Accredited qualifications for capacity development in disaster risk

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Volume 20, Number 1
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Accredited qualifications for capacity development in disaster
risk reduction and climate change adaptation
Sarah L Hemstock1 ;Leigh-Ann Buliruarua2; Emily YY
Chan3; Gloria Chan3; Helene Jacot Des Combes2;
Peter Davey4; Paul Farrell5; Sian Griffiths6; Henning
Hansen 7 ; Tim Hatch 8 ; Ailsa Holloway 9 ; Teuleala
Manuella-Morris10; Tess Martin11; Fabrice G. Renaud12;
Kevin Ronan13; Benjamin Ryan14; Joerg Szarzynski15;
Duncan Shaw16; Soichiro Yasukawa17; Tiffany Yeung18;
Virginia Murray19
1
European Union PacTVET Project, SPC, Suva, Fiji.
2
European Union PacTVET Project, The University of the South
Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
3
Collaborating Centre for Oxford University, Oxford, United
Kingdom
Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
4
Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
5
World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine,
Madison, USA.
6
Healthcare UK London, United Kingdom.
7
International Federation of Environmental Health, London,
United Kingdom.
8
Alabama Department of Public Health, Montgomery. USA
9
Research Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction, Stellenbosch
University, Matieland, South Africa.
10
11
European Union PacTVET Project, The University of the South
Pacific, Funafuti, Tuvalu.
European Union PacTVET for Sustainable Energy and Climate
Change Adaptation, The University of the South Pacific, Suva,
Fiji.
12
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human
Security, Bonn, Germany.
13
Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia.
14
James Cook University, Cairns, Australia.
15
United Nations University, Bonn, Germany.
16
The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
17
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
Paris, Switzerland.
18
Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
19
Public Health England, London, United Kingdom
UNISDR STAG, Geneva, Switzerland.
© The Author(s) 2016. (Copyright notice)
Author correspondence:
Sarah Hemstock,
C/- The Pacific Community,
3rd Floor, Lotus Building,
SPC – Private Mail Bag, Nabua,
Fiji.
Email: [email protected]
URL: http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/issues/2016-1/AJDTS_20-1_Hemstock.pdf
trauma.massey.ac.nz
Abstract
Increasingly practitioners and policy makers working
across the globe are recognising the importance of
bringing together disaster risk reduction and climate
change adaptation. From studies across 15 Pacific island
nations, a key barrier to improving national resilience
to disaster risks and climate change impacts has been
identified as a lack of capacity and expertise resulting
from the absence of sustainable accredited and quality
assured formal training programmes in the disaster risk
reduction and climate change adaptation sectors. In the
2016 UNISDR Science and Technology Conference
on the Implementation of the Sendai Framework for
Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, it was raised that
most of the training material available are not reviewed
either through a peer-to-peer mechanism or by the
scientific community and are, thus, not following quality
assurance standards. In response to these identified
barriers, this paper focuses on a call for accredited formal
qualifications for capacity development identified in the
2015 United Nations landmark agreements in DRR and
CCA and uses the Pacific Islands Region of where this
is now being implemented with the launch of the Pacific
Regional Federation of Resilience Professionals, for
DRR and CCA. A key issue is providing an accreditation
and quality assurance mechanism that is shared across
boundaries. This paper argues that by using the United
Nations landmark agreements of 2015, support for a
regionally accredited capacity development that ensures
all countries can produce, access and effectively use
scientific information for disaster risk reduction and
climate change adaptation. The newly launched Pacific
Regional Federation of Resilience Professionals who
work in disaster risk reduction and climate change
adaptation may offer a model that can be used more
widely.
Keywords: capacity development, accreditation,
disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation,
training.
15
Hemstock et al.
This paper calls for accredited formal qualifications
for capacity development identified in the 2015 United
Nations (UN) landmark agreements in disaster risk
reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA).
It will be particularly important to provide an accreditation
and quality assurance mechanism that is shared
across boundaries. The current paper argues that by
leveraging support for a regionally accredited capacity
development, the production of, access to, and effective
use of, scientific information for DRR and CCA can be
achieved in all UN member states.
The number of reported disasters has steadily increased
since the 1950s. As shown in figure 1, this trend was
peaking at the beginning of the current century. Between
2005 and 2015, it is estimated that over 0.9 million
people lost their lives and more than 1.8 billion people
were affected by disasters in various ways, with women,
children, and several other vulnerable groups impacted
disproportionately (CRED/EMDAT, 2016). Disaster
impacts also set back hard-won economic development
gains and affect all socioeconomic strata, societal
institutions, and sectors in one way or another. The total
economic loss was estimated to have exceeded USD
1.5 trillion over the 2005−2015 period (CRED/EMDAT,
2016). There is an urgent need to support sustainable
capacity building to reduce these impacts.
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
Disasters are not natural events. They are endogenous
to society and disaster risk arises when hazards interact
with the physical, social, economic, and environmental
vulnerabilities and exposure of populations (UNISDR,
2015b). Therefore, the attention of the policy community
has naturally fallen on the hazards and the related
physical processes that result in disasters. This attention
is now increasingly linking these with the consequences
of climate change (IPCC, 2012), as shown in figure 1.
The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of
Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate
Change Adaptation states that, “Inequalities influence
local coping and adaptive capacity, and pose disaster
risk management and adaptation challenges from
the local to national levels (high agreement, robust
evidence)” (IPCC 2012, p. 10). Harris and Baker (2011)
from the Institute for Development Studies reported that
practitioners and policy makers working across the globe
are recognising the importance of bringing together
disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change
adaptation (CCA). For example, in the Philippines,
disaster risk reduction and climate change laws mandate
the inclusion of DRR and climate change, respectively,
in school curricula (Murray et al., 2012). The UNISDR’s
Office for Northeast Asia and Global Education Training
Institute (UNISDR ONEA-GETI) forms another example.
This office was established in 2010 to develop a new
Figure 1. Total Number of reported natural disasters between 1900 and 2015. Reproduced from EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International
Disaster Database. Brussels, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain. Reproduced with permission.
16
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
cadre of professionals in DRR and CCA for disaster
resilient societies. This institute supports the increased
recognition of the value of mainstreaming CCA and DRR
activities, to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience.
By focusing on one part of the world, the Pacific Islands
Community, studies across 15 Pacific island nations
have shown that a lack of capacity and expertise,
resulting from the absence of sustainable, accredited
and quality assured formal training programmes in the
DRR and CCA sectors forms a key barrier to improving
national resilience against disaster risk and climate
change impacts (Buliruarua et al., 2015; Jordon et
al., 2010). Considering that this regional finding may
correspond to a global issue, this concept paper focuses
on a broader call for accredited formal qualifications for
capacity development. Note that this wider need has
also been identified in the three 2015 United Nations
(UN) landmark agreements in disaster risk reduction and
climate change adaptation, which are discussed below.
Hemstock et al.
The Three UN Landmark Agreements
and Their Implementation
The year 2015 presented an unparalleled opportunity to
align important global agreements through convergence
of the three main UN landmark agreements:
––The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
2015−2030 (Sendai Framework), finalised in March
2015;
––The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),
finalised in September 2015; and
––The Paris Agreement (COP21), finalised in December,
2015.
