# 6 Newton`s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration

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```6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
An object accelerates
when a net force acts
on it.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Recall the definition of
acceleration:
The cause of acceleration is
force.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
When a hockey puck is at rest, the net force on it
(gravity and the support force) is balanced, so the puck
is in equilibrium.
Hit the puck (that is, apply an unbalanced force to it)
and the puck experiences a change in motion—it
accelerates.
Apply another force by striking the puck again, and the
puck’s motion changes again.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
Recall from the previous chapter that the combination of
forces acting on an object is the net force.
• Acceleration depends on the net force.
• To increase the acceleration of an object, you must
increase the net force acting on it.
• An object’s acceleration is directly proportional to the
net force acting on it:
acceleration ~ net force
(The symbol ~ stands for “is directly proportional to.”)
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
Kick a football and it neither remains at rest nor moves in a
straight line.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
What causes an object to accelerate?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
Unbalanced forces acting on an
object cause the object to accelerate.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration
Push on an empty shopping cart. Then push equally hard
on a heavily loaded shopping cart.
The loaded shopping cart will accelerate much less than the
empty cart.
Acceleration depends on the mass being pushed.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration
The same force applied to twice as much mass results in
only half the acceleration.
The acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass.
Inversely means that the two values change in opposite
directions. As the denominator increases, the whole quantity
decreases by the same factor.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration
The acceleration produced depends on the mass
that is pushed.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration
How does an increase in mass
affect acceleration?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration
For a constant force, an increase in
the mass will result in a decrease in
the acceleration.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s second law describes the relationship among an
object's mass, an object's acceleration, and the net force on
an object.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
By using consistent units, such as newtons (N) for
force, kilograms (kg) for mass, and meters per second
squared (m/s2) for acceleration, we get the exact
equation:
If a is acceleration, F is net force, and m is mass,
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
The acceleration is equal to the net
force divided by the mass.
• If the net force acting on an
object doubles, its acceleration
is doubled.
• If the mass is doubled, then
acceleration will be halved.
• If both the net force and the
mass are doubled, the
acceleration will be unchanged.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
think!
If a car can accelerate at 2 m/s2, what acceleration can it
attain if it is towing another car of equal mass?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
think!
If a car can accelerate at 2 m/s2, what acceleration can it
attain if it is towing another car of equal mass?
Answer: The same force on twice the mass produces half
the acceleration, or 1 m/s2.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
A car has a mass of 1000 kg. What is the acceleration
produced by a force of 2000 N?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
A car has a mass of 1000 kg. What is the acceleration
produced by a force of 2000 N?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
If the force is 4000 N, what is the acceleration?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
If the force is 4000 N, what is the acceleration?
Doubling the force on the same mass simply doubles the
acceleration.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
How much force, or thrust, must a 30,000-kg jet plane
develop to achieve an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
do the math!
How much force, or thrust, must a 30,000-kg jet plane
develop to achieve an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2?
Arrange Newton’s second law to read:
force = mass × acceleration
F = ma
= (30,000 kg)(1.5 m/s2)
= 45,000 kg•m/s2
= 45,000 N
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
What is the relationship among an
object’s mass, an object’s
acceleration, and the net force on
an object?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.3 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s second law states that the
acceleration produced by a net force
on an object is directly proportional to
the magnitude of the net force, is in
the same direction as the net force,
and is inversely proportional to the
mass of the object.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
Friction is a force and affects motion:
• Friction acts on materials that are in contact with each
other.
• It always acts in a direction to oppose relative motion.
• When two solid objects come into contact, the friction
is mainly due to irregularities in the two surfaces.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
Rubber against concrete produces more friction than steel
against steel, so concrete road dividers have replaced steel
rails.
The friction produced by a tire rubbing against the concrete
is more effective in slowing the car than the friction
produced by a steel car body sliding against a steel rail.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
a better design than a steel
out-of-control, sideswiping
car.
The concrete divider is
wider at the bottom to
ensure that the tire will
make contact with the
divider before the steel car
body does.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
Both liquids and gases are called fluids because they flow.
• Fluid friction occurs as an object pushes aside the
fluid it is moving through.
• The friction of liquids is appreciable, even at low
speeds.
• Air resistance is the friction acting on something
moving through air.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
When friction is present, an object may move with a
constant velocity even when an outside force is applied to it.
In such a case, the friction force just balances the applied
force. The net force is zero, so there is no acceleration.
A diagram showing all the forces acting on an object is
called a free-body diagram.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
The direction of the force of friction always opposes the
direction of motion.
a. Push the crate to the right and friction acts toward the left.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
The direction of the force of friction always opposes the
direction of motion.
a. Push the crate to the right and friction acts toward the left.
b. The sack falls downward and air friction acts upward.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
think!
