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30
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
Solved Problems
3.1
Find the weight on Earth of a body whose mass is (a) 3.00 kg, (b) 200 g.
The general relation between mass m and weight FW is FW ˆ mg. In this relation, m must be in kilograms, g in meters per second squared, and FW in newtons. On Earth, g ˆ 9:81 m/s2 . The acceleration due to
gravity varies from place to place in the universe.
3.2
(a)
FW ˆ …3:00 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 29:4 kgm=s2 ˆ 29:4 N
(b)
FW ˆ …0:200 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 1:96 N
A 20.0 kg object that can move freely is subjected to a resultant force of 45.0 N in the
x-direction. Find the acceleration of the object.
We make use of the second law in component form, Fx ˆ max , with Fx ˆ
m ˆ 20:0 kg. Then
Fx
45:0 N
ˆ
ˆ
m
20:0 kg
ax ˆ
2:25 N=kg ˆ
45:0 N and
2:25 m=s2
where we have used the fact that 1 N ˆ 1 kgm=s2 . Because the resultant force on the object is in the
x-direction, its acceleration is also in that direction.
3.3
The object in Fig. 3-1(a) weighs 50 N and is supported by a cord. Find the tension in the cord.
We mentally isolate the object for discussion. Two forces act on it, the upward pull of the cord and the
downward pull of gravity. We represent the pull of the cord by FT , the tension in the cord. The pull of
gravity, the weight of the object, is FW ˆ 50 N. These two forces are shown in the free-body diagram in Fig.
3-1(b).
Fig. 3-1
The forces are already in component form and so we can write the ®rst condition for equilibrium at
once, taking up and to the right as positive directions:
‡
! Fx ˆ 0
becomes
0ˆ0
" Fy ˆ 0
becomes
FT
‡
50 N ˆ 0
from which FT ˆ 50 N. Thus, when a single vertical cord supports a body at equilibrium, the tension in the
cord equals the weight of the body.
CHAP. 3]
3.4
31
NEWTON'S LAWS
A 5.0 kg object is to be given an upward acceleration of 0.30 m/s2 by a rope pulling straight
upward on it. What must be the tension in the rope?
The free-body diagram for the object is shown in Fig. 3-2. The tension in the rope is FT , and the weight
of the object is FW ˆ mg ˆ …5:0 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 49:1 N. Using Fy ˆ may with up taken as positive, we
have
FT
mg ˆ may
or
FT
49:1 N ˆ …5:0 kg†…0:30 m=s2 †
from which FT ˆ 50:6 N ˆ 51 N. As a check, we notice that FT is larger than FW as it must be if the object is
to accelerate upward.
Fig. 3-2
3.5
Fig. 3-3
A horizontal force of 140 N is needed to pull a 60.0 kg box across the horizontal ¯oor at constant
speed. What is the coecient of friction between ¯oor and box? Determine it to three signi®cant
®gures even though that's quite unrealistic.
The free-body diagram for the box is shown in Fig. 3-3. Because the box does not move up or down,
ay ˆ 0. Therefore,
Fy ˆ may
gives
mg ˆ …m†…0 m=s2 †
FN
from which we ®nd that FN ˆ mg ˆ …60:0 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 588:6 N. Further, because the box is moving
horizontally at constant speed, ax ˆ 0 and so
Fx ˆ max
gives
140 N
Ff ˆ 0
from which the friction force is Ff ˆ 140 N. We then have
k ˆ
3.6
Ff
140 N
ˆ
ˆ 0:238
FN 588:6 N
The only force acting on a 5.0 kg object has components Fx ˆ 20 N and Fy ˆ 30 N. Find the
acceleration of the object.
We make use of Fx ˆ max and Fy ˆ may to obtain
32
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
ax ˆ
Fx
20 N
ˆ
ˆ 4:0 m=s2
m
5:0 kg
ay ˆ
Fy
30 N
ˆ
ˆ 6:0 m=s2
m
5:0 kg
These components of the acceleration are shown in Fig. 3-4. From the ®gure, we see that
q
a ˆ …4:0†2 ‡ …6:0†2 m=s2 ˆ 7:2 m=s2
and ˆ arctan …6:0=4:0† ˆ 568:
Fig. 3-4
3.7
A 600 N object is to be given an acceleration of 0.70 m/s2 . How large an unbalanced force must
act upon it?
Notice that the weight, not the mass, of the object is given. Assuming the weight was measured on the
Earth, we use FW ˆ mg to ®nd
mˆ
FW
600 N
ˆ 61 kg
ˆ
g
9:81 m=s2
Now that we know the mass of the object (61 kg) and the desired acceleration (0.70 m/s2 ), we have
F ˆ ma ˆ …61 kg†…0:70 m=s2 † ˆ 43 N
3.8
A constant force acts on a 5.0 kg object and reduces its velocity from 7.0 m/s to 3.0 m/s in a time
of 3.0 s. Find the force.