The timeframes of each of these agreements are
summarised in figure 2 below.
As shown in figure 2, these major global policy
instruments align to better facilitate science and
technology (S&T) participation in DRR, sustainable
development, and climate change mitigation and
Figure 2. Twenty five years of international commitments to disaster risk reduction. Reproduced from Launch of the 2015 Global Assessment
Report on Disaster Risk Reduction by Andrew Maskrey, 2015, Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR . Reproduced with permission.
17
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Hemstock et al.
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
adaptation. Capacity building for appropriate DRR and
CCA responses is one particular area of alignment where
there is an identified need for input from the science
and technology community (Buliruarua et al., 2015).
The current paper is based on a review of each of the
three global agreements, performed by science and
technology stakeholders to the Sendai Framework, the
SDG’s and the COP21. Key statements on training and
capacity development have been identified as a result.
The Sendai Framework was developed from the need to
ensure DRR policy reflects the evolved understanding of
the complexity of disaster risk in the twenty-first century.
Implementation requires close collaboration among all
sectors including the wider health and environmental
health sectors, in order to prevent, prepare for, respond
to, and recover from disasters that result from highly
interdependent and evolving risks.
The Sendai Framework emphasises the role of S&T in
DRR. Additionally, the role of capacity development and
training is clearly outlined as a means to implement the
Sendai Framework to achieve its goal to, ‘‘prevent new
and reduce existing disaster risk…” (UNISDR, 2015b,
p.12). The role of S&T and capacity development and
training have been identified in all parts of the framework
including in each of the four priorities for action: 1)
Understanding disaster risk; 2) Strengthening disaster
risk governance to manage disaster risk; 3) Investing
in DRR for resilience; and 4) Enhancing disaster
preparedness for effective response and to ‘Build Back
Better’ in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. The
key statement from the Sendai Framework on accredited
formal qualifications for capacity development DRR is:
27 j) to promote the development of quality
standards, such as certifications and awards for
disaster risk management with the participation
of the private sector, civil society, professional
associations, scientific organisations and the United
Nations.
(UNISDR, 2015b, p.18)
Answering the call from the Sendai Framework for an
emphasis of S&T capacity development, the UNISDR
Science and Technology Advisory Group (STAG)
identified six scientific functions in shaping the UNISDR
Science and Technology Road Map, one of which was
an emphasis on “Capacity development to ensure that
all countries can produce, access, and effectively use
scientific information” (Aitsi-Selmi et al., 2016, p.5).
18
The need for appropriate capacity development is
amplified by the UNISDR Science and Technology
Road Map which was published as an outcome
from the conference. This Road Map included a
recommendation to “support capacity building and
ensure that capacity development for disaster risk
management is interdisciplinary, shared across
international boundaries, and demand-driven”(UNISDR
2016b, p.24) where deliverables are expected to
be “Training and capacity building of science and
technology in disaster risk reduction” (Aitsi-Selmi
et al., 2016, p.6) and “Measures to build capacity
development in knowledge management, innovation
and learning, research and technology...” (UNISDR,
2016b, p.6). In 2008, UNISDR published its terminology
on DRR where it stated that capacity development
could be defined as “The process by which people,
organizations and society systematically stimulate and
develop their capacities over time to achieve social
and economic goals, including through improvement of
knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions” (p.6). The
following annotation was added to this entry in the list
of terminology:
…capacity development is a concept that extends
the term of capacity building to encompass all
aspects of creating and sustaining capacity growth
over time. It involves learning and various types
of training, but also continuous efforts to develop
institutions, political awareness, financial resources,
technology systems, and the wider social and
cultural enabling environment.
(UNISDR, 2009, p.6)
The SDG’s are a set of global aspirational goals that
were developed and agreed upon by the United Nations
Development Programme as the successor to the
Millennium Development Goals. The SDG's cover a
broad range of sustainable development concerns, and
address many issues relating to capacity development
and training. Goal 3 specifies ensuring healthy lives
and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and calls
for efforts to:
3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in
particular developing countries, for early warning,
risk reduction and management of national and
global health risks
The United Nations (2016a, para 3)
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
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Goal 13, in particular, is about climate change adaptation,
while DRR is a theme cutting across the specified
targets. This goal articulates the urgency for combating
climate change and its impacts with three out of the five
component targets aimed at capacity development. This
goal therefore outlines the importance of addressing
capacity development in CCA & DRR sectors. The two
targets (United Nations, 2016a) in Goal 13 aimed at
capacity development are:
13.3) Improve education, awareness-raising and
human and institutional capacity on climate change
mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early
warning.
13.5) Promote mechanisms for raising capacity
for effective climate change-related planning and
management in least developed countries and
small island developing States, including focusing
on women, youth and local and marginalized
communities.
(The United Nations, 2016a, para 13)
In 2015, at the United Nations Climate Change
Conference, the United Nations declaration concerning
COP21 identified actions to be taken on capacity building
post 2015 in all global regions, with a particular focus on
developing countries. The Durban Forum on Capacitybuilding was established as a result of the Conference
of the Parties (Climate Change Policy & Practice, 2016),
with more in-depth discussion to be held during the fifth
meeting of the Durban Forum during the 44th session of
the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) (United
Nations, 2016b). However there appears to have been
no mention of accreditation or standards for capacity
development at the time of writing the current paper.
In addition to the strong call for capacity development
identified in the three UN landmark agreements, there
remains a clear academic and technical argument for
capacity building in DRR. Menoni et al. (2014) stated that
“civil protection, emergency, disaster risk management
(DRM) have been traditionally considered professions
to be learnt on the ground” (p.3) but they went on to
report that:
…there is an increasing demand for more training,
more skills in the field of organisational management,
in juridical aspects connected with administrative
responsibilities, economic elements related to
the cost of prevention, lack of prevention and
intervention during crises.
(Menoni et al., 2014, p.3)
Hemstock et al.
Menoni’s call for more systematic educational
approaches to disaster risk-related capacity building
resonates with observations that extend back to the
1980s, and which were reflected, as one example,
during the 1986 establishment of the Asian Disaster
Preparedness Centre in Bangkok, Thailand. A decade
later, Alexander (1997) made the critique that despite
these advances, limited cross-disciplinary training in
the disaster risk domain still resulted in it “constantly
being reinvented by practitioners who were unaware
of previous work outside their own field” (Alexander,
1997, p.298). He lamented both the persisting absence
of “agreed standards of training for disaster specialists”
(Alexander, 1997, p.298) and limited “consensus on
the body of general knowledge of disasters that the
neophyte should be required to absorb” (Alexander,
1997, p.298).
