The Billy Goats Gruff - Fort Worth Opera Festival

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Teacher
Guide
Page | 1
Table of Contents
To the Teacher ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4
5
OPERA
Investigate Opera …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Opera Production .………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
A Short History of Opera …………………………………………………………………………………………………
7
8
9
Worksheets
Opera Pie ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Opera Vocabulary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Where in the World Is… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Matching Picture …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Opera Word Search ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Answer Sheet ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
10
11
13
14
15
16
THE BILLY GOATS GRUFF
Coloring Page …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Producers and Characters ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Meet the Authors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
The Story ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Suggested Lesson Plans ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Matching Pictures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Complete Patterns …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Troll Times Worksheet………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Interview with a Troll…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Answer Sheet ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
17
18
19
22
24
26
27
28
29
30
Page | 2
is made possible by the generosity of our many friends, including:
Arts Council of Fort Worth
Burlington Northern Santa Fe Foundation
Fort Worth Independent School District
JPMorgan Chase Foundation
Hattie Mae Lesley Foundation
M.J. and Alice S. Neeley Foundation
Vivienne Redlich Charitable Trust
Frances C. and William P. Smallwood Foundation
Mary B. Smith
Target
Texas Commission on the Arts
The Woman's Club of Fort Worth, Inc.
Page | 3
TO THE TEACHERS
This Teacher Guide is for use by classroom and music teachers in anticipation of a performance by Fort Worth
Opera’s Children’s Opera Theatre.
This guide is designed to benefit both the student and educator with regard to the development of an interdisciplinary approach to opera education. The activities provided in the teacher guide assist students to actively
listen and observe live opera. Also included are follow-up worksheets that encourage students to internalize what
they saw, heard, and felt. We encourage you to use this guide to augment your existing curriculum in the many
disciplines that are included. Please feel free to copy or adapt any part of the guide for use with your students.
Although our production stands on its own merit, a prepared student will better understand and more fully
appreciate our presentation.
Fort Worth Opera believes that the performing arts are an essential component of every student’s education and
that he/she should be afforded opportunities to explore this medium. To help accomplish this, we are committed
to fostering strong partnerships with schools, educators, and parents to provide students with access to
opportunities that illustrate how the arts are vital to our humanity.
We sincerely hope that your experience with Children’s Opera Theatre will be genuinely rewarding, providing the
catalyst for a lifelong appreciation of opera and the many art forms that combine to make this unique experience.
Sincerely,
Hannah Guinn
Director of the Fort Worth Opera Studio
Many thanks to Cindy Burlin, music teacher at Tanglewood Elementary, for her work in compiling and editing the
Children’s Opera Theatre study guide. Thanks also to Clarissa de Andrade and Amanda Nunnallee for their artistic
contributions.
Page | 4
OBJECTIVES
Purpose of the Study Guide

To acquaint both the educator and the student with musical storytelling

To familiarize students with the “world of opera” – its vocabulary, history, etc.

To provide an innovative, new, multi-disciplinary approach to teaching required skills and
curriculum

To promote the understanding of how opera, as an art form, reflects and comments on our
society and the world in which we live

To promote realization of the importance of literature as a mirror of human experience,
reflecting human motives, conflicts, and values

To help students identify with fictional characters in human situations as a means of relating to
others
BEFORE ATTENDING THE PERFORMANCE
ALL STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

