Physical Education

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Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks : 70
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
CBSE
Sample Question Papers
Solution to Question Paper
6
1. Knock Knee is an improper anatomical posture. There should be some gap between the knees. If there
is no gap, the knee touches or overlap. When a person walks, the knees knock everytime.
1
2.
1. Improper diet
2.Fatigue
3. Lack of proper exercise
4. Lack of awareness.
1
3.Milk, pulses, cereals, egg, cheese, meat and fish are good sources of proteins.
1
4.Seeding ensures that teams are fitted in fixture in such a way that stronger teams do not meet each
other in earlier rounds.
1
5.This test is very good to measure cardio-respiratory fitness of the individual. Thus, the objective of
this test is to monitor the development of the athlete's maximum cardio-respiratory ability.
1
6.Children become stronger and healthy with good diet thus, improves motor development.
1
7.800 metres and 1500 metres races respectively are included in pace runs. (CBSE Marking Scheme 2015) 1
8.Bones become more strong and slightly stretchable by regular exercise which reduces the chances of
bone injuries.
1
9. Menstrual dysfunction is a disorder in women's menstrual cycle. Normal menstrual cycle vary from
21 to 35 days. Its flow lasts approximately two to seven days.
1
10. (i)Keep cool.
(ii)Yogic meditation.
1
11. Fartlek means 'speed play'. It is a variation of variable pace method. It is a type of cross country
running usually conducted over hilly regions. Along with running, some exercises may also be
included in this type of training.
1
12. Motor development among children is of two types :
(a) Gross Motor Development : It involves development of large or big muscles of the body. These
muscles help them to stand, sit, run, jump, etc.
(b) Fine Motor Development : It involves development of small muscles (especially hands picking,
kicking, balancing, skill perfection writing, etc.)
3
13.
Total number of teams = 6
N(N − 1) 6(6 − 1) 6 × 5 30
=
=
=
Total number of matches =
2
2
2
2
= 15 matches
Number of rounds = N – 1
= 6 – 1 = 5 rounds
2
Fixtures :
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
3
14. First aid in case of sports-injuries : The help/assistance/treatment provided to the injured player
at the ground/in the immediate vicinity of the place of injury is called first aid of sport injury. The
principle of PRICES (i.e., Prevention, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Support) is applicable for
the first 24 − 48 hours to an injured player, except for if he has a fracture. 3
15. Scope of sports medicine : In the field of physical education and sports, the fields of various subdisciplines of sports medicine are utilized. On the basis of their study and research, the different
problems of sportsperson are solved or tackled. There are following scope of sports medicine :
(i) Human anatomy and physiology
(ii) Sports and first aid
(iii) Female and sports
(iv) Athletic nutrition, etc.
(Any three) 3
16.Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome in which eating disorder (low energy availability), Amenorrhoea
and osteoporosis (decreased bone mineral density) are present. Also known simply as the triad, this
condition is seen in females participating in sports that emphasize leanness or low body weight.
The symptoms of triad may include fatigue, frequent injuries, loss of endurance and power, irritability,
increased healing time for injuries, etc. The symptoms depend upon the elements or conditions of
triad.
3
17. The nutrition and diet intake after the competition is as follows :
(i) First of all the preference should be given to upliftment of any fluid loss. This can be easily done
by intake of water or fluid replacement drink.
(ii) It is equally significant to take some carbohydrate immediately within 15 minutes after
competition to start restoring glycogen. For this, fruit juices and sports drinks may be included.
(iii) Intake of carbohydrate approximately 2 gms per kg of body weight and 40 gms of protein
within 2 hours after completion speed up the replenishment of glycogen stores and recovery
time.
1×3=3
18. (1) When the height of the release is equal to the height of landing the optimum angle of release is
45 degree.
(2) When the height of release is greater than the height of landing as in a hammer throw, the
optimum angle of release is less than 45 degree.
(3) When the height of release is less than the height of landing as in a bunker shot in golf, the
optimum angle of release is more than 45 degree.3
19. (a) Well wisher, fit due to exercise.
(b) Exercises help to keep us healthy (physically and mentally). Moreover, it manages stresses of
life and develops socialization.
3
20. Main characteristics of circuit training method are :
(i) Exercises are simple to learn and easy to execute.
(ii) It involves exercises for all the body parts.
(iii) Number of repetitions are more.
(iv) Exercises are performed with medium resistance or medium weight.
(v) It aims at the development of endurance and strength.
(vi) This is given to the sportsperson in the preparatory stages of developing endurance and
strength. (Any five) 5
21. Number of teams = 25
Number of byes = 32 – 25 = 7 Byes
Solutions
3
Fixtures :
5
(i) Limbering down is a very essential activity. It should be followed after the activity because, it is
essential to bring the body back to normal condition.
(ii) Warming up is necessary because it prepares the body for training. It helps to prevent injuries.
It can be done by slow running or jogging. Some stretching exercises should also be done. All
this helps to increase the temperature of the muscles and the pulse rate.
2½ + 2½ = 5
23.(i)
Sprain : It is an injury to a ligament caused by tearing of the fibres of the ligament or due to over
stretching (grade I, II, III) based on number of fibres torn. Grade III means a total rupture.
Symptoms of sprain are joint Pain, Swelling, decreased ability to move the joint and joint stiffness.
(ii)
Strain : Tearing of muscle fibres with pain, swelling and loss of muscle strength evident (grade I,
II, III) based on severity of symptoms and fibres torn. Grade III means a total tear of the muscle.
Symptoms of strain are as- Pain, Swelling, Loss of movement.
Treatment : For the treatment of these following types of therapies/techniques are suitable.
RICER- Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and rehabilitation (Recovery). However, for treatment
at IIIrd Degree, surgery is required.
For muscles - Catgut surgery.
For ligaments - Silk or metallic wire is used for surgery.
(iii)Abrasion : Abrasion is a superficial injury of skin due to rubbing or scraping. The main reason
of abrasion is falling on hard or rough surface. This also may be due to continuous irritation
of skin by uncomfortable shoes, rough fabric, seams in clothing or sports equipment such as
helmets and pads.
(iv)Fractures : Fractures is defined as discontinuity in bone or as the broken bones. The fractures
are of various types - 1. Simple fracture, (fracture without any wound) 2. Compound fracture,
(both muscle and skin are damaged) 3. Communicate fracture.
Fractures may be - Transverse fracture, Oblique fracture, Spiral fracture, Compressor fracture.
Symptoms are intense pain, swelling, bruising, loss of function and deformity. The principle of
treatment is plaster which is undertaken at the time of fracture - to reduce Odessa, to get relief in
pain, to maintain circulation of blood in the body, to teach the patient to use special appliances
and make use of them.
5
24. Most of the body systems and their functions gradually decrease with the age. The decay in physical
performance increases with advancing age depending upon heredity (genes), less physical activity,
diseases, health problem, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, overstress or tension, pollution or unhygienic
22.
4
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
environment, taking intoxicants, etc. The biological ageing process can be delayed with regular
training or exercises.
5
25.According to John Luther, “Sports psychology is an area which attempts to apply psychological facts and
principles to learning performance and associated human behaviour in whole field of sports.” According
to K. M. Burns, “Sports psychology for physical education is that branch of psychology which deals with
the physical fitness of an individual through his participation in games and sports.” According to Singer,
“Sports psychology explores one’s behaviour in athletics.”
The following points define the importance of sports psychology :
1. Enhancement of Physiological capacities : Sports psychology plays a very unique role in the
enhancement of physiological capacities such as strength, speed and flexibility etc. Motivation
plays a major role in the enhancement of physical capacity of sportspersons. It is a well-known
as well as an established fact that psychological capacities or powers can increase physiological
capacities of individuals.
2. Learning the Motor Skills : Sports psychology plays its major role in the learning of motor skills.
Motor skills learning depends on the individual’s level of readiness, i.e., physiological readiness
and psychological readiness. Physiological readiness in children is the development of the
necessary strength, flexibility and endurance as well as the development of various organ systems
so that they may perform motor skills required in the activity. Psychological readiness is related
to the learner’s state of mind. It means the desire and willingness to learn the particular skill.
3. In understanding the behaviour : Sports psychology helps in understanding the behaviour
of athletes or sportspersons engaged in competitive sports. Coaches also come to know the
interest, attitude towards physical activity, instincts, drives and personality of sportspersons. It
does not play its role only in understanding of behaviour but, it also plays its role in medication
of behaviour in various sports situations.