Encouragingly, in the past two decades, there has
been growing momentum for more systematic, crossdisciplinary and sustainably embedded approaches to
disaster risk-related capacity building. This is particularly
evident in Africa where, despite the urgency to build
strategic and technically competent human capital in the
field, DRM capacity-building capabilities in 2005 have
tended to lag substantially behind those of Asia and the
Americas (Holloway, 2005, 2009, 2014). In a departure
from efforts in other regions, the purposeful introduction
of disaster risk reduction elements into continental
university curricula appears to have substantially
changed Africa’s skilled DRM human resource profile. By
2016, these deliberate efforts to sustainably integrate the
disaster risk domain within institutions of higher learning
have been materially reflected in more than 20-30
accessible disaster risk-related academic programmes
and modules across the continent. These programmes
appear to have been offered in English, French and
Portuguese, as well as in national languages, for
example Amharic and Malagasy.
Africa’s rapid acceleration in self-generated disaster riskrelated capacity building has been facilitated through
the Periperi U partnership, building on early disaster
risk curricula successes in South Africa (Holloway;
2009, 2014). Beginning in 2006-2007 as a pilot project,
by 2016, Periperi U has incrementally scaled-up to
constitute twelve universities with more than 1,000
registered students and 170 staff.
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
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Prompted by a shared commitment to mobilise higher
education to address the continent’s complex risk-scape,
Periperi U has consistently argued “that African higher
education institutions should be more active in filling this
capacity gap, given that disaster risk management and
reduction are core areas of scholarship and practice”
(Periperi U, 2015, p.5). In this context, Periperi U has
shown that academia is in many ways as important
as the political call for capacity development. The
effectiveness of their approach has been independently
confirmed, with external evaluation noting that:
Periperi U is providing evidence that well designed
interventions through and by the higher education
sector offer very significant advantages in efforts to
build capacities that can serve the continent during a
time of increasingly powerful man-made and natural
disasters.
(Ofir & Mentz, 2015, p.iii).
This solution provides a clear identification of training
needs for DRR and in part CCA but does not yet resolve
the need for practitioner accreditation. Periperi U is
nonetheless a good example of how shared academic
and community practitioner capacity development can
deliver much needed DRR knowledge building and
practice. Other organisations in Asia and around the
world can also deliver these capacity developments.
Some examples are cited in Appendix 1. From the
viewpoint of practitioner led capacity development, it is
apparent that academic and other training organisations
are best if they work in partnership to reflect the local
needs on the ground while also providing global learning.
An Example: The Reality of Training
for DDR and CCA in the Pacific
Islands Region
The Pacific Islands Region (PIR) can be used as an
example which outlines and contextualizes DRR and
CCA linkages. This region also highlights how climate
change can be recognised as a slow-acting hazard.
During the lifetimes of the Pacific Islands Framework for
Action on Climate Change 2006-2015 and the Pacific
Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management
Framework for Action 2005-2015, efforts were made
to integrate DRR and CCA policy. These efforts are
ongoing at the time of writing because the intended
replacement for these policies, the Framework for
Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the
Pacific (FRDP), has yet to be approved by all 15 Pacific-
20
African, Caribbean and Pacific (P-ACP) countries.
The FRDP will provide a new regional policy tool with
guidelines on an integrated management of CCA and
DRR, with the goal of improving the resilience of Pacific
Island communities. Implementation of the FRDP, as
with the Sendai Framework, relies to a great extent on
capacity building. The FRDP states that “such needsbased capacity building can provide a significant return
on the investment” (p.27) and has identified that in order
for component goals to be achieved:
Training, education, community planning workshops
involving multi-sector participation, and other forms
of human resources development are critical to
building resilient communities, who can more
effectively participate in risk-reducing initiatives and
protect the interests of their most vulnerable people..
(UNISDR, 2016, p.27)
Many, if not all, policies linked to CCA and DRR also
appear to reflect the need for capacity building (Appendix
1). For example, Tuvalu asks specifically for capacity
building support at a central government level, to
assist with “Improving Understanding and Application
of Climate Change Data, Information and Site Specific
Impacts Assessment to Inform Adaptation and Disaster
Risk Reduction Programmes” (Buliruarua et al., 2015,
p.22) . Palau’s Climate Change Policy For Climate and
Disaster Resilient Low Emissions Development (2015),
states that by 2020, Palau’s educational system will
include coordinated climate change and disaster risk
information in its curriculum and will offer professional
development. A full analysis of these particular policies
has been published by Martin et al. (2015).
For the Pacific, a regional and interdisciplinary approach
to DRR and CCA capacity development is essential. This
is because PIN countries face similar hazards types
and negative impacts of climate change, with varying
but comparable effects on the countries’ economy and
the livelihood of their inhabitants. Moreover, countries
such as Tuvalu, Republic of Nauru, Niue, Cook Islands
and Republic of Palau have small populations ranging
from 1,500 to 20,000. These countries may therefore not
have the capacity to establish effective national quality
assurance systems.
The integrated interdisciplinary approach to DRR and
CCA shown in figure 3 is based on the links identified
between these areas of concern (UNISDR, 2016). Formal
education is needed to develop national capacities
to reduce vulnerability and anticipate, plan for and
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
respond to and recover from disasters that result from
interdependent and evolving vulnerabilities. The needsbased development of regionally-specific, accredited
qualifications in this context is highly innovative. This
approach to development forms the impetus for the
European Union Pacific Technical Vocational Education
and Training in Sustainable Energy and Climate Change
Adaptation Project (EU PacTVET). However, at the
time of writing, structures remain to be put in place for
quality assurance of regional qualifications as well as
regionalization / globalisation and mutual recognition of
broader qualifications.
The Pacific Register of Qualifications and Standards,
maintained and quality assured by the Pacific
Community’s Educational Quality and Assessment
Programme (EQAP) only recognises national
qualifications, without focusing on CCA or DRR. In
this regard, and in response to DRR and CCA being
significant challenges currently facing the region, EU
PacTVET is proposing strategies to develop DRR
and CCA qualifications and support their recognition/
Hemstock et al.
accreditation at national and regional levels, including
the establishment of a federation for resilience.
As a result of these deliberations the development of
and launching of the Pacific Regional Federation of
Resilience Professionals who work in DRR and CCA will
work in partnership with EQAP, to support mechanisms
for accreditation, development and/or the endorsement
of formal qualifications in the TVET sector at a regional
level for DRR and CCA (Jacot Des Combes et al., In
Press).
Examples of Training Systems
Available and Their Benefits
Selected examples of training systems, which have and
are being developed to provide training related to DRR
and CCA regionally and globally, are summarised in
table 1. A more detailed table is provided in Appendix
2. Table 1 summarises the accreditation systems for
Doctoral and Masters Qualifications which are generally
accredited through the offering university but short
courses do not generally appear to be accredited. Only
Figure 3. Linkages between disaster risk management and climate change adaptation.
21
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
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the TVET project has a clear accreditation. This project
is accredited by the Fiji Higher Education Commission
and is listed on the Pacific Register of Qualifications and
Standards, Pacific Community Education Quality and
Assessment. In summary, accreditation for DRR and
CCA appears mostly academic, among local institutions
focusing on Master and PhD programs. Few other
programs have wider remits.
Discussion
By encouraging international collaboration there may be
an opportunity for interdisciplinary partnerships which
actively build integrated preparedness, leadership
and other solutions. These partnerships may support
sustainable capacity development in DRR and CCA for
practitioners. Currently, few of the training systems listed
in Table 1 fulfil the UNISDR S&T Road Map UNISDR
(2016b) recommendation to “support capacity building
and ensure that capacity development for disaster
risk management is interdisciplinary, shared across
international boundaries, and demand-driven” (p.24).
The remit and accessibility of these partnerships would
benefit from expansion.
As part of implementing the Sendai Framework
through the judicious application of S&T, it is crucial
to purposefully align the development of crossdisciplinary disaster risk research with disaster risk
capacity building for decision-makers, practitioners and
associated professionals. The UNISDR Science and
Technology Conference on the implementation of the
Sendai Framework resulted in a short concept note on
capacity development. This note highlighted substantial,
global disparities in capacity development for science
in the DRM field (UNISDR, 2016a). The concept note
also indicated a heavy dependence on international
organisations and associated experts to support training
in developing countries. This was in addition to limited
South–South cooperation which is also, albeit partially,
identified in Appendix 2.
Until recently, the majority of formal capacity development
efforts appear to have followed a highly specialised
natural sciences pattern, for example geo-sciences.
Over the last ten years or so, capacity development has
transitioned towards more inter- and trans-disciplinary
approaches. This change was summarised in Box 7.6 of
the 2015 Global Assessment Report which documents
Table 1.
Examples of Initiatives that Aim to Provide DRR/CCA Capacity Development Training
Type of Diploma
Organisation/Initiative*
Accreditation
PhD, Doctorate
School
Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimise Educational Development
(ANDROID) Online Doctoral School & Residential Doctoral School; Association of Pacific
Rim Universities-International Research Institute of Disaster Science (APRU-IRIDeS)
Multi-Hazards Program; New Zealand universities; United Nations University (UNU);
USP; The University of Manchester: Humanitarian and Conflict Research Institute (HCRI)
Generally accredited
through the offering
university
Masters
International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (IISEE), A Centre of
Excellence of UNESCO, Master Program in Seismology, Earthquake Engineering and
Tsunami Disaster Mitigation; New Zealand universities; UNESCO Master courses by
International Centre for Water Hazard Risk Management (ICHARM, Japan) on water
related hazard management; United Nations University (UNU) Joint Master (M.Sc.)
Geography of Environmental Risks and Human Security with the University of Bonn;
University of the South Pacific the University of Manchester: the Humanitarian and
Conflict Research Institute (HCRI)
Generally accredited
through the offering
university
Short Courses
Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical
Humanitarian Response (CCOUC) Disaster and Humanitarian Specialised Public Health
Courses, Summer Short Courses, Croucher Summer Course, e-Learning courses:
climate change and health; Griffith University- Environmental Health and Disaster
Management 5 day Short Course training endorsed by International Federation of
Environmental Health (IFEH); Partners Enhancing Resilience for People Exposed to
Risks (Periperi U) RADAR’s short course on Community Risk Assessment (accredited at
NQF level 6)
Uneven accreditation
patterns
Technical and
Vocational
Education and
Training
Pacific Community / University of the South Pacific - European Union Pacific Technical
Vocational and Education in Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Adaptation Project
(EU PacTVET)
Accredited by Fiji Higher
Education Commission
and listed on the Pacific
Register of Qualifications
and Standards, Pacific
Community Education
Quality and Assessment
*This list is based on the authors’ experience and does not represent an exhaustive list of available training.
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Hemstock et al.
the key activities related to the Hyogo Framework for
Action (HFA). This section of the Global Assessment
Report (UNISDR 2015b) recommended supporting the
development of scientific, technological, technical and
institutional capacities needed to research, observe,
analyse, map and, where possible, forecast natural and
related hazards, vulnerabilities and disaster impacts.
The Global Assessment Report also recommended the
development and improvement of relevant databases
and establishing and strengthening capacities to
summarize, disseminate, and exchange statistical
information and data on hazards mapping, disaster
risks, impacts, and losses. The development of common
methodologies for risk assessment and monitoring was
also recommended.
enable the interpretation into different languages and
culturally appropriate materials, in addition to handing
this aspect of capacity building over to local colleges
and other schools. These approaches would allow the
training to be appropriately delivered in a language
that communities understand, while helping facilitate
local ownership of the training materials (Buliruarua et
al., 2015).
Low education baselines in many countries limit
progress in implementing cross-disciplinary tertiary
level learning processes in emerging risk and resilience
domains (UNISDR, 2016a). On this note, it is important
to consider the conceptualisation of any DRR/CCA
curriculum to ensure it is capable of operating in the
local context and economic setting of the initiative,
including whether the curriculum responds to identifiable
stakeholder needs (Hagelsteen & Burke, 2016).
Initial Stocktake of Progress:
Baseline Assessment, Good Practice
Exemplars
The accumulation of global experience in disaster riskrelated training and education, especially successful
capacity building efforts that are culturally coherent and
contextually nuanced, require formal capacity-building
processes. Note that the Sendai Framework makes
extensive reference to the delivery of culturally sensitive
DRR related activities. Attention to cultural context and
inclusiveness therefore need to be integrated aspects
of implementing capacity development.
With rapidly growing global demand for disaster risk
information, the scientific community is challenged to
consider how the dissemination of training modules and
other capacity building tools can be achieved through
existing and forthcoming technologies. These challenges
include methods for harmonising communication
and technologies as well as making these methods
accessible in remote locations. Ad hoc training, lack
of quality assurance and low national capacity to
sustainably and collectively deliver training leads to
failure when trained individuals leave the original training
context (Woods et al., 2006). This issue foregrounds
the importance of accessible training, which is culturally
appropriate and communicated in local languages and
dialects. With risk communication often constrained by
language barriers, there is scope for technologies to
Another key issue is providing an accreditation
and quality assurance mechanism that transcends
professional and national boundaries. This mechanism
should include systems for continuing professional
development. This would in turn enhance the recognition
of professions actively involved in DRR and CCA.
An initial scoping, assessment and stocktake of
developments related to formal qualifications for
capacity development in DRR and CCA has clearly
indicated bona fide progress. This progress includes
progress in developing a significantly increased number
of formal qualifications in the higher education sector
(Ronan, 2015a, 2015b). Such qualifications could have
a number of benefits, including:
1.A baseline assessment to help us better measure
progress across the Sendai Framework and the
other agreements.
2.Data that can be leveraged off and learned from
to help plan for the next 15 years and beyond.
This would include: exemplars of good practices,
innovative ways to establishing training programs,
and multi-disciplinary training; means used to
evaluate effectiveness of training programs, both
in terms of learning/capacity-building outcomes
but also combined DRR-CCA outcomes; means
used to successfully implement and sustain these
programs; and means of resolving issues that have
arisen across training programs related to formal
accreditation challenges and successes.
