will
be given a series of four letters. These letters represent your personality type and can be used to search for
careers, fitting your personality.
Another means of identifying your strengths and weaknesses is to ask those around you to discuss these
attributes with you. The second part of this exercise is to seek three people who know you in different
capacities. Ask these three people to discuss with you your key strengths and weaknesses. Key people to
ask include your boss, a professor who knows you well, and a long-time friend. Honest responses will
help you better understand yourself, so ask for direct responses.
Write a brief report on the key insights gained from these exercises.
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CHAPTER QUIZ
1.
A long-term view, or vision, of what an organization wants to become is called a
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
2.
______ refers to the coordination of internal exchanges between the organization and its employees
to better achieve successful external exchanges between the organization and its customers.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3.
Internal management
Internal leadership
Empowerment
Internal marketing
Total quality management
The questions “Who are our customers?” and “What is our core competency?” are answered in the
firm's
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
4.
vision statement.
purpose statement.
mission statement.
marketing plan.
strategic vision.
business plan.
strategic window.
mission statement.
market opportunity statement.
marketing plan.
Products that have a relatively low market share and low prospects for growth are considered by the
Boston Consulting Group to be ___________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
dogs
cash cows
stars
cash contributors
question marks
Answers to Chapter Quiz: 1. c; 2. d; 3. c; 4. a.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION AND REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Identify the major components of strategic planning, and explain how they are interrelated.
The major components of strategic planning include analysis of the organization’s strengths and
weaknesses and identification of its threats and opportunities, establishment of an organizational
mission and goals, and development of corporate and business-unit strategies. Within the marketing
area, the process continues with the establishment of marketing objectives, development of a
marketing strategy and, ultimately, the creation of a marketing plan.
2. Explain how an organization can create a competitive advantage at the corporate strategy level
and at the business unit strategy level.
A competitive advantage exists when an organization matches its core competency to opportunities it
has discovered in the marketplace. One way a firm can achieve a competitive advantage at the
corporate level is through corporate mergers. The talents and abilities one corporation possesses can
be combined with different competencies of another organization and matched to opportunities in the
marketplace. At the business-unit level, an organization can develop a competitive advantage by
intensifying growth in those products or services that the organization has mastered and those that
also have great customer-market potential. A competitive advantage can also be created when a
company has the foresight to diversify into other markets and/or products which capitalize on existing
skills and knowledge. At the marketing strategy level, developing a competitive advantage relies on
careful analysis of customers and their needs and then selecting the appropriate target market for the
organization’s core competencies.
3. What are some issues to consider in analyzing a firm’s resources and opportunities? How do
these issues affect marketing objectives and marketing strategy?
The strategic planning process begins with an analysis of the marketing environment, including
economic, competitive, political, legal and regulatory, technological, and socio-cultural forces. The
process must also include an assessment of an organization’s available financial and human resources
and capabilities, as well as how the level of these resources is likely to change. These analyses help
the firm pinpoint its core competencies and identify market opportunities which the organization can
exploit through carefully crafted marketing strategies.
4.
What is SWOT analysis and why is it important?
A SWOT analysis outlines the internal strengths and weaknesses of a firm and the external
opportunities and threats. This information can be used to develop appropriate strategies for
converting weaknesses into strengths, threats into opportunities, and to match strengths to
opportunities.
5. How can an organization make its competitive advantages sustainable over time? How difficult
is it to create sustainable competitive advantages?
A sustainable competitive advantage is one that the competition cannot copy in the foreseeable future.
Maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage requires flexibility in the marketing mix when
facing uncertain competitive environments. It is difficult to create a sustainable competitive
advantage, but it can be done by being a first-mover in a market or by offering the highest quality
products.
6. How should organizations set marketing objectives?
A marketing objective states what is to be accomplished through marketing activities. These
objectives can be stated in terms of product introduction, product improvement or innovation, sales
volume, profitability, market share, pricing, distribution, advertising, or employee training activities.
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37
Marketing objectives must be consistent with the organization’s goals. They should be written so that
they are clear and measurable, and should state what is to be accomplished in what time frame.