Recognize the character names

Understand how music and drama combine to tell a story
Page | 5
Page | 6
INVESTIGATE OPERA
WHAT DOES THE WORD OPERA MEAN?
The word opera comes from the Latin word opus, which means a work. What is a work? It is something a person
creates. It is a poem or a song or a drawing or a composition or any other creative thing a person makes. The
plural of opus is opera. Opera means works in the Latin language. Today we use the word opera to describe one
large work of performing art that contains many creative parts. An opera is many works that are combined
together. Opera has instrumental music, a dramatic play or comedy, singing and acting, scenery, costumes, special
lighting and sometimes dancing.
WHERE DID OPERA BEGIN?
Opera was created over 400 years ago in Florence, Italy. In 1597, a composer named Jacopo Peri (JAH-coh-poh
PEH-ree) wrote a play that was sung throughout instead of being spoken. He did this because he was trying to
write a play the way the ancient Greeks did. During this period, educated people were trying to learn all they
could about the world of ancient Greece so they could imitate it. The first opera was about a character in Greek
mythology named Daphne. The idea of presenting plays that were sung became very popular and more and more
composers began to combine music and drama. Love of opera spread all over Europe and eventually the world.
Operas have been written in every language and its popularity shows no signs of slowing down.
As in a play, designers must be called on to create the costumes, lights, sets, and makeup for an opera production.
When the actual performance approaches, the singers have dress rehearsals where they get to wear their new
costumes and perform on the newly build scenery. Rehearsals give the singers/actors an opportunity to practice
their music and their acting with one another.
The person who actually writes the words for an opera is called a librettist. Often the words are adapted from an
existing story or play, such as in Little Red’s Most Unusual Day. Little Red’s Most Unusual Day uses the music of
composers Gioacchino Rossini (joh-ah-KEE-noh roh-SEE-nee), and Jacques Offenbach (JAHK OFF-en-bahk) and the
librettist is John Davies.
HOW IS THE OPERATIC VOICE DIFFERENT?
Operatic singing is different from popular singing. There is more vibration in a opera singer’s voice. This vibration
is called vibrato, an Italian word. It helps the singer hold notes for a long time without taking a breath. Proper
breathing is very important because the air in the lungs must be let out very slowly in a controlled way. Opera
singers must be able to sing very high and very low, in a wide range, and sing fast runs, which are many notes in a
row sung very rapidly. They do not use microphones to project their voices. All the power in their voices must
come from inside their bodies. It takes years of study and practice to learn to do this. The highest singing female
voice is called soprano and the lowest male voice is called bass. Opera singers must be able to sing in different
languages because most operas are performed in the language in which they were originally written.
Page | 7
Opera Production
A pie with lots of pieces!
Opera is created by the combination of a myriad of art forms. First and foremost are the actors/singers
who portray characters by revealing their thoughts and emotions through the singing voice. The next
very important component is a full symphony orchestra that accompanies the singing actors and
actresses, helping to portray the full range of emotions possible in an opera. These performances are
further enhanced by wigs, costumes, sets, and specialized lighting, all of which are designed, created,
and then made by a team of highly trained artisans.
The creation of an opera begins with a dramatic concept created by a playwright, who alone or with
help fashions the script or libretto – the words the artists will sing. Working together, the composer and
librettist team up to create a musical drama in which the music and words work together to express the
emotions revealed in the story. When their work is done, the composer and librettist entrust their work
to another duo, the conductor and stage director. These two are responsible for bringing the story to
life. The conductor prepares the music, while the stage director is in charge of what we see on the stage.
The design team, with help from the stage director, takes charge of the physical production of the story
world on stage. Set designers, lighting designers, costume designers, wig and makeup designers and
even choreographers are brought on board to help create a new production. A set designer combines
the skills of an artist and an architect using blueprint plans to design the physical settings required by
the storyline. These blueprints are turned over to a team of carpenters who are specially trained in the
art of stage carpentry. After the set is constructed, painters paint the set following the original plans
from the set designer. When the set is assembled on the stage, the lighting designer works with a team