We must ®rst ®nd the acceleration of the object, which is constant because the force is constant. Taking
the direction of motion as positive, from Chapter 2 we have
aˆ
vf
vi
t
ˆ
4:0 m=s
ˆ
3:0 s
1:33 m=s2
Now we can use F ˆ ma with m ˆ 5:0 kg:
F ˆ …5:0 kg†… 1:33 m=s2 † ˆ
6:7 N
The minus sign indicates that the force is a retarding force, directed opposite to the motion.
CHAP. 3]
3.9
33
NEWTON'S LAWS
A 400-g block with an initial speed of 80 cm/s slides along a horizontal tabletop against a friction
force of 0.70 N. (a) How far will it slide before stopping? (b) What is the coecient of friction
between the block and the tabletop?
(a)
We take the direction of motion as positive. The only unbalanced force acting on the block is the
friction force, 0:70 N. Therefore,
F ˆ ma
becomes
0:70 N ˆ …0:400 kg†…a†
2
from which a ˆ 1:75 m=s . (Notice that m is always in kilograms.) To ®nd the distance the block
slides, we have vix ˆ 0:80 m/s, vfx ˆ 0, and a ˆ 1:75 m/s2 . Then v2fx v2ix ˆ 2ax gives
xˆ
(b)
v2ix
2a
ˆ
…0 0:64† m2 =s2
ˆ 0:18 m
…2†… 1:75 m=s2 †
Because the vertical forces on the block must cancel, the upward push of the table FN must equal the
weight mg of the block. Then
k ˆ
3.10
v2fx
friction force
0:70 N
ˆ
ˆ 0:18
FN
…0:40 kg†…9:81 m=s2 †
A 600-kg car is moving on a level road at 30 m/s. (a) How large a retarding force (assumed
constant) is required to stop it in a distance of 70 m? (b) What is the minimum coecient of
friction between tires and roadway if this is to be possible? Assume the wheels are not locked, in
which case we are dealing with static friction ± there's no sliding.
(a)
We must ®rst ®nd the car's acceleration from a motion equation. It is known that vix ˆ 30 m/s, vfx ˆ 0,
and x ˆ 70 m. We use v2fx ˆ v2ix ‡ 2ax to ®nd
aˆ
v2fx
v2ix
2x
ˆ
0
900 m2 =s2
ˆ
140 m
6:43 m=s2
Now we can write
F ˆ ma ˆ …600 kg†… 6:43 m=s2 † ˆ
(b)
3860 N ˆ
3:9 kN
The force found in (a) is supplied as the friction force between the tires and roadway. Therefore, the
magnitude of the friction force on the tires is Ff ˆ 3860 N. The coecient of friction is given by
s ˆ Ff =FN , where FN is the normal force. In the present case, the roadway pushes up on the car
with a force equal to the car's weight. Therefore,
FN ˆ FW ˆ mg ˆ …600 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 5886 N
F
3860
ˆ 0:66
s ˆ f ˆ
FN 5886
so that
The coecient of friction must be at least 0.66 if the car is to stop within 70 m.
3.11
An 8000-kg engine pulls a 40 000-kg train along a level track and gives it an acceleration
a1 ˆ 1:20 m/s2 . What acceleration …a2 † would the engine give to a 16 000-kg train?
For a given engine force, the acceleration is inversely proportional to the total mass. Thus
a2 ˆ
3.12
m1
8000 kg ‡ 40 000 kg
a ˆ
…1:20 m=s2 † ˆ 2:40 m=s2
m2 1 8000 kg ‡ 16 000 kg
As shown in Fig. 3-5(a), an object of mass m is supported by a cord. Find the tension in the cord
if the object is (a) at rest, (b) moving at constant velocity, (c) accelerating upward with acceleration a ˆ 3g=2, and (d ) accelerating downward at a ˆ 0:75g:
34
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
Two forces act on the object: the tension FT upward and the downward pull of gravity mg. They are
shown in the free-body diagram in Fig. 3-5(b). We take up as the positive direction and write Fy ˆ may in
each case.
(a)
ay ˆ 0:
FT
mg ˆ may ˆ 0
or
FT ˆ mg
(b)
ay ˆ 0:
FT
mg ˆ may ˆ 0
or
FT ˆ mg
(c)
ay ˆ 3g=2:
FT
mg ˆ m…3g=2†
or
FT ˆ 2:5mg
(d )
ay ˆ
FT
mg ˆ m… 3g=4†
or
FT ˆ 0:25mg
3g=4:
Notice that the tension in the cord is less than mg in part (d ); only then can the object have a downward
acceleration. Can you explain why FT ˆ 0 if ay ˆ g?
