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(Chapter 1: Review) 1.31
TOPIC 3: TRIGONOMETRY II
PART A: FUNDAMENTAL TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
Memorize these in both “directions” (i.e., left-to-right and right-to-left).
Reciprocal Identities
1
sin x
1
sec x =
cos x
1
cot x =
tan x
1
csc x
1
cos x =
sec x
1
tan x =
cot x
csc x =
sin x =
WARNING 1: Remember that the reciprocal of sin x is csc x , not sec x .
TIP 1: We informally treat “0” and “undefined” as reciprocals when we are
dealing with basic trigonometric functions. Your algebra teacher will not
want to hear this, though!
Quotient Identities
tan x =
sin x
cos x
and
cot x =
cos x
sin x
Pythagorean Identities
sin 2 x + cos 2 x =
1
1 + cot x = csc 2 x
2
tan 2 x +
1
= sec 2 x
TIP 2: The second and third Pythagorean Identities can be obtained from the
first by dividing both of its sides by sin 2 x and cos 2 x , respectively.
TIP 3: The squares of csc x and sec x , which have “Up-U, Down-U”
graphs, are all alone on the right sides of the last two identities. They can
never be 0 in value. (Why is that? Look at the left sides.)
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.32
Cofunction Identities
If x is measured in radians, then:
sin x = cos x 2
cos x = sin x 2
We have analogous relationships for tangent and cotangent, and for
secant and cosecant; remember that they are sometimes undefined.
Think: Cofunctions of complementary angles are equal.
Even / Odd (or Negative Angle) Identities
Among the six basic trigonometric functions, only cosine (and its
reciprocal, secant) are even:
( )
sec ( x ) = sec x
cos x = cos x
However, the other four are odd:
( )
csc ( x ) = csc x
tan ( x ) = tan x
cot ( x ) = cot x
sin x = sin x
()
• If f is an even function, then the graph of y = f x is symmetric about the
y-axis.
()
• If f is an odd function, then the graph of y = f x is symmetric about the
origin.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.33
PART B: DOMAINS AND RANGES OF THE SIX BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS
f x
()
Domain
Range
sin x
( , )
1, 1
cos x
( , )
1, 1
tan x
csc x
sec x
cot x
Set-builder form:
x x + n n 2
Set-builder form:
(
)
{ x x n ( n )}
Set-builder form:
x x + n n 2
Set-builder form:
(
{ x x n ( n )}
)
( , )
( , 1 1, )
( , 1 1, )
( , )
• The unit circle approach explains the domain and range for sine and cosine, as
well as the range for tangent (since any real number can be a slope).
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.34
• Domain for tangent: The “X”s on the unit circle below correspond to an
undefined slope. Therefore, the corresponding real numbers (the corresponding
angle measures in radians) are excluded from the domain.
• Domain for tangent and secant: The “X”s on the unit circle above also correspond
sin to a cosine value of 0. By the Quotient Identity for tangent tan =
and the
cos 1 , we exclude the corresponding
Reciprocal Identity for secant sec =
cos radian measures from the domains of both functions.
• Domain for cotangent and cosecant: The “X”s on the unit circle below
correspond to a sine value of 0. By the Quotient Identity for cotangent
cos 1 cot = sin and the Reciprocal Identity for cosecant csc = sin , we
exclude the corresponding radian measures from the domains of both functions.
• Range for cosecant and secant: We turn “inside out” the range for both sine and
cosine, which is 1, 1 .
• Range for cotangent: This is explained by the fact that the range for tangent is
1 . cot is 0 in
, and the Reciprocal Identity for cotangent: cot =
tan value tan is undefined.
(
)
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.35
PART C: GRAPHS OF THE SIX BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
• The six basic trigonometric functions are periodic, so their graphs can be
decomposed into cycles that repeat like wallpaper patterns. The period for tangent
and cotangent is ; it is 2 for the others.
• A vertical asymptote (“VA”) is a vertical line that a graph approaches in an
“explosive” sense. (This idea will be made more precise in Section 2.4.) VAs on
the graph of a basic trigonometric function correspond to exclusions from the
domain. They are graphed as dashed lines.
• Remember that the domain of a function f corresponds to the x-coordinates
picked up by the graph of y = f x , and the range corresponds to the
()
y-coordinates.
• Remember that cosine and secant are the only even functions among the six, so
their graphs are symmetric about the y-axis. The other four are odd, so their
graphs are symmetric about the origin.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.36
• We use the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x (in black in the figures below) as
guide graphs to help us graph y = csc x and y = sec x .
Relationships between the graphs of y = csc x and y = sin x
(and between the graphs of y = sec x and y = cos x ):
•• The VAs on the graph of y = csc x are drawn through the
x-intercepts of the graph of y = sin x . This is because csc x is
undefined sin x = 0 .
•• The reciprocals of 1 and 1 are themselves, so csc x and sin x take
on each of those values simultaneously. This explains how their
graphs intersect.
