# Magnetic Fields, Hall effect and Electromagnetic - Physlab

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```Magnetic Fields, Hall effect and Electromagnetic induction
(Electricity and Magnetism)
Umer Hassan, Wasif Zia and Sabieh Anwar
LUMS School of Science and Engineering
May 18, 2009
Why does a magnet rotate a current carrying loop placed close to it? Why does the secondary
winding of a transformer carry a current when it is not connected to a voltage source? How does a
bicycle dynamo work? How does the Mangla Power House generate electricity? Let’s find out the
answers to some of these questions with a simple experiment.
KEYWORDS
Faraday’s Law · Magnetic Field · Magnetic Flux · Induced EMF · Magnetic Dipole Moment · Hall
Sensor · Solenoid
APPROXIMATE PERFORMANCE TIME 4 hours
1
Conceptual Objectives
In this experiment, we will,
1. understand one of the fundamental laws of electromagnetism,
2. understand the meaning of magnetic fields, flux, solenoids, magnets and electromagnetic
induction,
3. appreciate the working of magnetic data storage, such as in hard disks, and
4. interpret the physical meaning of differentiation and integration.
2
Experimental Objectives
The experimental objective is to use a Hall sensor and to find the field and magnetization of a
magnet. We will also gain practical knowledge of,
1. magnetic field transducers,
2. hard disk operation and data storage,
3. visually and analytically determining the relationship between induced EMF and magnetic flux,
and
4. indirect measurement of the speed of a motor.
1
3
The Magnetic Field B and Flux Φ
The magnetic field exists when we have moving electric charges.
About 150 years ago, physicists found that, unlike the electric field, which is present even when the
charge is not moving, the magnetic field is produced only when the charge moves. This discovery
allowed physicists to learn interesting ideas about materials. In the twentieth century, scientists
determined the configuration of elementary particles in atoms and they realized that electrons
inside atoms also produce tiny magnetic fields. This field is found in all materials. The magnetic
field is mapped out by magnetic field lines.
Magnetic field lines are like stretched rubber bands, closely packed near the poles .This is why the
closer we get to the poles of a magnet, the higher the magnetic field. The number of magnetic field
lines passing through an area is known as magnetic flux φ.
Mathematically, we divide an area through which we want to find the flux into identical area elements
~ perpendicular and away from the surface as shown in the margin figure. A scalar product between
∆A
~ and ∆A
~ is,
the magnetic field vector B
∆A
φ = B~1 · ∆A~1 + B~2 · ∆A~2 . . . ,
∆A
B
∆A
Subsequently, we may also write
φ=
X
(1)
~i · ∆A
~i
B
(2)
i
4
Electromagnetic Induction
Extensive work was done on current carrying conductors in the nineteenth century, major ground
work was set by Faraday (1831) and following him Lenz (1834) [1]. Faraday discovered that a
changing magnetic field across a conductor generates electric field. When a charge moves around
a closed circuit this electric field does work on the charge. Like the electromotive force (EMF) of
a battery this induced EMF is capable of driving a current around the circuit.
V
EMF registered
in millivolts
N
North pole of bar magnet
approaching a single loop
S
Figure 1: Principle of electromagnetic induction.
Faraday’s law asserts that the EMF produced is directly proportional to the rate at which the magnetic field lines per unit area or magnetic flux ‘cuts’ the conducting loop. Lenz’s law is incorporated
into Faraday’s Law with a negative sign which shows that the EMF produced opposes the relative
motion between the conductor and magnet, it tries to resist the change in flux.
2
Mathematically both of these laws are expressed together as,
ε=−
dφ
,
dt
(3)
for a single loop of conductor, where ε is the electromotive force induced, φ is the magnetic flux.
dφ
dt is time rate of change of magnetic flux. The rate depends on the speed at which the magnet
moves relative to the conductor loop, as well as the strength of the field.
Electric power plants or more commonly; generators, are a physical manifestation of laws of induction. The principle is to change the magnetic flux over large stationary coils. The ‘change’ of flux
is brought about mechanically, either by falling water or by running a turbine. The changing flux
induces an EMF in the coils.
5
Q 1.
What are the units of ε and φ?
Q 2.
Rewrite Equation 3 for N number of loops. How does the EMF depend on N?
Solenoids
Shown in Figure 2 is a coil of wire wound around a core. Magnetically it behaves like a bar magnet,
producing a magnetic field when the current flows. It remains a magnet till the time current is
flowing through the conductor.