Fig. 3-5
3.13
Fig. 3-6
A tow rope will break if the tension in it exceeds 1500 N. It is used to tow a 700-kg car along level
ground. What is the largest acceleration the rope can give to the car? (Remember that 1500 has
four signi®cant ®gures; see Appendix A.)
The forces acting on the car are shown in Fig. 3-6. Only the x-directed force is of importance, because
the y-directed forces balance each other. Indicating the positive direction with a ‡ sign and a little arrow we
write,
‡ F ˆ max
becomes
1500 N ˆ …700 kg†…a†
! x
from which a ˆ 2:14 m=s2 :
3.14
Compute the least acceleration with which a 45-kg woman can slide down a rope if the rope can
withstand a tension of only 300 N.
The weight of the woman is mg ˆ …45 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 441 N. Because the rope can support only
300 N, the unbalanced downward force F on the woman must be at least 441 N 300 N ˆ 141 N. Her
minimum downward acceleration is then
aˆ
3.15
F 141 N
ˆ
ˆ 3:1 m=s2
m 45 kg
A 70-kg box is slid along the ¯oor by a 400-N force as shown in Fig. 3-7. The coecient of
friction between the box and the ¯oor is 0.50 when the box is sliding. Find the acceleration of the
box.
CHAP. 3]
35
NEWTON'S LAWS
Fig. 3-7
Since the y-directed forces must balance,
FN ˆ mg ˆ …70 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 687 N
But the friction force Ff is given by
Ff ˆ k FN ˆ …0:50†…687 N† ˆ 344 N
Now write Fx ˆ max for the box, taking the direction of motion as positive:
400 N
3.16
344 N ˆ …70 kg†…a†
or
a ˆ 0:80 m=s2
Suppose, as shown in Fig. 3-8, that a 70-kg box is pulled by a 400-N force at an angle of 308 to the
horizontal. The coecient of kinetic friction is 0.50. Find the acceleration of the box.
Fig. 3-8
Because the box does not move up or down, we have Fy ˆ may ˆ 0. From Fig. 3-8, we see that this
equation is
FN ‡ 200 N
mg ˆ 0
But mg ˆ …70 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 687 N, and it follows that FN ˆ 486 N:
We next ®nd the friction force acting on the box:
Ff ˆ k FN ˆ …0:50†…486 N† ˆ 243 N
Now let us write Fx ˆ max for the box. It is
…346
from which ax ˆ 1:5 m/s2 :
243† N ˆ …70 kg†…ax †
36
3.17
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
A car moving at 20 m/s along a horizontal road has its brakes suddenly applied and eventually
comes to rest. What is the shortest distance in which it can be stopped if the friction coecient
between tires and road is 0.90? Assume that all four wheels brake identically. If the brakes don't
lock the car stops via static friction.
The friction force at one wheel, call it wheel 1, is
Ff1 ˆ s FN1 ˆ FW1
where FW1 is the weight carried by wheel 1. We obtain the total friction force Ff by adding such terms for all
four wheels:
Ff ˆ s FW1 ‡ s FW2 ‡ s FW3 ‡ s FW4 ˆ s …FW1 ‡ FW2 ‡ FW3 ‡ FW4 † ˆ s FW
where FW is the total weight of the car. (Notice that we are assuming optimal braking at each wheel.) This
friction force is the only unbalanced force on the car (we neglect wind friction and such). Writing F ˆ ma for
the car with F replaced by s FW gives s FW ˆ ma, where m is the car's mass and the positive direction is
taken as the direction of motion. However, FW ˆ mg; so the car's acceleration is
s F W
s mg
ˆ s g ˆ … 0:90†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 8:8 m=s2
ˆ
m
m
We can ®nd how far the car went before stopping by solving a motion problem. Knowing that vi ˆ 20 m/s,
vf ˆ 0, and a ˆ 8:8 m/s2 , we ®nd from v2f v2i ˆ 2ax that
aˆ
xˆ
400† m2 =s2
ˆ 23 m
17:6 m=s2
…0
If the four wheels had not all been braking optimally, the stopping distance would have been longer.
3.18
As shown in Fig. 3-9, a force of 400 N pushes on a 25-kg box. Starting from rest, the box achieves
a velocity of 2.0 m/s in a time of 4.0 s. Find the coecient of kinetic friction between box and
¯oor.
Fig. 3-9
We will need to ®nd f by use of F ˆ ma. But ®rst we must ®nd a from a motion problem. We know that
vi ˆ 0, vf ˆ 2:0 m/s, t ˆ 4:0 s. Using vf ˆ vi ‡ at gives
aˆ
vf
vi
t
ˆ
2:0 m=s
ˆ 0:50 m=s2
4:0 s
Now we can write Fx ˆ max , where ax ˆ a ˆ 0:50 m/s2 . From Fig. 3-9, this equation becomes
257 N
Ff ˆ …25 kg†…0:50 m=s2 †
or
Ff ˆ 245 N
We now wish to use ˆ Ff =FN . To ®nd FN we write Fy ˆ may ˆ 0, since no vertical motion occurs.