Such an initial stocktake, assessment and analysis
should not be limited to higher education as narrowly
defined by the Bologna Process (see European Higher
Education Area, 2014) but should also include national
technical and vocational training and the potential
pathways between them. For the technical and
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Hemstock et al.
vocational education and training sector, the assessment
and analysis should focus on a competency-based
approach and take into account skills, knowledge and
attributes. This assessment should be regularly updated
to integrate new science and innovative technologies
where relevant (Buliruarua et al., 2015). The result of
this initial stocktake, assessment and analysis can
then be translated into important next steps, including
enhancing pathways for developing formal qualifications
and accreditation frameworks.
Formal Accreditation Standards
The development of accreditation standards can be
complicated and accreditation processes generally
appear to have been taking place at the national level.
However, a more widely shared set of multi-disciplinary
common principles can still be established and validated
at regional or global levels before being utilised within
country specific contexts. This has occurred in other
areas of capacity development. Some examples of
multi-country agreed training systems with certification
and other forms of accreditation outside of directly
addressing DRR and CCA are provided below.
The only universal training that the current authors have
identified and that that is led by a UN system organisation
comes from the International Maritime Organisation and
relates to the International Convention on Standards of
Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
1978 which was adopted on 7 July 1978 and came
into force on 28 April 1984. The main purpose of this
Convention is to promote safety of life and property at
sea and the protection of the marine environment by
establishing commonly agreed international standards
of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers.
Some training is aligned with standards developed
by standards organizations such as the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the European
Committee for Standardization (CEN), and national
standards bodies. These organisations have developed
best practice norms for how DRR can be organized.
Guidelines are also produced and made widely available
by non-governmental organisations such as the
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies and other international organizations such as
the International Organization for Migration.
Industry training providers support trainees in
understanding how to implement standards in an
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Volume 20, Number 1
organization and how to meet the requirements for
certification. For example, worldwide provision is
offered by a collaboration between the British Standards
Institution (BSI), American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) and the American Society for Quality (ASQ)
(ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board). This
collaboration seeks to offer a suite of local accreditation
by these international providers.
Each of the initiatives outlined above cost money, for
example, to develop and deliver training materials
alongside possible accreditations. There is also a large
number of private companies in most countries that sell
support, accreditation and training for the implementation
of the most popular standards. Examples include ISO
14001 Environmental Management, ISO 31000 Risk
Management, and ISO 22301 Business Continuity
Management. This approach to standards could spread
to disaster-specific standards such as ISO 22315 Mass
Evacuation and ISO22319 Spontaneous Volunteers in
Emergencies.
In terms of developing standards, ISO uses their ISO
Academy to provide training materials on a range of
subjects about standards and standardisation. This
includes support for people who want to share their best
practices by developing a particular standard through
one of its committees. The role of developing countries is
critical in ISO standard development. Their involvement
will help ensure the global relevance of standards,
encourage capacity development in these countries,
and help ensure that valuable standards are exploited
in a range of country settings. The five outcomes that
ISO (2016) is pursuing include:
––Outcome 1: Standardisation has a recognized,
effective role in support of public policies
––Outcome 2: National standards bodies’ strategic
capabilities strengthened
––Outcome 3: National standards bodies’ capacity
strengthened at the operational and technical levels
––Outcome 4: Increased involvement of developing
country members in international standardization
––Outcome 5: Coordination and synergies with other
organizations and among projects implemented
(ISO, 2016, page 6)
The plan to achieve this is to: disseminate materials,
tools and information services; focus on regional-based
capacity-building and awareness-raising projects;
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Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
provide country-based training and technical assistance
to build the capacity of national standards bodies (ISO,
2006). It seems that ISO sees the focus on developing
countries as part of corporate social responsibility.
Perhaps there is a role for other sorts of providers to
align a corporate social responsibility agenda with the
delivery of CCA and DRR training.
A wide range of organisations have accreditation
systems for training that are recognised by individual
organisations or more widely. For example, the Projects
IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) is a globally
recognized process-based method for effective project
management. Another example is Advanced Trauma
Life Support (ATLS), which is a course on concisely
assessing and managing patients with multiple injuries.
Hemstock et al.
These qualifications are accredited by CILT UK and
provide a recognised standard for practitioners in the
humanitarian sector.
––Project Management in Development (PMD Pro).
This organisation issues a certificate qualification
for Project Managers working in the development
sector. It is accredited by Accrediting Professional
Managers Globally (APMG) International and is widely
recognised by the international non-governmental
organisation sector.
There are numerous accredited courses in subjects that
relate to DRR and CCA. These include the following:
Some accredited qualifications are recognised in
more than one country, but not all recognise related
professional status. The current authors are aware
of other groups interested in supporting a call for
developing accredited formal qualifications for capacity
development in DRR and CCA, including the Worldwide
Universities Network (2016).
––Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) and Associate
Emergency Manager (AEM). This is qualification
is administered by the International Association of
Emergency Managers. It also forms a recognition of
excellence which is earned by emergency managers
who demonstrate a strong understanding of the
emergency management field through knowledge,
experience, work history, training, education, and
contributions to their profession. More than 1,375
emergency management leaders currently hold these
credentials.
Although the current paper calls for a globally accredited
training system for DRR and CCA, the context for
developing a globally recognised training system varies
widely between and within different countries. This
requires discussions about complicated combinations
of aspects such as specific training required and the
content of that training. There is nonetheless a need for
countries to start by working together towards a regional
platform, where partnerships and networks are created
for education systems. This will also help facilitate
shared, rather than, replicated training resources.
––Certified Floodplain Management (CFM). This course
is offered by the Association of State Floodplain
Managers. This program to certify floodplain
managers is recognised in all states of the USA.
It would be of particular value to find where such regional
collaborations fit as part of developing a staged approach
from local, national, regional to global. It seems that the
need for professionally qualified emergency practitioners
can only really be recognised though considering a more
regional approach to fit for purpose training programmes.
For example, reviewing the learning of different
organisations and processes concerning development
of and launching of the Pacific Regional Federation of
Resilience Professionals who work in DRR and CCA has
illustrated mechanisms for accreditation, development
and/or the endorsement of formal qualifications in the
TVET sector at a regional level for both DRR and CCA
(Jacot Des Combes et al., In Press). The current authors
consider that this development will add credibility to
the professionalization of the emergency management
sector. This will demonstrate the value of DRR and CCA
formal accreditation through the mitigation of a range
of disaster impacts.
––Disaster Recovery Institute International (DRI)
provides an international qualification in business
continuity management. There are currently more
than 14,000 professionals registered as accredited
by the DRI and working in a range of settings.
––Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). This
institute has over 127,200 qualified fellows and
training members identified as accredited Chartered
Surveyors, working in countries around the world.
––The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport
(CILT). Their Humanitarian suite of qualifications
includes a series of certificate qualifications for
humanitarian logistics professionals or those in
operational positions in the humanitarian field.
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Hemstock et al.
Limitations
The current concept paper recognises how complicated
an accreditation process for DRR and CCA practitioners
can be. The need for globally accredited DRR and CCA
training and the complications of implementation have
also made it very complicated to develop a concept
paper on this topic. Relevant accreditation processes
aim to address a range of complex DRR and CCA
settings and scenarios, through the consideration of
diverse stakeholder groups and their interests. These
complications may help explain why the concept of
accredited qualifications for capacity development for
DRR and CCA remains mostly within the administrative
bounds of academic and local institutions, with a
focus on Master and PhD programs and postgraduate
diplomas at some universities.
