High School Social Studies Curriculum

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ANTHROPOLOGY
Content Outline
I.
Nature of Anthropology
A. Archaeology: The crossroads between the cultural and the physical
1. Material culture
2. Purpose and method
3. Related physical sciences
B. Ethnography
1. Purpose and method
2. Culture analysis: similarities and diversity
3. World-view
C. Scientific Approach
1. systematize objective quest for knowledge
2. research questions designed to test theories
3. relationship between descriptive, historical, and explanatory
paradigms
II.
The Cultural Perspective
A. Definitions of culture
B. Defining features of culture
1. cultural relativism
2. culture is adaptive, dynamic
3. learned, shared beliefs
C. Why study culture?
1. ethnic appreciation vs. ethnocentrism
2. simple vs. complex societies
3. learned from the past
D. Historical perspectives
1. origins of Cultural Anthropology
2. key figures in the field
3. ethnography
4. nature vs. nurture
5. conflicts and controversies
6. traits of a good ethnographer
a. patterns of omission
b. patterns of attention
c. patterns of detail
d. objectivity vs. subjectivity
e. patterns of accuracy
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E. Cultural analysis
1. location and culture
2. description of the environment
3. evidence of contact (diffusion, acculturation, assimilation)
4. language and communication
5. gender roles
6. marriage and the family
7. social control (egalitarian-stratified societies)
8. political control (leadership, legal/moral sanctions)
9. psychological perspectives (role of the individual)
10. status, role, rank
11. culture traits, complexes (activities)
12. level of technology, diagnostic artifacts
13. diet, health factors
14. economic systems
15. the arts
16. supernatural beliefs (animism, religion, magic)
17. world-view
F. Cultures to Investigate
1. Bushmen
2. Mbuti/Pygmy
3. Yanomamo
4. Baka
5. Sakuddei
6. Eskimo/Inuit
7. Mehinaku
8. Masai
9. Maya
10. Native American Indian groups
G. Cultural Reports
1. investigate
2. take notes
3. draw conclusion
4. compare/contrast
5. present information
H. Group Synthesis
1. similarities/differences within present day groups
2. world-view/personal beliefs of each member
3. abstract presentation of individual and group
III.
The Physical Perspective
A. Origins of life and man
1. creation myth
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2. examples of various creation myths
3. personal belief systems
B. Growth and development of evolutionary thought
1. 17th-19th century naturalists
a. Ray
b. Linnaeus
c. Buffon
d. Lamarck
e. Cuvier
f. Lyell
g. Wallace
h. Darwin
2. Darwin’s trip to the Gallapagos
a. biography of Darwin
b. discoveries on the Gallapagos
c. development of the theory of natural selection
d. compare/contrast Darwin and Lamarck
e. 19th-20th century examples of natural selection
3. Mendel’s contributions
4. “Ascent of Man”
a. applications to humans
b. relationship of humans to “lower” forms
c. conflict with world-view/religious beliefs in the 19th
century
d. Piltdown Discovery/Hoax
5. 20th century contributions
a. modern synthesis: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and
natural selection
b. punctuated equilibrium
c. mitochondrial and nuclear DNA
d. Big Bang Theory
e. plate tectonics
6. Evolution or Divine Creation continuum: Where do you stand?
a. view of Creation Science Research Center (literal
translation of genesis)
b. other creation myths
c. personal views
d. position statements with support
e. conclusions
C. Primate Evolution
1. primate pattern
2. monkeys/apes
3. physical and behavioral traits
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D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
4. famous primatologists
a. Jane Goodall
b. Dian Fosey
c. Susan Savage-Rumbaugh
Early Hominid Evolution
1. Plio-Pleistocene
2. Dating methods
a. absolute or chronometric (potassium-argon, fission track,
carbon 14)
b. relative (stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism)
3. hominid localities
a. Great Rift Valley (Hadar, Aramis, East Turkana, Koobi
Fora, Allia Bay, West Turkana, Kanapoi, Olduvai, Laetoli)
b. South Africa (Sterkfontein, Makapansgat, Taung,
Swartkrans)
4. Hominid vs. Hominoid Structural Features
a. foramen magnum
b. spinal cord
c. pelvis
d. femur
e. knee
f. foot
g. brain
Anthropometrics—Tools of the trade
1. Sliding calipers
2. Spreading calipers
3. Metric rules/tape
Living Measurement
1. maximum head length
2. maximum head width
3. cephalic index
4. nasal length
5. nasal alae width
6. nasal index
7. right middle finger length
8. left middle finger length
Cranial Measurement
1. cranial index
2. nasal index
Cranial Landmarks
1. bones of the skull
2. sutures of the skull
3. landmarks of the skull
Facial Angle
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J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
1. distance from nasion to prosthion (a axis)
2. distance from prosthion to basion (y axis)
3. computing the angle
Post-Cranial skeleton
1. landmarks (vertebral column, pelvis, upper, lower extremities)