7. What are the two major parts of a marketing strategy?
The two major parts of a marketing strategy are selecting a target market and creating a marketing
mix. The target market must be chosen before the organization can adapt its marketing mix to meet
the customers’ needs and preferences. The marketing mix should be consistent with the business-unit
and corporate strategies and flexible enough to adapt to changing conditions.
8. When considering the strategic planning process, what factors influence the development of a
marketing strategy?
A marketing strategy should match the organization’s corporate strategy and help the organization to
achieve its goals. A marketing strategy articulates the best use of the company’s resources to achieve
its marketing objectives. It should also match customers’ desires for value with the organization’s
distinctive capabilities.
9. Identify and explain the major managerial actions that are a part of managing the
implementation of marketing strategies.
The implementation of marketing strategies requires managers to organize the marketing department
(with centralized or decentralized power), motivate marketing personnel (through both financial and
non-financial incentives), effectively communicate within the marketing department and with other
departments, coordinate all marketing activities and ensure that all employees understand how they
are contributing to the marketing strategy, and establish a timetable for the completion of each
marketing activity.
10. Which element of the strategic planning process plays a major role in the establishment of
performance standards? Explain.
As part of the strategic planning process, marketers set marketing objectives that indicate what a
marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. Marketing objectives directly or indirectly set forth
performance standards, usually in terms of sales, costs, or communication dimensions, such as brand
awareness or product feature recall. Actual performance should be measured in similar terms to
facilitate comparisons and to make sure that the marketing department is achieving its objectives.
11. When assessing actual performance of a marketing strategy, should a marketer perform
marketing cost analysis? Why or why not?
Marketers should perform marketing cost analysis to get a complete picture of marketing activities. A
marketing strategy that successfully generates sales may also be extremely costly, so firms should
know the marketing costs associated with using a given strategy. Marketing cost-based analysis
breaks down and classifies costs to determine which are associated with specific marketing efforts.
By comparing costs of previous marketing activities with their results, a marketer can better allocate
the firm’s marketing resources in the future.
12. Identify and explain the major components of a marketing plan.
The major parts of a marketing plan include the executive summary, which provides an overview of
the entire marketing plan; the environmental analysis, which supplies information about the
company’s current situation with respect to the marketing environment, the target market, and the
firm’s current objectives and performance; the SWOT analysis, which assesses an organization’s
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; the marketing objectives, which state what the
company wants to accomplish through marketing activities and describes the target market and the
marketing mix; the marketing implementation section, which outlines how marketing strategies will
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
be implemented; and the performance evaluation section, which establishes standards for how results
will be measured, evaluated, and adjusted.
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39
ANSWERS TO APPLICATION QUESTIONS
1. Contact three companies that appear to be successful. Ask one of the company’s managers if he
or she would share with you the company’s mission statement or organizational goals. For
many companies, the mission statement and organizational goals can also be found on the
company’s webpage. Obtain as much information as possible about the mission statement and
organizational goals. Discuss how the statement matches the criteria outlined in the text.
Student answers will vary, but they should address the two main points of each companies mission
statement: Who are our customers? and What is our core competency?
2. Assume you own a new, family-style restaurant that will open for business in the coming year.
Formulate a long-term goal for the restaurant, and then develop short-term goals to help you
achieve the long-term goal.
Students should focus on setting realistic goals and getting regular feedback on performance to ensure
ongoing success. Each short-term goal should support the long-term goal of making a certain amount
of sales, breaking even, or serving a certain number of customers,
3. Amazon.com identified an opportunity to capitalize on a desire of many consumers to shop at
home. This strategic window gave Amazon.com a very competitive position in a new market.
Consider the opportunities that may be present in your city or your region. Identify a strategic
window, and discuss how a company could take advantage of this opportunity. What types of
core competencies are necessary?
Students should focus on matching core competencies to opportunities in the market.