The mathematical expression for magnetic field generated inside an ideal solenoid is,
B = µ0 nI,
(4)
where µ0 is the permeability in free space, value; 1.26 × 10−6 H/m, n is the number of turns of
the conductor per unit length and I is the current through the conductor. The magnetic field B,
is measured in Tesla. In our experiment we will use a changing magnetic field near a solenoid to
N
S
Figure 2: Solenoid made from an enameled copper wire wound on a plastic pipe
induce an EMF in it. This is the the Faraday effect!
6
The Hall effect
Imagine a sea. There is a sea of electrons in a conductor. When we apply a potential this ‘sea’
flows from the higher to the lower potential. Further, if we place this conductor, in which current
is flowing in a magnetic field the moving charges tend to interact with the applied magnetic field
and also deflect. This deflection results in a potential difference across or perpendicular to the
conduction path, know as the Hall voltage.
3
Thickness (T)
(a)
Current flowing due
to applied EMF
width (w)
VH
Hall voltage registered across the
conductor when magnetic field is applied
(b)
Charges accumulating
on the surface
Direction of
electric field due to
accumulation of charges
Direction of
applied field
Figure 3: (a) Shows electrons flowing through the conductor. (b) Shows some charges accumulating
on the front and back surfaces generating Hall voltage across the width w .
Figure 3 illustrates how moving charges are deflected due to the applied magnetic field. The
magnitude of this force (FB ) is given by,
FB = Bqυ,
(5)
where q is the charge and υ is the velocity. The build-up of charges on one side generates an electric
field (E⊥ ) perpendicular to the current as shown in Figure 3. These charges continue to accumulate
till the time force (FE ) due to electric field,
FE = qE⊥ ,
(6)
is equal to the force due to the magnetic field (FB ). Mathematically this equilibrium means that,
FE = FB ,
(7)
Bqυ = qE⊥ .
(8)
VH = E⊥ w ,
(9)
or
The voltage developed due to E⊥ is,
where (VH ) is the Hall voltage and w is the width of the conductor. Combining Equation 8 and
Equation 9 we get,
VH = υw B.
(10)
We know that the average velocity of electrons in terms of current (I) is given by,
υ=
I
,
neA
(11)
where n is the volume density of electrons and A is the cross-sectional area, a product of width (w )
and thickness (T ).
Combining Equation 11 and Equation 10 we obtain the Hall voltage in terms of applied magnetic
field,
BI
.
(12)
VH =
neT
4
The Hall effect is important in the study of materials, for example it helps us to find the number of
conducting particles in a wire and their charge. In our experiment, this effect holds a central importance as we will use sensors developed using this principle to probe the magnetic fields generated
by magnets. Read heads in tape recorders and magnetic disk drives utilize this principle too.
Q 3. A strip of copper 150 µ m thick is placed inside a magnetic field B = 0.65 T perpendicular
to the plane of the strip, and a current I = 23 A is setup in the strip. What Hall potential difference
would appear across the width of the strip if there were 8.49 × 1028 electrons/m3 ?
6.1
Comparison between the solenoid and the Hall probe
The Hall probe and the solenoid are both transducers, they convert one form of energy to another.
Figure 4 shows that Hall probes generate a measurable potential which varies with the direction and
magnitude of the field and flux. This potential is then converted to magnetic field using a simple
relation provided by the manufacturer of the Hall chip.
On the other hand, a solenoid, directly measures the EMF. The value of EMF, of course depends
on the rate of change of flux being measured. However a major role is also played by the number
of turns of the solenoid.
Magnetic field
Area
Hall probe
Flux
Solenoid
Potential
drop
No. of turns
and area
Calibration
Rate of change
Magnetic
field B
EMF
Figure 4: A comparison between the operation of the solenoid and Hall probe.
7
Data Storage on a hard disk
Computers are digital. So, every letter of every language must be stored or processed in computers
in “digital form”; i.e. as a sequence of 0’s and 1’s. Computers use ASCII (American Standard
Code for Information Interchange). It is a 7 bit code for all English alphabets, Roman letters and
many other symbols. We will be using a similar scheme for a 5 bit code in our experiment. Consider
the following table, Table 1, which shows a possible binary conversion of English alphabets into bits.