From Fig. 3-9,
FN
306 N
…25†…9:81† N ˆ 0
or
FN ˆ 551 N
CHAP. 3]
37
NEWTON'S LAWS
Then
k ˆ
3.19
Ff
245
ˆ
ˆ 0:44
FN 551
A 200-N wagon is to be pulled up a 308 incline at constant speed. How large a force parallel to the
incline is needed if friction e€ects are negligible?
The situation is shown in Fig. 3-10(a). Because the wagon moves at a constant speed along a straight
line, its velocity vector is constant. Therefore the wagon is in translational equilibrium, and the ®rst condition for equilibrium applies to it.
We isolate the wagon as the object. Three nonnegligible forces act on it: (1) the pull of gravity FW (its
weight), directed straight down; (2) the force F exerted on the wagon parallel to the incline to pull it up the
incline; (3) the push FN of the incline that supports the wagon. These three forces are shown in the free-body
diagram in Fig. 3-10(b).
For situations involving inclines, it is convenient to take the x-axis parallel to the incline and the y-axis
perpendicular to it. After taking components along these axes, we can write the ®rst condition for equilibrium:
‡
!
! Fx ˆ 0
‡
Fy ˆ 0
becomes
F
becomes
FN
0:50 FW ˆ 0
0:87 FW ˆ 0
Solving the ®rst equation and recalling that FW ˆ 200 N, we ®nd that F ˆ 0:50 FW . The required pulling
force to two signi®cant ®gures is 0.10 kN.
Fig. 3-10
3.20
A 20-kg box sits on an incline as shown in Fig. 3-11. The coecient of kinetic friction between
box and incline is 0.30. Find the acceleration of the box down the incline.
In solving inclined-plane problems, we take x- and y-axes as shown in the ®gure, parallel and perpendicular to the incline. We shall ®nd the acceleration by writing Fx ˆ max . But ®rst we must ®nd the friction
force Ff . Using the fact that cos 308 ˆ 0:866,
Fy ˆ may ˆ 0
gives
FN
0:87mg ˆ 0
from which FN ˆ …0:87†…20 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 171 N. Now we can ®nd Ff from
Ff ˆ k FN ˆ …0:30†…171 N† ˆ 51 N
38
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
Fig. 3-11
Writing Fx ˆ max , we have
Ff
from which ax ˆ
3.21
0:50mg ˆ max
or
51 N
…0:50†…20†…9:81† N ˆ …20 kg†…ax †
2:35 m/s2 . The box accelerates down the incline at 2.4 m/s2 .
When a force of 500 N pushes on a 25-kg box as shown in Fig. 3-12, the acceleration of the box
up the incline is 0.75 m/s2 . Find the coecient of kinetic friction between box and incline.
The acting forces and their components are shown in Fig. 3-12. Notice how the x- and y-axes are taken.
Since the box moves up the incline, the friction force (which always acts to retard the motion) is directed
down the incline.
Let us ®rst ®nd Ff by writing Fx ˆ max . From Fig. 3-12, using sin 408 ˆ 0:643,
383 N
Ff
…0:64†…25†…9:81† N ˆ …25 kg†…0:75 m=s2 †
from which Ff ˆ 207 N.
We also need FN . Writing Fy ˆ may ˆ 0, and using cos 408 ˆ 0:766, we get
FN
Then
321 N
…0:77†…25†…9:81† N ˆ 0
k ˆ
Ff
207
ˆ 0:41
ˆ
FN 510
Fig. 3-12
or
FN ˆ 510 N
CHAP. 3]
3.22
39
NEWTON'S LAWS
Two blocks, of masses m1 and m2 , are pushed by a force F as shown in Fig. 3-13. The coecient
of friction between each block and the table is 0.40. (a) What must be the value of F if the blocks
are to have an acceleration of 200 cm/s2 ? How large a force does m1 then exert on m2 ? Use
m1 ˆ 300 g and m2 ˆ 500 g. Remember to work in SI units.
