SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Amlodipin Accord 5 mg tablets
Amlodipin Accord 10 mg tablets
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Amlodipin Accord 5 mg tablets
Each tablet contains amlodipine besilate equivalent to 5 mg amlodipine.
Amlodipin Accord 10 mg tablets
Each tablet contains amlodipine besilate equivalent to 10 mg amlodipine.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
5 mg: White, approximately 6.6 mm round, biconvex tablets
10 mg: White, approximately 8.5 mm round, biconvex tablets
Chronic stable angina pectoris
Vasospastic (Prinzmetal’s) angina
Posology and method of administration
For both hypertension and angina the usual initial dose is 5 mg once daily which may be increased to a
maximum dose of 10 mg depending on the individual patient's response.
In hypertensive patients, Amlodipine has been used in combination with a thiazide diuretic, alpha
blocker, beta blocker, or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. For angina, Amlodipine may be
used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal medicinal products in patients with
angina that is refractory to nitrates and/or to adequate doses of beta blockers.
No dose adjustment of Amlodipin Accord tablets is required upon concomitant administration of
thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Amlodipine used at similar doses in elderly or younger patients is equally well tolerated. Normal
dosage regimens are recommended in the elderly, but increase of the dosage should take place with
care (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).
Patients with hepatic impairment
Dosage recommendations have not been established in patients with mild to moderate hepatic
impairment; therefore dose selection should be cautious and should start at the lower end of the dosing
range (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine have not been studied in severe
hepatic impairment. Amlodipine should be initiated at the lowest dose and titrated slowly in patients
with severe hepatic impairment.
Patients with renal impairment
Changes in amlodipine plasma concentrations are not correlated with degree of renal impairment,
therefore the normal dosage is recommended. Amlodipine is not dialysable.
Children and adolescents with hypertension from 6 years to 17 years of age
The recommended antihypertensive oral dose in paediatric patients ages 6-17 years is 2.5 mg once
daily as a starting dose, up-titrated to 5 mg once daily if blood pressure goal is not achieved after 4
weeks. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in paediatric patients (see sections 5.1 and
Doses of amlodipine 2.5 mg are not possible with this medicinal product.
Children under 6 years old
No data are available.
Method of administration
Tablet for oral administration.
Amlodipine is contraindicated in patients with:
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1
Shock (including cardiogenic shock).
Obstruction of the outflow tract of the left ventricle (e.g., high grade aortic stenosis).
haemodynamically unstable heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.
Special warnings and precautions for use
The safety and efficacy of amlodipine in hypertensive crisis has not been established.
Patients with cardiac failure
Patients with heart failure should be treated with caution. In a long-term, placebo controlled study in
patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class III and IV) the reported incidence of pulmonary
oedema was higher in the amlodipine treated group than in the placebo group (see section 5.1).
Calcium channel blockers, including amlodipine, should be used with caution in patients with
congestive heart failure, as they may increase the risk of future cardiovascular events and mortality.
Patients with hepatic impairment
The halflife of amlodipine is prolonged and AUC values are higher in patients with impaired liver
function; dosage recommendations have not been established. Amlodipine should therefore be
initiated at the lower end of the dosing range and caution should be used, both on initial treatment and
when increasing the dose. Slow dose titration and careful monitoring may be required in patients with
severe hepatic impairment.
In the elderly increase of the dosage should take place with care (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).
Patients with renal impairment
Amlodipine may be used in such patients at normal doses. Changes in amlodipine plasma
concentrations are not correlated with degree of renal impairment. Amlodipine is not dialysable.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Effects of other medicinal products on amlodipine
CYP3A4 inhibitors: concomitant use of amlodipine with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors
(protease inhibitors, azole antifungals, macrolides like erythromycin or clarithromycin, verapamil or
diltiazem) may give rise to significant increase in amlodipine exposure resulting in an increased risk of
hypotension. The clinical translation of these PK variations may be more pronounced in the elderly.
Clinical monitoring and dose adjustment may thus be required.
There is no data available regarding the effect of CYP3A4 inducers on amlodipine. The concomitant
use of CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampicin, hypericum perforatum) may give a lower plasma
concentration of amlodipine. Amlodipine should be used with caution together with CYP3A4
Administration of amlodipine with grapefruit or grapefruit juice is not recommended as bioavailability
may be increased in some patients resulting in increased blood pressure lowering effects.
Dantrolene (infusion): In animals, lethal ventricular fibrillation and cardiovascular collapse are
observed in association with hyperkalemia after administration of verapamil and intravenous
dantrolene. Due to risk of hyperkalemia, it is recommended that the co-administration of calcium
channel blockers such as amlodipine be avoided in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia and
in the management of malignant hyperthermia.