5
Letter
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
Binary Code
00000
00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111
01000
Letter
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
Binary Code
01001
01010
01011
01100
01101
01110
01111
10000
10001
Letter
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
Binary code
10001
10010
10011
10100
10101
10110
10111
11000
Table 1: Binary Representation of English alphabets
8
8.1
The Experiment
Building a Hall probe
Hall probes are used to measure magnetic fields. The output voltage of a Hall sensor is proportional
to the magnetic field being measured. The measured voltage is then converted to magnetic field
using a calibration scheme provided by the manufacturer of the Hall sensing chip. This calibration
curve will be given to you in the lab.
Hall probe sensor is shown in Figure 5. Vcc is provided to the Hall sensor using the Universal Serial
Bus (USB) port. All USB ports have a 5 V regulated output, so we will be using USB port as power
supply to the Hall chip.
Vcc 1
GND 2
Vout
3
Figure 5: Hall Probe sensor
8.2
Magnetic Field of a Disk Magnet
Now let’s map the field of a disk magnet using the probe you just built. The lab has provided you
small disk magnets based on iron.
F Q 4. Following the scheme in Table 2 below to find the output voltage on the probe as you
move along the magnetic axis as shown in Figure 6. Make sure that the flat face of the probe is
perpendicular to the magnetic axis.
F Q 5.
Plot a graph between magnetic field strength Bmeasur ed and distance.
F Q 6. Using the above graph, write your observations regarding the change in magnetic field
with respect to distance.
6
Hall probe
Vary the position
of the Hall probe
along x
x
a
l
Disk magnet
Magnetic Axis
Figure 6: Schematic shows disk magnet field mapping using a Hall probe.
Distance (mm)
0
2
.
.
Output Volatge (volts)
Measured magnetic field Bmeasur ed (Gauss)
Table 2: Mapping the field of a disk magnet. For voltage to field conversion use the provided
calibration sheet.
8.3
Magnetization of a disk magnet
Magnetic materials are made up of atoms which have magnetic dipole moment µ
~ B . These randomly
aligned dipoles have a net magnetic dipole µ
~ if we sum over a volume V , mathematically,
X
µ
~=
µ
~B.
(13)
~ as
We can now define magnetization M
P
µ
~B
V
~ =
M
(14)
For a disk magnet the expression for the magnetic field strength as a function of distance is
µ
¶
µ0 M
x + l/2
x − l/2
p
p
B(x) =
,
(15)
−
2
(x + l/2)2 + a2
(x − l/2)2 + a2
where M is the magnetization of a disk magnet, x is the distance along the magnetic axis from the
disk magnet, l is the thickness of the disk magnet and a is the radius [4].
The term in brackets needs some mathematical detail in which we will not delve. However it is
important to tell that it is a geometrical term which is the result of an integral depending upon the
dimensions of the magnet and solved over the distance at which we are measuring the field.
For the sake of simplicity lets replace
µ
¶
µ0
x + l/2
x − l/2
p
−p
2
(x + l/2)2 + a2
(x − l/2)2 + a2
(16)
with the geometrical function f (x), obtaining
B(x) = Mf (x).
7
(17)
The goal is to find the magnetization of the disk magnet using Equation 17
F Q 7.
For this perform the following procedure.
1. Find the thickness of the disk magnet with vernier callipers.
2. Find the radius of the disk magnet.
3. Run Matlab, type,
>> magneticfield;
4. The programme prompts to enter radius, thickness and distance from the magnet at which
magnetic field was measured.
5. The Matlab code returns the value of f (x) that should be equal to
B(x)
M .
6. Using the values of Bmeasur ed and f (x), evaluate the value of M for each distance using
Equation 17.
F Q 8.
What is the mean value of the magnetization and the standard error of the mean.
F Q 9.
What are the units of M?
F Q 10. Curve fit f (x) and Bmeasur ed to a suitable fitting function using least square curve
fitting technique and evaluate the value of M.
9
Hard disk operation
Now we are going to simulate the operation of a hard disk. The experimental setup consists of a
AC motor which rotates a disk. There is also a switch and a regulator, to control the speed, as
shown in the schematic Figure 8. Magnets are placed over the disk at fixed positions.
There are two coils in an AC motor; a main winding and an auxiliary winding. The capacitor inside
the box is connected in series with the stator winding and in parallel with the rotor winding, there
is a difference in phase provided when a AC current passes through the capacitor, this difference in
phase allows a couple of force to act on the axel which makes it rotate.
Bushing
assembly
Soft Iron
core
Coil
Axle
Figure 7: Shows dismantled motor of a fan. Main and auxiliary windings are not visible as the are
taped together.