The friction forces on the blocks are Ff1 ˆ 0:4m1 g and Ff2 ˆ 0:4m2 g. We take the two blocks in
combination as the object for discussion; the horizontal forces on the object from outside (i.e. the external
forces on it) are F, Ff1 , and Ff2 . Although the two blocks do push on each other, the pushes are internal
forces; they are not part of the unbalanced external force on the two-mass object. For that object,
Fx ˆ max
(a)
becomes
F
Ff1
Ff2 ˆ …m1 ‡ m2 †ax
Solving for F and substituting known values, we ®nd
F ˆ 0:40 g…m1 ‡ m2 † ‡ …m1 ‡ m2 †ax ˆ 3:14 N ‡ 1:60 N ˆ 4:7 N
(b)
Now consider block m2 alone. The forces acting on it in the x-direction are the push of block m1 on it
(which we represent by Fb ) and the retarding friction force Ff2 ˆ 0:4m2 g. Then, for it,
Fx ˆ max
becomes
Fb
Ff2 ˆ m2 ax
2
We know that ax ˆ 2:0 m/s and so
Fb ˆ Ff2 ‡ m2 ax ˆ 1:96 N ‡ 1:00 N ˆ 2:96 N ˆ 3:0 N
Fig. 3-13
3.23
Fig. 3-14
A cord passing over an easily turned pulley (one that is both massless and frictionless) has
a 7.0-kg mass hanging from one end and a 9.0-kg mass hanging from the other, as shown in
Fig. 3-14. (This arrangement is called Atwood's machine.) Find the acceleration of the masses and
the tension in the cord.
Because the pulley is easily turned, the tension in the cord will be the same on each side. The forces
acting on each of the two masses are drawn in Fig. 3-14. Recall that the weight of an object is mg.
It is convenient in situations involving objects connected by cords to take the direction of motion as the
positive direction. In the present case, we take up positive for the 7.0-kg mass, and down positive for the
9.0-kg mass. (If we do this, the acceleration will be positive for each mass. Because the cord doesn't stretch,
the accelerations are numerically equal.) Writing Fy ˆ may for each mass in turn, we have
FT
…7:0†…9:81† N ˆ …7:0 kg†…a†
and
…9:0†…9:81† N
FT ˆ …9:0 kg†…a†
40
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
If we add these two equations, the unknown FT drops out, giving
…9:0
7:0†…9:81† N ˆ …16 kg†…a†
2
for which a ˆ 1:23 m/s . We can now substitute 1.23 m/s2 for a in either equation and obtain FT ˆ 77 N.
3.24
In Fig. 3-15, the coecient of kinetic friction between block A and the table is 0.20. Also,
mA ˆ 25 kg, mB ˆ 15 kg. How far will block B drop in the ®rst 3.0 s after the system is released?
Fig. 3-15
Since, for block A, there is no motion vertically, the normal force is
FN ˆ mA g ˆ …25 kg†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 245 N
Ff ˆ k FN ˆ …0:20†…245 N† ˆ 49 N
and
We must ®rst ®nd the acceleration of the system and then we can describe its motion. Let us apply
F ˆ ma to each block in turn. Taking the motion direction as positive, we have
FT
and
mB g
Ff ˆ mA a
FT ˆ mB a
or
or
FT
49 N ˆ …25 kg†…a†
FT ‡ …15†…9:81† N ˆ …15 kg†…a†
We can eliminate FT by adding the two equations. Then, solving for a, we ®nd a ˆ 2:45 m/s2 :
Now we can work a motion problem with a ˆ 2:45 m/s2 , vi ˆ 0, t ˆ 3:0 s:
y ˆ viy t ‡ 12 at2
gives
y ˆ 0 ‡ 12 …2:45 m=s2 †…3:0 s†2 ˆ 11 m
as the distance B falls in the ®rst 3.0 s.
3.25
How large a horizontal force in addition to FT must pull on block A in Fig. 3-15 to give it an
acceleration of 0.75 m/s2 toward the left? Assume, as in Problem 3.24, that k ˆ 0:20,
mA ˆ 25 kg, and mB ˆ 15 kg.
If we were to redraw Fig 3-15 for this case, we would show a force F pulling toward the left on A. In
addition, the retarding friction force Ff should be reversed in direction in the ®gure. As in Problem 3.24,
Ff ˆ 49 N.
CHAP. 3]
41
NEWTON'S LAWS
We write F ˆ ma for each block in turn, taking the direction of motion to be positive. We have
F
FT
49 N ˆ …25 kg†…0:75 m=s2 †
and
FT
…15†…9:81† N ˆ …15 kg†…0:75 m=s2 †
We solve the last equation for FT and substitute in the previous equation. We can then solve for the single
unknown F, and we ®nd it to be 226 N or 0.23 kN.
3.26
The coecient of static friction between a box and the ¯at bed of a truck is 0.60. What is the
maximum acceleration the truck can have along level ground if the box is not to slide?
The box experiences only one x-directed force, the friction force. When the box is on the verge of
slipping, Ff ˆ s FW , where FW is the weight of the box.
As the truck accelerates, the friction force must cause the box to have the same acceleration as the truck;
otherwise, the box will slip. When the box is not slipping, Fx ˆ max applied to the box gives Ff ˆ max .