of electricians to throw light on the stage and the set, meeting the practical needs of the actors on stage
and also creating a mood for the audience. Using specialized lighting instruments, color gels and
computers, the lighting designer plots out which light come on at what time, and how quickly or slowly
throughout the story of the opera.
The costume designer consults the stage director to design appropriate clothing for the singers. These
designs are then made into patterns and created by a team of highly skilled artisans called cutters,
stitchers, and sewers. Each costume is specially made for each singer using his or her individual
measurements. The wig and makeup designer, working with the costume designer, designs and creates
wigs that will complement both the costume and the singer as well as represent historically accurate
fashions.
As a performance nears, rehearsals are held on the newly constructed set, using the costumes, lights,
and orchestra to ensure a cohesive performance that will be both dramatically and musically satisfying
to the audience.
Page | 8
A Short History of Opera
The word opera is the plural form of the Latin word opus, which translates quite literally as “work.” The
use of the plural form alludes to the abundance of art forms that combine to create an operatic
performance. Today we accept the word opera as a reference to a theatrically based musical art form in
which the drama is propelled by the sung declamation of text accompanied by instrumental music.
Opera as an art form can claim its origin with the inclusion of incidental music that was performed
during the tragedies and comedies popular during ancient Greek times. The tradition of including music
as an integral part of the theatrical activities expanded in Roman times and continued through the
Middle Ages. Surviving examples of liturgical dramas and vernacular plays from Medieval times show the
use of music as a part of the action, as do the vast mystery and morality plays of the 15th and 16th
centuries. Most music historians hold that the first completely sung musical drama (or opera) developed
as a result of discussions held in Florence, Italy, in the 1570’s by an informal academy known as the
Camerata, which led to the musical setting of Rinuccini’s drama, Dafne, by composer Jacopo Peri in
1597.
The work of such early Italian masters as Giulio Caccini and Claudio Monteverdi led to the development
of a through-composed musical entertainment comprised of recitative, or speech-like sections, which
revealed the plot of the drama, followed by arias that provided the singer an opportunity for personal
reflection. The function of the chorus in these early works mirrored that of the character of the same
name found in Greek drama. The new form of opera was greeted favorably by the public and quickly
became a popular entertainment.
Opera has flourished through the world as a vehicle for the expression of the full range of human
emotions. Italians claim the art form as their own – retaining dominance in the field through the death
of Giacomo Puccini in 1924. Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi, and Puccini developed the art form through
clearly defined periods of development that produced opera buffa, opera seria, bel canto, and verismo.
The Austrian Mozart championed the singspiel (singing play), which combined the spoken word with
music, a form also used by Beethoven, Bizet, and Offenbach. Gounod and Meyerbeer were the leaders
in French opera that combined lavish sets and costumes, and incorporated ballet. The Germans von
Weber, Richard Strauss, and Wagner developed the unique style of opera popular in their home
country. The English, Spanish, and Viennese also helped to establish opera as a form of entertainment
that continues to enjoy great popularity throughout the world.
With the beginning of the 20th century, composers in America diverged from European traditions in
order to focus on their own roots while exploring and developing the vast body of the country’s folk
music and legends. Composers such as Aaron Copland, Douglas Moore, Samuel Barber, Leonard
Bernstein, and Carlisle Floyd have all crafted operas that have been presented throughout the world to
great success. Today, composers John Adams, Philip Glass, John Corgliano, and Mark Adamo enjoy
success both at home and abroad and are credited with the infusion of new life into an art form that
continues to evolve even as it approaches its fifth century.
Page | 9
THE OPERA PIE
Make your own “Opera Pie” by listing the different
kinds of performing arts that make up one whole
opera.
Make each piece of the pie a different color. Color
in the boxes next to the different components of
each opera.
PIE LEGEND
THE 5 W’S OF OPERA HISTORY
WHO wrote the first opera?
___________________________________
WHAT was the name of the first opera?
___________________________________
WHERE was the first opera performed?
___________________________________
WHEN was the first opera written?
__________________________________
WHY was the play sung instead of spoken?
__________________________________
Page | 10
Opera Vocabulary and
Pronunciation Guide