There are two possible ways of placing a magnet, i.e., either place its north or south facing upward.
When the north is upward we call it as 0 and when south is upward we call it as 1. As the disk
8
rotates the magnetic flux linking the solenoid with the Hall probe is changed with time. In order
to see the induced EMF and magnetic flux we use the solenoid and the Hall probe respectively in
different experiments.
Probe or solenoid
Probe
post
Magnets
Side view
Capacitor
Top view
Regulator Switch
Figure 8: Setup of the hard disk experiment.
Observing induced EMF and changing magnetic flux using a solenoid
EMF
9.1
Time
Figure 9: EMF induced in the solenoid as the magnet passes below the solenoid.
F Q 11.
Carry out the following procedure.
1. Make a solenoid approximately 8 cm in length. Note the number of turns. You have been
provided with enameled copper wire.
9
Magnetic Flux
Time
Figure 10: Changing magnetic flux as measured by the Hall probe.
2. Align the solenoid with the magnetic field of the magnets.
3. Turn ON the power supply, the motor starts and disk starts rotating.
4. Now run the “solenoid.vi” file.
5. Click on the Run button, the data starts acquiring.
6. Now, observe the waveform graphs.
7. Observe the EMF on the graph labeled as EMF.
8. Observe the magnetic flux on the graph labeled as Magnetic flux.
F Q 12. You will observe something similar to Figure 9. Explain the graphs you observed. Is
there a mathematical relation between the graphs you see? (HINT: Use the concepts of differentiation and integration.)
F Q 13. Now change the number of turns of solenoid and observe the induced EMF. Draw the
figures and note down your observations in your note books.
F Q 14.
9.2
What are your major conclusions?
Observing magnetic field using Hall Probe
Now instead of the solenoid we’ll use the Hall probe as a magnetic field transducer. The voltage
across the Hall chip is proportional to the magnetic flux. Depending on the front(flat) or the
back(round) surface or the direction of the field, voltage will either drop below or jump above
the voltage when there is no field present. Figure 10 shows the corresponding flux from a typical
experiment.
F Q 15.
Now carry out the following procedure to observe the behavior of the Hall Probe.
1. Place the Hall probe sensor close enough the magnets.
2. Turn ON the supply, the motor starts and disk starts rotating.
3. Now Run the “HallProbe.vi” file.
4. Click on the Run button, the data starts acquiring.
10
5. Now, observe the waveform graphs.
6. Observe the Hall voltage on the graph labeled as voltage.
F Q 16.
Note down your observations and inferences in your note books.
F Q 17. What’s the difference you observe when using the Hall probe sensor from the solenoid?
Write it down in your note book.
F Q 18.
EMF.
How can we find the EMF from your Hall voltage observations? Sketch the curve of
F Q 19.
Can you come up with a method to measure the speed of the motor? Describe.
Q 20.
of you)
9.3
Can you find the angular speed of the disk motor? (HINT: All the information is in front
Data Reading and Writing Operation
This section illustrates how the data is read from a hard disk.
F Q 21.
Carry out the following procedure.
1. Place the magnets on the disk in some orientation, at the indicated positions. Such that it
forms a letter. Your task is to identify what that letter is?
2. Align the Hall probe with the magnetic field of the magnets.
3. Turn ON the supply, the motor starts and disk starts rotating.
4. Now Run the “HallProbe.vi” file.
5. Click on the Run button, the data starts acquiring.
6. Now, observe the waveform graphs.
7. Observe the Hall voltage and the magnetic field.
8. Run Matlab and load letterRead.m file.
9. The stored letter is displayed.
10. Compare your result with the Table 1.
Q 22.
Change the orientation of the magnets and display a letter of your choice.
References
[1] Keith Gibbs, “Advanced physics, Second Eddition” (Cambridge, 1996)
[2] Robert Kingman, S. Clark Rowland, and Sabin Popescu, “An experimental observation of
Faraday’s law of induction”, Amer. J. Phys. 70, 595-98 (2002).
[3] R.C. Nicklin, “Faraday’s Law– Quantitative experiments”, Amer. J. Phys. 54, 422-28 (1986).
11
[4] Martin Connors, “Measurement and Analysis of the field of disk magnets”, Phys. Teach. 40,
308-11 (2002).
[5] Brad Hinaus and Mick Veum, “The Hard Drive: An Experiment for Faradays Law”, Phys.
Teach. 40, 339-41 (2002).
12
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