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Matakuliah
Tahun
: V0222 - Penjualan dan Pemasaran Hotel
: 2009 - 2010
Destination Marketing
Pertemuan 12
“Marketing should focus on market creation, not market sharing”
- Regis McKenna “To be wise, a man should read ten thousand books
and travel ten thousand miles.”
- Li Bai, Chinese poet, Tang Dynasty -
The Globalization of the Tourist Industry
• Travel is a global business with an expanding market
• The top ten destinations in the world accounted for less
than half the total tourism market in 2002
• Can you list three of the top ten destinations in the
world?
Benefits of Tourism
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Direct employment
Support industries and professions
Multiplier effect
Source of state and local taxes
Stimulates exports of place-made products
Management of Tourist Destination
• Destinations that fail to maintain the
necessary infrastructure or build
inappropriate infrastructure run significant
risks
• Violence, political instability, natural
catastrophe, adverse environmental factors,
and overcrowding can all diminish the
attractiveness of a destination
• What was the effect of 9/11 on US Tourism?
Sustainable Tourism
• Sustainable tourism is a concept of tourism management
that anticipates and prevents problems that occur when
carrying capacity is exceeded at the destination
• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
• Modified environments – Building eco-tourism subsets
that encourage wildlife
• Successful long-run tourism destinations require
cooperation between industry and community
Steps in Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)
• Inventory the social, political, physical, and economic
environment
• Project trends
• Set goals and objectives
• Examine alternatives to reach goals
• Select preferred alternatives
• Develop implementation strategy
• Implement
• Evaluate
Tourist Events
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Attract a desired market
Fit within the community’s culture
Should be replicable (annual/biannual)
Allow/encourage local resident participation
Attractions
• Natural
– Niagara Falls or The Scottish Highlands
• Man-made
– The Shopping Areas of Buckingham Palace, Hong Kong or
the Vatican
Stopover Tourism
• Many visitor destinations are in fact only stopover destinations for
travelers on their way elsewhere
Prestige
Selfdiscovery
Relaxation
Family
Bonding
Escape
Demand
Sexual
Opportunity
Education
Social
Interaction
Determinates
of
Demand
Identifying Target Markets
• Collect information about its current visitors
• Audit the destination’s events and attractions and
select segments that might logically have an interest
in them
Self-Contained Attraction
and Event Destinations
• Cruise ships, river paddle ships, special railroads such
as the Orient Express
– Dining, games, gambling, theatre, musicals, participatory murder
mysteries, seminars, dances, etc.
Classification of Visitor Segments
• Group or Independent traveler
• Degree of institutionalization and impact on the
destination
• Plog’s categorization
Group vs. Independent
• Most commonly used
– Group Inclusive Tour (GIT)
– Independent Traveler (IT)
Degree of Institutionalization and
Impact on Destination
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Organized mass tourists
Individual mass tourists
Explorers
Drifters
Visiting friends/relatives
Business travelers
Pleasure travel
• Business and pleasure
travelers
• Tag-along visitors
• Grief travel
• Education and religious
travel
• Pass-through tourists
Plog’s Categorization
• Allocentrics are persons with a need for new
experiences, such as backpackers and explorers
• Psychocentrics are persons who do not desire
change when they travel. They like non-threatening
places and to stay in familiar surroundings
Communicating with the Tourist Market
• Form an attractive image of destination
• Develop packages of attractions and amenities
– Attractions alone do not attract visitors
Organizing and Managing Tourism Marketing
National tourist organizations (NTOs) are central
tourist agencies that make a destination tourist friendly
– may be public, quasi-public, nonprofit, or private
– outside the United States, this agency is often run by the central
government, state, or province, together with local government
officials
Influencing Site Selection
• All tourism businesses and agencies must work
together to promote a destination and to ensure that
visitors’ expectations are met
– Fam trips, sales calls, travel missions, etc
Best Practices
• Destination marketing strategy as an aid to
recovery:
– U.S. destination marketing after 9/11
– Phuket, Thailand after the Tsunami
of 2004
Key Terms
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Allocentrics
Destinations
Infrastructure
Macrodestinations
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Multiplier effect
National tourist organizations
Psychocentrics
Tourism
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