Effects of amlodipine on other medicinal products
The blood pressure lowering effects of amlodipine adds to the blood pressure-lowering effects of other
medicinal products with antihypertensive properties.
There is a risk of increased tacrolimus blood levels when co-administered with amlodipine but the
pharmacokinetic mechanism of this interaction is not fully understood. In order to avoid toxicity of
tacrolimus, administration of amlodipine in a patient treated with tacrolimus requires monitoring of
tacrolimus blood levels and dose adjustment of tacrolimus when appropriate.
No drug interaction studies have been conducted with cyclosporine and amlodipine in healthy
volunteers or other populations with the exception of renal transplant patients, where variable trough
concentration increases (average 0% - 40%) of cyclosporine were observed. Consideration should be
given for monitoring cyclosporine levels in renal transplant patients on amlodipine, and cyclosporine
dose reductions should be made as necessary.
Simvastatin: Co-administration of multiple doses of 10 mg of amlodipine with 80 mg simvastatin
resulted in a 77% increase in exposure to simvastatin compared to simvastatin alone. Limit the dose of
simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily.
In clinical interaction studies, amlodipine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, digoxin
Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
The safety of amlodipine in human pregnancy has not been established.
In animal studies, reproductive toxicity was observed at high doses (see section 5.3).
Use in pregnancy is only recommended when there is no safer alternative and when the disease itself
carries greater risk for the mother and foetus.
It is not known whether amlodipine is excreted in breast milk.
A decision on whether to continue/discontinue breast-feeding or to continue/discontinue therapy with
amlodipine should be made taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the child and the
benefit of amlodipine therapy to the mother.
Reversible biochemical changes in the head of spermatozoa have been reported in some patients
treated by calcium channel blockers. Clinical data are insufficient regarding the potential effect of
amlodipine on fertility. In one rat study, adverse effects were found on male fertility (see section 5.3).
Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Amlodipine can have minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
If patients taking amlodipine suffer from dizziness, headache, fatigue or nausea the ability to react
may be impaired. Caution is recommended especially at the start of treatment.
Summary of the safety profile
The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment are somnolence, dizziness,
headache, palpitations, flushing, abdominal pain, nausea, ankle swelling, oedema and fatigue.
The following adverse reactions have been observed and reported during treatment with amlodipine
with the following frequencies: Very common: (1/10); Common: (1/100 to <1/10); Uncommon:
(1/1,000 to <1/100); Rare: (1/10,000 to <1/1,000); Very rare: (<1/10,000).
Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Very rare: leucocytopenia, thrombocytopenia
Immune system disorders
Very rare: Allergic reactions
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Very rare: hyperglycaemia
Uncommon: Insomnia, mood changes (including anxiety), depression
Nervous system disorders
Common: Somnolence, dizziness, headache (especially at the beginning of the treatment),
Uncommon: Tremor, dysgeusia, syncope, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia
Very rare: Hypertonia, peripheral neuropathy
Common: visual disturbance (including diplopia)
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Uncommon: arrhythmia (including bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation)
Very rare: Myocardial infarction
Very rare: Vasculitis
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Uncommon: cough, rhinitis
Common: abdominal pain, nausea dyspepsia, altered bowel habits (including diarrohea and
Uncommon: vomiting, dry mouth
Very rare: pancreatitis, gastritis, gingival hyperplasia
Very rare: hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic enzymes increased *,
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Uncommon: alopecia, purpura, skin discolouration, hyperhydrosis, pruritis, rash, exanthema
Very rare: angioedema, erythema multiforme, urticaria, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson
syndrome, Quincke oedema, photosensitivity
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Common: Ankle swelling, muscle cramps
Uncommon: myalgia, arthralgia, back pain
Renal and urinary disorders
Uncommon: micturition disorder, nocturia, increased urinary frequency
Reproductive system and breast disorders
Uncommon: impotence, gynecomastia
General disorders and administration site conditions
Very Common: Oedema
Common : fatigue, asthenia
Uncommon: Chest pain, pain, malaise
Uncommon: Weight increase, weight decrease
*mostly consistent with cholestasis
Exceptional cases of extrapyramidal syndrome have been reported.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It
allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare
professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system (To
be completed nationally).
In humans experience with intentional overdose is limited.
Available data suggest that gross overdosage could result in excessive peripheral vasodilatation and
possibly reflex tachycardia. Marked and probably prolonged systemic hypotension up to and including
shock with fatal outcome have been reported.
Clinically significant hypotension due to amlodipine overdosage calls for active cardiovascular
support including frequent monitoring of cardiac and respiratory function, elevation of extremities and
attention to circulating fluid volume and urine output.