Two forces act on a book resting on a table: its weight and
the support force from the table. Does a force of friction act
as well?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
think!
Two forces act on a book resting on a table: its weight and
the support force from the table. Does a force of friction act
as well?
Answer: No, not unless the book tends to slide or does slide
across the table. Friction forces occur only when an object
tends to slide or is sliding.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
What factors affect the force of
friction between surfaces?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.4 Friction
The force of friction between the
surfaces depends on the kinds of
material in contact and how much the
surfaces are pressed together.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
The amount of force per unit of area is called pressure.
When the force is perpendicular to the surface area,
P is the pressure and A is the area over which the force acts.
Pressure is measured in newtons per square meter, or
pascals (Pa). One newton per square meter is equal to one
pascal.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
The force of the book on the table is the same.
The upright book exerts the same force, but greater
pressure, against the supporting surface.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
You exert more pressure against the ground when you
stand on one foot than when you stand on both feet due to
the decreased area of contact.
The smaller the area supporting a given force, the greater
the pressure on that surface.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
The driving force per nail is not enough to puncture the skin.
CAUTION: Do not attempt this on your own!
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
think!
In attempting to do the bed-of-nails demonstration, would it
be wise to begin with a few nails and work upward to more
nails?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
think!
In attempting to do the bed-of-nails demonstration, would it
be wise to begin with a few nails and work upward to more
nails?
Answer: No, no, no! There would be one less physics
teacher if the demonstration were performed with fewer
nails. The resulting greater pressure would cause harm.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
How does the area of contact affect the
pressure a force exerts on an object?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.5 Applying Force-Pressure
For a constant force, an increase in
the area of contact will result in a
decrease in the pressure.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
Galileo showed that falling objects accelerate equally,
regardless of their masses.
• This is strictly true if air resistance is negligible, that is,
if the objects are in free fall.
• It is approximately true when air resistance is very
small compared with the mass of the falling object.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
In Galileo’s famous
demonstration, a 10-kg
cannonball and a 1-kg
stone strike the ground at
practically the same time.
This experiment
demolished the
Aristotelian idea that an
object that weighs ten
times as much as another
should fall ten times faster
than the lighter object.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
Recall that mass (a quantity of matter) and weight (the force
due to gravity) are proportional.
• A 10-kg cannonball experiences 10 times as much
gravitational force (weight) as a 1-kg stone.
• Newton’s second law tells us to consider the mass as
well.
• Ten times as much force acting on ten times as much
mass produces the same acceleration.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
F stands for the force (weight) acting on the cannonball, and
m stands for the correspondingly large mass of the
cannonball. The small F and m stand for the weight and
mass of the stone.
• The ratio of weight to mass is the same for these or
any objects.
• All freely falling objects undergo the same acceleration
at the same place on Earth.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
The ratio of weight (F) to
mass (m) is the same for
the 10-kg cannonball and
the 1-kg stone.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
The weight of a 1-kg stone is 10 N at Earth’s surface. Using
Newton’s second law, the acceleration of the stone is
The weight of a 10-kg cannonball is 100 N at Earth’s surface
and the acceleration of the cannonball is
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
Why do all freely falling objects fall with
the same acceleration?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.6 Free Fall Explained
All freely falling objects fall with the
same acceleration because the net
force on an object is only its weight,
and the ratio of weight to mass is the
same for all objects.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
A feather and a coin fall with equal accelerations in a
vacuum, but very unequally in the presence of air.
When falling in air, the coin falls quickly while the feather
flutters to the ground.
The force due to air resistance diminishes the net force
acting on the falling objects.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
Speed and Area
You experience the force due to air resistance when you
stick your hand out of the window of a moving car.
• If the car moves faster, the force on your hand
increases.
book out the window with the large side facing
forward, the air resistance force is much larger
than on your hand at the same speed.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
Air resistance force ~ speed × frontal area
The expression shows that the air resistance force is
directly proportional to the speed and frontal area of an
object.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
Terminal Speed
Terminal speed is the speed at which the acceleration
of a falling object is zero because friction balances the
weight.
Terminal velocity is terminal speed together with the
direction of motion.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
Sky divers reach terminal speed when air resistance equals
weight.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
A falling feather reaches its terminal speed quite quickly. Its
area is large relative to its very small weight so air
resistance has a large effect on the feather’s motion.
A coin has a relatively small area compared to its weight, so
the coin will have to fall faster to reach its terminal speed.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
The terminal speed for a sky diver varies from about 150 to
200 km/h, depending on the weight and orientation of the
body.
• A heavier person will attain a greater terminal speed
than a lighter person.