4. In controlling the emotions : Sports psychology plays a very important role in controlling the
emotions of sportspersons during practice as well as competition. Generally, these emotions
may bring spontaneous changes in the behaviour of sportspersons. These are anger, disgust,
fear, negative self-thinking and feeling of ownership, etc. If these emotions are not controlled
well in time, the performance may decrease. Sports psychology plays a vital role at such
juncture. It helps in balancing the arousal of emotions which further improves the performance.
5. In preparation of athletes psychologically for competitions : Sports psychology also plays its
role in preparation of athletes psychologically for competitions. In fact, it has become a trend
to give psychological tips to athletes or team players before and after the competitions. That is
why, sports psychologists’ services are required with a national level and international level
teams. They create the will ‘to win’ in the players.
6. Role in the emotional problems of sportspersons : Stress, tension and anxiety are natural
during practice period and competitions or tournaments. There may be some other emotional
problems such as depression, frustration, anorexia and panic, etc. The knowledge of sports
psychology may be helpful in such situations. Techniques of relaxation and concentration for
stress management can be applied on sportspersons who are under such problems.
(Any four) 5
26. Fitness benefits individual physically, mentally as well as socially. A person becomes fit, energetic,
strong, mentally stable, thereby leading to flow of positive and divine thoughts which ultimately
lead to making of a good and responsible citizen of the country. Fitness also makes an individual's
body flexible. Due to conciousness of fitness and its practice, there is continuos blood circulation
in a person's body which helps to remain fresh for a longer duration. This enhances the confidence
and energy level. Due to the energy generated by the exercises, person gets immediate and sound
sleep which is absolutely necessary for stable mental and social life. Also due to fitness, the body
gets high immunity power which helps to fight diseases and also improves efficiency of heart and
lungs by improving cardio-respiratory fitness. Hence, to conclude, it can be said that, Physical
fitness leads to- “All round development of personality of the individual.”
Principles of fitness : Before taking any fitness programme one should go for a medical check-up. Fitness
program can be taken at any age. Choice of Fitness program must be based on criteria such as age,
sex and ability of the person. The fitness programme should include simple as well as complex
techniques.
2½ + 2½ = 5
qqq
Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks : 70
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
CBSE
Sample Question Papers
Solution to Question Paper
7
1. A strain is an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibres tear as a result of overstretching.
1
2. Weight training is defined as those exercises which are designed to strengthen specific muscles by
causing them to overcome a fixed resistance, usually in the form of bar-bells, dumb-bells. 1
3. Vitamin B is necessary for growth and development. Deficiency of Vitamin B results in disease called
Beri-Beri, Pellagra, Malformation of Red Blood Cells (RBC ). 1
4. Planning is a process of development of personality and sports performance. Planning also covers all the
aspects of a tournament.
1
5. Bow legs is called rickets. This is a postural defect in which the lower long bones of the legs get bent.
This result in an unnatural gait leading to uneasiness in walking and running.
1
6. The study of how the human body and its systems function is called physiology.
1
7. (i) Running track (200 m or 400 m), (ii) Stopwatch, (iii) An Assistant.
1
8. Power is the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy whereas, energy is the capacity to do work.
However, there are various forms of energy but, in the field of games and sports our main concern is
about mechanical energy. 1
9. Linear motion takes place :
(i) When all the body parts move the same distance in the same direction in the same time.
½+½
(ii) A wheel rotating on its straight path.
10.Calculating formulae of work and power are :
(i) Work = Force × Distance
or W = F × d
(ii) Power is measure of how quickly work can be done
1 Watt = 1 Joule per second
Power = Work done × Time taken to do work
The unit of power is 'Watt'. P = W × T
½+½
11. (a) Techniques of Intrinsic motivation :
(i) Provide successful experience
(ii) Develop sense of responsibility
(iii) Set realistic goals
(iv) Develop interest
(v) Acceptance of praise and criticism
(b) Techniques of Intrinsic motivation :
½+½
(i)Recognition
(ii)Attention
12. Impact of surface on athletes : There are different types of surfaces such as wooden, cemented,
grassy, artificial turf, rubber, synthetic, sponge and cider in different types of games and sports. Such
6
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
type of surfaces provides safety and resiliency as well as protection. Now-a-days tracks, runways
in throwing and jumping events, tennis court and multipurpose courts are covered with above
mentioned materials.
3
13. Procedure for giving ‘Bye’ :
(i) On a plain sheet write total number of teams participating in the tournament.
(ii) If earlier such tournaments are held then the Byes will be given to last year semi-finalist teams,
if not then.
(iii) Lots are drawn.
Bye = 22 – No. of Team
(iv) I Bye will be given to bottom most team of lower half.
(v) II Bye will be awarded to top most team of upper half.
(vi) III Bye will be given to top most team of lower half.
(vii) IV Bye will be awarded to bottom most team of upper half.
(viii) The rest Byes are awarded in the same order. 3
14.According to Avery, “Good posture is one in which the body is so balanced as to produce least
fatigue.” It means that good/correct posture is the position of the body held without any sense of
effort. The body weight should be equally distributed over both the legs and feet so as to produce
least fatigue. Correct posture may also be defined as that assumed position which enables the body to
perform or function effectively. 1
Concept of Posture : As a matter of fact, there is no one single best posture for all individuals. Each
person must take the body he has and make the best use of it. For each person the best posture is that
in which the body segments are balanced in the position of least strain and maximum support but,
even then there are some general norms regarding postural positions. These are stated below :
(i) Correct Posture of Standing.
(ii) Correct Posture of Sitting.
(iii) Correct Posture of Walking.
(iv) Correct Posture of Lying. 2
15.Most of the body systems and their functions gradually decrease with the age. The decay in physical
performance increases with advancing age depending upon heredity (genes), less physical activity,
diseases, health problem, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, overstress or tension, pollution or unhygienic
environment, taking intoxicants, etc. The biological ageing process can be delayed with regular
training or exercises.
3
16. (i) Keep cool.
(ii) Somatic adjustment (i.e., control of cognitive processes).
(iii) Yogic Meditation.
(iv) Progressive relaxation breathing techniques.
(v) Guidance from technically trained sports psychologist.
(vi) Bio feedback.
(vii) Behaviour modification strategy. 3
17.Fat Soluble Vitamins are Vitamin A,D,E,K.
Functions : Vitamins increases immunity power in our body against diseases and also give their
important contribution for our general development of our body.
Sources of Vitamin A : Ghee, Milk, Curd, Yolk, Fish, Green Vegetables etc.
Sources of Vitamin B : Sunlight, Cod liver oil, Butter, Tomato etc.
Sources of Vitamin E : Sprouts seeds, Coconut oil, Dry and Fresh Fruits.
3
18.(i)
Healthy Sports Environment : Healthy sports environment plays a very vital role in motivating
the sportsperson. Healthy sports environment consists of good climate, proper weather, proper
humidity, proper temperature, smooth and clean sports fields, good quality of sports equipment
and other facilities.
(ii)
Positive Attitude : For proper motivation, the coaches should try to encourage positive attitude
among the sportsperson. Players must think that they can do it positively.
Solutions
7
(iii)Cash Prizes, Certificates and Trophies : Indeed, it is a good incentive to the sportspersons.
Governments offer cash prizes to the sportspersons who win for the pride for their countries. Those
sportsmen are affected by the lure of cash prizes, certificates and honour rolls. 1×3=3
19. (a) Concern about the student.
(b) Leading dieticians believe that low fat diet losses weight but, there’s no need to follow fat-free
diet. Cutting down on saturated fats and eating unsaturated fats will help. Body needs fats for
energy, tissue repair and to transport Vitamins A, D, E and K in body.
3
20.Reasons for less participation of women in sports : The number of participation in sports is very
limited at world level, which is due to following reasons :
(i) Lack of Legislation
(ii) Lack of Time and Lack of self-confidence
(iii) Male dominated culture of sports. Lack of interest of spectators and no coverage of women’s
sports
(iv) Lack of education among women, etc.
5
21.1:1 means load and rest is equal. E.g.: 1 minute exercise followed by 1 minute of rest.
Similarly, 1:2 means that the period of rest is double of the load. E.g.: 1 minute exercise followed by 2
minutes of rest. The slow and extensive interval training methods can be given by using 1:1 and 1:2.
And fast or interval training method can be given by using 1:1 and 1:2.