A vasoconstrictor may be helpful in restoring vascular tone and blood pressure, provided that there is
no contraindication to its use. Intravenous calcium gluconate may be beneficial in reversing the effects
of calcium channel blockade.
Gastric lavage may be worthwhile in some cases. In healthy volunteers the use of charcoal up to 2
hours after administration of amlodipine 10 mg has been shown to reduce the absorption rate of
Since amlodipine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is not likely to be of benefit.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Calcium channel blockers, selective calcium channel blockers with mainly
vascular effects. ATC code: C08CA01.
Amlodipine is a calcium ion influx inhibitor of the dihydropyridine group (slow channel blocker or
calcium ion antagonist) and inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into cardiac and
vascular smooth muscle.
The mechanism of the antihypertensive action of amlodipine is due to a direct relaxant effect on
vascular smooth muscle. The precise mechanism by which amlodipine relieves angina has not been
fully determined but amlodipine reduces total ischaemic burden by the following two actions:
1) Amlodipine dilates peripheral arterioles and thus, reduces the total peripheral resistance (afterload)
against which the heart works. Since the heart rate remains stable, this unloading of the heart reduces
myocardial energy consumption and oxygen requirements.
2) The mechanism of action of amlodipine also probably involves dilatation of the main coronary
arteries and coronary arterioles, both in normal and ischaemic regions. This dilatation increases
myocardial oxygen delivery in patients with coronary artery spasm (Prinzmetal's or variant angina).
In patients with hypertension, once daily dosing provides clinically significant reductions of blood
pressure in both the supine and standing positions throughout the 24 hour interval. Due to the slow
onset of action, acute hypotension is not a feature of amlodipine administration.
In patients with angina, once daily administration of amlodipine increases total exercise time, time to
angina onset, and time to 1mm ST segment depression, and decreases both angina attack frequency
and glyceryl trinitrate tablet consumption.
Amlodipine has not been associated with any adverse metabolic effects or changes in plasma lipids
and is suitable for use in patients with asthma, diabetes, and gout.
Use in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)
The effectiveness of amlodipine in preventing clinical events in patients with coronary artery disease
(CAD) has been evaluated in an independent, multi-center, randomized, double- blind, placebocontrolled study of 1997 patients; Comparison of Amlodipine vs. Enalapril to Limit Occurrences of
Thrombosis (CAMELOT). Of these patients, 663 were treated with amlodipine 5-10 mg, 673 patients
were treated with enalapril 10-20 mg, and 655 patients were treated with placebo, in addition to
standard care of statins, beta-blockers, diuretics and aspirin, for 2 years. The key efficacy results are
presented in Table 1. The results indicate that amlodipine treatment was associated with fewer
hospitalizations for angina and revascularization procedures in patients with CAD.
Table 1. Incidence of significant clinical outcomes for CAMELOT
Cardiovascular event rates,
Stroke or TIA
Hospitalization for CHF
Abbreviations: CHF, congestive heart failure; CI, confidence interval; MI, myocardial infarction; TIA,
transient ischemic attack.
Use in Patients with Heart Failure
Haemodynamic studies and exercise based controlled clinical trials in NYHA Class II-IV heart failure
patients have shown that amlodipine does not lead to clinical deterioration as measured by exercise
tolerance, left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical symptomatology.
A placebo-controlled study (PRAISE) designed to evaluate patients in NYHA Class III-IV heart
failure receiving digoxin, diuretics and ACE inhibitors has shown that amlodipine does not lead to an
increased risk of mortality or combined mortality and morbidity with heart failure.
In a follow-up, long-term, placebo controlled study (PRAISE-2) of amlodipine in patients with NYHA
III and IV heart failure without clinical symptoms or objective findings suggestive of underlying
ischaemic disease, on stable doses of ACE inhibitors, digitalis, and diuretics, amlodipine had no effect
on total cardiovascular mortality. In this same population amlodipine was associated with increased
reports of pulmonary oedema.
Treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT)
A randomized double-blind morbidity-mortality study called the Antihypertensive and LipidLowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) was performed to compare newer drug
therapies: amlodipine 2.5-10 mg/d (calcium channel blocker) or lisinopril 10-40 mg/d (ACE-inhibitor)
as first-line therapies to that of the thiazide-diuretic, chlorthalidone 12.5-25 mg/d in mild to moderate
A total of 33,357 hypertensive patients aged 55 or older were randomized and followed for a mean of
4.9 years. The patients had at least one additional CHD risk factor, including: previous myocardial
infarction or stroke (> 6 months prior to enrollment) or documentation of other atherosclerotic CVD
(overall 51.5%), type 2 diabetes (36.1%), HDL-C < 35 mg/dL (11.6%), left ventricular hypertrophy
diagnosed by electrocardiogram or echocardiography (20.9%), current cigarette smoking (21.9%).
