File - Ms. Vanek`s English/Language Arts Weebly Website

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ESSENTAL GRAMMAR
The Parts of Speech
1. noun – words that names a person, place, thing, or idea (Mr. Edwards, The Mighty Ducks, freedom,
Atlantis, roses)
proper – a particular person, place, thing, or idea (so always capitalized) (Donald Duck, USA)
common – a general person, place, thing, or idea (not capitalized) (sand, time, people, city)
singular – one person, place, thing, or idea (principal, comb, Cincinnati, inch)
plural – more than one person, place, thing, or idea (dreams, tater tots, 2012 Olympic Games)
2. pronoun – a word that takes the place of a noun or another pronoun (Ms. Battlaxe is really very kind.
She helped us with grammar.)
antecedent – the noun or pronoun to which the pronoun refers. (Mr. Huffnagle used to teach
math. He was a good teacher.)
subject pronouns
singular
plural
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
I
you
he, she, it
we
you
they
object pronouns
singular
plural
me
you
him, her, it
us
you
them
3. adjective – a word that modifies a noun or pronoun (Sim City is an exciting video game.)
articles – the words a, an, and the are always adjectives
4. verb – a word that expresses action or equality
action verbs – verbs that express an action (I hugged my brother.)
helping verbs – verbs that help complete the verb ( I will learn to play the tuba.)
linking verbs – verbs that express an equality (Some students are grammarphobic.) We use these
when we want to name or describe the subject of the sentence.
5. adverb – a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb (By sixth period, I am very hungry. She
sang so clearly. Experiments with dynamite must be done carefully.)
6. conjunction – a word that connects words or groups of words (I’ll have green eggs but no ham.)
7. preposition - a word that relates a noun (or pronoun) to some other word(s) in a sentence (The
mariner sailed around the world.) The most common pronouns include with, to, from, at, in, of,
by, for, and on. Think of how a plane relates to a cloud: it goes under, through, around, in, to, etc.
8. interjection – a word or phrase used to show emotion that has no grammatical function in a sentence
(Aw, come on, Ms. Moody, let’s skip the grammar unit.)
The Parts of a Sentence
1. subject – the word or words that tell what the sentence is about (Yelling in the ears of the opponents
is poor sportsmanship. Jacob loved his new puppy.) The subject is who or what is doing
the action of the verb
2. predicate – the word(s) that say what the subject does or is (Antonio looked handsome in his tuxedo.
Atticus read the newspaper.)
Diagram of most basic sentence forms based on type of verb:
VERB
ACTION
LINKING
DIRECT OBJECT
SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
INDIRECT OBJECT
Phrases
1. phrase – a group of related words that does not have a subject and a predicate
2. prepositional phrase – a phrase that begins with a preposition, ends with the object of a preposition,
and includes all the modifiers in between (Behind those double doors is a huge monster.)
3. appositive phrase – a phrase that explains or defines whatever it follows, and is separated from the
rest of the sentence by commas (Dr. Dolittle, a character created by Hugh Lofting, can
speak to animals in their own language.)
Clauses
1. clause - a group of words that has a subject and a verb (Flowers bloom.)
2. dependent clause – a group of words that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a complete idea
(Because you’re mine.)
3. independent clause – a group of words that has a subject and a verb and is a complete idea (Because you’re
mine, I walk the line.)
Sentence Structures
simple – one independent clause
compound – two or more independent clauses
complex – a sentence with and independent and dependent clause
compound-complex – a compound sentence with a dependent clause
Punctuating Sentence Structures
I,ccI - Independent clause, coordinating conjunction Independent clause (I ate kale chips, but she didn’t
eat them.)
I;I – Independent clause; Independent clause (I love kale chips; they are salty and crunchy)
D,I – Dependent clause, Independent clause (If you eat those kale chips, I will.)
ID – Independent clause Dependent clause (I will eat the kate chips if you will.)
Four Sentence Purposes
Declarative – make a statement (I am going to the dance.)
Interrogative – ask a question (Will you go to the dance with me?)
Imperative – express a command or request (Take out the trash before you go to the dance.)
Exclamatory – express strong emotion (Yuck, those are kale chips!)
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