Student is required to explain the relationship between load and rest, with suitable examples with
their respective games and sports.
5
22. A Balanced diet : A balanced diet refers to the intake of edibles which can provide all the essential
constituents necessary for growth and maintenance of the body in definite amount in which they are
required by the body. A balanced diet means eating the right amount of food from all food groups.
“A diet which consists of all the essential food constituent, viz., protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins,
minerals and water in correct proportion is called balanced diet.”
Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy. They contain the elements
of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The very first part of the name ‘carbo’ means that they contain
Carbon. The second part of the name ‘hydr’ means that they contain Hydrogen. The third part of
the name ‘ate’ means that they contain Oxygen. In all carbohydrates the ratio of Hydrogen atoms to
Oxygen atoms is 2 : 1, just like water, i.e., H2O. Carbohydrates are actually the organic compounds that
are important for different digestive operations in our bodies. There are lots of differences between
the carbohydrates and the other elements important for nutrition like protein and fats. Generally, it is
seen that carbohydrates in diet need less amount of water in comparison to protein and fats.
There are two main types of carbohydrates, i.e., simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose are called simple carbohydrates. These
carbohydrates are soluble in water. These are Crystalline. They are sweet in taste. These are called
Sugar, Starch, Dextrins, Glycogen and Cellulose are called complex carbohydrates or polysaccharides.
These are not sweet in taste. They are insoluble in water. They are not crystalline. The main difference
between the types of carbohydrates is actually the difference between their chemical compositions.
Simple carbohydrates have smaller chain of chemical compositions in comparison to the complex
ones.
Sources : We obtain most of our carbohydrates in the form of starch. It is found in rice, potato,
yams, bread, cereals, maize, corn and wheat. Starch is turned into glucose by our digestive system.
Carbohydrates are also found in the form of glucose, fructose and sucrose, etc., from milk, sugar,
sugarcane, honey and grapes, etc. 5
23.Participating Teams are = 21
Number of byes to be given = subtracting number of teams from next higher number which is power
of two.
So, Bye 22 – N 25 – 21 or 32 – 21 = 11 Byes.
1
Now, Byes will begin with lot system. And enter it alternately beginning from the bottom of lower
half, followed by top of the upper half then top of lower half then bottom of upper half. Likewise a
team which is given bye will not play in the first round.
8
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
Now, Byes will begin with lot system. And enter it alternately beginning from the bottom of lower
half, followed by top of the upper half, then top of lower half, then bottom of upper half. Likewise a
team which is given bye will not play in the first round.
1
Now, we know that number of teams participating are 21 which is not the power of two. So, number
of Byes are 11.
n + 1 21 + 1
=
= 11
2
2
n - 1 21 - 1
=
Teams in lower half =
= 10
2
2
Number of Byes = 32 – 21 = 11 Byes
So, teams in upper half =
nb - 1 11 - 1
=
= 5 Byes
2
2
nb + 1 11 + 1
=
Byes in lower half =
= 6 Byes
2
2
Byes in upper half =
No. of Matches = N – 1
21 – 1 = 20
No. of Rounds = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × = 5 Rounds
So, Knock-out or elimination tournament for 21 teams will be :
2
24. Arm Curl Test : A test of upper body strength and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors.
Equipment required : 2 kg women, 3.5 kg men. A chair without armrests, stopwatch.
Procedure : The aim of this test is to do as many arm curls as possible in 30 seconds. This test is
conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side). The subject sits on the chair, holding the
weight in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically
down position beside the chair. Brace the upper arm against the body so that only the lower arm is
moving (tester may assist to hold the upper arm steady). Curl the arm up through a full range of
motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination). As the arm is lowered through the
Solutions
9
full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then
fully straightened at the elbow. Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 seconds.
(The protocol describes the administrator’s hand being placed on the biceps, and the lower arm
must touch the tester’s hand for a full bicep curl to be counted. In a group situation you could
simply emphasize that the attendee’s forearms touch their biceps and ensure they count their own
repetitions.)
Men’s Result
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
< 16
16 to 22
> 22
65-69
< 15
15 to 21
> 21
70-74
< 14
14 to 21
> 21
75-79
< 13
13 to 19
> 19
80-84
< 13
13 to 19
> 19
85-89
< 11
11 to 17
> 17
90-94
< 10
10 to 14
> 14
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
< 13
13 to 19
> 19
65-69
< 12
12 to 18
> 18
70-74
< 12
12 to 17
> 17
75-79
< 11
11 to 17
> 17
80-84
< 10
10 to 16
> 16
Women’s Result
It can be of value to also do this test on the less dominant arm.
If there are significant differences in strength you may target this in your classes.
5
25. Kraus Weber Test : This test consists of six items. It is commonly known as the Kraus Weber Test.
These tests are supposed to measure the minimum muscular fitness of an individual. Infact, they
measure a level of strength and flexibility of a certain key muscle groups below which the functioning
of whole body as a healthy individual seems to be endangered. These tests are graded on pass-fail
basis.
Tests which measures minimum muscular fitness of an individual :
Test No. 1 : The subject lies in supine position i.e., flat on his back and hands behind his neck. The
examiner holds his feet to keep him on the ground. The subject is asked to perform sit-up. If he
perform one sit-up, he passes this test. If he cannot raise his shoulders from the table or ground level,
his score remains zero.
Test No. 2 : The lying position for this test remains same i.e., in supine position except that his knees
are bent and remains in touch with his buttocks. He is asked to perform one sit-up. If he perform one
sit-up, he passes this test. If he cannot raise his shoulders from the table or ground level, his score
remains zero.
Test No. 3 : Subject lies in supine position i.e., lies flat on his back with his hand behind the neck. He
is asked to raise his feet 10 inches from the ground. His knees should be straight. The examiner counts
to 10 seconds if he holds that position for 10 seconds. Scoring from 0 to 10 on the no. of seconds he
holds the appropriate.
1+4=5
26. (i) Simple fracture : It is a fracture without any wound.
(ii)
Compound fracture : In this, broken bone comes out tearing skin by it; both the muscle and skin
are damaged along with fracture.
(iii)Complicated fracture : In this, a bone is broken and damages the internal organ.
10
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
(iv)Green stick fracture : Whenever there is any stress on bone it bents. It is common in children.
(v)
Comminuted fracture : When a bone is broken into two or many pieces.
(vi)Impacted fracture : When the end of a fractured bone enters into another bone.
(vii)Depressed fracture : Broken bones go down than normal level. Found mostly in skull.
(Any one)
Causes :
They usually occur due to high impact on the bone. The causes of fracture are as follows :
(i) Sudden fall on hard surface.
(ii)Osteoporosis
(iii) Direct strike or hit with any solid particle.
(iv) Prolonged long distance walking or running.
(v) Traumatic, forceful and unnatural movements.
(Any two)
Prevention :
(i) Proper warm-up should be performed before practice, training and completion. Stretching
exercises must be performed while warming-up.
(ii) Conditioning should be performed as preparatory measure.
(iii) Good officiating helps prevent sport injuries.
(iv) Good quality sports equipments should be used.
(v) Player should have complete scientific knowledge about his game or sport.
(Any two)
1+2+2=5
qqq
Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks : 70
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
CBSE
Sample Question Papers
Solution to Question Paper
8
1. Two advantages of Weight Training are :
1 Weight Maintenance.
2 Improvement in the mobility of joints.
3 Improvement in long functioning.
4 Improvement in muscle strength and endurance.
(Any two) (½ × 2 =1)
2.The ability of muscles or a group of muscles to perform repeated contractions against resistance for
an extended period of time with less discomfort and rapid recovery is called muscular endurance.