The primary endpoint was a composite of fatal CHD or non-fatal myocardial infarction. There was no
significant difference in the primary endpoint between amlodipine-based therapy and chlorthalidonebased therapy: RR 0.98 95% CI (0.90-1.07) p=0.65. Among secondary endpoints, the incidence of
heart failure (component of a composite combined cardiovascular endpoint) was significantly higher
in the amlodipine group as compared to the chlorthalidone group (10.2% vs. 7.7%, RR 1.38, 95% CI
[1.25-1.52] p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between
amlodipine-based therapy and chlorthalidone-based therapy. RR 0.96 95% CI [0.89-1.02] p=0.20.
Use in children (aged 6 years and older)
In a study involving 268 children aged 6-17 years with predominantly secondary hypertension,
comparison of a 2.5mg dose, and 5.0 mg dose of amlodipine with placebo, showed that both doses
reduced Systolic Blood Pressure significantly more than placebo. The difference between the two
doses was not statistically significant.
The long-term effects of amlodipine on growth, puberty and general development have not been
studied. The long-term efficacy of amlodipine on therapy in childhood to reduce cardiovascular
morbidity and mortality in adulthood have also not been established.
Absorption, distribution, plasma protein binding: After oral administration of therapeutic doses,
amlodipine is well absorbed with peak blood levels between 6-12 hours post dose. Absolute
bioavailability has been estimated to be between 64 and 80%. The volume of distribution is
approximately 21 l/kg. In vitro studies have shown that approximately 97.5% of circulating
amlodipine is bound to plasma proteins.
The bioavailability of amlodipine is not affected by food intake.
The terminal plasma elimination half life is about 35-50 hours and is consistent with once daily
dosing. Amlodipine is extensively metabolised by the liver to inactive metabolites with 10% of the
parent compound and 60% of metabolites excreted in the urine.
Very limited clinical data are available regarding amlodipine administration in patients with hepatic
impairment. Patients with hepatic insufficiency have decreased clearance of amlodipine resulting in a
longer half-life and an increase in AUC of approximately 40-60%.
The time to reach peak plasma concentrations of amlodipine is similar in elderly and younger subjects.
Amlodipine clearance tends to be decreased with resulting increases in AUC and elimination half-life
in elderly patients. Increases in AUC and elimination half -life in patients with congestive heart failure
were as expected for the patient age group studied.
A population PK study has been conducted in 74 hypertensive children aged from 1 to 17 years (with
34 patients aged 6 to 12 years and 28 patients aged 13 to 17 years) receiving amlodipine between 1.25
and 20 mg given either once or twice daily. In children 6 to 12 years and in adolescents 13-17 years of
age the typical oral clearance (CL/F) was 22.5 and 27.4 L/hr respectively in males and 16.4 and 21.3
L/hr respectively in females. Large variability in exposure between individuals was observed. Data
reported in children below 6 years is limited.
Preclinical safety data
Reproductive studies in rats and mice have shown delayed date of delivery, prolonged duration of
labour and decreased pup survival at dosages approximately 50 times greater than the maximum
recommended dosage for humans based on mg/kg.
Impairment of fertility
There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated with amlodipine (males for 64 days and females 14
days prior to mating) at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (8 times* the maximum recommended human dose
of 10 mg on a mg/m2 basis). In another rat study in which male rats were treated with amlodipine
besilate for 30 days at a dose comparable with the human dose based on mg/kg, decreased plasma
follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone were found as well as decreases in sperm density and in
the number of mature spermatids and Sertoli cells.
Rats and mice treated with amlodipine in the diet for two years, at concentrations calculated to provide
daily dosage levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. The
highest dose (for mice, similar to, and for rats twice* the maximum recommended clinical dose of 10
mg on a mg/m2 basis) was close to the maximum tolerated dose for mice but not for rats.
Mutagenicity studies revealed no drug related effects at either the gene or chromosome levels.
*Based on patient weight of 50 kg
List of excipients
Sodium starch glycolate
Disodium hydrogen citrate
Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Nature and contents of container
Blister packs of PVC/PVdC foil and aluminium foil.
5mg - 10, 14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 60, 90, 98, 100 tablets.
10mg - 10, 14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 60, 90, 98, 100 tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements for disposal.
MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
To be completed nationally
MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS
To be completed nationally
DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION
Date of first authorisation: 2008-10-10
Date of latest renewal: 2013-10-10
DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT