The Drug Dealers

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First found May 22, 2018

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Analisa Stephens
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NSAID for pain and inflammation reduction
◦ Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
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Localized Pain Patch
◦ Alternative to oral dosage and injections
◦ Reservoir Type
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Ibuprofen
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Topical pain and anti-inflammatory patch
◦ Marketable to arthritis sufferers and people with
injuries
◦ Those who would otherwise take an oral dose
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Drug Delivery
◦ Drugs will reach area faster
◦ Drug will not have to circulate through body
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Transdermal Patch
◦ Combination device
◦ Directly on the skin for drug to diffuse
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Alternative to other drug therapies.
Several types of patches
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Overcomes the natural barriers in the skin
◦ Use of an enhancer to disrupt the epidermis
◦ Variations in the skin make this difficult
◦ Drug formulation must be conducive to transport i.e. low
molecular weight
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Advantages
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Application is easy and painless
Medication release is rapid and highly controlled
Do not pass though the whole body
Do not use needles
Easy administration lends to high compliance
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Disadvantages
◦ Adhesives can cause irritations
◦ Irritation in the skin can interfere with drug
diffusion
◦ Large molecules cannot pass through the skin
◦ Limits on dosing size
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Two categories
◦ Passive Transport
◦ Active Transport
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Types
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Single layer drug-in-adhesive
Multi layer drug-in-adhesive
Monolithic patch
Vapor patch
Reservoir patch
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Our Patch
◦ Type: Reservoir
◦ Drug depot: Ibuprofen,
enhancers, and gelling component
◦ Adhesive/Membrane: Porous rate control
◦ Backing: Occlusive dressing
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Benefit: Tight control of drug release
Drawback: Higher doses of the residual drug
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Liner
◦ Durable; no interference with mechanism of use
◦ 3M - Scotch Pak
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Backing Layer
◦ High oxygen transmission rate
◦ Polyethylene
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Membrane Layer
◦ Chemically inert
◦ Ethylene vinyl acetate
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Adhesive Layer
◦ Hypoallergenic
◦ Polyisobutylene
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FDA
◦ Drug approval
 Develop in vitro (In lab) and in vivo (animal testing)
 Clinical trials
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Environmental Consideration
◦ Contract chemical disposal company
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Safety Issues
◦ Clear instructions for use
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Many advantages to pills or injections
Reservoir patch allows better regulation of drug
release
Chosen materials to optimize drug delivery and
minimize risk for use
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Ibuprofen
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NSAID and well know
Propionic acid derivative
Treats the symptoms of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis
400 mg of ibuprofen recommended for mild to moderate pain
every 4-6 hours
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Current Products
◦ Nurofen
 5% w/w ibuprofen
 Only In UK
◦ Salonpas
 Aspirin patch
 Marketed in US
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Gel
◦ 5% w/w ibuprofen
◦ 10% w/w menthol (terepene)
 Classified by the FDA as safe and effective adsorption promoter
◦ Palm olein esters
 Hydrate the skin
 Enhances transdermal delivery
◦ Triethanolamine, sodium benzoate and carbopol
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Better than Nurofen gel
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Comparison with marketed product
◦ Increase flux of drug
 1.1-1.6 times
 Ibuprofen can transfer faster than in nurofen gel
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Increased Dose
◦ Increase the amount of drug in the gel
 Increase wt. % of ibuprofen
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An Ibuprofen gel can achieve therapeutic dosing using
a transdermal delivery system
◦ Terepenes and palm olein esters
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Increased solubility
Increased percentage permeated
Increased adsorption
Higher flux of drug
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Doyen Medipharm
◦ Produces patch production systems
 Backing, gel, membrane, adhesive and
protective seal
◦ Packages patches individually as well as
combines them into cartons for sale
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$1.5 - $3 million per system
◦ 250 patches per minute, 50 million patches per year
◦ Estimated costs for tanks
◦ $1.2 million in clean room costs
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Net Present Value
◦ $269 million in 20 years
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Internal Rate of Return
◦ 46.8%
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Estimated $1.5 per patch
◦ Comparable to Salonpas patch
◦ Did not include the cost of the patch materials
◦ Does not represent the R&D FDA medical trials costs
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Viable option for pain sufferers
The drug can be promoted through the skin
◦ Increased flux, adsorption, and solubility over marketed
product
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Acceptable return on investment
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