Chapter 29: The Great War, 1914-1918
29.1 Marching Toward War—In Europe, military buildup, nationalistic feelings, and rival alliances set the state for a
A. Rising Tensions in Europe
1. The Rise of Nationalism
a. Europe enjoys peace in late
Imperialism and Militarism
a. Competition for colonies
1. Bismarck Forges Early Pacts
a. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck
Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace
a. Kaiser Wilhelm II becomes
ii. effort to
C. Crisis in the Balkans
1. A Restless Region
a. Many groups in
A Shot Rings Throughout Europe
a. Serbian rebel kills Austro-Hungarian
29.2 Europe Plunges into War—One European nation after another is drawn into a large and industrialized war that
results in many casualties.
The Great War Begins
1. Armies on the March
a. Russia moves troops
Nations Take Sides
a. By mid-August
i. Central Powersii. Allies-
A Bloody Stalemate
1. The Conflict Grinds Along
a. Western Frontb. Schlieffen Planc.
War in the Trenches
a. Conflict descents into
The Battle on the Eastern Front
1. Early Fighting
a. Eastern Frontb.
a. Russia’s war effort
Read the primary source below and answer the questions.
By William Pressey
During WWI, the Germans introduced the use of poison gasses—chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas—in warfare.
William Pressey, a British bombardier was gassed by the Germans at Messines Ridge on June 7, 1917.
We had been shooting most of the night and the Germans had been hitting back with shrapnel, high explosive
and gas shells. With the terrific noise and blinding flashes of gunfire, if a lull occurred for only a few minutes and you
were leaning against something, you had just to close your eyes and you were asleep. Nearing daylight we were told
to rest. We dived into the dugout; I pulled off my tunic [a type of military jacket] and boots and was asleep in no time at
I was awakened by a terrific crash. The roof came down on my chest and legs and I couldn’t move anything
but my head. I thought, “So this is it, then.” I found I could hardly breathe. Then I heard voices. Others fellows with gas
helmets on, looking very frightening in the half-light were lifting timber off me and one was forcing a gas helmet on me.
Even when you were all right, to wear a gas helmet was uncomfortable, your nose pinched, sucking air through a
canister of chemicals. As I was already choking I remember fighting against having this helmet on.
The next thing I knew [I] was being carried on a stretcher past our officers and some distance from the guns. I
heard someone ask, “Who’s that? Bombardier Pressey, sir.” “Bloody hell.” I was put into an ambulance and taken to the
base, where we were placed on the stretchers side by side on the floor of a marquee [a large tent with open sides],
with about twelve inches between. I suppose I resembled a kind of fish with my mouth open gasping for air. It seemed
as if my lungs were gradually shutting up and my heart pounding away in my ears like the beat of a drum. On looking
at the chap next to me I felt sick, for green stuff was oozing from the side of his mouth.
To get air into my lungs was real agony and the less I got then the less the pain. I dozed off for short periods but
seemed to wake in a sort of panic. To ease the pain in my chest I may subconsciously have stopped breathing, until the
pounding of my heart woke me up. I was always surprised when I found myself awake; for I felt sure I would die in my
sleep. So little was known about the treatment for various gasses, that I never had treatment for phosgene, the type I
was supposed to have had. And I’m sure that the gas some of the other poor fellows had swallowed was worse than
phosgene. Now and the orderlies would carry out a stretcher.
1. Which side is Bombardier Pressey fighting for?
2. What were the types of poisonous gas used in WWI?
3. What were the effects of phosgene gas?
4. What did it mean when an orderly carried out a stretcher?
29.3 A Global Conflict—WWI spreads to several continents and requires the full resources of many governments.
A. War Affects the World
1. The Gallipoli Campaign
a. Allies move to capture
Battles in Africa and Asia
a. Some colonial people help
America Joins the Fight
a. Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to
War Affects the Home Front
Governments Wage Total War
a. World War I becomes a total warb.