4. Marketing units may be organized according to functions, products, regions, or types of
customers. Describe how you would organize the marketing units for the following:
a. A toothpaste with whitener; a toothpaste with sensitivity protection; a toothpaste with cinnamon
flavor: types of customers
b. A national line offering all types of winter and summer sports clothing for men and women:
regions or functions
c. A life insurance company that provides life, health, and disability insurance: products, types of
customers, or regions
5. Create a SWOT analysis for Ford based on Case 2.2. Rank each of the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats from 1 to 10 depending on how significant you feel they are to the
company. Do you feel Ford has a high competitive position relative to other automobile
companies?
Student responses will vary for each part of the question, but they short support each of their answers
with direct examples from the case. Ford’s core competencies are its engineering and manufacturing
expertise and its in-depth understanding of customers and their needs, and these should be reflected in
its strengths and its opportunities. Weaknesses and threats Ford’s current financial position, the
company being spread too thin, a lack of regional innovation under the new One Ford program,
market instability, and competition in the industry.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
ANSWERS TO INTERNET EXERCISE
Sony
Internet analysts have praised Sony’s website as one of the best organized and most informative on the
Internet. See why by accessing www.sony.com.
1. Based on the information provided on the website, describe Sony’s SBUs. Does Sony have SBUs
that are divisions, product lines, or some other profit center structure within the parent
company Sony?
Sony’s SBUs are first divided by global regions. It’s U.S. businesses are divided into the following
units:
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Sony Electronics Inc.
Sony Pictures Entertainment
Sony Music Entertainment
Sony Computer Entertainment America LLC
Sony Network Entertainment
Sony DADC Americas
Sony/ATV Music Publishing
Sony Mobile Communications
This shows that Sony’s next division is by type of product.
2. Based on your existing knowledge of Sony as an innovative leader in the consumer electronics
industry, describe the company’s primary competitive advantage (i.e., what makes Sony
strategically unique?). How does Sony’s website support this competitive advantage?
Sony’s consumer electronics set the standard for many consumers. Students may cite the PlayStation3
or BluRay players as examples of industry-leading products. However, these products are successful
because of Sony’s integration with other products and services, including the PlayStation Network,
releasing movies on BluRay discs, and delivering content on their devises. The company strategically
providing the devices, content, and networks that work together to give consumers what they want.
Sony’s website presents products along side each other and as packages to reinforce the concept of
integration of all consumer electronics.
3. Assess the quality and effectiveness of Sony’s website. Specifically, perform a preliminary
SWOT analysis comparing Sony’s website with other high-quality websites you have visited.
Students should asses all aspects of the website, including ease of use, content, interactivity, and how
different products are connected to each other via the site. When comparing the Sony site to other
websites, remind students that they can think outside the box and expand their search to successful
websites like Amazon.com.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
41
ANSWERS TO DEVELOPING YOUR MARKETING PLAN
The Interactive Marketing Plan exercise can be found at www.cengagebrain.com.
1. Can you identify the core competencies of your company? Do they currently contribute to a
competitive advantage? If not, what changes could your company make to establish a
competitive advantage?
Students should identify the core competencies of the company they selected. As an example,
Walmart’s core competencies include world-class efficiency in supply chain management, an
extensive distribution system, and a strong reputation for delivering low prices. Next, students must
state whether their identified core competencies contribute to a competitive advantage for their
selected company. For the example of Walmart, the answer would be yes.
2. Conduct a SWOT analysis of your company to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Continue
your analysis to include the business environment, discovering any opportunities that exist or
threats that may impact your company.
In order to answer this question, students are required to provide a SWOT analysis of their selected
company. Embedded in this answer, students will be required to clearly identify their company’s
strengths and weaknesses as well as discussing any opportunities or threats their company may face.
3. Using the information from your SWOT analysis, have you identified any opportunities that are
a good match with your company’s core competencies? Likewise, have you discovered any
weaknesses that could be converted to strengths through careful marketing planning?