•• Because sine and cosecant are reciprocal functions, we know that,
between the VAs in the graph of y = csc x , they share the same sign,
and one increases the other decreases.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.37
PART D: SOLVING TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
Example 1 (Solving a Trigonometric Equation)
( )
Solve: 2sin 4x = 3
§ Solution
( )
Isolate the sine expression.
( )
Substitution: Let = 4x .
2sin 4x = 3
3
sin 4x = 2
=
sin = 3
2
We will now solve this equation for .
3
=
, so
will be the reference angle for our solutions
3
2
3
3
for . Since is a negative sine value, we want “coreference angles”
2
in Quadrants III and IV.
of
3
Observe that sin
Our solutions for are:
=
4
5
+ 2 n, or =
+ 2 n
3
3
From this point on, it is a matter of algebra.
( n )
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.38
To find our solutions for x, replace with 4x , and solve for x.
4
+ 2 n,
or
3
1 4 2
x= +
n, or
4 3 4
4x =
x=
+ n,
3 2
5
+ 2 n
3
1 5 2
x= +
n
4 3 4
( n )
5 + n
12 2
( n )
4x =
or
Solution set: x x = + n, or
3 2
x=
x=
5 + n
12 2
(
n . §
PART E: ADVANCED TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
These identities may be derived according to the flowchart below.
for cosine
( n )
)
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.39
GROUP 1: SUM IDENTITIES
Memorize:
sin (u + v ) = sinu cosv + cosu sinv
Think: “Sum of the mixed-up products”
(Multiplication and addition are commutative, but start with the
sinu cosv term in anticipation of the Difference Identities.)
cos (u + v ) = cosu cosv sin u sinv
Think: “Cosines [product] – Sines [product]”
tan (u + v ) =
tan u + tan v
1 tan u tan v
Think: "
Sum
"
1 Product
GROUP 2: DIFFERENCE IDENTITIES
Memorize:
Simply take the Sum Identities above and change every sign in sight!
sin (u v ) = sin u cosv cosu sinv
(Make sure that the right side of your identity
for sin ( u + v ) started with the sinu cosv term!)
cos (u v ) = cos u cosv + sin u sinv
tan (u v ) =
tan u tanv
1 + tan u tan v
Obtaining the Difference Identities from the Sum Identities:
Replace v with (–v) and use the fact that sin and tan are odd, while cos is even.
For example,
sin (u v ) = sin [u + (v )]
= sin u cos (v ) + cos u sin (v )
= sin u cosv cosu sinv
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.40
GROUP 3a: DOUBLE-ANGLE (Think: Angle-Reducing, if u > 0) IDENTITIES
Memorize:
(Also be prepared to recognize and know these “right-to-left.”)
sin (2u) = 2 sinu cosu
Think: “Twice the product”
Reading “right-to-left,” we have:
2 sinu cos u = sin (2u)
(This is helpful when simplifying.)
cos (2u) = cos u sin u
2
2
Think: “Cosines – Sines” (again)
Reading “right-to-left,” we have:
cos u sin u = cos (2u)
2
2
Contrast this with the Pythagorean Identity:
cos2 u + sin2 u = 1
tan (2u) =
2 tan u
1 tan2 u
(Hard to memorize; we’ll show how to obtain it.)
Notice that these identities are “angle-reducing” (if u > 0) in that they allow you to go
from trigonometric functions of (2u) to trigonometric functions of simply u.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.41
Obtaining the Double-Angle Identities from the Sum Identities:
Take the Sum Identities, replace v with u, and simplify.
sin (2u) = sin ( u + u)
= sin u cos u + cosu sinu (From Sum Identity)
= sin u cos u + sin u cosu (Like terms!!)
= 2 sinu cosu
cos (2u) = cos (u + u)
= cosu cosu sin u sin u (From Sum Identity)
= cos2 u sin 2 u
tan (2u) = tan (u + u)
tan u + tan u
=
(From Sum Identity)
1 tan u tan u
2 tan u
=
1 tan2 u
This is a “last resort” if you forget the Double-Angle Identities, but you will need to
recall the Double-Angle Identities quickly!
One possible exception: Since the tan (2u) identity is harder to remember, you may prefer
to remember the Sum Identity for tan (u + v ) and then derive the tan (2u) identity this
way.
If you’re quick with algebra, you may prefer to go in reverse: memorize the
Double-Angle Identities, and then guess the Sum Identities.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.42
GROUP 3b: DOUBLE-ANGLE IDENTITIES FOR cos
Memorize These Three Versions of the Double-Angle Identity for cos (2u) :
Let’s begin with the version we’ve already seen:
Version 1:
cos (2u) = cos2 u sin 2 u
Also know these two, from “left-to-right,” and from “right-to-left”:
Version 2:
cos (2u) = 1 2 sin 2 u
Version 3:
cos (2u) = 2 cos2 u 1
Obtaining Versions 2 and 3 from Version 1
It’s tricky to remember Versions 2 and 3, but you can obtain them from Version 1 by
2
2
using the Pythagorean Identity sin u + cos u = 1 written in different ways.
