Air Traffic Control - Google Project Hosting

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First found May 22, 2018

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Air Traffic Control
Guy Mark Lifshitz
Sevan Hanssian
Flight Communications
• Ground Control
• Terminal Control
• En Route Centers
Flight Communications
• Radar Controllers
• Data Controller
Architecture
Stake Holders
• The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
• Large corporate contractor
• Air traffic controllers are the end users
Scale
•
•
•
•
•
Up to 210 consoles per en route center.
Each console contains an IBM RS/6000 CPU.
400 to 2,440 aircraft at a time.
16 to 40 radars
Each center has 60 to 90 control positions.
• 1 million lines of Ada code to implement.
Tasks
•
•
•
•
•
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•
•
•
Acquire radar reports
Input and retrieve flight plans
Handle conflict alerts and potential plane collisions
Provide recording capability for later playback
Convert reports for display on consoles
Broadcast reports to the consoles
Provide extensive monitoring & control info
Provide GUI facilities on the consoles
Allow for custom data displays on each console
Principal Requirements
• Ultra-High Availability
Target of 0.99999
5 minutes/year unavailability
• High Performance
Many planes, radars and consoles
Other Requirements
• Openness
Incorporate other software components
• Field subsets of the system
Handle budget reduction
• Modifiability
Handle changes to hardware and software
• Interoperability
Interface with various external systems
Physical View (1/9)
Physical View (2/9)
-“Host Computer System”
-Provides processing of both surveillance and flight plan data
-Each en route center has two host computers
Physical View (3/9)
-Air traffic controller's workstations
-Provide displays of aircraft position data
-Allow controllers to modify the flight data
Physical View (4/9)
-“Local Communication Network”
-Four parallel token ring networks
-One is a spare (Redundancy/load balancing.)
Physical View (5/9)
-Connect networks
-Able to substitute the spare ring if one fails
-Make other alternative routings
Physical View (6/9)
-Each Host is interfaced to the
LCN via dual LCN interface units
-Each one is a fault-tolerant
redundant pair
Physical View (7/9)
-Provides a backup display of aircraft position
-Used if the display data provided by the host is lost.
-”External System Interface“
- Interfaces radar data from the EDARC
Physical View (8/9)
-“Backup Communications Network”
- Ethernet network (TCP/IP protocols)
-Used for the EDARC interface
- Used as a backup network (to the LCN)
Physical View (9/9)
-Test new hardware and software
-Training without interfering with the ATC
-Test new hardware and software
-Training without interfering with the
ATC
Module Decomposition View (1/2)
ISSS Modules:
• Computer Software Configuration Items (CSCIs):
– correspond to work assignments
– form units of deliverable documentation & software
– contain small software elements grouped by a coherent
theme/rationale
Modifiability:
• semantic coherence for allocating responsibilities to each CSCI
• abstraction of common services
• anticipate expected changes, generalize module, maintain interface
stability
Module Decomposition View (2/2)
•
•
•
•
•
Display Management
Common System Services
Recording, Analysis and Playback
National Air space System Modification
IBM AIX operating system (as the underlying
OS)
Process View
Process View
Requirement:
• Avoid cold system restarts
• Immediate switchover to a standby
component was desired
Design Solution:
– In applications:
PAS/SAS scheme
– Across applications: Fault-tolerant hierarchy
Process View
• Functional groups
– Run independently on different processors
– Separate instances of the program
– Maintain their own state and message handling
• Operational Units
– One executing copy is primary called primary address
space (PAS)
• Updates the SASs when messages arrive
– Other copies are called standby address space (SAS)
Process View
• In the event of PAS failure:
– A SAS is promoted to the new PAS
– The new PAS connects with the clients of the
operational unit
– A new SAS is started to replace the failed PAS
– The new SAS announces itself to the new PAS
Process View
Client-Server View
Client-Server View
Within Applications (PAS/SAS):
– Client Operational Units send the server a service
request message
– Server replies with an acknowledgement message
Issues:
– Clients and servers designed to have consistent
interfaces
– ISSS used simple and defined message-passing
protocols for interaction
Code View (1/2)
• Applications decomposed into Ada packages
– Basic (type definitions)
– Complex (reused across applications)
• Packages allow for
– Abstraction
– Information hiding
• Processes are schedulable by OS
Code View (2/2)
• The ISSS is composed of several programs
• Ada programs are created from one or more
source files
• Ada programs may contain multiple tasks
Layered View (1/5)
Layered View (2/5)
OS Kernel
Layered View (3/5)
Added C
programs
OS Kernel
Layered View (4/5)
Message
Helpers
Added C
programs
OS Kernel
Layered View (5/5)
Applications
Message
Helpers
Added C
programs
OS Kernel
Fault-Tolerance View
Fault-Tolerance View
Each level asynchronously:
• detects errors in self, peers & lower level
– Heartbeat tactic
– ping/echo
• Handles exceptions from lower levels
• Diagnoses, recovers, reports and raises
exceptions
Fault-Tolerance View
Requirement:
• Avoid cold system restarts
• Immediate switchover to a standby component
was desired
Design Solution:
– In applications:
PAS/SAS scheme
– Across applications: Fault-tolerant hierarchy
Adaptation Data
• Uses the modifiability tactic of configuration
files called adaptation data
• User-or center-specific preferences
• Configuration changes
• Requirements changes
• Complicated mechanism to maintainers
• Increases the state space
Code Templates
• The primary and secondary copies are never
doing the same thing
• But they have the same source code
• Continuous loop that services incoming
events
• Makes it simple to add new applications
• Coders and maintainers do not need to know
about message-handling
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: High Availability
• How Achieved: Hardware redundancy,
software redundancy
• Tactic(s) Used: State resynchronization;
shadowing; active redundancy; removal from
service; limit exposure; ping/echo; heartbeat;
exception; spare
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: High Performance
• How Achieved: Distributed multiprocessors;
front-end schedulability analysis, and
network modeling
• Tactic(s) Used: Introduce concurrency
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: Openness
• How Achieved: Interface wrapping and
layering
• Tactic(s) Used: Abstract common services;
maintain interface stability
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: Modifiability
• How Achieved: Templates and adaptation data;
module responsbilities; specified interfaces
• Tactic(s) Used: Abstract common services;
semantic coherence; maintain interface stability;
anticipate expected changes; generalize the
module; component replacement; adherence to
defined procotols; configuration files
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: Ability to Field Subsets
• How Achieved: Appropriate separation of
concerns
• Tactic(s) Used: Abstract common services
How the ATC System Achieves Its
Quality Goals
• Goal: Interoperability
• How Achieved: Client-server division of
functionality and message-based
communications
• Tactic(s) Used: Adherence to defined
protocols; maintain interface stability

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