Aria
(AH-ree-ah). A musical piece for solo voice.

Baritone
(BARE-ih-tone). The middle range male voice.

Bass
(BASE). Lowest male voice.

Bel Canto
(behl-CAHN-toh). Literally “beautiful singing”. Also a style of
Italian opera made popular by composers Rossini, Bellini, and
Donizetti in the 19th century, which showcased the singing voice.

Coloratura
(coh-loh-rah-TOO-rah). A singing style when singers sing very
fast florid scales and arpeggios, usually all on one sound or
syllable of a word.

Contralto
The lowest female voice.

Conductor
The person who leads the orchestra.

Composer
The person who writes the music.

Designer
Person who creates the scenery, costumes, and light.

Ensemble
Two or more singers singing and expressing their emotions at the
same time.

French Operetta
A style of light opera with spoken dialogue from 19th century
France.

Libretto
(lih-BREHT-toh). Literally “little book,” this is the text or words of
an opera.

Mezzo-Soprano
(MEH-tso soh-PRAH-noh). The middle female voice.

Opera
(AH-peh-rah). A play that uses singing instead of speaking and is
accompanied by instrumental music.

Opera Buffa
(BOOF-ah). Funny or lightheartedly themed opera.

Opera Seria
(SEH-ree-ah). Dramatic or seriously themed opera.

Overture
The prelude to an opera, played by the orchestra alone.
Page | 11

Recitative
(reh-chih-tah-TEEV). A type of musical speaking where the words
of the singer are sung in the rhythm of natural speech with
melody added. Recitative is usually used between arias and
ensembles to propel the story line.

Props
Objects placed on the stage and used by the actors.

Score
The book that contains the music and words of an opera.

Set
The scenery used on the stage to show location.

Singspiel
A type of opera created in Germany that uses spoken dialogue
between arias and ensembles.

Soprano
The highest female voice.

Stage Director
The person who decides how the singers will move on stage and
how they will act while they are singing their parts.

Tenor
(TEH-nor). The highest male voice.

Verismo
(veh-RIHZ-moh). A style of Italian opera with very realistic
characters popular in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Vibrato
(vih-BRAH-toh). The natural way for a voice or instrument to
enlarge its sound through a rapid and small waver in pitch.
Vibrato makes sound carry further and sound more powerful.