2
2
To obtain Version 2, which contains sin u , we replace cos u with (1 sin2 u) .
( )
cos 2u = cos 2 u sin 2 u
=
(1 sin u )
2
(Version 1)
sin 2 u
from Pythagorean
Identity
= 1 sin 2 u sin 2 u
= 1 2 sin 2 u
( Version 2)
2
2
To obtain Version 3, which contains cos u , we replace sin u with (1 cos2 u) .
( )
cos 2u = cos 2 u sin 2 u
= cos 2 u (
)
(Version 1)
1 cos 2 u
from Pythagorean
Identity
= cos 2 u 1 + cos 2 u
= 2 cos 2 u 1
( Version 3)
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.43
GROUP 4: POWER-REDUCING IDENTITIES (“PRIs”)
(These are called the “Half-Angle Formulas” in some books.)
Memorize:
Then,
sin u =
1 cos (2u)
1 1
or
cos (2u)
2 2
2
cos2 u =
1 + cos (2u)
or
2
2
tan2 u =
sin 2 u 1 cos (2u)
=
cos2 u 1 + cos (2u)
1 1
+ cos (2u)
2 2
2
2
Actually, you just need to memorize one of the sin u or cos u identities and then
switch the visible sign to get the other. Think: “sin” is “bad” or “negative”; this is a
2
reminder that the minus sign belongs in the sin u formula.
Obtaining the Power-Reducing Identities from the Double-Angle Identities for cos (2u)
2
To obtain the identity for sin u , start with Version 2 of the cos (2u) identity:
cos (2u) = 1 2 sin 2 u
Now, solve for sin2 u.
2 sin2 u = 1 cos (2u)
sin2 u =
1 cos (2u)
2
2
To obtain the identity for cos u , start with Version 3 of the cos (2u) identity:
cos (2u) = 2 cos 2 u 1
Now, switch sides and solve for cos 2 u.
2
2 cos u 1 = cos (2u)
2 cos2 u = 1 + cos (2u)
cos2 u =
1 + cos (2u)
2
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.44
GROUP 5: HALF-ANGLE IDENTITIES
Instead of memorizing these outright, it may be easier to derive them from the Power-Reducing
Identities (PRIs). We use the substitution = 2u . (See Obtaining … below.)
The Identities:
1 cos
sin = ±
2
2
1 + cos
cos = ±
2
2
1 cos 1 cos
sin tan = ±
=
=
1 + cos
sin 1 + cos
2
lies in.
2
Here, the ± symbols indicate incomplete knowledge; unlike when we handle the Quadratic
Formula, we do not take both signs for any of the above formulas for a given . There are no ±
symbols in the last two tan formulas; there is no problem there of incomplete knowledge
2
regarding signs.
For a given , the choices among the ± signs depend on the Quadrant that
One way to remember the last two tan formulas: Keep either the numerator or the
2
denominator of the radicand of the first formula, place sin in the other part of the fraction, and
remove the radical sign and the ± symbol.
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.45
Obtaining the Half-Angle Identities from the Power-Reducing Identities (PRIs):
For the sin identity, we begin with the PRI:
2
sin 2 u =
( )
1 cos 2u
2
Let u =
, or = 2u .
2
1 cos
sin 2 =
2
2
1 cos
sin = ±
2
2
( by the Square Root Method )
Again, the choice among the ± signs depends on the Quadrant that
lies in.
2
The story is similar for the cos and the tan identities.
2
2
What about the last two formulas for tan ? The key trick is multiplication by
2
trigonometric conjugates. For example:
1 cos
tan = ±
1 + cos
2
=±
(1 cos ) (1 cos )
(1 + cos ) (1 cos )
(1 cos )
2
=±
=±
1 cos 2 (1 cos )
2
sin 2 1 cos =± sin =±
1 cos
sin 2
( because
a2 = a
)
(Chapter 1: Review) 1.46.
Now, 1 cos 0 for all real , and tan has the same
2
sign as sin (can you see why?), so …
=
1 cos
sin To get the third formula, use the numerator’s (instead of the
denominator’s) trigonometric conjugate, 1 + cos , when multiplying into
the numerator and the denominator of the radicand in the first few steps.
GROUP 6: PRODUCT-TO-SUM IDENTITIES
These can be verified from right-to-left using the Sum and Difference Identities.
The Identities:
(
) cos (u + v )
(
) + cos (u + v )
(
) + sin (u v )
(
) sin (u v )
1
cos u v
2
1
cosu cos v = cos u v
2
1
sin u cos v = sin u + v
2
1
cosu sin v = sin u + v
2
sin u sin v =
GROUP 7: SUM-TO-PRODUCT IDENTITIES
These can be verified from right-to-left using the Product-To-Sum Identities.
The Identities:
x+
sin x + sin y = 2sin 2
x
y
cos
2
y
x + y x y
sin x sin y = 2cos sin
2 2 x + y
x y
cos x + cos y = 2cos cos 2 2 x + y x y
cos x cos y = 2sin sin
2 2 

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