• Body orientation also makes a difference. More air is
encountered when the body is spread out and surface
area is increased.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
The flying squirrel increases its area by spreading out. This
increases air resistance and decreases the speed of its fall.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
Terminal speed can be controlled by variations in body
orientation.
• A heavy sky diver and a light sky diver can remain in
close proximity to each other if the heavy person
spreads out like a flying squirrel while the light person
• A parachute greatly increases air resistance, and cuts
the terminal speed down to 15 to 25 km/h, slow
enough for a safe landing.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
At low speeds, air resistance is often negligible, but at high
speeds, it can make quite a difference.
If you hold a baseball and tennis ball at arm’s length and
release them at the same time, you’ll see them strike the
floor at the same time. But if you drop them from the top of
a building, you’ll notice the heavier baseball strikes the
ground first.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
This stroboscopic photo
shows a golf ball and a foam
ball falling in air.
The heavier golf ball is more
effective in overcoming air
resistance, so its acceleration
is greater.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
think!
Which experiences a greater air resistance force, a falling
piece of paper or a falling elephant?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
think!
Which experiences a greater air resistance force, a falling
piece of paper or a falling elephant?
Answer: The elephant! It has a greater frontal area and falls
faster than a piece of paper—both of which mean the
elephant pushes more air molecules out of the way. The
effect of the air resistance force on each, however, is
another story!
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
think!
If a heavy person and a light person open their parachutes
together at the same altitude and each wears the same size
parachute, who will reach the ground first?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
think!
If a heavy person and a light person open their parachutes
together at the same altitude and each wears the same size
parachute, who will reach the ground first?
Answer: The heavy person will reach the ground first. Like a
feather, the light person reaches terminal speed sooner,
while the heavy person continues to accelerate until a
greater terminal speed is reached.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
What factors determine the air resistance
force on an object?
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
The air resistance force an object
experiences depends on the object’s
speed and area.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
1.
An object will accelerate when
a. SF = 0.
b. it is unbalanced.
c. it is pushed or pulled with a net force.
d. its mass increases.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
1.
An object will accelerate when
a. SF = 0.
b. it is unbalanced.
c. it is pushed or pulled with a net force.
d. its mass increases.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
2.
When a net force acts on an object, its acceleration depends on the
object’s
a. initial speed.
b. mass.
c. volume.
d. weight.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
2.
When a net force acts on an object, its acceleration depends on the
object’s
a. initial speed.
b. mass.
c. volume.
d. weight.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
3.
A cart is pushed and undergoes a certain acceleration. Consider how
the acceleration would compare if it were pushed with twice the net
force while its mass increased by four. Then its acceleration would be
a. one quarter.
b. half.
c. twice.
d. the same.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
3.
A cart is pushed and undergoes a certain acceleration. Consider how
the acceleration would compare if it were pushed with twice the net
force while its mass increased by four. Then its acceleration would be
a. one quarter.
b. half.
c. twice.
d. the same.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
4.
Friction is a force like any other force and affects motion. Friction
occurs in
a. solids sliding over one another.
b. fluids.
c. air.
d. all of these
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
4.
Friction is a force like any other force and affects motion. Friction
occurs in
a. solids sliding over one another.
b. fluids.
c. air.
d. all of these
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
5.
When you stand on one foot instead of two, the pressure you exert
on the ground is
a. half.
b. the same.
c. twice.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
5.
When you stand on one foot instead of two, the pressure you exert
on the ground is
a. half.
b. the same.
c. twice.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
6.
The reason a 20-kg rock falls no faster than a 10-kg rock in free fall is
that
a. air resistance is negligible.
b. the force of gravity on both is the same.
c. their speeds are the same.
d. the force/mass ratio is the same.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
6.
The reason a 20-kg rock falls no faster than a 10-kg rock in free fall is
that
a. air resistance is negligible.
b. the force of gravity on both is the same.
c. their speeds are the same.
d. the force/mass ratio is the same.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
7.
Kevin and Suzanne go sky diving. Kevin is heavier than Suzanne, but
both use the same size parachute. Kevin has a greater terminal
speed compared with Suzanne because
a. he has to fall faster for air resistance to match his weight.
b. gravity acts on him more.
c. he has greater air resistance.
d. he has weaker terminal velocity.
6 Newton’s Second Law of Motion–Force and Acceleration
Assessment Questions
7.
Kevin and Suzanne go sky diving. Kevin is heavier than Suzanne, but
both use the same size parachute. Kevin has a greater terminal
speed compared with Suzanne because
a. he has to fall faster for air resistance to match his weight.
b. gravity acts on him more.
c. he has greater air resistance.
d. he has weaker terminal velocity.