Gravitation potential energy • We need a new formula because Ug = mgh assumes that h is small as compared to the radius of the earth and therefore changes in g were negligible • But in orbit, there will be variations in g due to the large distance from the center of the earth U g mgh GmE U g mo 2 r r Gm1m2 Ug r Why is it negative? • We choose Ug=0 at r=∞ • We must add energy in order to bring an object farther from the earth • This means it will become less negative Escape Speed Consider a rocket leaving the earth. It usually goes up, slows down, and then returns to earth. There exists an initial minimum speed that when reached the rocket will continue on forever. Let's use conservation of energy to analyze this situation! At infinity, we know that Ug = 0, also kinetic energy will be 0 because it will not move anymore at infinity so therefore the total mechanical energy will always equal ZERO Escape Speed Escape speed vs orbital speed Escape Velocity = 2GmE r Orbital Velocity = GmE r Example • A rocket is launched vertically from the surface of the earth with an initial velocity of 10000 m/s. What maximum height does it reach? (g is not constant) K Ug K Ug 1 2 Gm1m2 Gm1m2 mv 0 2 r r 1 2 Gme Gme v 2 re r 1 6.67 x1011 (6 x1024 ) 6.67 x10 11 (6 x1024 ) 2 10000 2 6.37 x106 r 7 r 2.38 x10 m Gravitational field of hollow shell • Inside a hollow sphere, the gravitation field is 0. Outside a hollow sphere, you can treat the sphere as if its entire mass was concentrated at the center. Gravitational field of solid sphere • Outside a solid sphere, treat the sphere as if all the mass is at the center of the sphere (same as hollow). Inside the sphere, treat the sphere as if the mass inside the radius is all at the center. Only the mass inside the “radius of interest” counts Kepler's Laws There are three laws that Johannes Kepler formulated when he was studying the heavens THE LAW OF ORBITS - "All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus.” THE LAW OF AREAS - "A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in the plane of the planet's orbit in equal times, that is, the rate dA/dt at which it sweeps out area A is constant.” THE LAW OF PERIODS - "The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of its orbit." Kepler’s 1st law – The Law of Orbits "All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus.” Kepler’s 2nd Law – The Law of Areas "A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in the plane of the planet's orbit in equal times, that is, the rate dA/dt at which it sweeps out area A is constant.” Kepler’s 3rd Law – The Law of Periods "The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of its orbit." Gravitational forces are centripetal, thus we can set them equal to each other! Since we are moving in a circle we can substitute the appropriate velocity formula! The expression in the RED circle derived by setting the centripetal force equal to the gravitational force is called ORBITAL SPEED. Using algebra, you can see that everything in the parenthesis is CONSTANT. Thus the proportionality holds true! Kinetic Energy in Orbit Using our ORBITAL SPEED derived from K.T.L and the formula for kinetic energy we can define the kinetic energy of an object in a bit more detail when it is in orbit around a body. The question is WHY? Why do we need a new equation for kinetic energy? Well, the answer is that greatly simplifies the math. If we use regular kinetic energy along with potential, we will need both the orbital velocity AND the orbital radius. In this case, we need only the orbital radius. Total Energy of an orbiting body Notice the lack of velocities in this expression as mentioned in the last slide. So by inspection we see that the kinetic energy function is always positive, the potential is negative and the total energy function is negative. In fact the total energy equation is the negative inverse of the kinetic. The negative is symbolic because it means that the mass “m” is BOUND to the mass of “M” and can never escape from it. It is called a BINDING ENERGY. Energy from a graphical perspective As the radius of motion gets larger. The orbiting body’s kinetic energy must decrease ( slows down) and its potential energy must increase ( become less negative).