3. Vitamin C is needed for the maintenance of the ligaments, tendons and other supportive tissue and
strong blood vessels. 1
4. The word ‘Extramural’ means the activities performed outside the walls of institution. Thus, these are
the competitions of various activities at inter-institutional level. Extramural activities are played at
various levels like Inter-School, Inter-District, Inter-State, Cluster, Regional, National and International
levels. 1
5. Corrective exercises for flat foot are :
(i) Walk on heels and toes
(ii) Pick up marbles with toes
(iii) Slowly write alphabets with marbles
(iv) Walk with feet parallel to each other.1
6. Regular participation in games and sports keeps the individual physically fit, mentally alert, socially
strong and emotionally balanced. 1
7. Kraus-Weber Test seems to be simple but, practically it have great strain on some muscles, thus
person must perform warming-up before doing these tests. 1
8. Physical fitness is dependent upon heredity or gene factors of individual as heredity or genes play
an important role in growth and development like shape, size, structure, height of individual, muscle
fibre type. 1
9. The angular movement occurs around the axis. It is rotation of body around its axis. The athletes
produce angular movement around its joint. It occurs when all points on a body or object move in
circles (or parts of circles) about the same fixed central line or axis. 1
10. Stages of Growth : (i) Infancy stage (from birth to end of 5 yrs), (ii) Childhood stage (from 6 yrs. to
end of 12 yrs.), (iii) Adolescence stage (from 13 yrs. till 19 yrs.), (iv) Puberty stage (from 20 yrs. till 25
yrs.), (v) Adulthood stage (above 25 yrs.) 1
11. The aim of sports training is to lead a sportsman to the highest level of performance through physical,
technical, intellectual, psychological and moral preparation of an athlete by means of physical
exercise. 1
12
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
12.This means an emotional reaction to a stressor. It is effective in the management of an unchangeable
stressor. It helps to relieve depression and anger in some cases. It also helps in facing potential
stressors in life and we don’t have to wait for changes to happen. Sometimes drugs are also used to
cope with stress. Generally, it includes keeping yourself busy and distracted from the stress. It is the
same time building yourself to be prepared for the worst.
3
13.It can be recovered by the use of the following methods :
(i) Admit you have a problem. Talk to someone.
(ii) Seek professional help.
(iii) Solve emotional issues.
(iv) Stay away from places that trigger the temptation to eat or vomit. Break this cycle.
3
14. Causes of Bow Legs : The main cause of bow legs is the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in
bones. Long bones of legs become soft, hence they are bent outward. The chances of bow legs also
increase when children become overweight. This deformity may be due to the deficiency of Vitamin
‘D’. Improper way of walking and forcing the babies to walk at very early age may also lead to bow
legs.
1
Precautions :
(i) Don’t let the children be overweight.
(ii) Don’t force the babies to walk at very early age.
(iii) Balanced diet should be given to children. There should not be any deficiency of calcium,
phosphorus and Vitamin ‘D’ in the diet. 1
Remedies : The following measures should be taken for correcting bow legs :
(i) Vitamin ‘D’ should be taken in required amount.
(ii) Balanced diet should be taken.
(iii) Bow legs can be corrected by walking on the inner edge of feet.
(iv) Walking by bending the toes inward.
1
15. (i) The term ‘Aerobic’ means ‘with oxygen’. Any physical activity which requires oxygen intake
is an aerobic activity and the term anaerobic means ‘without oxygen’ in such activities the
demand for oxygen is more but supply is less.
(ii) Intensity of activity is very high in anaerobic whereas, it differs in aerobic activity. 1
Recreation :
(i) It is an activity for pleasure and satisfaction to an individual. It refreshes one’s mind and
body after work.
(ii) Recreational activities reduce the monotony and make a person alert.
(iii) Absence of these activities can lead to laziness, boredom, stress or tension.
(iv) Recreation through sports provides an opportunity for socialization, stimulation, cooperation
which leads to some kind of strength and confidence in an individual. (½ mark each)
16. Developmental characteristics during childhood :
(i)
Physical development : In early childhood teeth start falling and permanent teeth starts
growing. Growth of girls is more than boys in this period. Increase in height is slow because
muscles and bones are developing.
(ii)
Intellectual development : By the time the child is 12 years he develops language skills. One
starts thinking, reasoning, remembering, etc., keenly observes others. Interest in various things
keeps on changing and exhibits love towards nature.
(iii)Emotional development : They become more stable emotionally. At this stage sentiments and
complexes are formed. Child is innocent and remains under control. They start feeling conscious
of their act.
(iv)Social development : Develops a good and bigger circle of friends. He loves to play with his
peer group. They develop more interest in team games and love playing in their own groups.
(Any three) 1 × 3 = 3
17. The causes of Bulimia Nervosa are :
(1) When other people in the family are obese or have an eating disorder.
(2) When your job or sport stresses on body size, like in ballet, modelling, Gymnastics etc.
Solutions
13
(3) When you are kind of a person who worries a lot, never feels enough or tries to be perfect all the
time.
(4) When you are facing a lot of stressful life events, like a divorce, losing a loved one or moving to
a new place.
(Any three) (1 × 3 = 3)
18. Cardio-vascular endurance : It is the ability of your heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply oxygen
to the muscles and ability of the muscles to utilize oxygen to allow sustained activity. It means a fit
heart which can carry on the activity for a longer period of time (i.e., working under conditions of
fatigue), e.g., cycling, jogging, swimming, etc. 3
19.(a) She is religious.
(b) Caring and concerned.
(c) This may be true in short term but, ultimately it can hinder weight loss. Loosing weight over the
long term burns off fats whereas, crash dieting or fasting, not only removes fat but also leans
muscles or tissues. Thus, body gains lot of fats (more than lost by fasting) when take diet. Thus,
exercises are recommended for weight loss plan.
3
20.Pregnancy is also known as gravidity or gestation. It is the time during which one or more offsprings
develop inside a woman, it occurs after conception. During pregnancy an embryo is formed in uterus.
Pregnancy and sports participation : A major argument against women’s participation in sports or
vigorous exercises during pregnancy has been that vigorous physical activity or sports enhances the
physical stress and strain to them. As a matter of fact, such type of activities may perhaps lead to
permanent damage to reproductive organs. A number of studies have shown that sports participation
has no harmful effect on pregnancy. Even there are some examples of pregnant sportswomen who
have won Olympic medal during pregnancy is Tatyana Kanjanika of USSR. It is proven that exercises
during pregnancy reduces excess body fat, helps in maintaining and body image.
3
21.Micronutrients are commonly referred to as ‘vitamins and minerals’. Micronutrients include such
minerals as fluoride, selenium, sodium, iodine, copper and zinc. They also include vitamins such as
vitamin C, A, D, E and K as well as B-complex vitamins.
Micronutrients are different from macronutrients, i.e., Protein, Carbohydrates and Fat. Micronutrients
are also called ‘micronutrients’ because our body needs them in very small quantity for survival.
However, if body doesn’t get the small quantity of micronutrients that it needs, serious health
problems can result.
Micronutrients are vital for the proper functioning of all our body system.
Sodium, For instance, is responsible for maintaining the proper fluid balance in our body; it helps
fluids to pass through cell walls and helps in regulating appropriate pH levels in our blood.
Following are some of the ways that other micronutrients help in maintaining our body’s system:
(1) Manganese promotes bone formation and energy production, and helps our body metabolize
the macronutrients, protein, carbohydates and fats.
(2) Iron helps our body to produce red blood cells and lymphocytes.
(3) Iodine helps our thyroid glands to develop and function. It helps our body metabolize fats, and
promotes energy production and growth.
(4) Chloride helps to regulate water and electrolytes within our cells, as well as it helps to maintain
appropriate cellular pH.
5
22. Seeding Method : There is always a possibility in knock-out tournament that strong teams may be
paired with weak teams or all strong teams might have been grouped in upper half or lower half. In
this way, some strong teams have the possibility to be eliminated in the preliminary round. This may
be a setback to the strong teams. To avoid such a situation seeding method is used. In this method,
the strong teams are selected to keep them at any appropriate place in the fixture. For the selection
of strong teams, the organizers must be well-aware regarding the previous performance of teams. If
two teams are to be seeded, then one team is kept on the top of upper half and second team is kept
in the last of the lower half. If 4 teams are to be seeded, the first two teams will be kept at the places
mentioned above. The third seeded team will be kept on the top of lower half and the fourth seeded
team will be kept at the lowest place in the upper half. Generally, the number of seeded teams shall
be the power of like 2, 4, 8, 16, etc., all the fixture by lots.
2
14
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
Example : Drawing a fixture when 25 teams are participating in a tournament on knock out basis and
8 teams are to be seeded. Draw their fixture :
Here, Number of teams = 25
Number of byes = 32 – 25 = 7 byes
1
23. As a matter of fact, there is no one single best posture for all individuals. Each person must take the
body he has and make the best use of it. For each person the best posture is that in which the body
segments are balanced in the position of least strain and maximum support but, even then there are
some general norms regarding postural positions. These are stated below :
1.
