Scientists and Speciation

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THE EVOLUTION OF SPECIES
Chapter 15 Section 2 Part 2
Tuesday, November 12, 13
SPECIATION
• Speciation: evolution
of a
new species over time
• populations
can no
longer interbreed to
produce fertile
offspring.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
SPECIATION
• Speciation: evolution
of a
new species over time
• populations
can no
longer interbreed to
produce fertile
offspring.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
HOW DOES
• Geographical
•
isolation
physical barriers divide populations
• Reproductive
•
SPECIATION OCCUR?
isolation
no longer mate and produce fertile offspring
• Mutations
that cause a change in chromosome number
• polyploid
•
species with multiple of the normal set chromosomes
•
Mostly plants (2 nondisjunctions get together = new set of chromosomes)
Tuesday, November 12, 13
POLYPLOID
Creating a new Species, creating a new species quickly.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
POLYPLOID
Creating a new Species, creating a new species quickly.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
HOW
FAST CAN WE GET NEW SPECIES?
• Gradualism
: the idea that species
originate through a gradual change
of adaptations.
• takes
time to change species
• Punctuated
Equilibrium: speciation
can occur quickly in rapid bursts
• environment, competition, etc.
results in quick changes for
survival
Tuesday, November 12, 13
HOW
FAST CAN WE GET NEW SPECIES?
• Gradualism
: the idea that species
originate through a gradual change
of adaptations.
• takes
time to change species
• Punctuated
Equilibrium: speciation
can occur quickly in rapid bursts
• environment, competition, etc.
results in quick changes for
survival
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
• Divergent
•
Evolution
when one species becomes more distinct,
breaks into new species
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
• Divergent
•
Evolution
when one species becomes more distinct,
breaks into new species
• Convergent
•
Evolution
distantly related organisms evolve similarly
because of similar pressures from their
environment
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
• Divergent
•
Evolution
when one species becomes more distinct,
breaks into new species
• Convergent
•
Evolution
distantly related organisms evolve similarly
because of similar pressures from their
environment
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
• Divergent
•
Evolution
when one species becomes more distinct,
breaks into new species
• Convergent
•
Evolution
distantly related organisms evolve similarly
because of similar pressures from their
environment
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION
• Adaptive
•
Radiation
when a common ancestral species evolves
into a number of new species to fit the
environment.
•
Darwin’s finches
• Divergent
•
Evolution
when one species becomes more distinct,
breaks into new species
• Convergent
•
Evolution
distantly related organisms evolve similarly
because of similar pressures from their
environment
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
HOW WE GOT HERE
Scientists Contributions
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
Tuesday, November 12, 13
REDI
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Generation
REDI
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
REDI
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
REDI
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Experiment
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
•
REDI
Experiment
3 pieces of exposed meat
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
•
REDI
Experiment
3 pieces of exposed meat
•
1 with paper over it = no maggots
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
•
REDI
Experiment
3 pieces of exposed meat
•
1 with paper over it = no maggots
•
1 exposed = maggots
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
•
REDI
Experiment
3 pieces of exposed meat
•
1 with paper over it = no maggots
•
1 exposed = maggots
•
1 with cloth, removed cloth onto new piece
of meat = maggots.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
FRANCESCO
• Spontaneous
•
Generation
Redi suspected that flies laid eggs in the meat
that turned into maggots.
• Performed
•
REDI
Experiment
3 pieces of exposed meat
•
1 with paper over it = no maggots
•
1 exposed = maggots
•
1 with cloth, removed cloth onto new piece
of meat = maggots.
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
•
Spontaneous Generation Proved
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
•
Spontaneous Generation Proved
•
Spallanzani repeated, but covered the container
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
•
Spontaneous Generation Proved
•
Spallanzani repeated, but covered the container
•
no growth of organisms
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
•
Spontaneous Generation Proved
•
Spallanzani repeated, but covered the container
•
no growth of organisms
• Spontaneous
generation disproved again
(proponents said air was ‘vital force’)
Tuesday, November 12, 13
JOHN
NEEDHAM AND LAZZARO SPALLANZANI
• Knew
that heat killed organisms
• Experiment
•
Heated Chicken Broth, Left it Out
•
Found microorganisms
•
Spontaneous Generation Proved
•
Spallanzani repeated, but covered the container
•
no growth of organisms
• Spontaneous
generation disproved again
(proponents said air was ‘vital force’)
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LOUIS
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PASTEUR
LOUIS
• 100
years later
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PASTEUR
LOUIS
• 100
PASTEUR
years later
• Proved
Tuesday, November 12, 13
air was full of microorganisms
LOUIS
• 100
years later
• Proved
•
PASTEUR
air was full of microorganisms
passed air through a gun filter, dissolved cotton, particles
floated in mixture
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LOUIS
• 100
years later
• Proved
•
PASTEUR
air was full of microorganisms
passed air through a gun filter, dissolved cotton, particles
floated in mixture
• Dispoved
Tuesday, November 12, 13
Spontaneous Generation
LOUIS
• 100
years later
• Proved
•
air was full of microorganisms
passed air through a gun filter, dissolved cotton, particles
floated in mixture
• Dispoved
•
PASTEUR
Spontaneous Generation
heated broth in S-shaped curve flask
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LOUIS
• 100
years later
• Proved
•
PASTEUR
air was full of microorganisms
passed air through a gun filter, dissolved cotton, particles
floated in mixture
• Dispoved
Spontaneous Generation
•
heated broth in S-shaped curve flask
•
air was able to get in but not dust particles with
microbes
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LOUIS
• 100
years later
• Proved
•
PASTEUR
air was full of microorganisms
passed air through a gun filter, dissolved cotton, particles
floated in mixture
• Dispoved
Spontaneous Generation
•
heated broth in S-shaped curve flask
•
air was able to get in but not dust particles with
microbes
•
no life in flask
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LOUIS
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PASTEUR
LOUIS
Tuesday, November 12, 13
PASTEUR
JEAN BAPTISTE DE
• Said
your body develops based
on use
• Passed
on traits/development
of body parts to your children
• No
evidence
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LAMARK
JEAN BAPTISTE DE
• Said
your body develops based
on use
• Passed
on traits/development
of body parts to your children
• No
evidence
Tuesday, November 12, 13
LAMARK
CHARLES
DARWIN
• HMS
Beagle trip
• read
Geology book by Charles
Lyell
• realized
• realized
new habitats form
animals adapt to
new environments
Tuesday, November 12, 13
CHARLES
• Malthus: Population
grows
faster than the earth’s food
supply
• ‘struggle
• Darwin
for existence’
realized animals
compete for survival
Tuesday, November 12, 13
DARWIN
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
Tuesday, November 12, 13
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
Tuesday, November 12, 13
wrote essays, started on a
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
Tuesday, November 12, 13
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
Tuesday, November 12, 13
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
• excited
Tuesday, November 12, 13
little attention
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
• excited
little attention
• However, Darwin’s
Tuesday, November 12, 13
book made a splash
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
• excited
little attention
• However, Darwin’s
Tuesday, November 12, 13
book made a splash
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
• excited
little attention
• However, Darwin’s
Tuesday, November 12, 13
book made a splash
DARWIN AND
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
CHARLES
• Darwin
book
• got
wrote essays, started on a
a letter from Wallace
• presented
his theory and Wallace’s
essay together in meeting
• excited
little attention
• However, Darwin’s
Tuesday, November 12, 13
book made a splash

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