Wider systems for accreditation can be fraught from
a multitude of perspectives. The current group of
authors have tried to identify the current knowledge
of what is available. In doing so, it has become clear
that a more detailed review was well beyond the
scope of this concept paper. The current approach
has nonetheless been able to identify DRR and
CCA training systems where a wider system of
accreditation has been developed. A good example
may be the International Federation of Environmental
Health (IFEH) which has been providing a pathway
for environmental health DRR training recognition.
However, this approach still relies on endorsement
by the IFEH via a Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU) with Griffith University in Australia. Training is
delivered by a combination of partner universities and
environmental health professionals across the IFEH Asia
and Pacific Region. This approach therefore depends
on a single university and collaborating practitioners.
In order to maintain trust, partnerships are required
when addressing administrative procedures including
records, management review, course content, tutor and
candidate selection, training and performance review,
continuing professional development, and issuing
training certificates.
Conclusion
There has been a call for accredited formal qualifications
for capacity development identified in the three 2015
UN landmark agreements: the Sendai Framework, the
SDG's, and the COP21. However, no single solution
has yet been identified. The recent development and
launch of the Pacific Regional Federation of Resilience
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Volume 20, Number 1
Professionals who work in DRR and CCA may support
professionalisation of the DRR and CCA sector. The
progress of this regional federation will nonetheless
need to be monitored to determine if it could form
a model for a single global solution for accrediting
specialist DRR and CCA practitioners.
We consider that the Pacific Federation may provide
a solution for quality assured practitioners in DRR
and CCA. This federation may be able to provide
a sustainable approach, while supporting tailored
programmes that respond to the specific needs of
countries where those programmes are implemented.
The Pacific Federation will also provide a platform for
reviews of training modules and tools. These reviews
will be carried out by the scientific community in
an effort to ensure accuracy and reliability, for both
higher education in universities and in technical and
professional training offered by national providers.
Ideally, scientific reviews will be associated with
methods focused on local indigenous knowledge,
and cultural and linguistic considerations. Reviews
from the scientific community will help ensure that all
practitioners, who are not always trained in universities,
have access to the latest scientific developments in their
field. The validation of the training modules and tools
by the scientific community will become one aspect of
recognised quality assurance mechanisms on a global
basis and this could complement the recognition of local
requirements together with broader guidance on DRR
and CCA legal requirements.
These steps, together with other measures outlined
in the current paper, mark how more rapid progress in
support of the three landmark UN agreements can be
achieved through attention to accreditation standards
and processes for the professionalisation of DRR and
CCA practice. By leveraging global support for capacity
development, the scientific community and a range of
other stakeholders will help ensure that all countries
can produce, access, and effectively use scientific
information for DRR and CCA.
Acknowledgements
We would like to sincerely acknowledge contributions
from the following members of the EU PacTVET team
including: Sustainable Energy Advisor, Mr Nixon Kua,
Curriculum Advisor, Mr Viliame Sakiti (Fiji National
University), and the University of the South Pacific incountry coordinators, Mr Tapulolou Tuilemafua (Samoa),
Mr William Arudovo (Vanuatu), Ms Birtha Tonghai (Niue),
trauma.massey.ac.nz
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Volume 20, Number 1
Mr Tevita Fakaosi (Tonga), Ms Betty Sigrah (Federated
States of Micronesia), Ms Pelenise Alofa (Kiribati),
Mr Moses Asitarau (Solomons), Mr Dustin Langidrik
(Republic of the Marshal Islands), Ms Ashmita Devi
(Fiji), Mr Tyrone Dieye (Nauru), Ms Vaine Wichman
(Cook Islands), Mr John Walenenea (Interim ICC, Papua
New Guinea), Ms Carol Emaurois (Palau International
Coral Reef Centre, Palau), Ms Tessa Koppert (National
Directorate for Climate Change, Timor Leste), and Mrs
Taputukura Mariri (Coordinator, Cook Islands National
Council of Women).
We would also like to acknowledge other contributions
from the Educational Quality Assessment Programme
(SPC, Pacific Community), the Fiji Higher Education
Commission and individuals in the following countries.
––Cook Islands: Ms Ana Tiraa, Director, Climate
Change, Office of the Prime Minister; Ms Elizabeth
Wright–Koteka, Head of Ministry, Office of the Prime
Minister; Mr Isao Frank Jr., Micronesia Red Cross
Society.
––Federated States of Micronesia: Mr. Willy Kostka,
Executive Director, Micronesia Conservation Trust;
Ms Marion Henry and Mr Hubert Yamada, Secretary
and Assistant Secretary, Department of Resource
and Development; Mr Rupeni Mario, Team Leader,
Pacific Community North Pacific ACP Renewable
Energy and Energy Efficiency Project.
––Kiribati: Ms Saitofi Mika and Ms Bwakura MetuteraTimeon, Deputy Secretary and Secretary, Office
of te Beretitenti; Mr Ruatu Titaake, Acting Deputy
Secretary, Ministry of Education; Elliot Ali, Secretary
for Ministry of Public Works and Energy.
––Palau: Mr Fred Sengebau, Director, Bureau
of Agriculture, Ministry of Natural Resources,
Environment and Tourism; Mrs Carol Ngiraidis,
Chair, Palau Organic Growers Association; Ms
Priscilla Subris, Coordinator, National Emergency
Management Office; Mr Xavier Matsutaro, Coordinator,
Climate Change Office.
––Tuvalu: Mr Apinelu Vakalasi and Mrs Katalina Pasiale,
Secretary and Director, Ministry of Education; Mr
Mataio Tekinene, Director, Ministry of Environment;
Mr Kapuafe Lifuka and Mr Avafoa Irata, Acting
Director of Energy and Secretary, Ministry of Works
& Energy.
––Nauru: Ms Alamanda Lauti, Director, USP CampusNauru; Mr Elkoga Gadabu, Secretary, Department
Hemstock et al.
of Commerce, Industry and Environment; Mr Elkoga
Gadabu, Acting Secretary, Department of Commerce,
Industry and Environment.
We would like to acknowledge the comments and help
from Sarah Wade-Apicella and Sanjaya Bhatia, UNISDR
ONEA-GETI; Pedro Basabe, (UNISDR; Gary Reynolds,
Head of Training Product Development, Royal Institute
of Chartered Surveyors, London UK; and Christina J.
Pickering, University of Ottawa, research assistant with
the EnRiCH International Collaboration and intern at
Public Health England.