Vocal range
The scope of the human voice from its highest to its lowest
sounds. Voice fall into these categories:
Page | 12
Female
Soprano
Mezzo-Soprano
Contralto
High
Middle
Low
Male
Tenor
Baritone
Bass
High
Middle
Low
WHERE IN THE WORLD IS …
Opera and many fairy tales trace their roots to Europe.
Find and color the following countries with your favorite colors.
1. England
Page | 13
2. Germany
3. France
4. Spain
5. Italy
Matching Pictures
Name ___________________________
Cut and paste the pictures from the bottom that match the pictures.
Page | 14
Page | 15
ANSWER SHEET
THE OPERA PIE
symphony orchestra
theater
scenery
dancing
costumes
singing/acting
special lighting
5 W’s of Opera History
Who
What
Where
When
Why
Jacopo Peri
Daphne
Florence Italy
1597
To write a play the same way as the ancient Greeks
Opera Word Search
Page | 16
Page | 17
The Billy Goats Gruff
The Producers
Composer
G. Rossini, W. A. Mozart, G. Donizetti
Librettist
John Davies
Set Designer
Jason Domm and Mark Walker
Costume Designer
LaLonnie Lehman
Stage Director
Richard Kagey
Accompanist
Stephen Carey
The Characters
Lucy
Maren Weinberger, soprano
Ernesto
Anna Laurenzo, mezzo-soprano
Dandini
Brian Wallin, tenor
Osmin
Trevor Martin, baritone
Page | 18
The Billy Goats Gruff
Meet the Authors
Gioachino Rossini – Composer
Born into a musical family in 1792, Rossini was quite accomplished at the horn, violin, cello, and
harpsichord. By the age of 14, he had composed his first work for the stage, and in 1806 he
went to study at the Bologna Conservatory where he wrote his first opera, Demetrio e Polibio.
Many operas followed while he developed his tools as a composer, like using the orchestra to
heighten his dramas. The Italian Girl in Algiers was his first big opera buffo and gained him
widespread fame. The Barber of Seville followed and is considered Rossini’s most enduring
work. He composed more than 40 operas during his life, utilizing not only the opera buffo style
of Barber, but also the opera seria style. He also set one of the most famous fairy tales, La
Cenerentola (Cinderella), as a full-scale operatic production. Rossini used crisp rhythmic
patterns along with vocal coloratura to create sharp, witty operas full of comic realism.
The overture to Guillaume Tell (William Tell), which is known to many as the theme for the
Lone Ranger, is a great example of a device Rossini invented for orchestra. He would set up the
finale of many of his pieces using what became known as a “Rossini crescendo” where the
orchestra would start softly and keep building and building to reach the end of the piece. It
created a very strong ending to many of his opera overtures. Although several of his operas are
as popular today as they were in Rossini’s time most of them have not survived to be in the
current operatic repertoire.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria, in 1756. Many consider him the
greatest composer who ever lived. When he was young he was called a ‘wunderkind’ (VOONdur-kihnt) or a child prodigy. At about the age of three his father Leopold, who was an
established musician and composer, discovered his son’s talent at the piano. By the age of six,
young Mozart was making lengthy concert tours throughout Europe and had developed an
interest in composition.
Although Mozart was born there and called Austria home, he traveled all around Europe during
his lifetime and spend a great deal of time in Italy. He fell in love with Italian opera and to this
day is considered one of the best composers of Italian opera, despite not being Italian. He
wrote his first opera by the age of eleven, entitled Apollo et Hyacinthus. This opera showcased
his talent writing for the theater in the grand opera seria style.
Mozart wrote a number of operas in his early years, but his first big success was Idomeneo,
which premiered in Munich, Germany, in 1781. When Mozart moved home to Salzburg from
Vienna, he was commissioned to composer a singspiel (a type of German opera) called Die
Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio). It was a great success and
strengthened his growing reputation as an operatic composer.
Page | 19
In Vienna around this time, Italian opera had become very popular and Mozart took advantage
of this and wrote one of his masterpieces of opera Le Nozze di Figaro (leh NOHT-zeh dee FEEgah-roh, The Marriage of Figaro). Figaro was so popular that Mozart was commissioned to
write Don Giovanni (dahn joe-VAHN-nee) for the Prague Opera. Although Giovanni was quite
popular in Prague, it had a mixed reception elsewhere. More unfavorable receptions followed
with Così fan tutte (koh-SEE fahn TOO-tee). Meanwhile, Mozart was working on an opera for a
small local theater that catered more to the common people. This last opera, Die Zauberflöte
(dee TZOW-behr-fluh-tuh, The Magic Flute), is one of his most enduring and admired works.
Mozart was only 35 when he died in 1791, but in his short life he composed over 400 pieces of
music and these pieces remain some of the most performed and listened to works ever.
Gaetano Donizetti—Composer
Gaetano Donizetti was born in 1797 in Bergamo, Italy. Donizetti is considered a master of the
bel canto style. Bel canto describes a type of opera that had a set number of separate arias and
ensembles that were designed to show off the human voice. These pieces were florid and