Correct Posture of Standing : In standing position both the heels of the feet should meet each
other. Toes of the feet should be 3’’ to 4’’ apart. The whole body should be erect, straight
knees, chin inside, chest forward, belly backward and pressed inside with equal body
weight on both feet. In this position, the complete body should be balanced. From the side,
line of the centre of gravity must pass through the ear, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle. In
such a position the muscles and ligaments remain free of stress.
2.
Correct Posture of Sitting : When we sit in a chair, our hips should be as far back in the chair
as possible. Head, spinal column, shoulder and hips should be in straight line and erect.
Legs should touch the ground and not in hanging position. Thighs should be in horizontal
position. While we read, the book should be on the table but, the book should not be too
away or near the eyes. The approximate distance between book and eyes should be at least
30 cm, if we do not follow this rule then eye-sight problem may occur. For writing, a table
with slight inclination towards outside is appropriate.
3.
Correct Posture of Walking : Correct walking is always commended everywhere and by
everyone. It reflects the personality of an individual. It indicates inferiority complex if an
individual walks with dropped neck and imbalanced steps. If someone walks with erect
neck and chest out, it is an example of superiority complex.
In fact, the best posture of walking is that the lines of the feet should be parallel to the line of
direction. The heel of the foot should touch the ground and then weight should be
transferred to the toes. It means, there should be heel-toe action. Walking should be efficient
and graceful. Smoothness is essential in walking. If we adopt wrong posture of walking, we
may get fatigue at the earliest.
4.
Correct Posture of Lying : Normal size of pillow should be used by the children. Hard bed is
beneficial for those, who have spinal problems. We should sleep in such state that we should
not feel any difficulty in respiration. 1+4=5
Solutions
15
24.Chair Stand Test :
Purpose : This test assesses leg strength and endurance.
Equipment required : Straight back chair without arm rests (seat 44 cm high), stopwatch.
Procedure : Place the chair against a wall or otherwise stabilize it for safety. The subject sits in the middle
of the seat, with their feet shoulder width apart, flat on the floor. The arms are to be crossed at the wrists
and held close to the chest. From the sitting position, the subject stands completely up, then completely
back down, and this is repeated for 30 seconds. Count the total number of complete chair stands (up and
down equals one stand). If the subject has completed a full stand from the sitting position when the time
is elapsed, the final stand is counted in the total.
Scoring : The score is the number of completed chair stands in 30 seconds. Below is a table showing
the recommended ranges for this test based on age groups (from Jones & Rikli, 2002).
Men’s Result
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
< 14
14 to 19
> 19
65-69
< 12
12 to 18
> 18
70-74
< 12
12 to 17
> 17
75-79
< 11
11 to 17
> 17
80-84
< 10
10 to 15
> 15
85-89
<8
8 to 14
> 14
90-94
<7
7 to 12
> 12
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
< 12
12 to 17
> 17
65-69
< 11
11 to 16
> 16
70-74
< 10
10 to 15
> 15
75-79
< 10
10 to 15
> 15
80-84
<9
9 to 14
> 14
85-89
<8
8 to 13
> 13
90-94
<4
4 to 11
> 11
Women’s Result
Comments : The arms may be used for assistance or for safety if needed.
5
25.There are various causes of sports injuries :
(i)
Improper conditioning : Proper conditioning is necessary for better performance and limiting
the chances of getting injured.
(ii)
Over-training : Over-training is a condition which involves applying too much stress to the
body by means of physical activity. Over-training may lead to a decreased level of performance
as it increases recovery and reaction time, decreases endurance and strength and impacts upon
an individual’s mental strength.
(iii)Overuse : Overuse injuries are usually progressive rather than acute. Repetitive strain injuries
are examples of overuse injuries.
(iv)Poor preparation : Many sporting injuries could be prevented by carrying out a thorough warm up
prior to physical activity and a suitable cool down session after exercise has ceased.
(v) Poor technique : This can cause excessive pressure to be applied to particular joints or muscles
which can contribute to an injury; tennis elbow, for example, is often caused by having poor
backhand technique.
16
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
(vi)Posture : Neck pain, including spasms and pulls, is often the result of something as simple as
moving your head awkwardly to see a ball or an opponent.
(vii)Improper equipment : If you use a weight or a racquet too heavy for you, lower back or arm
pain may follow. Ill-fitting helmets and shoes may also cause injuries. 5
26.Repetition running is an anaerobic activity, if short distance running is performed with speed. It is the
best method to develop fitness.
Fast interval training method develops anaerobic endurance or speed. It is primarily used to develop
and maintain fitness. It is based on the principle of ‘effort and recovery’. A recovery period is given to
the athlete after each speedy workout. For example, while training an athlete for 400 metre race it can
be done with 80% speed.
1+4=5
qqq
Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks : 70
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
CBSE
Sample Question Papers
Solution to Question Paper
9
1. (i) Minimize Pollution
(ii) Protection of Wildlife
(iii) Healthy Activity
(iv) Encourage Tourism
(v) Knowledge About Forests
(vi) Use of natural resources
(CBSE Marking Scheme 2015) (Any four) (¼ × 4 = 1)
2. Mountaineering requires specialized tools and equipments like snow climbing shoes, snow cutter,
hex, axe, climbing rope, nails, harness, carvine, clippers, belay device, trekking compass, bolts, piton,
safety belt, climbing helmet, safety hooks, snow gloves, high energy packed food, etc. 1
3. Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life whereas, nutrition is a dynamic
process in which body is made healthy by the consumption of food. The taking in of food is called
nutrition. 1
4. Two exercises for correcting Knock Knees :
(i) Horse-Riding is one of the best exercises for correction of knock knees.
(ii) Perform Padmasana and Gomukhasana regularly.
( ½ × 2 = 1)
5. Posture means the position of body in regard to the environment at any given instant. In medical
terms the posture means an unconscious adjustment of tone in different muscles involved in active
movement or a static position, for making the movement or position accurate and maintaining the
line or point of gravity constant. 1
6. Menopause is defined as the period in a women's life (typically between the ages of 45 and 50) when
mensturation ceases.
1
7. Aapher Test is used to check, compare and evaluate the physical fitness standards of American Youth
and school children. The test has six test items (test battery) which has to be performed in two days.
Students should warm-up before they participate in the test. They should be medically fit. 1
8. The extreme climatic conditions like extreme summer, extreme winter weather conditions, hinder
physical fitness whereas, moderate weather conditions favour physiological systems. 1
9. Work is done when a force acts upon an object and causes displacement of an object or body. Work
is application of force over a distance. Lifting the weight from ground and putting it on a shelf is an
example of work. 1
10. Problem focussed coping targets the cause of stress and anxiety in a practical way and tackles the problem
thereby, reducing the stress. It includes taking control of the situation and seeking information pertaining
to it.
1
11. The greatest force that is possible to overcome a resistance in a single maximum contraction, e.g.,
weightlifting, shot put, discus throw, hammer throw in track and field is known as maximum
strength. 1
18
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
12. A good teacher should always be on the lookout for students who display qualities of self-assertion
and intelligence in handling situations. Such children should be picked up and trained as potential
leaders by:
(i) Providing suitable channels for the expression and satisfaction of their tendencies.
(ii) Assigning challenging tasks to such students, in order to draw out the best qualities and efforts.
(iii) Presenting outstanding models to such students to inspire them.
(iv) Providing competitions to draw out their best and also to cultivate tolerance and patience like
qualities.
3
13. Three benefits of Warming Up are :
(i) It regulates the cardiovascular system for the coming needs.
(ii) It increases the body temperature so that the muscle fibres can be easily stretched.
(iii) It tones up the muscles and helps to avoid injury to the muscles.
(iv)Neuro-muscular coordination increases with warming up and also enhances nervous
conductivity.
(Any three) (1 × 3 = 3)
14. Causes of Poor Posture :
(i) Injury : When bone, ligament or muscle is injured it weakens the support to that part.
(ii) Disease causes the joint to lose their strength and mobility.
(iii) Heredity.
(iv) Overload.
(v) Lack of exercise.3
15. While walking the head should be straight with no tension in shoulders but, the abdomen muscles
should be slightly tightened. The swinging of arms help to gain speed in walking. A smooth, nonjerky arm movement should be followed in walking. The fists should not be clenched tightly to
increase tension in arm muscles. To maintain balance arms should not be raised above breast bone. A
good coordination of heal and toe action is needed for proper walking.
3
16. Competitiveness : It is a fact that males are found to be more competitive in comparison to females.
In fact females are more goal oriented than males. A research study indicates that females who
participate in sport are more competitive than males.