Students are required to discuss whether they have identified any opportunities that are a good match
for their company’s core competencies. Finally, students should explain whether they discovered any
weaknesses that could be converted to strengths through careful market planning.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
COMMENTS ON THE CASES
VIDEO CASE 2.1: WHITE ROCK’S SPARKLING PAST POINTS THE
WAY TO ITS MARKETING FUTURE
Summary
This case describes the marketing strategies that White Rock used to revitalize its brand and grow in a
highly competitive beverage industry. Although White Rock sparkling water was once popular, by the
end of the 20th century, the company’s growth had stagnated. To bring its brand back from the brink,
White Rock changed several elements of its marketing mix. The company’s branding focuses on its rich
history as well as the nutritional benefits of its products. White Rock introduced new packaging by
changing its containers and is diversifying its product mix by acquiring other brands with high growth
potential. The company also uses a hybrid distribution system and quality customer service to
differentiate its brands from competitors. With this new marketing mix, White Rock plans to expand its
market and increase sales.
Questions for Discussion
1. How would you describe White Rock’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats?
Students may want to answer this question in a SWOT matrix (see Figure 2.4). Student answers will vary,
but some answers may include:
Strengths: strong brand history, customer loyalty, products target health-food consumers, quality
customer service, hybrid distribution system
Weaknesses: stagnant growth for White Rock brand, consumers are less familiar with the brands
compared to competitors’ brands
Opportunities: health-food consumption is increasing, consumers want all-natural and organic products,
consumers want alternatives to soft drinks
Threats: competitors have more capital to use to compete, consumer demand for sparkling water is low,
environmental forces
2.
What do you think White Rock should do to gain competitive advantage?
Students may have different solutions for this question. Students may suggest that White Rock expand its
target market to include groups outside of the niche health food industry, embark on new marketing
initiatives to make the White Rock brand more well-known, or form partnerships with restaurants or cafes
to sell the product at their locations and promote its premium quality.
3. What elements of the marketing mix could White Rock change to improve its marketing
strategy?
The third question asks students to consider what elements of the marketing mix that White Rock could
change to improve its marketing strategy. Technically, White Rock could change all elements of the
marketing mix. Some are harder to change than others, however. The hardest to change would be
distribution methods, as they involve transportation and location considerations. Pricing would be the
easiest to change. Increasing the price for its products could promote its “premium brand” image, while
lowering the price could attract more customers. Increasing promotion would be the best way to spread
awareness of the White Rock product, through advertising, by forming partnerships, or by engaging in
greater customer relationship marketing. White Rock could also change its products, either by adapting its
current products, adopting different types of product packaging, or acquiring new brands. Changing any
of these elements will likely affect the marketing strategy significantly.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
43
CASE 2.2: FORD’S HARD-DRIVING STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
Summary
This case discusses how Ford’s “One Ford” strategy is creating a competitive advantage and helping the
company to recover from the recession. This strategy reduces costs while maintaining a focus on
customers as the foundation for everything the company does. Ford changed several parts of its marketing
plan to make the “One Ford” strategy a success. The company simplified its product line, produced
vehicles designed for the global market, refined its manufacturing process, and started to develop more
budget-friendly and eco-friendly options. Ford intends for these changes to strengthen its brand and its
profitability.
Questions for Discussion
1. What is Ford’s corporate strategy? Describe Ford’s marketing strategies. How should Ford
alter its corporate and marketing strategies?
“One Ford” summarizes Ford’s corporate strategy of meeting the needs of customers across world
markets. The company shifted from a localized production strategy to a more globalized one. It created a
streamlined global product line that is designed in one location instead of designing automobiles for each
region. Instead of customizing the cars, Ford uses customized advertising to target smaller regions. Ford
is also focusing on its customers’ needs and developing more budget-friendly, fuel-efficient options. For
the last part of the question, student suggestions will vary.
2. What are Ford’s core competencies, and how is the company using these in its “One Ford”
program?
Ford’s core competencies are its engineering and manufacturing expertise and its in-depth understanding
of customers and their needs. Under the “One Ford” program, Ford’s simplified product line helps the
company to produce vehicles more efficiently and quickly share innovations across the entire
organization and streamline new product development. Ford then uses its knowledge of consumers’ needs
and preferences to market directly to specific groups of consumers.
3. How can Ford use performance evaluation to stay on course toward the goals it seeks to
achieve?