Glossary
ANDROID
ANSI
APMG
APRU-IRIDeS
ASQ
AUDEM
BSI
CC
CCA
CCOUC
CEN
CILT
COP21
CSR
DRR
DRM
GRIPS
EHEA
EHADI
EPFL
EU PacTVET
ICHARM
IEC
IFEH
IFRC
IISEE
ISO
JICA
MLIT
Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to
Optimise Educational Development
American National Standards Institute
Accrediting Professional Managers Globally
Association of Pacific Rim UniversitiesInternational Research Institute of Disaster
Science
American Society for Quality
Asian University Network of Environment and
Disaster Risk Management
British Standards Institution
Climate Change
Climate Change Adaptation
Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and
CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian
Response
European Committee for Standardization
The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport
The 2015 United Nations Climate Change
Conference
corporate social responsibility
Disaster Risk Reduction
Disaster Risk Management
(Japan National) Graduate Institute for Policy
Studies
European Higher Education Area
Environmental and Humanitarian and Disaster
Assistance Initiative
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
European Union Pacific Technical Vocational
Education and Training in Sustainable Energy and
Climate Change Adaptation Project
International Centre for Water Hazard Risk
Management
International Electrotechnical Commission
International Federation of Environmental Health
International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies
International Institute of Seismology and
Earthquake Engineering
International Organization for Standardization
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and
Tourism
27
trauma.massey.ac.nz
Hemstock et al.
MOU
MPH
MSc
NGOs
P-ACP
PDPs
Periperi U
PIR
PMD Pro
Memorandum of Understanding
Master of Public Health
Master of Science
Non-governmental Organisations
Pacific-African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries
Professional Development Programmes
Partners Enhancing Resilience for People
Exposed to Risks
Pacific Islands Region
Project Management in Development
RICS
Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors
SBI
SDG
Sendai
Framework
SPC
SRDP
Subsidiary Body for Implementation
Sustainable Development Goals
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
2015-2030
Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Strategy for Climate and Disaster Resilient
Development in the Pacific
STAG
Major Group on Science and Technology
UN
The United Nations
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization
UNISDR
The United Nations International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction
UNU
United Nations University
UNU-EHS
United Nations University Institute for Environment
and Human Security
USP-EU GCCA European Union Global Climate Change Alliance
Project
WADEM
World Association for Disaster and Emergency
Medicine
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United Nations (2016b). Report of the Conference of the
Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30
November to 13 December 2015. Addendum part two:
Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its twentyfirst session. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/meetings/
paris_nov_2015/meeting/8926/php/view/documents.php
Woods, J., Hemstock, S.L., & Bunyeat, J. (2006). Bio-energy
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Appendix 1 : Key Policies by Country
Country
Key Policy
Country
Key Policy
Cook Islands
Cook Islands Joint National Action Plan for
DRM & CCA
Independent
State of Samoa
National Policy of Combating Climate Change
2007
Fiji
Climate & Disaster Compatible Development
Policy 2013-2016
Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy 2008
National DRM Plan 1995
Samoa National Action Plan for DRM 20112016
Strategic Action Plan 2008
National Disaster Management Act 1998
Solomon
Islands
Fiji National CC Policy 2012
Draft Energy Policy
National Development Strategy 2011-2020
Federated
States of
Micronesia
Joint State Action Plan for CC & DRM
Republic of
Kiribati
Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for CC and
DRM 2014-2023
Republic of
Nauru
Nauru has not yet established a specific
environmental policy. A no regrets
approach has been adopted to adaption
accommodating climate and sea level change
considerations and implementation of the
National Environmental Action Plan and the
Rehabilitation Master Land Use Plan
Solomon Islands Climate Change Policy
(2012)
Draft National Policy
Niue
Niue’s Joint Action Plan for DRM & CCA
Republic of
Palau
Palau Climate Change Policy For Climate
and Disaster Resilient Low Emissions
Development 2015
Papua New
Guinea
The National Development Strategic Plan
(2011-2030)
Republic of the
Marshall Islands
RMI Joint Action Plan for CCA & DRM
Solomon Islands National Disaster Risk
Reduction Policy (2010)
Democratic
Republic of
Timor-Leste
National Strategic Development Plan (2011)
National Disaster Risk Management Policy/
Plan (PNJRD/NDRMP)
National Adaptation Programme of Action on
Climate Change (NAPA)
Kingdom of
Tonga
Tonga National Climate Change Policy and
Joint National Action Plan for CCA & DRM
2010-2015
A Resilient Tonga by 2035
Tuvalu
Tuvalu National Strategic Action Plan for CCA
& DRM 2012-2016
Republic of
Vanuatu
Vanuatu Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster
Management Plan 2006-2016 Republic of
Vanuatu National CCA Strategy (2012-2022)
Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction
Policy 2016 - 2030
Vision 2018 (2003-2018)
National Climate Change Policy Framework
2011
Ministry of Education Strategic Plan (20132016)
Appendix 2:Examples of Initiatives that Aim to Provide DRR/CCA Capacity
Development Training
This list is based on the experience of the authors and does not represent an exhaustive list of the available training.
Organisation
Initiative
Brief Description
Academic Network for
Disaster Resilience to
Optimise Educational
Development
(ANDROID)
Online Doctoral School &
Residential Doctoral School
EU Inter-disciplinary consortium focused on
several major capacity-building and baseline
knowledge acquisition on innovative interdisciplinary approaches to working, mapping of
DRR teaching and research programs, policy
capacities, emerging risk and open educational
resources.
Asian University
Network of Environment
and Disaster Risk
Management (AUDEM)
Platform for university partnership to reduce
disaster and climate change risks in Asia,
including a specific focus on CCA-DRR interface.
Focus includes building multi-disciplinary DRRCCA capacity through the higher education
sector.
Association of Pacific
Rim UniversitiesInternational Research
Institute of Disaster
Science (APRU-IRIDeS)
Multi-Hazards Program
Large collaboration of universities in Asia-Pacific
with main aim of building “safer and more
disaster resilient societies through education,
research, and partnerships” (Fernandez & Shaw,
2016, p.215-225)).
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Collaborating Centre for
Oxford University and
CUHK for Disaster and
Medical Humanitarian
Response (CCOUC)
Griffith University,
Australia
Disaster and Humanitarian
Specialised Public Health
Courses and Summer Short
Courses
Formal disaster and humanitarian technical
training for Master of Public Health (MPH)
students and field practitioners at the Chinese
University of Hong Kong.
Certificates for individual
courses for non-MPH
students, or Master’s
degree upon completion of
MPH degree requirements
Croucher Summer Course
Five-day residential summer course, aimed
at postgraduate students and early career.
Researchers in relevant fields from Hong Kong
and the wider region on Research Methodology
for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian
Response.
Non formal: Certificate of
completion
E-Learning Courses: Public
Health Principles in Disaster
and Medical Humanitarian
Response; Climate Change
and Health; Others in
development
Free online courses for individuals studying
and working in health, policy, education and
humanitarian sectors.
Non formal: Students
who obtain 60% or above
in the final assessment
will be issued a printable
certificate in recognition of
completing the course
Train the trainer workshops in
Mainland China and Asia
In collaboration with government, academia
and civil society stakeholders, the training
develops the capacity of international and
local practitioners on disaster preparedness
and resilience in urban, suburban and rural
communities.
Professional Development
Programmes (PDPs) for
Secondary School Teachers
Working with Hong Kong’s Education Bureau to
assist teachers to apply public health principles
to disaster management using case studies
and prepare for the teaching of Globalisation
and Public Health modules in the liberal studies
curriculum.