demanded great virtuosity from the singers. This style helped make many singers of the day
into stars.
Donizetti’s talents were recognized at an early age and at age nine, he was sent to study at
Lezioni Caritatevoli School on a full scholarship. The founder of the school took a personal
interest in Donizetti’s education. He sent Donizetti to study with Padre Stanislao Mattei, who
had been a teacher of Rossini and even partially paid for some of his lessons. Donizetti wrote
serious and comedic opera, as well as other vocal works. L'elisir d'amore (The Elixir of Love)
(1832) and Don Pasquale (1843), both comedic operas, are two of Donizetti’s best known
works. Many works within Donizetti’s operas were created specifically for performers Donizetti
knew and offered them opportunities to showcase their specific talents. Donizetti wrote 65
operas.
Donizetti wrote operas in Italy as well as Paris. Donizetti suffered great tragedy in his life. He
had three children, none of whom survived childhood and his wife died early in their marriage.
Donizetti became ill and after spending a year and a half in an institution, moved to Paris. Once
there, he was visited by many musicians and composers, including Verdi. Donizetti died in 1848
in his home town of Bergamo.
John Davies – Words and Story Adaptation (Librettist)
John Davies is a professional opera singer who has performed with opera companies
throughout the United States, including the Metropolitan Opera Company, San Francisco Opera
and the opera companies of Boston, Philadelphia, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, St. Louis, and
Anchorage. He has also performed in concert as bass-baritone soloist with many symphony
orchestras.
A father of six children, Mr. Davies takes an active interest in the performing arts for young
people. He spends part of each year writing, narrating, and hosting educational programs for
Page | 20
opera companies, symphony orchestras, and children’s museums in the United States. His
opera, The Night Harry Stopped Smoking has been listed as one of the most often performed
operas in North America and won a national award. Mr. Davies’ operas for young audiences
include The Three Little Pigs, Never Tickle a Mule, The Billy Goats Gruff, Jack and the Beanstalk,
and Little Red’s Most Unusual Day. His operas have been presented by more than 25 opera
companies throughout the United States and Canada.
Page | 21
The Billy Goats Gruff
Operatic Version
An after school game of hide and seek is ruined for three billy goat friends when a big bully
blocks a bridge, preventing them from being able to go home. Remembering what their moms,
dads, and teachers have told them about dealing with bullies, two boy billy goats resolve to go
home a different, longer way and share their difficulties with grownups. However, the littlest
girl goat not wanting to abandon the beloved doll that has been snatched from her, tromps to
the crest of the bridge and, confronting the bully, prevails by inadvertently pushing him into the
creek below. Concerned for his well-being, she shows her would-be adversary kindness by
asking if he is okay. He responds by asking if she is okay. By the time the two boys return with
help, she is able to introduce a soggy, forlorn ex-bully as their new friend.
A note from the author, John Davies.
In 1997, Kansas City Lyric Opera’s educational director suggested I consider writing a children’s
opera featuring strategies for dealing with bullies. As the problem of bullying was becoming a
concern in many schools, it seemed a worthy subject and one that might be effectively
addressed theatrically. Children’s literature is replete with bullying types, and after auditioning
a few "meanies" in my imagination, I selected the Troll who skulks under the bridge in the story
of The Three Billy Goats Gruff. Not only does he make an interesting bully, but also little billy
goats evoke schoolchildren very nicely.
During the course of the opera, the three billy goats consider how they might deal with the
bully (who I changed into another billy goat himself) by avoiding him altogether and resolve to
talk about the problem with grownups as soon as they are able. In the end, however, strength
of character and determination win the day when the littlest goat, having pushed the bully from
the bridge, enlists his friendship. Admittedly, facing the bully down is not an officially
recommended course of action. It makes for some fun theater, though, and hopefully provides
a point of departure for subsequent classroom discussion.
Page | 22
The Billy Goats Gruff
The Classic Tale
This tale finds origins in Germany, Poland, and Norway. Visit
<http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0122e.html> to read such tales.
In this classic story, three billy goats, all brothers in the Gruff family, decide that the grass is
truly is greener on the other side of a river. Unfortunately, to get to the other side, they know
they must deal with the mean troll who lives beneath the bridge crossing the river.
The youngest and smallest billy goat decides to cross first. As his hooves clomp across the
bridge, the troll, in a horrifying growl, screams “Who’s that tripping over my bridge?!” When
the troll confronts the youngest and smallest of the Gruff clan, the troll threatens to eat the
small goat. The small goat, being very clever, explains that troll would not want to eat him
