PSy420: Sensation and Perception (Dr. Hajnal) March 22, 2010

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PSy420: Sensation and Perception (Dr. Hajnal) March 22, 2010 EXAM
#2 VERSION B
NAME: _______________________________________________________________________
SECRET CODE (not your SOAR ID): ______________________________________________
Only one answer is correct in all questions.
1
The relatability principle (see figure) helps
us understand
a) the power of accidental features in
image interpretation.
b) how conflicts between different
Gestalt grouping principles are
resolved.
c) when edges are and are not amodally completed behind occluders.
d) which interpretation is given to a visual illusion.
e) which regions are segmented in textures.
2
Topographical mapping is the
a. layout of the brain.
b. guide to the structures of the brain.
c. simultaneous mapping of two objects in the visual system.
d. orderly mapping of the world in the LGN and the visual cortex.
e. mapping of gyri and sulci in the brain.
3
Which Gestalt grouping principle states that elements moving in the same
direction should be grouped together?
a. Synchrony
b. Common fate
c. Good continuation
d. Parallelism
e. Similarity
4
The diminishing response of a sense organ to a sustained stimulus is referred to as
a. constant stimulation.
b. response decrease.
c. adaptation.
d. accommodation.
e. convergence.
5
Cortical magnification means that
a) The retinal image is magnified in the visual cortex
b) The amount of cortex devoted to processing the periphery is proportionally
much more than the amount of cortex devoted to processing the fovea
c) the amount of cortex devoted to processing the fovea is proportionally
much more than the amount of cortex devoted to processing the
periphery
d) fewer cortical cells are needed to perceive size of objects as compared to
information about shape
6
The tilt aftereffect is the perceptual illusion of tilt, produced by
a. changing the direction of gaze.
b. tilting the head.
c. adapting to a pattern of a given orientation.
d. constantly moving the head.
e. spinning in circles for 30 seconds.
7
The term “grandmother cell” refers to a neuron that
a. responds best to one specific object.
b. divides several times to form a number of new neurons.
c. is connected to a large number of other neurons.
d. is isolated from other neurons.
e. None of the above
8
In the big box on the left side of the color picker shown below, _______ changes
along the horizontal axis and _______ changes along the vertical axis.
a. hue; brightness
b. saturation; hue
c. saturation; brightness
d. brightness; saturation
e. brightness; hue
9
Gestalt psychologists emphasize that
a) a percept is nothing more than the sum of its sensory elements.
b) objects and faces are processed via different mechanisms.
c) the perceptual whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
d) the visual system must assume that objects are viewed from generic
viewpoints.
e) object recognition is view-based.
10
When driving in a car, the fact that light posts by the side of the road move faster
across your eye than distant buildings do is known as the visual cue of
a. relative height.
b. occlusion.
c. linear perspective.
d. stereo disparity.
e. motion parallax.
11
A(n) _______ is a visual image seen after the stimulus has been removed.
a. adapting stimulus
b. afterimage
c. neutral point
d. metamer
e. hallucination
12
What are object representations made of, according to the recognition by
components model of object recognition?
a) Surfaces
b) Edges
c) Image templates
d) Geon structural descriptions
e) None of the above
13
Rod photoreceptors are sensitive to ____________ (scotopic) light levels.
a) High
b) Low
c) Medium
d) Any
14
What is the pandemonium model?
a) the idea that cognition is a result of outside stimulation
b) a kind of a neural circuit in the brain
c) a metaphor for letter recognition
d) a metaphor for the mechanism of memory
e) a metaphor for receptive field organization
15
Spatial frequency is
a) the largest low-contrast detail to be perceived at any distance
b) the smallest spatial detail that can be resolved
c) The number of cycles of a grating per unit of visual angle (usually
specified in degrees)
d) the smallest high contrast detail to be perceived at any distance
16
Which Gestalt grouping principle might lead you to organize the elements into
rows based on the figure on the right?
a) Similarity
b) Proximity
c) Common region
d) Parallelism
e) Good continuation
17
Which Gestalt grouping principle might lead you to
organize the elements into columns?
a) Similarity
b) Proximity
c) Common region
d) Parallelism
e) Good continuation
18
According to the _______ theory, the color of any light is defined in our visual
system by the relationships between a set of three numbers.