Aggression : Aggression is a forceful, goal directed action that may be verbal or physical. Although
participation in sports has many positive aspects which usually involve aggressive behaviour. Various
studies in aggression in athletes who participate in contact sports i.e., football players or wrestlers are
more aggressive than the athletes who participate in less contact sports. Research studies also indicate
that male sportspersons are found to be more aggresive than the female sportspersons.
Self-Esteem : Most of the research studies indicate that no female athletes have low self-esteem.
However, intensive training helps in enhancing self-esteem. Research studies show that those females
who participate in sports have high self-esteem in comparison to non-participating females.
(CBSE Marking Scheme 2015)
17. Two factors which could lead to osteoporosis are :
(i) Insufficient calcium in diet : The main cause of osteoporosis is intake of insufficient amount of
calcium in diet. In fact, 100 mg calcium should be taken in daily diet by female sportsperson.
(ii) Amenorrhoea : It is an abnormal absence of menstruation. Physiological states of amenorrhoea
are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation, the latter also forming the basis
of a form of contraception. Outside the reproductive years there is absence of menses during
childhood and after menopause.
(iii) Eating disorders : Disordered eating can greatly affect an athlete’s physical, emotional, and
psychological well-being.
18. (i) It is good for increasing strength and cardio-respiratory endurance.
(ii) This training method is not rigid, it is flexible in nature.
(iii) Several athletes can take part in the training programme at a time.
(iv) It does not require any equipment and can be organized easily.
(v) It helps you to accommodate any kind of terrain surrounding. (Any three) 3
Solutions
19
19. (a) Good and friendly teacher.
(b)Studies prove that resting metabolism is directly related to the body weight whereas,
metabolism rate increases with high physical activity.
3
20. Yes, I fully agree with the statement that adolescence is the age of stress and strain. The period of
passage from childhood to adulthood is a time of dramatic physical cognitive and social changes.
The early adolescence is called the age of awkwardness in physical appearance due to rapid and
disproportionate growth in size, shape, height and weight. They are naturally more preoccupied
about their physical appearance, psychologically this is a period of adjustment to the physical and
social changes which distinguish childhood behaviour from adult behaviour. This variation in body
built becomes a source of disturbance to many adoloescents.
(i) In 2nd stage, the child tries to solve various kinds of issues of his own. Because of not finding the
right solution he may take a wrong decision which can create a lot of stress or mental problem.
(ii) Pressure of studies/result of competitive exams/goal setting and achieving it through hard
phases of life can also cause lot of stress and tension to adolescents.
(iii) There are many other situations also which create lot of stress and depression in adolescents
when compared with others, lot of changes in mood, get easily irritated, when he desires for
independence but not given, emotional disturbances, etc. 5
21. (a) Calcium : Calcium is among the top macro-minerals in terms of growth and development of
our bones and teeth. It makes the teeth and bones strong and healthy. It helps in blood clotting.
Its deficiency may cause rickets. It is found in various products such as cheese, milk, orange
juice, eggs, yoghurt, green leafy vegetables and cereals.
(b)
Potassium : Potassium is one of the most required minerals in diet. It is helpful in keeping
the nervous system and muscular system fit and active all the time. It helps in maintaining
the amount of water in blood and tissues. Its main sources are banana, tomatoes, green leafy
vegetables, peanuts, citrus fruits and beans, etc.
(c)
Sodium : It helps in muscular activities. It also helps in transmission of nerve impulses. Its main
sources are table salt, pickle and butter, etc.
(d)
Magnesium : It repairs and maintains body cells. It is found in meat, brown rice, beans and
whole grains, etc.
(e)
Phosphorus : Phosphorus helps in the formation of bones and teeth. It keeps the muscles and
nerve activities normal. It is found in rich quantity in egg, fish, liver, milk and unpolished rice,
etc.
5
22.Strain and sprain are two common soft tissue injuries. A strain is an injury to a muscle in which the
muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle.
A complete muscle can be ruptured which makes for a person impossible to move that part of the
limb. Sprain is a partial or complete tear of a ligament with symptoms of pain, swelling, beuising loss
of function and often an available 'popping sound'.
Prevention :
(i) It is very important to perform proper warm-up exercises for preventing strain.
(ii) Playfield/courts should be smooth and clean.
(iii) Avoid exercising or playing sports when tired or in pain.
(iv) Eat a well-balanced diet to keep muscles strong.
(v) Maintain a healthy weight.
(vi)Try to avoid falling (for example, put sand or salt on icy spots on your front steps or
sidewalks). (vii) Wear shoes that fit well.
(Any two) 1 × 2 = 2
23.Sports competitions are organized at various levels which include district, state, national and
international levels. Such events require careful planning and organization in order to be successful.
Planning must be executed properly for which different committees work together.
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
20
Committees
I.
Pre-meet work
organizing committee
II. Meet work organizing
committee
III. Post-meet work
committee
(i) Publicity committee
(i)
Technical committee
(i) Keeping or record
(ii) Ground and equipment
layout committee
(purchase)
(ii)
Officials committee
(ii) Finance & accounts
(iii) Official committee
(iii) Prize committee
(iii) A brief report regarding
entire championship
(iv)Accommodation
committee
(iv) Ceremony committee
(v) Refreshment and
entertainment
committee
(vi) Reception committee
(vii) Transport committee
(viii) Committee for entrics
and programme
(ix) Medical committee
(x)
Organizing committee
1.
Organizing committee : It is headed by chairman as overall incharge of conducting the event.
All the aspects of sporting events to be conducted are administered through this committee.
2. Finance committee : It is responsible for all financial receipts and expenditure, etc. They should
work as per budget plan. This committee makes all the payments. They must work as per the directions given by organizing committee.
3. Publicity committee : The role of publicity committee is to give the sports event a wide publicity.
All the press releases, press conferences, results during the meet as well as publicity regarding
dates, venues through media, posters and printing, etc.
4. Technical committee : It is responsible for the technical conduct of the event. This committee
is responsible for making draws and conducting the event smoothly. The officials are deputed
well in advance. This is the most important committee that will officiate the sports events. The
competent persons are judged and appointed officials. Compilation of result is also done.
5. Reception committee : The responsibility of reception committee is to see that special invitees
are welcomed and taken to the seats reserved for them. They plan to invite the guests well in
advance and take care of their reception. The outstation participating teams are received and
proper arrangements are done till they depart.
6. Accommodation committee : This committee is responsible for making arrangements for
the stay of players as well as officials. The accommodation is booked well in advance as per
expected strength of participants, coaches, managers and other dignitaries.
7. Transport committee : Looks after the transport of players and officials to the venue of sporting
activity and back to its accommodation. It takes care before, during and after the sports event.
This committee must have details of arrival and departure of the participants so that every
thing is done on time.
8. Refreshment committee : It is formed to provide refreshment to the participants, officials and
all those involved in the entire programme. It must be ensured that everyone is served properly
with suitable soft drinks. This committee is also responsible for breakfast, lunch and dinner at
the place of stay. Proper hygienic meals should be served.
9. Purchase committee : This is a pre-meet work. The duty of purchasing of equipment and any
other item required in connection with the sporting event is assigned to this committee. This
Solutions
21
committee shall make arrangement of laying out of the field of international standard and fulfils
the required demand as per the game/sport.
10. Awards or prizes committee : The prizes are brought by this committee as per the number of
expected winners. The momentoes are also obtained by this committee for officials. They are
completely responsible for all the awards and prizes distribution well on time.
Conclusion : All those involved in any type of committee shall be given the badges and identity
cards. Meet shall start with opening ceremony (March past, oath taking, etc.) and ends with
closing ceremony. Then a brief report concerning the entire championship to be prepared. 5
24. Foot Up and Go Test.
Purpose : This test measures speed, agility and balance while moving.
Equipment required : Stopwatch, straight back (44 cm high), cone marker, measuring tape, area clear
of obstacles.
Procedure : Place the chair next to a wall (for safety) and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear
the path between the chair and the marker. The subject starts fully seated, hands resting on the knees
and feet flat on the ground. On the command, ‘Go’, timing is started and the subject stands and walks
(no running) as quickly as possible (and safely) to and around the cone, returning to the chair to sit
down. Timing stops as they sit down. Perform two trials. Comments : For best results, practice the test once, and then perform it twice. A cane or walker may
be used if that is the usual mode of walking. Push-off from the chair is allowed.