Ford can use performance evaluation to compare its performance before and after the “One Ford” strategy
and discover whether or not its changes were effective. Using sales analysis methods such as sales data
and market share should help Ford to understand its position in the market. A cost analysis would also
help the company to determine whether the simplified product line is reducing costs associated with
growing sales. In both cases, the company must make sure to factor out environmental changes. The
company should also monitor its expectations and decide whether its goals are realistic.
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Chapter 2: Planning, Implementing, and Controlling Marketing Strategies
STRATEGIC CASE 1: CONSUMERS TAKE A SHINE TO APPLE INC.
Summary
This case discusses how Apple Inc. uses its marketing mix to inspire intense customer loyalty and
create a strong brand. Although students may be familiar with Apple’s innovative products, the
company’s pricing, distribution, and promotion strategies are also cutting-edge and designed to
attract customers. Thanks to an efficient use of the marketing concept, Apple is one of the most
valuable and trusted brands in the world, although its future seems more uncertain in the wake of the
death of Steve Jobs, Apple’s creative leader.
Questions for Discussion
1. How has Apple implemented the marketing concept?
According to the marketing concept, a firm should try to provide products that satisfy customers’
needs though a coordinated set of activities that also allow the firm to achieve its goals. Apple is an
expert at the marketing concept, designing products that consumers love, creating a consistent brand
image through its promotion and distribution strategies, and charging premium prices. Students may
cite specific examples of each element of the marketing mix.
2. Describe the role of Apple stores as an important part of its marketing strategy.
Apple stores allow Apple to control the distribution element of the marketing mix. Everything in the
Apple store is carefully planned to align with the company’s image, provide excellent customer
service, and ultimately keep customers in the store longer.
3. What will Apple need to do to maintain product innovation and customer loyalty?
Student answers may vary, but they will probably focus on the changes at Apple after Steve Jobs’
death. Apple will have to find a way to maintain its innovative corporate culture and reassure
customers that the company continues to put their customers first. Apple will also have to create new
products in order to remain relevant.
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45
INSTRUCTIONS FOR ROLE-PLAY TEAM CASE
ROLE-PLAY TEAM CASE EXERCISE 1: BIRMINGHAM HILL
CHEESE COMPANY
This role-play team case exercise is designed to simulate actual marketing decision making in the real
world. Students take on assigned roles and then participate in a team discussion of the case.
Preparation
Break the class into teams of 5. The entire team should read the Background section.
Each student will take on a role of a particular employee within the organization. Even though all of the
roles are printed in the textbook, each student should focus on only his/her assigned role and represent
that person. We realize that some students might try to read all of the roles, but when they break into
teams, they should only make comments based on their assigned roles.
The roles for Birmingham Hill Cheese Company are:
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Ted Yancey, Co-Owner
Delilah Yancey, Co-owner
Skylar Donaldson, Operations Manager
Ana Vigil, Promotion Manager
John McDougall, Lawyer and Business Advisor
Team Meeting
Students should try to accurately represent the motivations and interests of their individual roles during a
team discussion (15-45 minutes depending on class activities). Teams should discuss each of the issues in
the case and complete any activities mention in the Background section.
The issues for Birmingham Hill Cheese Company include:
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A rival cheese maker may be coming out with a cheese identical to what Birmingham Hill
was selling.
Birmingham Hill cannot meet the increase in demand at its current levels of production and
have been forced to delay shipments to stores.
Birmingham Hill’s funds are strained from its rapid expansion, so it is unable to hire enough
people to make up for the shortage
If the shortages continue, then Whole Foods will eliminate the brand from its shelves.
This case will require students to complete the following activities:




Complete a SWOT analysis to identify at least two strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and
threats
Identify the target market, the marketing mix, and core competencies
Identify ways to match its resources to market opportunities
Use this information to create a new marketing strategy for Birmingham Hill.
This may be used solely as an in-class activity, or students can finalize reports outside of class.
Class Discussion (optional)
After the team meetings, instructors may choose to have teams discuss their findings and solutions
with the class. Students may also want to talk about some of the interpersonal dynamics in their
teams and their experiences as they worked toward a solution.
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