Non formal: Certificate of
attendance
Environment Humanitarian &
Disaster Initiative
Courses that will include DRR and Resilient
Cities approaches plus the existing CDC
Environmental Health Training in Emergency
Response to state and Local City Government
and other specialists. Currently looking to expand
to other countries.
Endorsed by the
International Federation
of Environmental Health
(IFEH) via an MOU.
Environmental Health Disaster
Management Course
International Federation
of Environmental Health
(IFEH)
Establishing SIGs on DDR
World Congresses and World
Academic Congresses on
Environmental Health
IFEH is endorsing the course
offered by Griffith University:
International Institute
of Seismology and
Earthquake Engineering
(IISEE). A UNESCO
centre of excellence.
Hemstock et al.
The IFEH covers and connect 43 national EH
organisations and 26 universities globally – and
thereby some 50,000 environmental health
professionals.
These initiatives will be used as a platform in
order to create awareness about Disaster Risk
Reduction, in order to build capacity and in order
to exchange and share knowledge on DDR
Environmental Health Disaster
Management Course which
includes Disaster Management
as well as Disaster Risk
Reduction.
Environmental health professionals and
university masters students are provided with
five days of intensive training with the skills
and knowledge required to ensure they can
adequately prepare for, respond to, recover from,
and mitigate the adverse environmental health
impacts of disasters.
Masters Program in
Seismology, Earthquake
Engineering and Tsunami
Disaster Mitigation (in
cooperation with National
Graduate Institute for Policy
Studies (GRIPS).
Training courses in English in seismology,
earthquake engineering and tsunami disaster
mitigation to researchers and engineers since
1960, in cooperation with the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Ministry
of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
(MLIT).
Earthquake Engineering for
Latin America in Spanish.
Global Seismological
Observation Course.
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Japan International
Cooperation Agency
(JICA)
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Knowledge Co-Creation
Program since 1955
New Zealand
Universities
More than 400 training and dialogue programs
annually cover wide range of subject areas, with
more than 20 courses on DRR including flood,
landslide, tsunami, earthquake, meteorology, and
comprehensive DRR.
Several New Zealand universities offer subdegree courses, graduate and post-graduate
degrees in DRR, DRM and Emergency
Management (e.g. Massey University, University
of Auckland, Auckland University of Technology,
University of Canterbury and Lincoln University).
Formal –Open2Study
Emergency Management
MOOC, Graduate
Certificate, Graduate
Diploma, Postgraduate
Diploma, Masters and
PhD. (Part of the PGDip
CC awarded by USP).
Accredited by Fiji Higher
Education Commission
and listed on the Pacific
Register of Qualifications
and Standards, Pacific
Community Education
Quality and Assessment
Programme.
Pacific Community /
University of the South
Pacific
European Union Pacific
Technical Vocational and
Education in SE and CCA
Project (EU PacTVET)
National Certificate Levels 1 to 4 in Resilience
–DRR & CCA.
Partners Enhancing
Resilience for People
Exposed to Risks
(Periperi U)
For example, RADAR’s short
course on Community Risk
Assessment is benchmarked
at NQL 6 and is credit-bearing.
University partnership in Africa with locally
relevant risk reduction short courses and formal,
accredited DRM/R/S academic programmes
available. They are designed to align with local
needs and capacities.
Secretariat of the Pacific
Community (SPC)
Global Climate Change
Alliance: Pacific Small Island
States
Government employee training on cost benefit
analysis, project planning, and disaster response.
Non-formal – Certificate of
participation
Geosciences Division
Training on post disaster recovery for National
Disaster Management Officers.
Non-formal – Certificate of
participation
Masters courses by
International Centre for Water
Hazard Risk Management
(ICHARM, Japan) on water
related hazard management
UNESCO affiliated universities and institutions
offer master and doctoral programmes and
certificate courses on general DRM and subject
specific courses such as water related and geohazards.
Master/Doctoral degree
and certificate
Joint Masters (M.Sc.)
Geography of Environmental
Risks and Human Security
with the University of Bonn
The two-year programme offers an in-depth
introduction to problem-oriented research
methods, theories and concepts in vulnerability
assessment, resilience analysis, risk
management and adaptation strategies, and
environmentally induced internal displacement
and transboundary migration.
Internationally accredited
M.Sc. Certificate from
UNU-EHS and the
University of Bonn
Doctoral Programme
Offered by the UNU-EHS in collaboration with
a wide range of international universities, PhD
students are usually integrated in ongoing
research projects at UNU-EHS and are free to
select a corresponding participating international
university.
Upon graduation, students
are awarded a doctoral
degree by their supporting
international university.
Affiliated Degree Programme
Several distinguished universities around
the world have incorporated United Nations
University (UNU) teaching and training
components into their master’s and doctoral
degree programmes.
Upon successful
completion of the UNU
component, students
will receive the relevant
degree from the affiliated
university.
United Nations
Educational,
Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)
National Observatory of Athens
(Greece) and Tribhuvan
University (Nepal) on DRR
focusing on earthquake
École Polytechnique Federale
de Lausanne (EPFL) offered
certificate of advanced studies
in DRR
United Nations University
(UNU)
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The University of
Manchester (UK):
Humanitarian and
Conflict Research
Institute (HCRI)
The University of the
South Pacific
World Association for
Disaster and Emergency
Medicine (WADEM)
Hemstock et al.
Non-degree courses such
as the Intensive Summer
Course: Advancing Disaster
Risk Reduction to Enhance
Sustainable Development in
a Changing World from the
Institute for Environment and
Human Security (UNU-EHS)
To increase awareness of academics and
practitioners working in related fields, regarding
the complexity and importance of vulnerability
and resilience in the field of DRR and CCA.
Non-formal - Certificate of
participation
E-learning
UNU-EHS conceptualizes and generates
eLearning materials in relation to the core
competencies of the institute.
Six postgraduate programmes
and postgraduate Certificates
Masters programmes: Humanitarianism and
Conflict Response; International Disaster
Management; Peace and Conflict Studies;
Disaster Management- Resilience, Response
and Relief (Online); Global Health (Online).
Online PG Certificates: Global Health PG
Diploma in Global Health
Upon graduation, students
are awarded an MA,
MSc or PG Certificates,
depending on the
programme.
Two undergraduate
programmes
Undergraduate programmes in: International
Disaster Management and Humanitarian
Response; Global Health.
Upon graduation, students
are awarded a BSc degree
Doctoral programme
Designed by the student on a topic of their choice
across disaster management, humanitarianism
and global health.
Upon graduation, students
are awarded a PhD degree
European Union Global
Climate Change Alliance
Project (USP-EU GCCA)
Elective course on DRM in the Post-Graduate
Diploma on climate change. MSc and PHD on
climate change with topics linking DRM and
climate change.
Non-formal – Certificate of
participation
Post Graduate Diploma in Climate Change
PGDip CC awarded by
USP
Master of Science in Climate Change
MSc CC awarded by USP
PhD in Climate Change
PhD CC awarded by USP
Facilitation of academic and research-based
education and training.
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