because he is tiny. He continues that his brother will come soon, and his brother would be
much larger and tastier. He convinces the troll not to eat him, because he would just ruin his
appetite. The troll allows the smallest goat to continue across his bridge.
The middle brother, who is also the middle-sized goat crosses next, with the same
confrontation and resolution.
Finally, after seeing the success of his two smaller and younger brothers, the eldest of the Gruff
clan decides he will also cross the bridge. When the troll hears the much larger hooves
clomping over his bridge he eagerly jumps before the eldest goat, exclaiming that he will eat
him. At this, the large goat rams the troll and the troll falls into the river, perhaps washing away
forever.
Some versions that refer to a wolf rather than a troll, insinuate that the wolf was perhaps
greedy, wanting something better than what first presented itself. In other words, “Take what
you can get” or “Don’t wait around for something better.”
Page | 23
The Billy Goats Gruff
Suggested Lesson Plans
We hope that teachers of all elementary grade levels, pre K – 5, will find something in our
handbook to use in their classroom. Below are some suggestions for lesson plans in various
curriculum areas.
While specific grade levels are listed, the lessons can easily be adapted for older or younger
students.
Before attending the performance:
Every student should know the story line from the opera. Encourage students to read the story
for this production or read it to them. Encourage older students to read to younger students,
partnering students in a “big brother, little sister” program. As a class, identify and discuss
literary elements appropriate for your students’ ages such as plot, characters, conflict, etc.
Mathematics
Pre-Kindergarten-1st grade
(Kindergarten TEKS)
TEKS: (5) Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking. The student identifies, extends,
and creates patterns. The student is expected to identify, extend, and create patterns
of sounds, physical movement, and concrete objects.
Students will complete the cut and paste Matching Pictures and Complete Patterns
worksheets, identifying like pictures, and completing patterns as they are able.
Mathematics
3rd grade
TEKS: (4) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student recognizes and solves
problems in multiplication and division situations. The student is expected to:
(B) solve and record multiplication problems (up to two digits times one digit)
Students will complete Troll Times Worksheet, using multiplication to solve the number
problems.
English Language Arts
5th grade
TEKS: (16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and
feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are
expected to:
(A) write imaginative stories that include:
(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;
(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory
details; and
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(iii) dialogue that develops the story
After attending the performance, and discussing literary elements with students, students will
rewrite the story The Billy Goats Gruff from the viewpoint of the troll. Discuss how the troll my
see the story differently from the way it is told. Students may use Interview with a Troll
worksheet, answering questions from a troll’s perspective. Students may use this worksheet as
a starting point for creating The Billy Goats Gruff from the troll’s perspective.
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The Billy Goats Gruff
Matching Pictures
Name ______________________
Cut and paste the pictures from the bottom next to the pictures that they match.
coda
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The Billy Goats Gruff
Complete Patterns
Name ______________________
Find the picture from the bottom that completes the pattern and cut and paste it in the empty square.
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The Billy Goats Gruff
Troll Times Math
6X5=
6X4=
6X3=
6X7=
3X3=
3X9=
3X2=
3X7=
9X2=
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9X9=
Color all of the
trolls with an
even answer
purple, and with
an odd answer
green.
The Billy Goats Gruff
A Troll’s Perspective
Imagine you are the troll. What would that life be like? How would you feel about the three
goats crossing your bridge? Complete the interview below as if you are the troll.
Mr. Troll, what is a typical day like for a troll?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
What type of diet do trolls have?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Mr. Troll, people say you are mean. How do you feel about that?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Mr. Troll, why do you live under a bridge?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Why don’t you like for people to cross the bridge under which you
live?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
How do you feel about the Billy Goats Gruff crossing your bridge?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
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The Billy Goats Gruff
Answer Sheet
6 X 5 = 30
3X3=9
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Troll Times Math
6 X 3 = 18
6 X 4 = 24
3X2=6
3 X 9 = 27
9 X 2 = 18
9 X 9 = 81
6 X 7 = 42
3 X 7 =21

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