2. compare/contrast hominoids/hominids
Fossil genus/species of early hominids-physical/cultural attributes
1. Ardipithecus ramidus
2. Australopithecus anamensis
3. Australopithecus afarensis
4. Australopithecus africanus
5. Australopithecus robustus
6. Australopithecus boisei
7. New discoveries?
Famous Human Paleontologists
The Homo Line-physical/cultural attributes
1. Homo habilis
2. Homo erectus
3. Homo sapiens Neandertal
4. Homo sapiens sapiens (Cro-Magnon)
5. New discoveries?
Tool Technologies
1. Oldowan
2. Acheulian
3. Mousterian
4. Upper Paleolithic Industries
Cultural and Physical Differences between Neandertals and Cro-Magnons
1. key sites
2. cave art
3. origins of modern Homo sapiens
a. replacement model (out of Africa)
b. multi-regional model
Human Variation and Adaptation
1. warm climate vs. cold climate traits (tropics vs. northern
latitudes)
2. physical traits: eye-fold, skin color, length of extremities, hair
texture, nose shape
3. race and racism
4. differences within population groups and between population
groups
5. myths, misconceptions
6. conclusions based on population studies
7. cultural and physical interaction
Human Osteology
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1. tools/techniques utilized
2. bones of the skeleton (skull, postcranial)
3. male vs. female traits (skull, pelvis)
4. determining age (skull, dentition, extremities)
R. Forensic Anthropology
1. applying the tools and techniques
2. famous cases
IV.
The Archaeological Method
A. The purpose and goals of archaeology
B. The relationship between archaeology and the physical and cultural
perspectives
1. physical sciences
2. social sciences
3. history
4. humanities and the arts
C. The relationship between the professional and a vocational archaeologist,
the collector and the pothunter
D. The National Historic Preservation Act (1966), the National
Environmental Policy Act (1969), Archaeological and Historic
Preservation Act (1974) and other federal, state and local statutes
regulating the preservation of our historic and pre-historic resources.
1. cultural resources management (CRM)
2. contract archaeology
E. Local-National agencies involved in archaeology (National Park Service,
Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, State Highway
Agencies, Department of Parks and Recreation)
F. Resources on the Internet
1. Maryland Historic Trust, Office of Archaeology
www.marylandhistoricaltrust.net (has links to numerous sites in
state, region, nation)
2. Archaeological Society of Maryland (ASM)
www.smcm.educ/Academics/soan/asm/home.htm
3. Jefferson-Patterson Park www.jefpat.org (site of Maryland
Archaeological Laboratory and 544 acre Park and Museum)
4. Archeological Society of Virginia www.Archsova.org
5. North Carolina Archaeology www.arch.dcr.state.nc.us
6. Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference
www.gurukul.ucc.american.edu/MAAC/maac.html
7. Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology
www.smcm.edu/cneha
8. NPS Links to the Past www.cr.nps.gov
9. Society for American Archaeology www.saa.org
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10. Society for Historical Archaeology www.sha.org
11. ArchNet www.lib.uconn.edu/ArchNet
G. The 5 major steps and related tools/techniques of the archaeological
method
1. Where-to look for sites
a. tools: topographical maps, political maps, documents, land
record repositories, oral testimony, photographs, GPS,
b. compass, transit (theodolite), stadia rod, geophysical
equipment (magnetometer, ground penetrating radar), site
grid/map, pencils, measuring tapes, surveyors wands,
bucket auger, shovels, buckets, sifter, trowels, string, metal
stakes, plastic bags, permanent markers, state/county site
form
c. techniques: survey techniques, gridding (datum,
finite/union grid), surface searching (reconnaissance),
mapping 40x40 cm shovel test pitting (STP’s), knowledge
of local, state, national statutes, discovering and utilizing
archival documents (deeds, wills, inventory records, letters,
diaries etc.), oral history interviews,
acquisition/interpretation of topographical/political/tax
maps, knowledge of material classes and artifact forms
2. How-to retrieve the information
a. tools: site map, provenience card, metal stakes, pencils,
permanent markers, “shiners,” measuring tapes
(Metric/FPS), trowels, shovels buckets, sifters with 1/4 inch
mesh, gloves, line level, string, plastic bags, brushes, dental
picks
b. techniques: controlled surface reconnaissance, transect
interval analysis, 40x40 shovel test pitting (STP’s) full
scale excavation, triangulation, balking, pedastaling,
horizontal and vertical control, stratigraphic analysis,
feature analysis, 2/3 dimensional provenience, excavation
by arbitrary level, prehistoric vs. historic feature analysis,
flotation
3. Recording-the information from the ground and other sources
a. tools: provenience card, grid paper, pencil, measuring
tapes (Metric/FPS), transit (theodolite), stadia rod, camera,
journal notes, Munsell Color Chart
b. techniques: plan view drawing, vertical profile drawing,
2/3 dimensional provenience, point proveniencing,
utilization of surveying equipment, utilizing national, state
and local site numbering system (18=Maryland,
HO=Howard, 143=143rd site registered in Howard County,
Maryland: 18HO143), interpretation of soil colors/textures
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4. Analysis-preserving the artifacts/features for interpretation and
future study
a. tools: washing trays, tooth brushes, drying racks 1/4 inch
and 1/32 inch mesh, plastic bags, permanent markers, paint
brushes, adhesives, sand filled box, magnifying glass,
microscope, white out, clear coat, tweezers, acid free paper,
measuring tapes, sliding/spreading calipers,
catalogs/inventories of ceramics, bottles, nails, lithics,
bones, etc., scales, computer with data base and graphics
software, sophisticated laboratory equipment
b. techniques: knowledge of artifact material classes, artifact
forms, features (non-portable burials, middens, fireplaces,
post molds etc.) cataloguing, articulation/mending, storage
of artifacts, data entry, trace element analysis, chronometric
and relative dating, analysis of floatation sample, faunal
analysis
5. Reconstruction-of an artifact or a site
a. tools: research design, field/lab materials/supplies,
computer generated data, expertise of specialists,
preliminary/final report, charts, tables, drawings,
bibliography
b. techniques: answering the research questions that guided
the fieldwork, synthesizing the field and analytical data to
draw conclusions about past human behavior and how a
particular society/group operated
V.
