what is ec security?

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Lecture 4
ref: Chapter 10
E-Commerce
Fraud and
Security
1
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education,
Inc.
10-2
10.1 The Information Security
Problem
•
WHAT IS EC SECURITY?
–
Computer security refers to the protection of data,
networks, computer programs, computer power and
other elements of computerized information systems
–
CSI Computer Crime and Security Survey
Annual security survey of U.S. corporations,
government agencies, financial and medical
institutions, and universities conducted jointly by the
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
FBI and the Computer Security Institute
10-3
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-4
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-5
10.1 The Information Security
Problem
 THE
DRIVERS OF EC SECURITY PROBLEMS
1. The Internet’s Vulnerable Design
 domain
name system (DNS)
Translates (converts) domain names to their numeric IP
addresses
 IP
address
An address that uniquely identifies each computer
connected to a network or the Internet
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-6
10.1 The Information Security
Problem
2.
The Shift to Profit-Induced Crimes
Criminal now are profit-oriented, theft of personal
information such as credit card numbers, bank accounts,
and passwords.
3.
Internet underground economy
E-markets for stolen information made up of thousands
of Web sites that sell credit card numbers, social
security numbers, other data such as numbers of bank
accounts, social network IDs, passwords, and much
more
 keystroke
logging (keylogging)
A method of capturing and recording
keystrokes
Copyright © 2010user
Pearson
Education, Inc.
10-7
10.2 Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and
Landscape
•
BASIC SECURITY TERMINOLOGY
–
business continuity plan
A plan that keeps the business running after a disaster occurs. Each
function in the business should have a valid recovery capability plan
–
cybercrime
Intentional crimes carried out on the Internet
–
exposure
The estimated cost, loss, or damage that can result if a threat exploits a
vulnerability
–
fraud
Any business activity that uses deceitful practices or devices to deprive
another of property or other rights
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-8
Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and
Landscape
–
malware (malicious software)
A generic term for malicious software
–
phishing
A crimeware technique to steal the identity of a target company to
get the identities of its customers
–
risk
The probability that a vulnerability will be known and used
–
social engineering
A type of nontechnical attack that uses some ruse to trick users into
revealing information or performing an action that compromises a
computer or network
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-9
–
Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and
Landscape
spam
The electronic equivalent of junk mail
–
vulnerability
Weakness in software or other mechanism that threatens the
confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an asset (recall the CIA
model). It can be directly used by a hacker to gain access to a
system or network
–
zombies
Computers infected with malware that are under the control of a
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
spammer, hacker, or other criminal
10-10
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-11
Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and Landscape
•
SECURITY SCENARIOS AND REQUIREMENTS IN E-COMMERCE
–
EC Security Requirements
authentication
Process to verify (assure) the real identity of an individual,
computer, computer program, or EC Web site
• authorization
Process of determining what the authenticated entity is
allowed to access and what operations it is allowed to
perform
 Auditing
the process of recording information about what was
accessed, when and by whom
 nonrepudiation
Assurance that online customers or trading partners cannot
falsely deny (repudiate) their purchase or transaction
•
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-12
Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and
Landscape
 THE
DEFENSE: DEFENDERS AND THEIR STRATEGY

EC security strategy
A strategy that views EC security as the process of
preventing and detecting unauthorized use of the
organization’s brand, identity, Web site, e-mail,
information, or other asset and attempts to defraud
the organization, its customers, and employees

deterring measures
Actions that will make criminals abandon their idea of
attacking a specific system (e.g., the possibility of
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
losing a job for insiders)
10-13
Basic E-Commerce Security Issues and
Landscape



prevention measures
Ways to help stop unauthorized users (also known as
“intruders”) from accessing any part of the EC system
detection measures
Ways to determine whether intruders attempted to break
into the EC system; whether they were successful; and what
they may have done
information assurance (IA)
The protection of information systems against unauthorized
access to or modification of information whether in storage,
processing, or transit, and against the denial of service to
authorized users, including those measures necessary to
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
detect, document, and counter
such threats
10-14
10.3 Technical Attack Methods
•
virus
A piece of software code that inserts itself into a host, including the
operating systems, in order to propagate; it requires that its host
program be run to activate it
•
worm
A software program that runs independently, consuming the resources
of its host in order to maintain itself, and that is capable of propagating
a complete working version of itself onto another machine
•
macro virus (macroworm)
A macro virus or macro worm is executed when the application object
that contains the macro is opened or a particular procedure is
executed
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-15
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-16
Technical Attack Methods
•
Trojan horse
A program that appears to have a useful function but
that contains a hidden function that presents a security
risk
•
banking Trojan
A Trojan that comes to life when computer owners visit
one of a number of online banking or e-commerce sites
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-17
Technical Attack Methods
•
denial of service (DOS) attack
An attack on a Web site in which an attacker uses specialized software to send
a flood of data packets to the target computer with the aim of overloading its
resources

page hijacking
Creating a rogue copy of a popular website that shows contents similar to the
original to a Web crawler; once there, an unsuspecting user is redirected to
malicious websites
•
botnet
A huge number (e.g., hundreds of thousands) of hijacked Internet computers
that have been set up to forward traffic, including spam and viruses, to other
computers on the Internet
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-18
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-19
10.4 Nontechnical Methods: Phishing,
Financial Fraud, and Spam