a. univariance
b. saturation
c. trichromacy
d. opponent color
e. subtractive color mixing
19
_______ is the idea that basic perceptual experiences may be determined in part by
the cultural environment.
a. Cultural determination
b. Cultural revolution
c. Cultural perceptualism
d. Cultural relativism
e. Chromatic adaptation
20
In the case of a negative afterimage, a yellow stimulus would produce a _______
afterimage.
a. blue
b. green
c. red
d. brown
e. black
21
_______ is the difference between the two retinal images of the same scene. It is the
basis of stereopsis.
a. Binocular disparity
b. Depth perception
c. Stereopsis
d. Binocular summation
e. Accommodation
22
The lateral geniculate nucleus
a) receives input from the retinal ganglion cells and sends signals to the
visual cortex.
b) receives input from the visual cortex and sends signals to the retinal ganglion
cells.
c) is a multilayered structure that is part of the visual cortex.
d) has the same kind of receptive field as the cortical cells do.
23
Which of the following colors is “illegal” for our visual systems?
a. Bluish-green
b. Reddish-yellow
c. Yellowish-green
d. Reddish-blue
e. Greenish-red
24
In additive color mixture, two or more lights are mixed. Adding a light that looks
blue to a light that looks yellow will produce a light that looks _________ (if we pick
the right blue and yellow). In subtractive color mixture, filters, paints, or other
pigments that absorb some wavelengths and reflect others are mixed. Mixing a
typical blue paint and a typical yellow paint will subtract most long and short
wavelengths from the light reflected by the mixture, and the result will look
____________.
a. White; green
b. White; black
c. Black; green
d. Red; green
25
The diagram below illustrates the _______ depth cue.
a. motion parallax
b. aerial perspective
c. linear perspective
d. accommodation
e. convergence
26
A simple cell that prefers rightward diagonal lines ( / ) would produce which
response curve?
B
27
The experiment conducted by Bloj et al. (depicted below) shows us how
a. assumptions about the
physics of the world
influence color
perception.
b. the illuminant really
works.
c. color and shape can
interact to form objects
that are recognizable by
the visual system.
d. colors can change without
them really changing.
e. the visual system
perceives concave
surfaces as more colorful than convex surfaces.
28
In the figure below, the right LGN contains
information from the
a. left visual field.
b. right visual field.
c. right eye.
d. left eye.
e. magnocellular layer.
29
The tendency of neurons in striate cortex to respond optimally to certain
orientations and less to others is known as
a. spatial frequency.
b. spatial selection.
c. orientation tuning.
d. cortical magnification.
e. orientation agnosia.
30
What does the figure describe?
a. How images end up on the retina
b. The firing patterns of four cells
c. How cortical simple cells get their orientation
tuning
d. How simple cells and complex cells interact
e. How magnocellular and parvocellular cells
interact
31
Probably the most important fact to know about color vision is that lights and
surfaces look colored because a particular distribution of _______________ of light is
being analyzed by a particular visual system.
a) Amplitudes
b) gratings
c) Wavelengths
d) shadows
32
The ability of the two eyes to turn inward in order to place the two images of a
feature in the world on corresponding locations in the two retinal images is
known as
a. accommodation.
b. divergence.
c. convergence.
d. disparity.
e. linear perspective.
33
Mixing paints to create new colors is an example of _______ color mixing, while
shining lights to create new colors is an example of _______ color mixing.
a. additive; subtractive
b. subtractive; additive
c. additive; multiplicative
d. subtractive; multiplicative
e. multiplicative; divisive
34
There are three types of cone photoreceptors with different sensitivities to the
wavelength of light. Cones operate at brighter light levels, producing three
“numbers” at each location; _______________ the different cone types defines the
color.
a) constant activity of
b) pattern of activity over
c) subtractive activity over
d) multiplicative activity of
35
Navon found that in figures like the one below, the big letter (E) interfered with
the naming of the small letters (G) more than the small letters interfered with the
big. This result indicates that
a) it is easier to name smaller objects than it is to name
larger objects.
b) it is easier to name larger objects than it is to name
smaller objects.
c) we process global aspects of an image before local
aspects.
d) we process local aspects of an image before global
aspects.
e) vowels are more recognizable than consonants.