Prehistoric Archaeology in the New World
A. Pre-Historic Archaeology in North/South America
1. searching for the earliest Americans (75,000-11,000 BP)
a. effects of the Plesitocene (Cordilleran and Laurentian Ice
Caps)
b. Beringia
c. flora/fauna available to human populations
d. Clovis (Paleo-Indian Period)
e. pre-Clovis (prior to 11,000 BP)
f. theories of migration patterns to and through the Americas
g. key sites N. America-Clovis, Old Crow, Kennewick, Spirit
Cave, Folsom, Meadowcroft, Cactus Hill
h. key sites in S. America-Monte Verde, Fell’s Cave, Pedra
Furada
2. stone (lithic) tool technology
a. percussion flaking
b. pressure flaking
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c. stone tool kit (batons, tynes, hammerstones, leather,
bifaces)
d. lithic material available to native Americans (obsidian,
chert, jasper, quartz, quartzite)
e. lithic assemblages (processing station, campsite, caches
f. lithic analysis: core reduction, bifaces, parts of a projectile
(tip, midsection, base), flakes (platform, bulb of
percussion)
g. characteristic artifacts for environmental/cultural periods
(projectile point, arrowhead, knife, side scraper, thumb
scraper, axe)
h. experimental archaeology/lithic artifact replication
1.) biface/projectile point production
2.) arrow shaft
3.) spear shaft (main shaft, foreshaft)
4.) atlatl
5.) axe
6.) use of animal tendon, sinew, blood
7.) removal of bone marrow from long bones
3. Middle Stone Age cultures in the Americas (Archaic Period)
a. Archaic cultures of western America (Gatecliff shelter,
Lovelock Cave, Danger Cave, Chumash, Inuit)
b. Archaic cultures of eastern America (NE coastal archaics,
Koster, Rose Island, Watson Brake, Poverty Point)
4. early farmers in the Americas
a. Mexican farmers (Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Tehuacan)
b. Classic Maya (300-900 AD-Copan)
c. Teotihuacan (300 BC-700 AD)
d. South American farmers (Guitarrero Cave, Paloma)
e. North America (Hohokam, Mogollon, Anasazi, Hopewell,
Mississippian
5. pottery (ceramic) technology
a. creation of earthenware vessels (pinch pot, ring method)
b. temper
c. surface treatment/decoration
d. vessel parts (rim, body, base)
e. soapstone (steatite)
6. characteristics of Maryland Indian culture
a. Paleo (glacial period)
b. Archaic (boreal period)
c. Woodland (modern period)
7. key sites in Maryland, Virginia, eastern region
B. Implications of NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and
Repatriation Act)
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VI.
Historic Archaeology in North America
A. Utilizing documentary materials (deeds, diaries, wills, photographs,
letters, books, etc.)
1. primary vs. secondary sources
2. archival agencies
B. European contact sites in Maryland
1. interaction with aboriginal populations
2. key sites: St. Mary’s City, Londontown, Annapolis, JeffersonPatterson Park, Patapsco Female Institute
3. role of the Maryland Historical Trust
C. Regional/National sites
1. Jamestown
2. Plymouth
VII.
Anthropology Applied Research Projects/Performance Assessments
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Ethnographic research
Application of related sciences/technology
Key hominid sites/paleontologists
What’s new in paleonthropology?
Primates/primatologist research
5 steps applied at a historic or pre-historic site
Field work on school grounds
1. Artifact creation
2. Flintknapping
3. Archeology site replication
H. Archeology site/Laboratory visitations
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