However, if the box is on the verge of slipping, Ff ˆ s FW so that s FW ˆ max . Because FW ˆ mg, this gives
mg
ˆ s g ˆ …0:60†…9:81 m=s2 † ˆ 5:9 m=s2
ax ˆ s
m
as the maximum acceleration without slipping.
3.27
In Fig. 3-16, the two boxes have identical masses of 40 kg. Both experience a sliding friction force
with k ˆ 0:15. Find the acceleration of the boxes and the tension in the tie cord.
Fig. 3-16
Using Ff ˆ FN , we ®nd that the friction forces on the two boxes are
FfA ˆ …0:15†…mg†
and
FfB ˆ …0:15†…0:87mg†
But m ˆ 40 kg, so FfA ˆ 59 N and FfB ˆ 51 N.
Let us now apply Fx ˆ max to each block in turn, taking the direction of motion as positive. This
gives
FT
59 N ˆ …40 kg†…a†
and
0:5mg
FT
51 N ˆ …40 kg†…a†
Solving these two equations for a and FT gives a ˆ 1:1 m=s2 and FT ˆ 0:10 kN.
42
3.28
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
In the system shown in Fig. 3-17(a), force F accelerates block m1 to the right. Find its acceleration
in terms of F and the coecient of friction k at the contact surfaces.
Fig. 3-17
The horizontal forces on the blocks are shown in Fig. 3-17(b) and (c). Block m2 is pressed against m1 by
its weight m2 g. This is the normal force where m1 and m2 are in contact, so the friction force there is
Ff 2 ˆ k m2 g. At the bottom surface of m1 , however, the normal force is …m1 ‡ m2 †g. Hence,
Ff0 ˆ k …m1 ‡ m2 †g. We now write Fx ˆ max for each block, taking the direction of motion as positive:
FT ˆ k m2 g ˆ m2 a
and
F
FT
m2 g
k …m1 ‡ m2 †g ˆ m1 a
We can eliminate FT by adding the two equations to obtain
F
2k m2 g
from which
3.29
k …m1 ‡ m2 †…g† ˆ …m1 ‡ m2 †…a†
aˆ
F
2k m2 g
m1 ‡ m2
k g
In the system of Fig. 3-18, friction and the mass of the pulley are both negligible. Find the
acceleration of m2 if m1 ˆ 300 g, m2 ˆ 500 g, and F ˆ 1:50 N.
Fig. 3-18
Notice that m1 has twice as large an acceleration as m2 . (When the pulley moves a distance d, m1 moves
a distance 2d.) Also notice that the tension FT1 in the cord pulling m1 is half FT 2 , that in the cord pulling the
pulley, because the total force on the pulley must be zero. …F ˆ ma tells us that this is so because the mass of
the pulley is zero.) Writing Fx ˆ max for each mass, we have
FT1 ˆ …m1 †…2a†
and
F
FT2 ˆ m2 a
However, we know that FT1 ˆ 12 FT2 and so the ®rst equation gives FT2 ˆ 4m1 a. Substitution in the second
equation yields
F ˆ …4m1 ‡ m2 †…a†
or
aˆ
F
1:50 N
ˆ 0:882 m=s2
ˆ
4m1 ‡ m2 1:20 kg ‡ 0:50 kg
CHAP. 3]
3.30
43
NEWTON'S LAWS
In Fig. 3-19, the weights of the objects are 200 N and 300 N. The pulleys are essentially frictionless and massless. Pulley P1 has a stationary axle, but pulley P2 is free to move up and down. Find
the tensions FT1 and FT2 and the acceleration of each body.
Fig. 3-19
Mass B will rise and mass A will fall. You can see this by noticing that the forces acting on pulley P2 are
2FT2 up and FT1 down. Since the pulley has no mass, it can have no acceleration, and so FT1 ˆ 2FT2 (the
inertialess object transmits the tension). Twice as large a force is pulling upward on B as on A.
Let a be the downward acceleration of A. Then a=2 is the upward acceleration of B. (Why?) We now
write Fy ˆ may for each mass in turn, taking the direction of motion as positive in each case. We have
FT1
300 N ˆ …mB †…12 a†
and
200 N
FT2 ˆ mA a
But m ˆ FW =g and so mA ˆ …200=9:81† kg and mB ˆ …300=9:81† kg. Further FT1 ˆ 2FT2 . Substitution of
these values in the two equations allows us to compute FT2 and then FT1 and a. The results are
FT1 ˆ 327 N
3.31
FT2 ˆ 164 N
a ˆ 1:78 m=s2
Compute the mass of the Earth, assuming it to be a sphere of radius 6370 km. Give your answer
to three signi®cant ®gures.
Let M be the mass of the Earth, and m the mass of an object on the Earth's surface. The weight of the
object is equal to mg. It is also equal to the gravitational force G…Mm†=r2 , where r is the Earth's radius.
