PowerPoint - Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry:
Functional Groups
Origin of organic compounds
• Naturally occurring organic compounds are
found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels
• All of these have a plant origin
• All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO2
• Synthetic organic compounds are derived
from fossil fuels or plant material
Introduction
•
•
•
•
Most current research focuses on Organic
Originally from “organic” meaning life
Not just chemistry of life, chemistry of carbon
Exceptions:
– oxides of carbon (CO2, CO)
– carbonates,bicarbonates(NaHCO3,CaCO3)
– cyanides (NaCN, etc)
One C with no H, or with metal
• Carbon can form four bonds…
C C C
C
C
Carbon forms four bonds
• Carbon can form four bonds, and forms
strong covalent bonds with other elements
• This can be represented in many ways …
H
O
C
C
H
Cl
C
CH
C
Cl
H
CH2
H3C
Cl
C
C
H3C
CH3
CH
CH
CH2
CH2
CH3 CH3
CH3 CH3
CH
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH3
CH2
Functional groups
• Functional groups are parts of molecules
that result in characteristic features
• About 100 functional groups exist, we will
focus on about 10
• Useful to group the infinite number of
possible organic compounds
• E.g. the simplest group is hydrocarbons
• Made up of only C and H
• Not really a functional “group”
• Further divided into:
• Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatics
Hydrocarbons
Alkanes
C
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
Alkynes
C
Alkenes
C
H
H
C
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
Aromatics
C
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
C
C
H
H
Functional groups
• Read 1012 - 1014
• You will need to memorize family name and
associated general structure (use study
H2N
notes: includes ether group)
C CH
• Handout Molecular model kits
• Build this structure:
O
H2C
CH2
• Assignment: in groups build each of the
“Examples” in table 24.1
• Each member must have the exact same
molecule (thus you must agree on structure)
• Show me the structure(s) after building each
Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl
• There are other names that describe patterns
of atoms that are parts of functional groups.
• “Hydroxyl” refers to –OH
• “Carbonyl” refers to C=O
• “Carboxyl” refers to COOH
Q: which functional groups contain a hydroxyl
group? A carbonyl group? A carboxyl group?
Hydroxyl: alcohols, carboxylic acids. Carbonyl:
aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides,
esters. Carboxyl: carboxylic acids
Note that properties such as boiling and melting
point change due to functional groups
For more lessons, visit
www.chalkbored.com
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