PHISHING
Is the criminal process of attempting to acquire confidential information
such as user names, passwords, and credit cards details by directing users to
enter details at fake website the looks identical to the real one.

universal man-in-the-middle phishing kit
A tool used by phishers to set up a URL that can interact in real
time with the content of a real Web site, such as a bank or EC
site, to capture data entered by customers at log-in or check
out Web pages
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-20
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-21
10.4 Nontechnical Methods: Phishing,
Financial Fraud, and Spam
•
FRAUD ON THE INTERNET
–
click fraud
Type of fraud that occurs in pay-per-click advertising when a
person, automated system, or computer program simulates
individual clicks on banner or other online advertising methods
–
identity theft
Fraud that involves stealing an identity of a person and then the
use of that identity by someone pretending to be someone else
in order to steal money or get other benefits
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-22
10.4 Nontechnical Methods: Phishing,
Financial Fraud, and Spam
–
e-mail spam
A subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to
numerous recipients by e-mail
–
search engine spam
Pages created deliberately to trick the search engine into offering
inappropriate, redundant, or poor quality search results
–
splog
Short for spam blog. A site created specially for marketing purposes
–
spyware
Software that gathers user information
over
anPearson
Internet
connection
Copyright
© 2010
Education,
Inc.
without the user’s knowledge
23
10.5 The Information Assurance Model
and Defense Strategy


Information Assurance (IA) model provides a
framework for protection of system against
unauthorized access to or modification of
information that is stored , processed , or sent
over a network.
CIA security triad (CIA triad) model
Three security concepts important to
information on the Internet: confidentiality,
integrity, and availability
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-24
10.5 The Information Assurance Model
and Defense Strategy
•


confidentiality
Assurance of data privacy and accuracy. Keeping
private or sensitive information from being disclosed
to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes
integrity
Assurance that stored data has not been modified
without authorization; a message that was sent is the
same message that was received
availability
Assurance that access to data, the Web site, or other
EC data service is timely, available, reliable, and
restricted to unauthorized users
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-25
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-26
10.6 The Defense I: Access Control, Encryption,
and PKI
 ACCESS
CONTROL
Mechanism that determines who can legally use a
network resource
Access control involve Authorization which include:
o
o
o
passwords
smart card and token
biometric control
 An
automated method for verifying the identity of a person
based on physical or behavioral characteristics
 Ex. signature, voice, fingerprint, eye scan
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-27
The Defense I: Access Control,
Encryption, and PKI
 ENCRYPTION
AND THE ONE-KEY (SYMMETRIC) SYSTEM
o
encryption
The process of scrambling (encrypting) a message in
such a way that it is difficult, expensive, or timeconsuming for an unauthorized person to unscramble
(decrypt) it
o
symmetric (private) key encryption
An encryption system that uses the same key to encrypt
and decrypt the message
–
private key
Encryption code that is known only to its owner
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-28
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-29
The Defense I: Access Control,
Encryption, and PKI
•
public key infrastructure (PKI)
A scheme for securing e-payments using public
key encryption and various technical components
–
public (asymmetric) key encryption
Method of encryption that uses a pair of matched
keys—a public key to encrypt a message and a
private key to decrypt it, or vice versa
–
public key
Encryption code that is publicly available to anyone
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-30
The Defense I: Access Control,
Encryption, and PKI
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-31
The Defense II: Securing E-Commerce
Networks
•
firewall
A single point between two or more networks
where all traffic must pass (choke point); the
device authenticates, controls, and logs all traffic
•
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
Network area that sits between an organization’s
internal network and an external network
(Internet), providing physical isolation between the
two networks that is controlled by rules enforced
by a firewall
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-32
The Defense II: Securing E-Commerce
Networks
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-33
The Defense II: Securing E-Commerce
Networks
•
virtual private network (VPN)
A network that uses the public Internet to carry
information but remains private by using
encryption to scramble the communications,
authentication to ensure that information has not
been tampered with, and access control to verify
the identity of anyone using the network
•
intrusion detection system (IDS)
A special category of software that can monitor
activity across a network or on a host computer,
watch for suspicious activity, and take automated
action based on what it sees
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-34
The Defense II: Securing E-Commerce
Networks
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-35
The Defense III: General Controls and
Other Defense Mechanisms
•
general controls
Controls established to protect the system regardless
of the specific application. For example, protecting
hardware and controlling access to the data center
are independent of the specific application
•
application controls
Controls that are intended to protect specific
applications

intelligent agents
Software applications that have some degree of
reactivity, autonomy, and adaptability—as is needed in
unpredictable attack situations. An agent is able to adapt
itself based on changes occurring in its environment
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-36
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
10-37
10.9 BUSINESS CONTINUITY AND DISASTER
RECOVERY PLANNING
–
–
–
The purpose of a business continuity plan is
to keep the business running after a disaster
occurs
Recovery planning is part of asset
protection
disaster avoidance
An approach oriented toward prevention.
The idea is to minimize the chance of
avoidable disasters (such as fire or other
human-caused threats)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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