Scoring : Take the best time of the two trails to the nearest 1/10th second. Below is a table showing
the recommended ranges in seconds for this test based on age groups (from Jones & Rikli, 2002).
Men’s Result
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
> 6.0
6.0 to 4.4
< 4.4
65-69
> 6.4
6.4 to 4.8
< 4.8
70-74
> 7.1
7.1 to 4.9
< 4.9
75-79
> 7.4
7.4 to 5.2
< 5.2
80-84
> 8.7
8.7 to 5.7
< 5.7
85-89
> 9.6
9.6 to 6.2
< 6.2
90-94
> 11.5
11.5 to 7.3
< 7.3
Age
Below average
Average
Above average
60-64
> 5.6
5.6 to 3.8
< 3.8
65-69
> 5.7
5.7 to 4.3
< 4.3
70-74
> 6.0
6.0 to 4.2
< 4.2
75-79
> 7.2
7.2 to 4.6
< 4.6
80-84
> 7.6
7.6 to 5.2
< 5.2
85-89
> 8.9
8.9 to 5.3
< 5.3
90-94
> 10.0
10.0 to 6.2
< 6.2
Women’s Result
Groups. To assist you in doing this in a group situation loudly state the seconds, ‘1’, ‘2’, etc. Participants
will be able to take note of how long it takes them and it won’t matter if some finish before others. 5
25.
Total Number of teams = 11
N+1
Number of teams in upper half =
2
22
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
=
Number of teams in lower half =
=
11 + 1 12
=
= 6 teams
2
2
N −1
2
11 − 1 10
=
= 5 Teams
2
2
Total number of Byes = 16 – 11 = 5 Byes
NB − 1
Number of Byes in upper half =
2
=
Number of Byes in lower half =
=
5−1 4
=
= 2 Byes
2
2
NB + 1
2
5+1 6
=
= 3 Byes
2
2
Number of rounds = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 4 rounds
Number of matches = N – 1 = 11 – 1 = 10
5
26.The principle of individual differences implies that every sportsperson is different. Thus, each
individual’s response to load or exercise will vary. Therefore, the training programme should be
modified in such a manner to take individual differences into consideration. Following points need to
be remembered .
(i) Large muscles heal slower than smaller muscles.
(ii) Women usually require more recovery time than men.
(iii) Slow movements require less recovery time than fast or explosive movements.
(iv) Fast twitch muscle fibres recover faster than the slow twitch muscle fibres.
1+4=5
qqq
Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks : 70
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
CBSE
Sample Question Papers
10
Solution to Question Paper
1. Two advantages of weight training are:
(i) Weight maintenance.
(ii) Improvement in mobility of joints.
(iii) Improvement in lung functioning.
(iv) Improvement in muscle strength and endurance.
(Any two) ½ × 2 = 1
2. The requirements for river rafting are safe raft, life jacket, raft push, knowledge of swimming and
following the expert or lifeguard instructions, etc. 1
3. Calcium is needed for the formation of strong bones and teeth and also for clotting of blood. It is
found in milk and milk products. Daily recommended quantity of calcium is 800 mg. 1
4. Run for Fun can be organized by any educational institution for other institution or organization for
the people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun, to create good habits for good health. 1
5. There are various common postural deformities in the posture such as knock knee, bow legs, kyphosis,
lordosis, round shoulders, scoliosis, etc. 1
6. Physical development consists of two major components; physical fitness (strength, speed, endurance,
flexibility) and motor skills development like running, walking, jumping, hopping, catching, kicking,
etc. 1
7.The formula used to calculate Vo2 Max is:
132.853 – (0.0769 × Weight) × (0.3877 × Age) + (6.315 × Gender) – (3.2649 × Time) – (0.1565 × Heart
rate)
Where, weight is in pounds (lbs), Gender Male = 1 and Female = 0, Time is expressed in minutes and
100th of minutes, heart rate is in beats/minute, age in years. 1
8. Amenorrhoea : It is an abnormal absence of menstruation. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen,
most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation, the later also forming the basis of a form of contraception/
Outside the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. 1
9. Energy is the capacity for doing work. Heat energy, wind energy, light energy, atomic nuclear energy,
electrical energy, chemical energy, etc., are various types of energy.
1
10. Six adolescent problems are :
(i) Physical problems.
(ii) Mental problems.
(iii) Problem of aggressive behaviour. (iv) Lack of stability and adjustment.
(v) Emotional problems.
(vi) Problems related to self-support.
1
11. Reaction speed enables a sportsperson to react quickly and effectively to different types of stimuli, i.e.,
24
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
visual, auditory and tactile. 1
12. (a) The team or group should take the approvals and consents from the parents or concerned
authorities.
(b) The participant should possess good level of physical fitness and good character.
(c) The participant should carry proper safety gadgets, equipments and tools. They should be
properly checked before use and should follow safety principles.
3
13. General Training : General fitness is the fitness that you derive from regular workouts which enhance
your body strength and flexibility. This can be done with or without equipment. It is advisable that
workouts are under proper supervision of an expert coach/physical education teacher. It is also
suggested that you wear comfortable clothes and proper footwear while workout.
Specific Training : It refers to fitness for a specific purpose or specific sport. One sport needs different
sort of workout than other sport. There are different sports exercises according to the requirements of
each sport. It is suggested that you do proper warming up exercise before starting a work-out session
and also cooling down exercise at the end of the session.
Strength Training : Method adopted to improve strength is called strength training. Strength is
defined as the ability to develop resistance or act against diseases.
Type of strength : Maximum strength, Explosive strength, Strength endurance
14. Conditioning : It is a long term process to bring permanent changes in our body which help to increase
the efficiency of body. It is a long term process performed regularly. In this we practice certain exercises
regularly to bring permanent changes in the body. It is performed for months and years to achieve
permanent positive changes in the body. This is desired by the players for better efficiency in games and
sports. Its duration is of 30 minutes or more. It consists of simple exercises as well as complex skills and
techniques (like long running, jogging, sand running, stepping, stair running, short sprints, skipping,
specific drill practice, basic skill practice, shuttle runs, etc.) conditioning increases in stroke volume and
cardiac output. Oxygen Debt capacity increases.
Accuracy of muscular responses is gained. Lactic acid tolerance increases and delays fatigue and
muscles gain mass, strength and endurance. 3
15. (a) Potential energy : It is stored energy due to its position. It is equal to product of mass, height
and magnitude of gravity, i.e., mgh.
(b) Kinetic Energy : The energy of a moving object is called kinetic energy. For an object of mass
‘m’ moving with velocity of magnitude ‘v’, this energy is equal to ½ mv2.
(c) Various forms of energy are like Solar Energy, Heat Energy, Light Energy, Atomic/Nuclear
Energy, Electrical Energy, Chemical Energy, Mechanical Energy. Energy transfers from one
form to another.
The SI unit of energy is Joule.3
16. Goal setting as a technique of motivation : As we know the fact that achieving performance goals is
a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, but it is necessary to set realistic goals (aim)
based on one’s own abilities. Setting up too high goal or too low goal will adversely affect the level of
motivation. The goal should be difficult one but should be realistic, specific and attainable. It should
be attained step by step. Goal setting has been recognized as a powerful motivational technique as it
mobilizes an athlete’s efforts and prolong his persistence. 3
17.Acceleration run : It is a method of speed development. Acceleration is the ability to achieve high
speed of locomotion from a stationary position. This type of speed greatly depends upon explosive
strength, frequently of movement and technique. For improving acceleration run directly, short
sprints over a distance of 30 - 80 metres are the best. Research studies have revealed that a sprinter,
when starts from a stationary position, achieves maximum speed in about 6 seconds. Therefore, the
distance chosen should be run in about 4 - 6 seconds. However, actual distance may differ from
activity to activity and also on the nature of sports.
3
18. Amenorrhoea is an abnormal absence of menstruation. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most
commonly, during pregnancy and lactation, the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception.
Outside the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause.
Two factors which leads to Amenorrhea are:
Solutions
25
(i)
Medications : Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:
• Antipsychotics
• Cancer chemotherapy
• Anti-depressants
• Blood pressure drugs
• Allergy medications
(ii)
Excessive exercise : Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as
ballet, may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the
loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
(iii)Hormonal imbalance : Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance,
including :
• Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) : PCOS causes relatively high and sustained levels of
hormones, rather than the fluctuating levels seen in the normal menstrual cycle.