Hence,
mg ˆ G
from which
Mˆ
Mm
r2
gr2 …9:81 m=s2 †…6:37 106 m†2
ˆ 5:97 1024 kg
ˆ
G
6:67 10 11 N m2 =kg2
44
NEWTON'S LAWS
[CHAP. 3
Supplementary Problems
3.32
Once ignited, a small rocket motor on a spacecraft exerts a constant force of 10 N for 7.80 s. During the
burn the rocket causes the 100-kg craft to accelerate uniformly. Determine that acceleration.
Ans. 0.10 m/s2
3.33
Typically, a bullet leaves a standard 45-caliber pistol (5.0-in. barrel) at a speed of 262 m/s. If it takes 1 ms to
traverse the barrel, determine the average acceleration experienced by the 16.2-g bullet within the gun and
then compute the average force exerted on it.
Ans. 3 105 m=s2 ; 0:4 102 N
3.34
A force acts on a 2-kg mass and gives it an acceleration of 3 m/s2 . What acceleration is produced by the same
force when acting on a mass of (a) 1 kg? (b) 4 kg? (c) How large is the force?
Ans. (a) 6 m/s2 ; (b) 2 m/s2 ;
(c) 6 N
3.35
An object has a mass of 300 g. (a) What is its weight on Earth? (b) What is its mass on the Moon? (c) What
will be its acceleration on the Moon when a 0.500 N resultant force acts on it?
Ans. (a) 2.94 N;
(b) 0.300 kg; (c) 1.67 m/s2
3.36
A horizontal cable pulls a 200-kg cart along a horizontal track. The tension in the cable is 500 N. Starting
from rest, (a) How long will it take the cart to reach a speed of 8.0 m/s? (b) How far will it have
gone?
Ans. (a) 3.2 s; (b) 13 m
3.37
A 900-kg car is going 20 m/s along a level road. How large a constant retarding force is required to stop it in
a distance of 30 m? (Hint: First ®nd its deceleration.)
Ans. 6.0 kN
3.38
A 12.0-g bullet is accelerated from rest to a speed of 700 m/s as it travels 20.0 cm in a gun barrel. Assuming
the acceleration to be constant, how large was the accelerating force? (Be careful of units.)
Ans. 14.7 kN
3.39
A 20-kg crate hangs at the end of a long rope. Find its acceleration (magnitude and direction) when the
tension in the rope is (a) 250 N, (b) 150 N, (c) zero, (d ) 196 N.
Ans. (a) 2.7 m/s2 up; (b) 2.3 m/s2 down;
2
(c) 9.8 m/s down; (d ) zero
3.40
A 5.0-kg mass hangs at the end of a cord. Find the tension in the cord if the acceleration of the mass is
Ans. (a) 57 N; (b) 42 N; (c) zero
(a) 1.5 m/s2 up, (b) 1.5 m/s2 down, (c) 9.8 m/s2 down.
3.41
A 700-N man stands on a scale on the ¯oor of an elevator. The scale records the force it exerts on whatever is
on it. What is the scale reading if the elevator has an acceleration of (a) 1.8 m/s2 up? (b) 1.8 m/s2 down?
(c) 9.8 m/s2 down?
Ans. (a) 0.83 kN; (b) 0.57 kN; (c) zero
3.42
Using the scale described in Problem 3.41, a 65.0 kg astronaut weighs himself on the Moon, where
Ans. 104 N
g ˆ 1:60 m/s2 . What does the scale read?
3.43
A cord passing over a frictionless, massless pulley has a 4.0-kg object tied to one end and a 12-kg object tied
to the other. Compute the acceleration and the tension in the cord.
Ans. 4.9 m/s2 , 59 N
3.44
An elevator starts from rest with a constant upward acceleration. It moves 2.0 m in the ®rst 0.60 s. A
passenger in the elevator is holding a 3.0-kg package by a vertical string. What is the tension in the string
during the accelerating process?
Ans. 63 N
3.45
Just as her parachute opens, a 60-kg parachutist is falling at a speed of 50 m/s. After 0.80 s has passed, the
chute is fully open and her speed has dropped to 12.0 m/s. Find the average retarding force exerted upon the
chutist during this time if the deceleration is uniform.
Ans. 2850 N ‡ 588 N ˆ 3438 N ˆ 3:4 kN
CHAP. 3]
45
NEWTON'S LAWS
3.46
A 300-g mass hangs at the end of a string. A second string hangs from the bottom of that mass and supports
a 900-g mass. (a) Find the tension in each string when the masses are accelerating upward at 0.700 m/s2 :
(b) Find the tension in each string when the acceleration is 0.700 m/s2 downward.
Ans. (a) 12.6 N and
9.45 N; (b) 10.9 N and 8.19 N
3.47
A 20-kg wagon is pulled along the level ground by a rope inclined at 308 above the horizontal. A friction
force of 30 N opposes the motion. How large is the pulling force if the wagon is moving with (a) constant
speed and (b) an acceleration of 0.40 m/s2 ?
Ans. (a) 35 N; (b) 44 N
3.48
A 12-kg box is released from the top of an incline that is 5.0 m long and makes an angle of 408 to the
horizontal. A 60-N friction force impedes the motion of the box. (a) What will be the acceleration of the box
and (b) how long will it take to reach the bottom of the incline?
Ans. (a) 1.3 m/s2 ; (b) 2.8 s
3.49
For the situation outlined in Problem 3.48, what is the coecient of friction between box and incline?
Ans. 0.67
3.50
An inclined plane makes an angle of 308 with the horizontal. Find the constant force, applied parallel to the
plane, required to cause a 15-kg box to slide (a) up the plane with acceleration 1.2 m/s2 and (b) down the
incline with acceleration 1.2 m/s2 . Neglect friction forces.
Ans. (a) 92 N; (b) 56 N
3.51
A horizontal force F is exerted on a 20-kg box to slide it up a 308 incline. The friction force retarding
the motion is 80 N. How large must F be if the acceleration of the moving box is to be (a) zero and
(b) 0.75 m/s2 ?
Ans. (a) 0.21 kN; (b) 0.22 kN
3.52
An inclined plane making an angle of 258 with the horizontal has a pulley at its top. A 30-kg block on the
plane is connected to a freely hanging 20-kg block by means of a cord passing over the pulley. Compute the
distance the 20-kg block will fall in 2.0 s starting from rest. Neglect friction.
Ans. 2.9 m
3.53
Repeat Problem 3.52 if the coecient of friction between block and plane is 0.20.
3.54
A horizontal force of 200 N is required to cause a 15-kg block to slide up a 208 incline with an acceleration of
25 cm/s2 . Find (a) the friction force on the block and (b) the coecient of friction.
Ans. (a) 0.13 kN;
(b) 0.65
3.55
Find the acceleration of the blocks in Fig. 3-20 if friction forces are negligible. What is the tension in the cord
connecting them?
Ans. 3.3 m/s2 , 13 N
Ans.
0.74 m
Fig. 3-20
3.56
Repeat Problem 3.55 if the coecient of kinetic friction between the blocks and the table is 0.30.
Ans. 0.39 m/s2 , 13 N
3.57
How large a force F is needed in Fig. 3-21 to pull out the 6.0-kg block with an acceleration of 1.50 m/s2 if the
coecient of friction at its surfaces is 0.40?
Ans. 48 N
46
NEWTON'S LAWS
Fig. 3-21
[CHAP. 3
Fig. 3-22
3.58
In Fig. 3-22, how large a force F is needed to give the blocks an acceleration of 3.0 m/s2 if the coecient of
kinetic friction between blocks and table is 0.20? How large a force does the 1.50-kg block then exert on the
2.0-kg block?
Ans. 22 N, 15 N
3.59
(a) What is the smallest force parallel to a 378 incline needed to keep a 100-N weight from sliding down the
incline if the coecients of static and kinetic friction are both 0.30? (b) What parallel force is required to keep
the weight moving up the incline at constant speed? (c) If the parallel pushing force is 94 N, what will be the
acceleration of the object? (d ) If the object in (c) starts from rest, how far will it move in 10 s?
Ans. (a) 36 N; (b) 84 N; (c) 0.98 m/s2 up the plane; (d ) 49 m
3.60
A 5.0-kg block rests on a 308 incline. The coecient of static friction between the block and the incline is
0.20. How large a horizontal force must push on the block if the block is to be on the verge of sliding (a) up
the incline and (b) down the incline?
Ans. (a) 43 N; (b) 16.6 N
3.61
Three blocks with masses 6.0 kg, 9.0 kg, and 10 kg are connected as shown in Fig. 3-23. The coecient of
friction between the table and the 10-kg block is 0.20. Find (a) the acceleration of the system and (b) the
tension in the cord on the left and in the cord on the right.
Ans. (a) 0.39 m/s2 ; (b) 61 N, 85 N
Fig. 3-23
3.62
The Earth's radius is about 6370 km. An object that has a mass of 20 kg is taken to a height of 160 km
above the Earth's surface. (a) What is the object's mass at this height? (b) How much does the object weigh
(i.e., how large a gravitational force does it experience) at this height?
Ans. (a) 20 kg; (b) 0.19 kN
3.63
The radius of the Earth is about 6370 km, while that of Mars is about 3440 km. If an object weighs 200 N on
Earth, what would it weigh, and what would be the acceleration due to gravity, on Mars? The mass of Mars
is 0.11 that of Earth.
Ans. 75 N, 3.7 m/s2

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