36
If two regions of an image produce the same response in the three cone types,
they will look identical; that is, they will be ______________. And they will look
identical even if the physical wavelengths coming from the two regions are
different.
a) Metamers
b) Mach bands
c) Contrasts
d) edges
37
The fact that faces are more difficult than many other types of objects to recognize
when viewed upside-down is taken by many researchers to indicate that
a) faces are recognized via structural descriptions.
b) it is more difficult to segment faces from their backgrounds than other
types of objects.
c) face recognition cannot be doubly dissociated from object recognition.
d) face recognition can be doubly dissociated from object recognition.
e) the visual system uses special recognition processes for faces that are not
used for other types of objects, and that visual perception of faces is easier
in preferred than non-preferred orientations.
38
The figure below is Kanizsa’s classic demonstration of
a) isoluminant contours.
b) an accidental viewpoint.
c) shadow boundaries.
d) an ambiguous figure.
e) illusory contours.
39
Which statement is correct?
a) Square-shaped receptive fields found in retina and LGN are replaced with
elongated “stripe” receptive fields in cortex
b) The number of LGN cells devoted to processing the fovea is proportionally
much more than the amount of cortex devoted to processing the periphery
c) Circular receptive fields found in retina and LGN are replaced with ovalshaped receptive fields in cortex
d) Circular receptive fields found in retina and LGN are replaced with
elongated “stripe” receptive fields in cortex
40
A _______ is a neuron that allows the passage of some frequencies and blocks the
passage of others.
a. filter
b. selector cell
c. ganglion cell
41
d. bipolar cell
e. contrast cell
Hubel and Wiesel concluded that neurons with similar orientation preferences
were arranged in _______ that extended vertically through the cortex.
a. stairs
b. branches
c. rows
d. tangles
e. columns
42
The contrast sensitivity function describes
a) how sensitivity to contrast depends on the spatial frequency of the
stimulus
b) how the spatial frequency of the stimulus depends on the sensitivity to
contrast
c) what is the absolute threshold for visibility
d) the just noticeable difference in contrast needed to experience a Mach band
illusion
43
Hubel and Wiesel uncovered some important properties of the _______ of neurons
in the striate cortex.
a. photoreceptors
b. neurotransmitters
c. axons
d. dendrites
e. receptive fields
44
In the figure below, the “knot” at the center is known as the
a. optic nerve.
b. LGN.
c. striate cortex.
d. optic chiasm.
e. occipital lobe.
45
The tendency of a surface to appear the same color under a fairly wide range of
illuminations is known as
a. color variance.
b. color constancy.
c. color anomaly.
d. reflectance.
e. illuminance.
46
A major problem with template theories of object recognition is that
a) we cannot possibly store enough templates in memory to match every
object we might encounter.
b) template theories predict that object recognition should usually be
viewpoint-invariant, but in fact recognition has been shown to viewpointdependent.
c) template theories predict that object recognition should usually be
viewpoint-dependent, but in fact recognition has been shown to viewpointinvariant.
d) templates are only useful when recognizing objects from accidental
viewpoints.
e) templates are too abstract to be used in object recognition.
47
If our color experience did not include pairings of colors (as in color blindness,
color afterimages, and complementary colors), how would the theory of color
vision be changed?
A. Rods would have to connect to ganglia in more of a 1:1 fashion.
B. Contralateral connections from the eyes to the cerebral hemispheres would be
unnecessary.
C. The opponent process cells would be unnecessary.
D. The cones specialized for short, medium, and long wavelengths would be
unnecessary.
48
The retinal ganglion cell depicted below is
most responsive to which spatial frequency?
a. Low frequency
b. Medium frequency
c. High frequency
d. Both low and high frequencies
e. There is no difference in the responses of
the cells shown to different frequencies.
49
According to Euclidean geometry, parallel lines _______ as they extend through
space.
a. converge
b. diverge
c. bend
d. remain parallel
e. cross
50
Viewpoint invariance refers to the idea that
a) any image should be interpretable as one and only one object.
b) objects should cast the same image on the retina when viewed from any
viewpoint.
c) an object can only be recognized quickly if it is always seen from the same
viewpoint.
d) objects should be just as easy to recognize from any viewpoint.
e) object viewpoints are all stored as separate templates.
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