• Thyroid malfunction : An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid
gland (hypothyroidism) can cause menstrual irregularities, including amenorrhoea.
• Pituitary tumor : A non-cancerous (benign) tumor in your pituitary gland can interfere with the
hormonal regulation of menstruation.
• Premature menopause : Menopause usually begins around age 50. But, for some women, the
ovarian supply of eggs diminishes before the age of 40, and menstruation stops.
(iv) Stress: Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus — an area
of your brain that controls the hormones that regulate our menstrual cycle. Ovulation and
menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after our stress
decreases.
(Any two) 1 + 2 = 3
19. (a) Discipline, friendly, keen observer.
(b) Skimmed and semi-skimmed milk actually has more calcium because calcium is in watery part
and not in creamy part of milk.
3
20. Contusion : A contusion is a kind of wound that does not break the skin. It occurs when blood vessels
are damaged under the skin and, sometimes, it leads to blood collection under the skin, leaving the
skin discoloured. Contusions can easily occur when a blunt item strikes any of the body parts and
damages muscle fibers and connective tissues, but does not break the skin. Most contusions are minor
and heal quickly. Contusions cause swelling, pain and limit body motions. It is also known as bruise. 3
Prevention :
(i) Proper warm-up should be performed before practice, training and completion. Stretching
exercises must be performed while warming-up.
(ii) Conditioning should be performed as preparatory measure.
(iii) Good officiating helps prevent sport injuries.
(iv) Good quality sports equipments should be used.
(v) Player should have complete scientific knowledge about his game or sport.
3+2=5
21.Fats: They are the most concentrated source of energy in foods. One gram of fat provides double the
energy provided by one gram of carbohydrates. 1 gm = 9·3 k.cal. Since our body can store fats, they
work as energy banks and are called stored energy foods. This energy is provided when there is a
need. Fatty acids are said to be saturated or unsaturated.
Type of fat lipids :
Unsaturated
Saturated
Sunflower oil
Beef
Olive oil
Bacon
Rice oil
Cheese
Nuts
Butter
Fish oil
Crisps
(i) Generally found in plant products.
(ii) They tend to decrease cholesterol.
26
OSWAAL CBSE Sample Question Paper, Physical Education, Class – 12
(iii) Generally animal origin.
(iv) They increase the blood cholesterol level.
Functions : Fat is important for the proper functioning of the body.
(i) Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting
and other body functions.
(ii) Besides providing energy, fat serve as vehicles for fat soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E
and K).
(iii) Fat maintains skin and hair.
(iv) Fats in the body support Viscera such as heart, kidney and intestine and fat beneath the skin
provides insulation against cold.
(v) Fats are called stored energy foods. Since our body can store food, they work as energy banks.
The energy is provided when there is a need.
Recommendations :
(i) Total fat consumption on a daily basis should not exceed 30% of the total calorie intake. Out of
which saturated fat should be limited to 10% of the total calorie for the day and remainder of the
day’s fat (i.e., 20%) intake should be equal amount of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated
fat. Diets high in fat lead to increase the risk of obesity (overweight) and heart diseases.
(ii) If we eat more carbohydrates than required by our body, the body converts the extra amount
into fats and stores it.
(iii) It is important, therefore, both limit the total amount of fat in the diet and to ensure that the
relative proportions of poly-unsaturated and saturated fats are correct. 5
22. Fitness benefits individual physically, mentally as well as socially. A person becomes fit, energetic,
strong, mentally stable, thereby leading to flow of positive and divine thoughts which ultimately leads
to making of a good and responsible citizen of the country. Fitness also makes an individual's body
flexible. Due to conciousness of fitness and its practice, there is continuos blood circulation in person's
body which helps him to remain fresh for a longer duration. This enhances his confidence and energy
level. Due to the energy generated by the exercises, person gets immediate and sound sleep which is
absolutely necessary for stable mental and social life. Also due to fitness, the body gets high immunity
power which helps to fight diseases and also improves efficiency of heart and lungs by improving
cardio-respiratory fitness. Hence, to conclude, it can be said that, Physical fitness leads to- “All round
development of personality of the individual.” Principles of fitness. Before taking any fitness programme
one go for medical check-up: Fitness program can be taken at any age. Choice of Fitness program must
be based on criteria such as age, sex and ability of the person. The fitness programme should include
simple as well as complex techniques. Avoid eating or drinking during a fitness session.
Principles of fitness :
1. Before taking any fitness programme one should go for medical check-up.
2. Fitness program can be taken at any age.
3. Choice of fitness program must be based on criteria such as age, sex and ability of the person.
4. The fitness programme should include simple as well as complex techniques.
5. Avoid eating or drinking during a fitness session.
(Any three)
23. Strength is a very important component of physical fitness. It is the ability of our muscles to overcome
the resistance. Strength of the muscles are required in almost every game and sport. It is further
divided into two parts:
(i) Dynamic Strength : It is also called Isotonic strength where movements of different body parts
are clearly visible while taking part in various games and sports activities. In every sport's
movement, we use different forms of strength which can be divided into three parts:
(a) Maximum Strength : It is the ability of our muscles to overcome the maximum resistance
in a single efforts, e.g., weight lifting, shot put, etc.
(b)Explosive Strength : It is the ability of our muscles to overcome a resistance with high
speed, e.g., sprint starts, etc.
(c) Strength Endurance : It is the ability of our muscles to overcome any resistance for longer
duration. This is a combination of strength and endurance abilities, e.g., long distance
races, cycling, etc.
Solutions
27
(ii)
Static Strength : It is also known as Isometric strength where the movements of the concerned
body parts are not visible specially in weight lifting. In clean and jerk and in snatch events, we
use static strength in final position.3
24.First aid in case of sports-injuries: The help/assistance/treatment provided to the injured player at
the ground/in the immediate vicinity of the place of injury is called first aid of sport injury. The
principle of PRICES (i.e. Prevention, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Support) is applicable for
the first 24 − 48 hours to an injured player, except for if he has a fracture. Sprain-Injury to ligament is
called sprain. Strain-Injury to muscles and tendons is called strain.
Classification of sprain and strain. In the Ist Degree, Fiber destruction in body does not occur. At the
IInd Degree, Fiber destruction that takes place is at a moderate scale. At IIIrd Degree, the fiber gets
totally destructed. Symptoms of strain and sprain are as under : Pain Swelling, Loss of movement.
If the injury is acute, it pains more. However, if there is chronic injury, Pain is less while swelling
is more. Treatment : For the treatment in case fiber destruction is minimal, following therapies are
suitable. PRICE - Prevention, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation, Support Physiotherapy. However for
treatment at IIIrd Degree, Surgery is required. For muscles - Catgut surgery. For ligaments - Silk or
metallic wire is used for surgery. Abrasion - Abrasion is a superficial injury of skin due to rubbing
or scraping. Causes - The main reason of abrasion is falling on hard or rough surface. This also may
be due to continuous irritation of skin by uncomfortable shoes, rough fabric, seams in clothing or
sports equipment such as helmets and pads. Fractures - Fractures is defined as discontinuity in bone
or as the broken bones. The fractures are of various types : Simple fracture, Compound fracture,
Communicate fracture. Fractures may be : Transverse fracture, Oblique fracture, Spiral fracture,
Compressor fracture. The principle of treatment in plaster which is undertaken at the time of fracture
: To reduce Odessa, To get relieve in pain, To maintain circulation of blood in the body, To teach the
patient to use special appliances and make use of them.
25.A good teacher should always be on the lookout for students who display qualities of self-assertion
and intelligence in handling situations. Such children should be picked up and trained as potential
leaders by :
(a) Providing suitable channels for the expression and satisfaction of their tendencies.
(b) Assigning challenging tasks to such students, in order to draw out the best qualities and efforts.
(c) Presenting outstanding models to such students to inspire them.
(d) Providing competitions to draw out their best and also to cultivate tolerance and patience like
qualities.
1 × 1¼ = 5
26.Micro-elements are those minerals which are also known as trace elements and are required in very
less amount in the body, 0·01 gm of each every day.
Iron is needed for the production of haemoglobin as its deficiency would cause anaemia.
Potassium is essential to keep the nervous system and muscular system fit and active.
Phosphorus helps in the formation of bones and teeth. It keeps the muscles and nerve activities
normal.
Calcium is needed for the growth and development of bones and teeth.
1+4=5
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