Women and the War
a. At home, thousands of
C. The Allies Win the War
a. Civil unrest in Russia
The Central Powers Collapse
a. With Russia gone, Germany moves
D. The Legacy of the War
A High Price
a. War takes a heavy toll:
e. Total cost- $
There 5 propaganda techniques generally used in advertisements.
Bandwagon: persuading people to do something by letting them know others are doing it.
Testimonial: using the words of a famous person to persuade you.
Transfer: using the names or pictures of famous people, but not direct quotations.
Repetition: the product name is repeated at least four times.
Emotional words: words that will make you feel strongly about someone or something.
Choose one of the techniques to create a propaganda poster for WWI.
29.4 A Flawed Peace—After winning the war, the Allies dictate a harsh peace settlement that leaves many nations
A. The Allies Meet and Debate
1. Key Leaders Come Together
a. Group of leaders known as
2. Wilson’s Plan for Peace
a. Wilson proposes Fourteen Pointsb.
c. Promotes self-determinationd.
3. The Versailles Treaty
a. Britain, France oppose Wilson’s ideas;
iii. Article 231- “War guilt clause”
A Troubled Treaty
1. The Creation of New Nations
a. Versailles Treaty, other peace
2. “A Peace Built on Quicksand”
a. Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides
i. many Americans
Timeline of WWI
June 28, 1914July 23, 1914July 28, 1914August 1, 1914Mid-August 1914September 5, 1914December 1914February 1915-
May 7, 1915December 1915February 1916July 1916November 1916August 191619161917January 1917February 1917March 1917April 2, 1917November 1917January 1918March 1918May 1918July 1918November 9, 1918November 11, 1918January 18, 1919June 28, 1919-
Mock Paris Peace Conference (29.4)
What was the purpose of the Paris Peace Conference?
When did the Paris Peace Conference begin?
Who were the Big Four?
Why was Russia not present?
When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
What were the major points of the treaty?
In what ways was the Treaty of Versailles “a peace built on quicksand”?
Why did the United States reject the Treaty of Versailles?
Label the map of Europe on the next page. Use the map in your textbook on page 846.
Countries (label in black)
Bodies of Water (blue)
Eastern Front (shade green)
Western Front (shade purple)
Allied countries (shade red)
Central Powers (shade yellow)
Central power victory (black star)
Allied victory (blue star)
Neutral countries (shade brown)
Armistice line, Nov. 1918 (orange)
The Great War: Explosion & Stalemate
When did WWI end?
Approximately how many were killed in WWI?
___________________________________ was the ruler of Germany during WWI.
How did Wilhelm’s childhood affect his ability to rule his people?
Who was Wilhelm's grandmother?
Who were the 5 great European Powers before WWI?
Why did Wilhelm force Bismarck's resignation?
Why did men think women should not be allowed to vote?
Who were suffragettes?
10. Describe Czar Nicholas II of Russia. Did he want to be czar?
11. Alexis suffered from what ailment?
12. How did Rasputin get involved with the Romanovs?
13. Gavrilo Princip, member of the Black Hand, assassinated the heir to the Austrian throne, _____________________.
14. On July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on _______________________________.
WWI Study Guide
SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long term causes of World War I and its global impact.
a. Identify the causes of the war, including Balkan nationalism, entangling alliances, and militarism.
b. Describe the conditions on the war front for soldiers, including the Battle of Verdun.
c. Explain the major decisions made in the Versailles Treaty, including German reparations and the mandate system that replaced Ottoman control.
d. Analyze the destabilization of Europe in the collapse of the great empires, including the Romanov and Hapsburg dynasties.
Reasons for pre-war tension in Europe
Otto von Bismarck
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Annexation of Bosnia/Herzegovina
Black Hand/Gavrilo Princip
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Declaration of war
Declarations of war
First Battle of the Marne
Battle of Verdun
Battle of Somme
Why does Russia struggle?
Colonies unrestricted submarine warfare
US declaration of war
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations